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1

Research uncovers 'unacceptable risks'.  

PubMed

Dr Melvyn Langford C.Eng, MIMechE, MCIBSE, who worked in the NHS for nearly 40 years, including as an estates and facilities manager at several NHS Trusts, has written several previous HEJ articles on 'systematic failures' in the way maintenance of NHS healthcare buildings has been managed, and on what he claims is a 'fundamental flaw' within the national guidance for backlog maintenance (see HEJ - November 2009, September 2010, and September 2011). Here he outlines the conclusions of a recent three-year research project, which he says strongly suggest that that the service's continuing use of fixed yearly budgets, and a lack of sufficient monitoring, may be resulting in what he dubs 'a catalogue of systematic failures within most organisations that are generating risk profiles that expose patients, visitors, and staff, to unacceptable levels of risk'. PMID:23866635

Langford, Melvyn

2013-06-01

2

Elements of unacceptable risk taking in combat units: An exercise in offender profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem that we address in this study is concerned with profiling the antisocial risk taker, who either admits to risky behaviour and\\/or implies such behaviour, solely through anonymous self report. Specifically, we were interested in profiling those military conscripts who engage in weapon-related risky behaviours. To this end, we constructed a risk-taking questionnaire, assessing violations of military conduct, and

Joseph Glicksohn; Uzi Ben-Shalom; Menahem Lazar

2004-01-01

3

The Impact of Unacceptable Wait Time on Health Care Patients' Attitudes and Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of time is spent by patients waiting for health care services in doctors' offices. The literature points to a negative impact of wait time on patients' perceptions of health care services, and on patients' subsequent behavior. A survey of 200 patients suggests wait time affects perceptions of quality, satisfaction and likeability, as well as likelihood of recommendations

C. Jeanne Hill; Kishwar Joonas

2006-01-01

4

Ethnocentrism is an unacceptable rationale for health care policy: a critique of transplant tourism position statements.  

PubMed

Medical tourism has emerged as a global health care phenomenon, valued at $60 billion worldwide in 2006. Transplant tourism, unlike other more benign forms of medical tourism, has become a flashpoint within the transplant community, underscoring the uneasy relationships among science, religion, politics, ethics and international health care policies concerning the commercialization of transplantation. Numerous professional associations have drafted or issued position statements condemning transplant tourism. Often the criticism is misdirected. The real issue concerns both the source and circumstances surrounding the procurement of donor organs, including commercialization. Unfortunately, many of the position statements circulated to date represent an ethnocentric and decidedly western view of transplantation. As such, the merits of culturally insensitive policy statements issued by otherwise well-intended transplant professionals, and the organizations they represent, must be evaluated within the broader context of foreign relations and diplomacy, as well as cultural and ethical relativity. Having done so, many persons may find themselves reluctant to endorse statements that have produced a misleading social desirability bias, which, to a great extent, has impeded more thoughtful and inclusive deliberations on the issues. Therefore, instead of taking an official position on policy matters concerning the commercial aspects of transplantation, international professional associations should offer culturally respectful guidance. PMID:18444938

Evans, R W

2008-04-29

5

Health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health risks associated with ozone depletion will principally be those due to increased ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation in the environment, i.e., increased damage to the eyes, the immune system, and the skin. Some new risks may also be introduced with the increased use of alternatives to the ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Quantitative risk estimates are available for some of the

J. Longstreth; F. R. de Gruijl; M. L. Kripke; S. Abseck; F. Arnold; H. I. Slaper; G. Velders; Y. Takizawa; J. C. van der Leun

1998-01-01

6

47 CFR and - Unacceptable Interference  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Unacceptable Interference and Procedures and Process Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...prevail. [60 FR 21992, May 4, 1995] Procedures and ProcessâUnacceptable...

2010-10-01

7

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to help instructors and students locate and use online databases and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to research environmental risks in their own neighborhoods. Materials include a tutorial that provides a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory, using an example in Bozeman, Montana. The activity page contains an assignment and instructions for completing environmental health risk inventories, and there is also a page of links to mapping tools available on the internet, links to the tutorials for each mapping tool, and a list of online databases with searchable health-related information and data.

Cantwell, Laurie

2004-01-01

8

Environmental Health Risk Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To complete this activity, students can follow the instructions and the tutorial in the Environmental Health Risk Inventory website. In doing this, they will gain an understanding of how to use on-line tools and databases as well as the processes of compiling an environmental health risk inventory for a specific locale. In the activity, students will address the question: "how healthy is your neighborhood?" Students will address anthropogenic and naturally-occurring health risks in their hometown or neighborhood by using data collected from online mapping tools and databases. Students will also complete a reflective summary based on the data that they collect.

Cantwell, Laurie

9

Health risk communication using comparative risk analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to communicate effectively the degree or magnitude of public exposures or health risks is essential for risk assessors and risk managers. Various guidelines exist for communicating environmental and public health risks, including recommended approaches for putting risk data into proper context. Although it remains unclear as to which approach is the most useful or appropriate under different circumstances,

Pamela R D Williams

2004-01-01

10

Human Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Exposure of humans to contaminated sites may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms\\u000a such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is considered as a major protection\\u000a target, both by decision-makers as well as by the general public. The first step in Human Health Risk Assessment

Frank A. Swartjes; Christa Cornelis

11

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's always great to learn about an interesting new resource for teaching college students about environmental health, and this one is quite handy. Created as part of the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College, the Environmental Health Risk Assessment site helps instructors and students "locate and use some of the numerous health-related tools and databases that can be found on the web." Here visitors can look over the Tutorial, which is designed to give interested parties a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory. Also, the site includes an activity that can be used in the classroom, along with a list of vetted mapping tools available across the Web. The site is rounded out by four external links to related resources, including one that looks at the relationship between geology and human health.

2010-02-26

12

An Unacceptable Lack of Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) embraced by UN members in 2000 target the health of mothers and children, testifying to the vast inequities in maternal and child health within and between countries. In 2001, maternal and perinatal conditions represented the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease, at nearly 6 percent of total Disability Adjusted

13

Estimating risk at a Superfund site using passive sampling devices as biological surrogates in human health risk models  

PubMed Central

Passive sampling devices (PSDs) sequester the freely dissolved fraction of lipophilic contaminants, mimicking passive chemical uptake and accumulation by biomembranes and lipid tissues. Public Health Assessments that inform the public about health risks from exposure to contaminants through consumption of resident fish are generally based on tissue data, which can be difficulties to obtain and requires destructive sampling. The purpose of this study is to apply PSD data in a Public Health Assessment to demonstrate that PSDs can be used as a biological surrogate to evaluate potential human health risks and elucidate spatio-temporal variations in risk. PSDs were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Willamette River; upriver, downriver and within the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite for three years during wet and dry seasons. Based on an existing Public Health Assessment for this area, concentrations of PAHs in PSDs were substituted for fish tissue concentrations. PSD measured PAH concentrations captured the magnitude, range and variability of PAH concentrations reported for fish/shellfish from Portland Harbor. Using PSD results in place of fish data revealed an unacceptable risk level for cancer in all seasons but no unacceptable risk for non-cancer endpoints. Estimated cancer risk varied by several orders of magnitude based on season and location. Sites near coal tar contamination demonstrated the highest risk, particularly during the dry season and remediation activities. Incorporating PSD data into Public Health Assessments provides specific spatial and temporal contaminant exposure information that can assist public health professionals in evaluating human health risks.

Allan, Sarah E.; Sower, Gregory J.; Anderson, Kim A.

2013-01-01

14

Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.  

PubMed

Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

2006-07-01

15

Appendix 1: Unacceptable for Filing Letter  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... applicant that its application/supplement is considered unacceptable for filing due to ... is not to be used for notification of refusal to file the application ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

16

Incorporating bioaccessibility in detailed quantitative human health risk assessments.  

PubMed

Current English policy and practice allows, and in places encourages, site specific estimates of arsenic oral bioavailability to be used in detailed quantitative human health risk assessment. English land contamination legislation does not differentiate between natural and man made arsenic soil contamination. English planning guidance requires developers to demonstrate that new houses are fit for purpose, including ensuring that there are no unacceptable risks to human health from soil contaminants. Naturally occurring arsenic in soils at a new housing site in southwest England was demonstrated not to pose unacceptable risk to human health by site specific estimates of bioavailability and region specific estimates of soil to plant uptake factors. Independent lines of evidence were used to justify the arsenic exposure factors for oral bioavailability and soil to plant uptake. Using site specific assessment criteria based on tools and information that give a better estimate of the actual exposure avoided both unnecessary public concern and considerable local authority expenditure across the outcrop of such soils as part of their legal duties. PMID:17654139

Nathanail, C Paul; Smith, Rod

2007-07-15

17

Health risk communication using comparative risk analyses.  

PubMed

The ability to communicate effectively the degree or magnitude of public exposures or health risks is essential for risk assessors and risk managers. Various guidelines exist for communicating environmental and public health risks, including recommended approaches for putting risk data into proper context. Although it remains unclear as to which approach is the most useful or appropriate under different circumstances, risk comparisons are a popular choice for conveying the significance of or providing a better perspective on a particular chemical exposure or health risk. In this paper, several different types of risk comparisons are described that are frequently used in the private and public sectors, and these are illustrated using a variety of examples from the literature. These approaches include: (1) intrachemical comparisons, (2) interchemical comparisons, (3) comparisons to background levels of risk, (4) comparisons to theoretical risks or safety levels, and (5) comparisons to other actions or activities. The primary purpose of this paper is to summarize and briefly discuss the advantages and limitations of these risk communication approaches. The evolving field of risk communication is also discussed, including ongoing research on public risk perceptions and alternative methods for communicating risk magnitudes and data uncertainties. PMID:15254483

Williams, Pamela R D

2004-11-01

18

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things...

M. D. Rowe

1992-01-01

19

5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage. This...probationary period for unacceptable performance. (b) Basis for action...rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established...

2013-01-01

20

Health risk analysis. [Lead abstract  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts were prepared for all 36 chapters of this proceedings on health risk analysis which examines the scientific basis of estimating human health risk using biological effects data from epidemiological and clinical-laboratory studies, animal bioassays, cellular and subcellular tests for toxicological effects and dose-response models. (KRM)

Richmond, C.R.; Walsh, P.J.; Copenhaver, E.D. (eds.)

1981-01-01

21

Health Risks of Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)|

Cohen, Bernard L.

1978-01-01

22

Health Risks of Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

Cohen, Bernard L.

1978-01-01

23

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-18

24

Estimating the human health risks from polychlorinated dioxins and furans in stack gas emissions from combustion units: implications of USEPA's dioxin reassessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after promulgation of the Hazardous Waste Combustor MACT rule established regulatory limits for polychlorinated dioxins and furans (dioxins\\/furans) in incinerator stack gas, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced that facilities could still be required to demonstrate that stack emissions do not present an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment. Guidance for conducting this risk assessment activity,

John U. Bell

2002-01-01

25

Health, risk and ‘social suffering’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This editorial provides a summary account of research and writing on ‘social suffering.’ Some of the ways in which this body of work might be approached within the field of health risk research are outlined. Some of the criticisms that might be directed towards the paradigm of risk on the occasions when this is used to account for lived reality

Iain Wilkinson

2006-01-01

26

Radon Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... and Cancer - National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet Memorial Sloan-Kettering Web MD - Slideshow: A Visual Guide to ... html Top of Page Former U.S. Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona Surgeon General Releases National Health Advisory ...

27

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971...causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of this chapter licensee...unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of this chapter licensee...

2012-10-01

28

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...knowingly or unknowingly, directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular...show that its signal does not directly or indirectly cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a...

2011-10-01

29

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...knowingly or unknowingly, directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular...that its signal does not directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a...

2011-10-01

30

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...knowingly or unknowingly, directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular...that its signal does not directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a...

2011-10-01

31

4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts...OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3 Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in...

2012-01-01

32

4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts...OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3 Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in...

2013-01-01

33

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Addressing unacceptable performance. 432.104 Section 432.104 ...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL...432.104 Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time during the...

2013-01-01

34

4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts...OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3 Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in...

2011-01-01

35

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular licensee in the 800 MHz band...unacceptable interference to a non-cellular licensee in the 800 MHz band, as...unacceptable interference to a non-cellular licensee in the 800 MHz band, as...

2012-10-01

36

Global Business, Transportation, Trade, and the Concept of Unacceptable Danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of security is to ward off unacceptable danger. Narrowed in translation to cargo security, it means to keep the goods, merchandise, or passengers transported in domestic and international commerce free of unacceptable dangers. Sounds reasonable, correct? But, there is an issue begged: what constitutes “unacceptable danger” when it comes to commercial goods, merchandise, or passengers? It is a

Lawrence A. Howard

2006-01-01

37

The health risk of radon  

SciTech Connect

Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA`s risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy.

Conrath, S.M.; Kolb, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

1995-10-01

38

Health risks at the Hajj.  

PubMed

Annually, millions of Muslims embark on a religious pilgrimage called the "Hajj" to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The mass migration during the Hajj is unparalleled in scale, and pilgrims face numerous health hazards. The extreme congestion of people and vehicles during this time amplifies health risks, such as those from infectious diseases, that vary each year. Since the Hajj is dictated by the lunar calendar, which is shorter than the Gregorian calendar, it presents public-health policy planners with a moving target, demanding constant preparedness. We review the communicable and non-communicable hazards that pilgrims face. With the rise in global travel, preventing disease transmission has become paramount to avoid the spread of infectious diseases, including SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fever. We examine the response of clinicians, the Saudi Ministry of Health, and Hajj authorities to these unique problems, and list health recommendations for prospective pilgrims. PMID:16564364

Ahmed, Qanta A; Arabi, Yaseen M; Memish, Ziad A

2006-03-25

39

HEALTH RISK PERSPECTIVES ON FUEL OXYGENATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document updated the 1993 Assessment of Potential Health Risks of Gasoline Oxygenated with Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether and provided background information to help the reader understand issues surrounding the potential health risks related to oxygenated gasoline and reformula...

40

Quantitative Health Risk Assessment for Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EPAs Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has developed this quantitative health risk assessment (RA) describing the quantitative assessments of PM-related risks to public health to support the review of the primary PM standards. This ...

2010-01-01

41

Risk Communication for Public Health Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk com- munication for public health. Literature from four different disci- plines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (a) environmental risk communication, (b) disaster management, (c) health promotion and

Deborah C. Glik

2007-01-01

42

Estimating Risks to the Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks to public health arise from infectious disease, exposure to toxic substances such as asbestos, environmental insults, and from lifestyle risks such as smoking. The risk assessment that must precede healthcare interventions or legislation requires probabilistic, statistical and computational methodologies. The introduction to this chapter discusses how our perception of the risks to public health is changing, and identifies some

Rose Baker

43

Is Education for Patriotism Morally Required, Permitted or Unacceptable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If patriotism is morally unacceptable, as some philosophers believe, then also education for patriotism cannot be tolerated, although some other non-moral reasons might be in favour of such education. However, it seems that not all types of patriotism can be convincingly rejected as morally unacceptable. Even more, if MacIntyre's claim is correct…

Kodelja, Zdenko

2011-01-01

44

Improving School Conduct Codes: Clarity about Unacceptable Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little research has been conducted on middle school conduct codes or their effect on unacceptable behavior. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the conduct codes of 59 middle schools across the United States. All of the middle school handbooks addressed unacceptable language (for example, obscenity, harassment, and profanity) in…

Jay, Timothy

45

Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision-Making Framework for Identifying, Assessing and Managing Health Risks (Health Canada, 2000). 4. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Human Health Risk Assessment of Priority Substances(Health Canada, 1994). 5. CSA-Q8550 Risk Management: Guidelines for Decision-Makers (Canada Standards Association, 1997). 6. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (US National Research Council, 1983). 7. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (US National Research Council, 1996). 8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (enHealth Council of Australia, 2002). 9. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (CCME, 1996). 10. Ecological Risk Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Environment Canada, 1996).11. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1998b). 12. Proposed Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Management (Rampal & Sadhra, 1999). Based on the extensive review of these frameworks, seven key elements that should be included in a comprehensive framework for human health, ecological, and occupational risk assessment and management were identified: 1. Problem formulation stage. 2. Stakeholder involvement. 3. Communication. 4. Quantitative risk assessment components. 5. Iteration and evaluation. 6. Informed decision making. 7. Flexibility. On the basis of this overarching approach to risk management, the following "checklist" to ensure a good risk management decision is proposed: - Make sure you're solving the right problem. - Consider the problem and the risk within the full context of the situation, using a broad perspective. - Acknowledge, incorporate, and balance the multiple dimensions of risk. - Ensure the highest degree of reliability for all components of the risk management process. - Involve interested and effected parties from the outset of the process. - Commit to honest and open communication between all parties. - Employ continuous evaluation throughout the process (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared t

Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

46

Personality, risky health behaviour, and perceived susceptibility to health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations between personality (Five-Factor Model), risky health behaviours, and perceptions of susceptibility to health risks among 683 university students. The hypothesis was that personality would aÄect perceptions of susceptibility to health risks in two ways: directly, irrespective of risky health behaviours, and indirectly, through the eÄects of personality on risky health behaviours. The students were surveyed about

Margarete Vollrath; Daria Knoch; Loredana Cassano

1999-01-01

47

Risk and risk assessment in health emergency management.  

PubMed

This article considers the critical roles of risk and risk assessment in the management of health emergencies and disasters. The Task Force on Quality Control of Disaster Management (TFQCDM) has defined risk as the "objective (mathematical) or subjective (inductive) probability that something negative will occur (happen)". Risks with the greatest relevance to health emergency management include: (1) the probability that a health hazard exists or will occur; (2) the probability that the hazard will become an event; (3) the probability that the event will lead to health damage; and (4) the probability that the health damage will lead to a health disaster. The overall risk of a health disaster is the product of these four probabilities. Risk assessments are the tools that help systems at risk-healthcare organizations, communities, regions, states, and countries-transform their visceral reactions to threats into rational strategies for risk reduction. Type I errors in risk assessment occur when situations are predicted that do not occur (risk is overestimated). Type II errors in risk assessment occur when situations are not predicted that do occur (risk is underestimated). Both types of error may have serious, even lethal, consequences. Errors in risk assessment may be reduced through strategies that optimize risk assessment, including the: (1) adoption of the TFQCDM definition of risk and other terms; (2) specification of the system at risk and situations of interest (hazard, event, damage, and health disaster); (3) adoption of a best practice approach to risk assessment methodology; (4) assembly of the requisite range of expert participants and information; (5) adoption of an evidence-based approach to using information; (6) exclusion of biased, irrelevant, and obsolete information; and (7) complete characterizations of any underlying fault and event trees. PMID:16018501

Arnold, Jeffrey L

48

Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains…

Tenkate, Thomas D.

1998-01-01

49

The Health Risks of Asian Americans. Editorial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States, relatively little is known about the health risks and morbidity of different Asian-American groups. A national survey (National Health Interview Survey) is needed to clarify the health risks of major Asian-American subgroups. (SLD)|

Yu, Elena S. H.

1991-01-01

50

[Psychosocial risks at work and occupational health].  

PubMed

The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. PMID:22858772

Gil-Monte, Pedro R

2012-06-01

51

Health Tip: Know Risk Factors for Gout  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Know Risk Factors for Gout It's more common in males (*this news item ... Kohnle Wednesday, August 7, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Page Gout (HealthDay News) -- Gout is characterized by a buildup ...

52

Health risks valuations based on public consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks for the public due to electric power generation are examined. The risk include those already known to exist due to air pollution and nuclear radiation and the newer potential risks of electromagnetic fields at power frequencies. It is shown that members of populations at risk are capable of making valuations of the worth to them of reduction of

E. S. Cassedy

1992-01-01

53

Risk contracts in managed mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prologue: The term risk contracting has become a familiar part of the vocabulary and the landscape of managed care. Risk contracting refers to an arrangement whereby the cost or claims risk for an insured population is borne by the entity that is desig- nated to bear risk: a prepaid plan or, as is increasingly the case for mental health care,

Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire; Joseph P. Newhouse

1995-01-01

54

Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Mass media are a leading source of health information for general public. We wished to examine the relationship between the intensity of media coverage for selected health topics and their actual risk to public health. Methods Mass media reports in the United States on emerging and chronic health hazards (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bioterrorism, West Nile Fever, AIDS,

Larisa J. Bomlitz; Mayer Brezis

2008-01-01

55

Health risk of chrysotile revisited  

PubMed Central

This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20?µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7?d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration.

Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raul; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

2013-01-01

56

Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth  

PubMed Central

Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth.

Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

2010-01-01

57

Scaling Health Risk Behaviors of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As an objective toward its mission of providing HIV-AIDS education, the Higher Education Consortium for AIDS Prevention surveyed students of Florida's State University System to determine their health risk behaviors. The instrument used, the "Health Risk Behavior Survey for University Students," was adapted for college students from one used by…

Moskal, Patsy D.; And Others

58

The Health Risks of Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report compiles scientific evidence and statistics on the health risks of weight loss interventions and is intended to help both professionals and consumers cope in healthful ways with the complex dilemmas of weight. The publication is organized into six chapters: (1) "Risks of Losing Weight"; (2) "Effectiveness of Treatment"; (3) "Weight…

Berg, Frances M.

59

Risk assessment, the environment, and public health.  

PubMed Central

Risks to human health arise from the environment in diverse ways and from many sources. Although there are many social forces to be considered when efforts are made to protect human health, it would seem that public health resources should be devoted to reducing risks arising from the environment in at least rough proportion to the toll they take on human health. Risk assessment, properly, conceived and practiced, is the appropriate tool for assigning risks their rightful order and should be a principal component of public health programs everywhere. The successful application of risk assessments to such goals depends on the developments of a broader view of its nature and content than has been customarily adopted. Images p258-a

Rodricks, J V

1994-01-01

60

Risk communication for public health emergencies.  

PubMed

This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk communication for public health. Literature from four different disciplines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (a) environmental risk communication, (b) disaster management, (c) health promotion and communication, and (d) media and communication studies. Current curricula and training materials are briefly reviewed. Although this literature review suggests much progress has been made to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, and case studies suggest that public health workers have gained skills and experience, this emerging field still lacks in-depth evaluation of the effectiveness of event-specific crisis risk communication efforts. PMID:17222081

Glik, Deborah C

2007-01-01

61

Risk, health and the media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on ‘Risk and the Media’ explores relationships between risk theory in the social sciences and media studies' analyses of risk. Arguing that attempts to bring these two ‘risk and media’ fields together have been only sporadic, the editors deliberately adopt a reflexive view. They draw attention to their different approaches, as sociological and media\\/cultural studies researchers, to

John C. Tulloch; Jens O. Zinn

2011-01-01

62

Health Benefits and Risks of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linking of the Internet with health and medicine involves all levels of society, including individuals, health care providers, professional organizations, communities, and local and federal governments. A growing body of evidence suggests that despite the benefits of the Internet, this means of communication also figures into the creation of new forms of health risk for some users. This paper

Judith A. Levy; Rita Strombeck

2002-01-01

63

Errors, mistakes, blunders, outliers, or unacceptable results: how many?  

PubMed

We have studied 219353 individual clinical chemistry results obtained in methods comparison studies. Each result was prospectively compared with its replicate, comparative, or repeat value to identify differences from expected values. Unacceptable results were defined as differing from the expected values by < or = 7 SDs or CVs. We believe these differences represent special-cause variation and should be expressed as unacceptable rates per million results (ppm). We observed 447 ppm unacceptables: 196 ppm in control samples and 251 ppm in patients' samples. Results judged likely to alter patient care occurred at a rate of 41 ppm. To better understand the magnitude of these rates, we compared these results with reports of error rates in HIV testing and the airline industry. The measurements reported were made for the purpose of quality improvement, not judgment or discovery. The significance of these findings for laboratorians, manufacturers, and regulators is discussed. PMID:9267313

Witte, D L; VanNess, S A; Angstadt, D S; Pennell, B J

1997-08-01

64

Health effects of risk-assessment categories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

1983-10-01

65

Health and Environmental Risk-Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Annual Health and Environmental Risk Analysis Program (HERAP) Contractor Meeting. It follows the meeting agenda and includes copies of visual aids used by each presenter of information on a 1981...

1982-01-01

66

Semantic interoperability of Health Risk Assessments.  

PubMed

The health insurance and benefits industry has administered Health Risk Assessments (HRAs) at an increasing rate. These are used to collect data on modifiable health risk factors for wellness and disease management programs. However, there is significant variability in the semantics of these assessments, making it difficult to compare data sets from the output of 2 different HRAs. There is also an increasing need to exchange this data with Health Information Exchanges and Electronic Medical Records. To standardize the data and concepts from these tools, we outline a process to determine presence of certain common elements of modifiable health risk extracted from these surveys. This information is coded using concept identifiers, which allows cross-survey comparison and analysis. We propose that using LOINC codes or other universal coding schema may allow semantic interoperability of a variety of HRA tools across the industry, research, and clinical settings. PMID:22195174

Rajda, Jay; Vreeman, Daniel J; Wei, Henry G

2011-10-22

67

Semantic Interoperability of Health Risk Assessments  

PubMed Central

The health insurance and benefits industry has administered Health Risk Assessments (HRAs) at an increasing rate. These are used to collect data on modifiable health risk factors for wellness and disease management programs. However, there is significant variability in the semantics of these assessments, making it difficult to compare data sets from the output of 2 different HRAs. There is also an increasing need to exchange this data with Health Information Exchanges and Electronic Medical Records. To standardize the data and concepts from these tools, we outline a process to determine presence of certain common elements of modifiable health risk extracted from these surveys. This information is coded using concept identifiers, which allows cross-survey comparison and analysis. We propose that using LOINC codes or other universal coding schema may allow semantic interoperability of a variety of HRA tools across the industry, research, and clinical settings.

Rajda, Jay; Vreeman, Daniel J.; Wei, Henry G.

2011-01-01

68

Assessing environmental, health risks depends on perspective  

SciTech Connect

Considerations of risk permeate the everyday worlds of industrial environmental managers, health and safety officers, commercial property owners, and others whose activities are conducted within the bounds of environmental regulation. At the forefront of such considerations are risks to the environment, public health and employee safety -- the risks environmental and occupational safety regulations are designed to curb. Failure to manage these risks effectively can generate yet another form of risk -- legal liability, which must be managed on its own terms. Risk, risk management and liability are not related in an inevitable or absolute way. For example, manufacturing a product using processes that generate hazardous waste -- a relatively common industrial activity -- does not necessarily lead to environmental harm or public health threats. Likewise, mismanaging such activities so that real public health or environmental threats are created does not always lead to prosecution. Finally, conscientiously and effectively managing risk according to a strict interpretation of current laws and practices provides no guarantees against future liability for those actions.

Bishop, J.

1993-03-01

69

Sport participation, risk taking, and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescents participate in sports for a variety of reasons. Some seem to enjoy participating in what some might consider very-high-risk or "extreme" sports activities. For some adolescents risk taking becomes pervasive and can be detrimental to normal health and development. The majority of adolescents will do well in the context of athletics, and the many positive benefits of regular physical activity and sports participation should be appropriately emphasized. However, a subset of adolescents may be at greater risk for adverse consequences. This article reviews the reasons for participation and attrition from sports, the phenomenon of thrill seeking in sports, certain risk-taking behaviors of athletes, and studies comparing health risk behaviors in athletes and non-athletes. PMID:10640343

Patel, D R; Luckstead, E F

2000-02-01

70

Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used

Nancy H. Busen; Vickie Modeland; Kamiar Kouzekanani

2001-01-01

71

Probabilities and health risks: a qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks, defined in terms of the probability that an individual will suffer a particular type of adverse health event within a given time period, can be understood as referencing either natural entities or complex patterns of belief which incorporate the observer's values and knowledge, the position adopted in the present paper. The subjectivity inherent in judgements about adversity and

Bob Heyman; Mette Henriksen; Karen Maughan

1998-01-01

72

Toolbox for Health Risk Related Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk cons...

C. E. Easterly T. D. Jones

1996-01-01

73

Health risks of alcohol use  

MedlinePLUS

... problems worse over time Make sleep problems worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone in the home abuses alcohol. Violence and conflict in the home is much more ...

74

Values and health risks: An editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue is the second in a four-part series Health Care Through the ‘Lens of Risk’ focussing on risk categorisation, valuing, expecting and time-framing, respectively, and published or to be published in 2012–2013. The present editorial introduces the issue of risk valuing in relation to an interview-based article and five substantial research papers (one appearing in a subsequent issue

Bob Heyman; Andy Alaszewski; Patrick Brown

2012-01-01

75

Adolescent Health Risk Profiles: The Co-Occurrence of Health Risks among Females and Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis examines the complexity of adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative study of students. The current sample includes 12,955 students (6,626 females and 6,329 males) in grades 9 through 12. Cluster analysis was conducted separately by gender to examine the interrelationships among eight health risk behaviors:

Janine M. Zweig; Laura Duberstein Lindberg; Karen Alexander McGinley

2001-01-01

76

Health and environmental risks of energy systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

Hamilton, L.D.

1984-01-01

77

Cardiac health: relationships among hostility, spirituality, and health risk.  

PubMed

This study examined hostility, spirituality, and indices of health risk among 100 young, primarily males of Hispanic background. Over half of the subjects were prehypertensive or hypertensive; one third had at least 2 objective risk factors for cardiac disease; and younger participants had lower spirituality scores and higher cynical distrust scores. Body mass index, spirituality, and glucose accounted for 29% of variance in systolic blood pressure; body mass index and age accounted for 39% of variance in diastolic blood pressure. The tools to assess cardiac risk (blood pressure, history, capillary blood screening, body mass index) are all "low tech" and low cost but used together are powerful in identifying risk populations. PMID:15686080

Sethness, Renee; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

78

Migration, refugees, and health risks.  

PubMed Central

Migration both voluntary and forced is increasing all over the world. People are moving in larger numbers faster and further than at any other time in history. This is happening at a time when many countries are ill-prepared to deal with a changing demography and when policies and attitudes to population movement and immigration are hardening. The health implications of this are many, and, in some cases, illness and death rates associated with migration are exacerbated by a lack of policies needed to make migration a healthy and socially productive process. From a public health point of view, this is having and will continue to have serious ramifications for the people that move, the family they leave behind, and the communities that host the newcomers.

Carballo, M.; Nerukar, A.

2001-01-01

79

Health Risk Behaviors among California College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk behaviors among students attending 4-year colleges in California were examined. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey for College Students was administered in a two-stage (29 universities, 5,652 students) random sample. All campuses and 3,810 (69%) students participated in the survey. In the 30 days preceding the survey, 36.7% of the students had binged at least once while drinking; 25.3%

Kevin Patrick; Jennifer R. Covin; Mark Fulop; Karen Calfas; Chris Lovato

1997-01-01

80

Social roles, prestige, and health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection pressure from health risk is hypothesized to have shaped adaptations motivating individuals to attempt to become\\u000a valued by other individuals by generously and recurrently providing beneficial goods and\\/or services to them because this\\u000a strategy encouraged beneficiaries to provide costly health care to their benefactors when the latter were sick or injured.\\u000a Additionally, adaptations are hypothesized to have co-evolved that

Lawrence Scott Sugiyama; Michelle Scalise Sugiyama

2003-01-01

81

Living Arrangements, Knowledge of Health Risks, and Stress as Determinants of Health-Risk Behavior Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of knowledge of health risks, living arrangements, and perceived stress with health-risk behaviors was examined in a sample of college students included in the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey. Regressions of each health-risk behavior (dependent variable) were performed on the predicted correlates. Although knowledge was not associated with participation in physical

Diane H. Jones; Yossi Harel; Richard M. Levinson

1992-01-01

82

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-01

83

Accuracy of Parents' Perceptions of Their College Student Children's Health and Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared parents' perceptions of their college student children's health and health risk behaviors with the college students' own reports. One hundred sixty-four parent-college student child dyads completed questionnaires regarding the students' health, illness status, and health risk behaviors. Parents tended to be overoptimistic about their children's health and health risk behaviors, underestimating the frequency of their children's alcohol,

Carma L Bylund; Rebecca S Imes; Leslie A Baxter

2005-01-01

84

Diabetes in pregnancy: health risks and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes in pregnancy is increasing and therefore it is important to raise awareness of the associated health risks to the mother, the growing fetus, and the future child. Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in diabetic pregnancies through increased stillbirths and congenital malformation rates. These are mainly the result of early fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia. In the mother, pregnancy

Sarah Ali; Anne Dornhorst

2011-01-01

85

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over

Geoffrey A. Codd; Louise F. Morrison; James S. Metcalf

2005-01-01

86

High risk health behaviours among adult Jamaicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of high risk health behaviours among adult Jamaicans aged 15-49 years in 2000, and to compare the results with the 1993 survey. A nationally representative sample of 2013 persons aged 15-74 years was surveyed in 2000 using cluster sampling in the Jamaica Healthy Lifestyle Survey (Wilks et al, unpublished). Interviewer

JP Figueroa; E Ward; C Walters; DE Ashley; RJ Wilks

2005-01-01

87

Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods.

Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.

2004-02-01

88

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 82âSubstitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Refrigerants Unacceptable Substitutes End-use Substitute Decision Comments CFC-11 centrifugal chillers (retrofit)...

2012-07-01

89

5 CFR 432.105 - Proposing and taking action based on unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and taking action based on unacceptable performance. 432.105 Section 432.105 ...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL...and taking action based on unacceptable performance. (a) Proposing action based...

2013-01-01

90

Health risks for women with breast implants.  

PubMed

Women who have undergone implantation of a breast prosthesis have been exposed to a variety of health risks, many of which were unknown to them at the time of surgery. Recognition of health hazards has prompted the Food and Drug Administration to restrict implantation of these devices while study of safety and efficacy are undertaken. Capsule contracture, or the contraction of the fibrous tissue surrounding the prosthesis, is the most frequently occurring complication. Exposure to an implant does not appear to heighten the risk for breast cancer, but the opacity of a prosthesis substantially reduces the diagnostic capability of mammography. Silicone, used in the manufacture of implants, is linked to immunologic changes that result in connective tissue disorders. Most often this condition is scleroderma. Damaging effects from toluenediamine, a disintegration product of the polyurethane coating, have been reported. Whether the concentration of this chemical reaches toxic levels in women with prostheses remains to be clarified by current investigations. PMID:7936451

Schumann, D

1994-07-01

91

[Health risk behavior among young offenders].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate health risk behavior among teenage offenders committed to a social-educational institution in a city in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The sample included 241 males 12-18 years of age. Data were collected with a brief self-completed questionnaire used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, translated and adapted for young Brazilians. 79.7% of subjects reported having carried a gun and 52.7% had been in fights involving physical aggression in the previous 12 months. Most of the young offenders smoked cigarettes (87.6%) and consumed alcohol (64.7%). The majority reported having sniffed inhalants (68.9%), and 81.3% had smoked marijuana. The vast majority (95.4%) reported being sexually initiated, most having had sex with more than one partner. Young offenders showed high rates of various health risk behaviors. PMID:18949233

Sena, Cláudia Alves de; Colares, Viviane

2008-10-01

92

A dynamic human health risk assessment system.  

PubMed

An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors. PMID:22778520

Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

2012-05-01

93

Results from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, which monitored health risk behaviors among U.S. college undergraduates via mailed surveys, indicate that many students' behaviors increase their likelihood of experiencing adverse health outcomes. Particularly high risks for college students include alcohol abuse, tobacco use,…

Douglas, Kathy A.; Collins, Janet L.; Warren, Charles; Kann, Laura; Gold, Robert; Clayton, Sonia; Ross, James G.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

1997-01-01

94

Expert vs. public perception of population health risks in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of risk analysis, there is ongoing tension between expert risk assessment and public risk perception. This paper presents the results of a health risk perception survey administered to Canadian health experts as a follow-up to a previous survey. A total of 125 experts (75 physicians and 50 toxicologists) recruited through professional organizations completed a self-administered questionnaire in

Daniel Krewski; Michelle C. Turner; Louise Lemyre; Jennifer E. C. Lee

2012-01-01

95

Health Habits Tied to Heart Disease, Arthritis Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health habits tied to heart disease, arthritis risk (*this ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Disabilities Healthy Aging Women's Health By Allison Bond NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Older ...

96

Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.  

PubMed

The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development. PMID:21568625

Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

2011-01-01

97

[Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].  

PubMed

This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

2009-12-01

98

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.  

PubMed

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

99

An Integrated Framework for Risk Management and Population Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional medical model of health and health policy development has focused on individuals and the role of medical care in preventing and treating disease and injury. Recent attention to health inequities and social determinants of health has raised the profile of population heath and evidence-based strategies for improving the health of whole populations. At the same time, risk science

Daniel Krewski; Victoria Hogan; Michelle C. Turner; Patricia L. Zeman; Ian McDowell; Nancy Edwards; Joseph Losos

2007-01-01

100

Improving Risk Adjustment of Self-Reported Mental Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk adjustment for mental health care is important for making meaningful comparisons of provider, program, and system performance.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value of three diagnosis-based risk-adjustment models for predicting\\u000a self-reported mental health outcomes. Baseline and 3-month follow-up mental health assessments were obtained on 1,023 veterans\\u000a in Veterans Health Administration mental health programs between

Amy K. Rosen; Sharmila Chatterjee; Mark E. Glickman; Avron Spiro III; Pradipta Seal; Susan V. Eisen

2010-01-01

101

Health risk characterisation for environmental pollutants with a new concept of overall risk probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In health risk assessment, risk is commonly characterised by calculating a simple hazard quotient (HQ), which cannot reflect the actual distribution of exposure and health effect values. This study aimed to develop a new risk characterisation method, the overall risk probability (ORP) method based on probabilistic techniques. Exposure exceedence values were calculated to obtain an exposure exceedence curve (EEC). The

Qiming Cao; Qiming Yu; Des W. Connell

2011-01-01

102

Multipathway health risk assessment of power plant water discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemicals released with water discharges from a fossil-fueled power plant may present health risks through a variety of exposure pathways including ingestion of drinking water, fish consumption and dermal absorption while swimming. The Total Risk of Utility Emissions (TRUE) model provides a framework that allows one to assess the multipathway health risks associated with water discharges from power plants.

C. Seigneur; E. Constantinou; L. Levin

1996-01-01

103

A will to health? Drinking, risk and social class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores risk conceptions related to alcohol use among Danes who drink ‘too much’ (based on the National Health Board’s standards for safe drinking). It analyses drinking patterns and risk management strategies among interviewees from different socio-economic backgrounds, and explores the differences between the behaviours and conceptions of these individuals and the risk advice and definitions provided by health

Margaretha Järvinen

2012-01-01

104

Health perceptions and risk behaviors of lung cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lung cancer survivors are at an increased risk for recurrence and the development of secondary tumors and other comorbid conditions. However, little is known about lung cancer survivors' risk behaviors and the effect of these behaviors on overall health perceptions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of health risk behaviors among non-small cell lung

Lorraine S. Evangelista; Linda Sarna; Mary Lynn Brecht; Geraldine Padilla; Jenny Chen

2003-01-01

105

Biomarkers: Dynamic "Tools" for Health and Safety Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Today informational flow from biomarkers contributes importantly to various types of health effects research, risk assessment and risk management decisions that impact, or have the potential to impact, public health and safety. Therefore, dependent upon the nature of the health r...

106

Inventorying Community Health Promotion and Risk Reduction Services: Virginia's Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in this decade the U.S. Centers for Disease Control gave a mandate to states receiving Health Education\\/Risk Reduction Funds (HERR) to inventory health pro motion and risk reduction services. This article reports on the findings of the Northern Virginia Inventorying Project, in which an existing service classification system in use in a health planning district serving over one million

Nancy H. Smith; Elizabeth Harper Howze

1987-01-01

107

Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESAs self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.METHODSThe Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face

P Carlson

2001-01-01

108

General health risk of periodontal disease.  

PubMed

The possibility that periodontal disease might influence the morbidity and mortality of systemic diseases constitutes a research topic of great current interest. Human periodontal disease is associated with a complex microbiota containing approximately 500 microbial taxa and various human viruses, many of which possess significant virulence potential. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria that are unique to the oral cavity and may disseminate to other body sites comprise the best-documented form of dental focal infection. However, systemically healthy individuals seem to be at low risk of acquiring acute non-oral diseases from direct infections by periodontal pathogens. Research data from various laboratories point to periodontal infections as a risk factor for chronic medical disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular accidents and low-birth-weight infants. However, recent epidemiological studies have failed to show a significant relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. This review paper evaluates the current status of knowledge on dental focal infection and suggests avenues for further research into the topic of general health risks of periodontal disease. PMID:11789708

Slots, J; Kamma, J J

2001-12-01

109

The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

2012-01-01

110

Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is today issuing five guidelines for assessing the health risks of environmental pollutants. These are: Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment; Guidelines for Estimating Exposures; Guidelines for Mutagenicity Ri...

1986-01-01

111

Energy drinks and worker health risks.  

PubMed

Occupational and environmental health nurses play a key role in raising awareness, advocating for public health and safety, and preventing deleterious health consequences for individuals who consume energy drinks. [Workplace Health Saf 2013;61(10):468. PMID:24088377

Dennison, Kim; Rogers, Bonnie; Randolph, Susan A

2013-10-01

112

Lay views on uncertainty in environmental health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that presenting uncertainty in environmental health risk estimates may increase citizens' risk knowledge and trust in the honesty and competence of the institutions providing such estimates; on the other hand, careless communication could have undesirable results. Reported here is a study of how American laypeople think about uncertainty in risk assessment, and its implications for risk

Branden B Johnson; Paul Slovic

1998-01-01

113

Using SAS® Graphics to Explore Behavioral Health Cost Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral health disorders result in significant economic loss through costs associated with inpatient admissions, lost work days and reduction in at-work productivity. Additionally, over 30% of health plan members with complex health issues have at least one behavioral health issue driving cost risk. This paper looks at graphical representations of cost as part of an effort to develop an overall

Barbara B. Okerson

114

Assessment of Human Health Risk of Dioxin in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the daily exposure to dioxin using comparable approach methods in order to predict the human health risks of dioxin on the general adult population and incinerator workers in Korea. The health risk assessment of dioxin involved four scenarios (General-Direct, General-Breast Milk, General-Blood, and Worker-Blood). The risks were described in terms of the excess cancer risk and the

Youngwook Lim; Jiyeon Yang; Youngsoo Kim; Yoonseok Chang; Dongchun Shin

2004-01-01

115

[Cell phones: health risks and prevention].  

PubMed

The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries. PMID:22670334

Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

116

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

117

An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species.

Suter, Glenn W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin L. King Drive, MC-A130, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)]. E-mail: suter.glenn@epa.gov; Vermeire, Theo [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (Netherlands); Munns, Wayne R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin L. King Drive, MC-A130, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Sekizawa, Jun [Tokushima University (Japan)

2005-09-01

118

The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)|

Bamberg, Richard; And Others

1990-01-01

119

Health risk behaviors and associated risk and protective factors among Brazilian Adolescents in Santos, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the prevalence of health risk behaviors and identify risk and protective factors that are associated with several health risk behaviors (cigarette smoking, drug use, onset of sexual intercourse before age 15, pregnancy, gun-carrying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) among adolescents in Brazil, as well as to explore gender differences.Methods: We estimated prevalence rates, evaluated bivariate associations, and

Marcia Anteghini; Helena Fonseca; Marjorie Ireland; Robert W Blum

2001-01-01

120

Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.  

PubMed

Human health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors. PMID:22938698

Williams, Pamela R D; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

2012-09-11

121

Impact of the prevention plan on employee health risk reduction.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coaching, contests, group events, and employer incentives. Specifically, we analyzed changes in 15 health risk measures among a cohort of 2606 employees from multiple employer groups who completed a baseline health risk appraisal, blood tests, and biometric screening in 2008 and who were reassessed in 2009. We then compared the data to the Edington Natural Flow of risks. The cohort showed significant reduction in 10 of the health risks measured (9 at P? 0.01 and 1 at P?0.05). The most noticeable changes in health risks were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high-risk blood pressure (42.78%), high-risk fasting blood sugar (31.13%), and high-risk stress (24.94%). There was an overall health risk transition among the cohort with net movement from higher risk levels to lower risk levels (P<0.01). There was a net increase of 9.40% of people in the low-risk category, a decrease of 3.61% in the moderate-risk category, and a 5.79% decrease in the high-risk category. Compared to Edington's Natural Flow model, 48.70% of individuals in the high-risk category moved from high risk to moderate risk (Natural Flow 31%), 46.35% moved from moderate risk to low risk (Natural Flow 35%), 15.65% moved from high risk to low risk (Natural Flow 6%), and 87.33% remained in the low-risk category (Natural Flow 70%) (P<0.001). PMID:20879909

Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W; Bég, Sami

2010-10-01

122

Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ  

SciTech Connect

In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

1986-01-23

123

Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

NONE

1997-02-01

124

Catalogue of Risks: Natural, Technical, Social and Health Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Financial, geophysical, and terrorist-related disasters have been headline news in the past few months. As amply demonstrated on a regular basis, the recognition and evaluation of risks are skills that could be more widespread. As such, Proske's Catalogue of Risks is timely and of potential interest. The book is a revised and expanded version of an earlier German publication that aims to provide an encyclopedic discussion of issues related to risks and disasters, with a goal of facilitating an understanding of the components and assessment of risk. The book includes chapters that discuss the difficulty of coming to a consensus on a definition of risk, a comprehensive range of risks and disasters, objective risk measures, subjective risk judgment, quality of life measures, and legal aspects of risk. The book ends with an example of applying the concepts discussed to ship impacts against bridges.

Ebi, Kristie L.

2009-01-01

125

Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard

J. M. Farber; W. H. Rossb; J. Harwig

1996-01-01

126

Risk behaviors and health: Contrasting individual and population perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses risk behaviors, seem- ingly voluntary actions of individuals that have adverse health consequences. The central theme is to examine these behaviors from two contrasting perspectives, that of the individual and that of the population as a whole. It is argued that distinguishing between individual and pop- ulation views is important for understanding and inter- preting health risk

Robert W. Jeffery

1989-01-01

127

Autonomy and reactions to health-risk information  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that autonomy promotes enhanced reflection on novel information and reduces defensive or biased information processing. This study investigated how autonomy affected people's reactions to known versus novel health-risk information in relation to three behaviours: sun exposure, alcohol consumption and salt intake. Participants (N = 321) completed a measure of autonomy, read either known or novel health-risk

Louisa Jane Pavey; Paul Sparks

2010-01-01

128

Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

129

Nuclear power -- is the health risk too great?  

PubMed Central

Apparently objective and value-free `scientific' assessments of health risks are often highly value-laden and incorporate contentious social assumptions. Mr Wynne exposes some of the complexities underlying attempts to compare the health risks of nuclear and other sources of energy.

Wynne, B E

1982-01-01

130

Risk and new exclusions in community mental health practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, mental health practice has become increasingly focused on assessing and managing the risks posed by service users. British researchers have made significant advances in studying the consequences of risk management for community-based health and welfare services, but in Australia this field remains largely undeveloped. Drawing on my experiences as a social worker in a Melbourne-based

Anne-Maree Sawyer

2008-01-01

131

Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

132

Health risk behaviors in urban and rural Guatemalan adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescence is an important stage of life when health behaviors and attitudes are established. The purpose of this research was to assess health risk behaviors among Guatemalan students in both an urban and rural school. Items were adapted from the Global School-based Student Health Survey and were used to measure and compare the prevalence of risk behaviors between these two demographically and culturally distant school-based samples. In general, the prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors in both schools was lower than other Latin American countries. Many health risk behaviors were associated with location (urban vs. rural settings) and/or gender. Tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual activity were higher among urban students. Boys were more likely than girls to use alcohol, use tobacco, and be sexually active. In addition, the prevalence of mental health problems was higher among girls and rural students. These findings imply that measures should be taken to design effective and appropriate health strategies for adolescents attending these schools. Health promotion programs in schools and communities should assist the youth in developing positive health behaviors and cultivating healthy lifestyles in an effort to reduce risk behaviors among adolescent populations. Further research is needed to extend our understanding of risk factors of health behavior in these adolescent populations and to identify effective preventative approaches and strategies that specifically cater to the location and culture of the students. PMID:23314522

Foulger, Lauren; Page, Randy M; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

2013-01-01

133

The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

2001-01-01

134

Scripts, animal health and biosecurity: The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are conflated resulting in an overly cognitive and asocial understanding of health behaviour with the potential

Gareth Enticott; Frank Vanclay

2011-01-01

135

Health Risk Taking and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk in Collegiate Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A human immunodeficiency virus risk-scale compared risky health behaviors of female college athletes and their nonathlete peers. Both groups reported several risk behaviors. Athletes had significantly lower proportions of risk behaviors in several categories than nonathletes, though high levels of risk behavior overall indicated a need for…

Kokotailo, Patricia K.; Koscik, Rebecca E.; Henry, Bill C.; Fleming, Michael F.; Landry, Gregory L.

1998-01-01

136

Mental Health Risks to Infants and Toddlers in Foster Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mental health risks to the birth-to-three foster care population. The paper describes risks of a relational and contextual nature. Relational risk factors, which have been previously identified by foster care researchers and clinicians, include the following: 1. Poor attachment signaling by foster infants and toddlers; 2. Discomfort with infant and toddler dependency by some foster parents; and

Betty Fish; Bette Chapman

2004-01-01

137

Health Risk Behavior of Rural Secondary School Students in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females

Clement K. Gwede; Robert J. McDermott; Wayne W. Westhoff; Moses Mushore; Tsungai Mushore; Elijah Chitsika; Charles S. Majange; Peter Chauke

2001-01-01

138

Interpreting risk messages: Women's responses to a health story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk communication is an integral part of modern health care and is often high on news agendas having news values such as negativity. Recently concern has been raised by the government, the academic community and journalists themselves about the way risk is reported (Harrabin et al. 2003). Harrabin et al. (2003) illustrate their argument for guidelines on reporting risk by

Kathryn J Thirlaway; Daniel A Heggs

2005-01-01

139

Health risk assessment of chloroform in California ground water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to chloroform dissolved in California ground waters used for domestic consumption, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential increased cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to chloroform. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of chloroform exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with chloroform. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to describe scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for chloroform-induced cancer observed experimentally in animal bioassays that are relevant to the estimation of potential cancer risk in humans. This document is intended to provide a scientific basis for regulatory selection of chloroform concentrations in California groundwater predicted to protect the general public from potential health risk, focusing on potential cancer risk in particular. To this end, we also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to chloroform-contaminated groundwater in California. A separate health-risk assessment for potential toxic endpoints other than cancer that may be associated with water-based exposure to chloroform has been prepared by CDHS (1989).

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.

1992-01-20

140

Population, health and risk factors in a transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the health status of the population in a transition economy. Against a background of falling living standards compounded by the widening income inequality a deterioration of health status has been outlined. Drawing upon a consumer survey carried out in the capital Bucharest, risk factors are highlighted. Respondents’ age, income, and health motivation are the most significant variables

Dan Petrovici; Christopher Ritson

2006-01-01

141

Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.?METHODS—The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.?RESULTS—In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.?CONCLUSIONS—Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.???Keywords: self rated health; risk behaviours

Carlson, P

2001-01-01

142

Human Health Risk Assessment at EPA  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Page 5. 5 5 ® “. . . risk assessment should be viewed as ... › Complex and controversial › Risk assessment summarizes the science Page 6. 6 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

143

National Health Risk Communication Training Program for State Health Agency Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1989, two surveys were developed by Rutgers University Environmental Communication Research Program (ECRP) concerning the health risk communication practices and needs of state health agencies. Agency commissioners and designated staff of 48 s...

R. W. Amler T. Tinker

1992-01-01

144

Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.  

PubMed

Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming. PMID:17869580

Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

2007-09-14

145

RESEARCH ARTICLES Public Perception of Population Health Risks in Canada: Health Hazards and Sources of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of health risk perception among 1,503 Canadians was conducted in 2004. The current survey follows-up a previous national survey conducted in 1992 and documents changes in risk perception since that time and investigates new risk issues not previously examined. This article presents a description of the ratings of perceived risk of thirty specific hazards to the Canadian

Daniel Krewski; Louise Lemyre; Michelle C. Turner; Jennifer E. C. Lee; Christine Dallaire; Louise Bouchard; Kevin Brand; Pierre Mercier

2006-01-01

146

Public Perception of Population Health Risks in Canada: Health Hazards and Sources of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of health risk perception among 1,503 Canadians was conducted in 2004. The current survey follows-up a previous national survey conducted in 1992 and documents changes in risk perception since that time and investigates new risk issues not previously examined. This article presents a description of the ratings of perceived risk of thirty specific hazards to the Canadian

Daniel Krewski; Louise Lemyre; Michelle C. Turner; Jennifer E. C. Lee; Christine Dallaire; Louise Bouchard; Kevin Brand; Pierre Mercier

2006-01-01

147

Health Risk Assessment: Science, Economics, and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk - the likely existence of hazards - is a crucial element in energy and environmental decision making. Human activities, such as the production of electricity, create obvious benefits and concomitant risks, thus necessitating attempts to balance the two. This paper provides a comprehensive and necessarily brief survey of the disciplines and methodologies that make up risk assessment. The authors

P. F. Ricci; L. S. Molton

1986-01-01

148

Risk factors for post-injury mental health problems.  

PubMed

Serious nonfatal physical injuries and burns are common occurrences that can have substantial implications for personal, social, and occupational functioning. Such injuries are frequently associated with significant mental health issues, and compromised quality of life and well-being. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on physical, psychological, and social risk factors for mental health issues post-injury and to contextualize findings using Engel's biopsychosocial framework. We distinguish between pre-injury, injury-related, and post-injury risk factors for mental health problems. Female sex, history of mental health problems or trauma, type of injury, and level of pain are among the strong risk factors for mental health problems post-injury. We highlight inconsistent findings in the literature, identify directions for future research, and explore the implications of the risk factors identified for treatment and prevention. PMID:23408506

Sareen, Jitender; Erickson, Julie; Medved, Maria I; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray; Leslie, William; Doupe, Malcolm; Logsetty, Sarvesh

2013-02-13

149

Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers  

PubMed Central

Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases.

Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

2008-01-01

150

Developing a risk-based air quality health index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

2013-09-01

151

Health insurance: The tradeoff between risk pooling and moral hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing optimal health insurance coverage involves a trade-off between the gain from risk reduction and the deadweight loss from moral hazard. This paper examines this trade-off empirically by estimating both the demand for health insurance and the demand for health services. It relies on data from a randomized controlled trial of cost-sharing's effects on the use of health services and

Willard G. Manning; M. Susan Marquis

1996-01-01

152

[Methodology for analysing toxic chemical risks to animal health].  

PubMed

As a contribution to community-based disaster management, a methodology was designed for analysing toxic chemical risks to animal health, in line with national and international approaches to these issues. The methodology includes: hazard identification, risk assessment of the animal population according to its degree of vulnerability and other communication and risk management tools. Its validation in thirteen Cuban communities shows that the methodology provides the necessary technical basis for formulating and implementing disaster risk mitigation plans in compliance with current legislation. It also facilitates decision-making for disaster risk control in a community by acting as an early warning mechanism for toxic chemical risks to public health and the environment and by promoting multi-sector action in the field of veterinary public health. PMID:18293605

Suárez Fernandez, Y; Cepero Rodríguez, O; Figuero Portal, M; Chávez Quintana, P; Cabrera Pérez, C; Pérez Duarte, N W

2007-12-01

153

Association Between Health Risk Knowledge and Risk Behavior Among Medical Students and Residents In Yerevan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The relationship between risk knowledge, attitude, and behavior among different population groups is complex and has not been sufficiently explored. It was especially interesting to look at some aspects of this relationship among future health professionals (medical students and medical residents) assuming their detailed exposure to medical knowledge and health risks. The objectives of this study were to investigate

Tereza Khachkalyan; Varduhi Petrosyan; Krikor Soghikian

2006-01-01

154

76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY...EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of...comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses....

2011-07-06

155

Autonomy and reactions to health-risk information.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that autonomy promotes enhanced reflection on novel information and reduces defensive or biased information processing. This study investigated how autonomy affected people's reactions to known versus novel health-risk information in relation to three behaviours: sun exposure, alcohol consumption and salt intake. Participants (N=321) completed a measure of autonomy, read either known or novel health-risk information and reported their relative autonomous motivation, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm and intentions towards reducing the health-risk behaviour concerned. In line with our hypotheses, the results showed that higher autonomy participants reported greater relative autonomous motivation towards reducing health-risk behaviours than did lower autonomy participants; this effect was mediated by perceptions of the information as less freedom-threatening. The expected interaction between Autonomy and Information Type was not observed. The results indicate that autonomy is associated with greater relative autonomous motivation to engage in health behaviours, and that autonomous motivation may subsequently influence intentions to reduce health-risk behaviour following exposure to health-risk information. PMID:20204958

Pavey, Louisa Jane; Sparks, Paul

2010-09-01

156

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Glossary Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool FAQs Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool High Quality Physical Education Before You Start FAQs Presentation Slides & User Guide ...

157

Risk tolerance measure for decision-making in fuzzy analysis: a health risk assessment perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In risk assessment studies it is important to determine how uncertain and imprecise knowledge should be included into the\\u000a simulation and assessment models. Thus, proper evaluation of uncertainties has become a major concern in environmental and\\u000a health risk assessment studies. Previously, researchers have used probability theory, more commonly Monte Carlo analysis,\\u000a to incorporate uncertainty analysis in health risk assessment studies.

Elcin Kentel; Mustafa M. Aral

2007-01-01

158

Who Is at Increased Risk of Health Problems during Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... Who is at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and ... health problems can occur during pregnancy? How does stress affect pregnancy? » Last Updated Date: 11/30/2012 Last ...

159

Characterizing public health and microbial risks due to water contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

This research track evaluates risks associated with the occurrence of waterborne disease in the population. A clear understanding of the health burden associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water is critical to developing regulations that are protective of public healt...

160

Health Risk Analysis: Technical Adequacy in Three Selected Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report investigates the quality and scope of risk analysis activities conducted by selected federal agencies with responsibility for regulating environmental health and safety. It serves as a pilot study for possible future evaluations of federal heal...

1987-01-01

161

Health risk assessment of chloroform in California ground water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to chloroform dissolved in California ground waters used for domestic consumption, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential increased...

K. T. Bogen L. C. Hall T. E. McKone

1992-01-01

162

Letter to Health Professionals Regarding the Risk of Vibrio ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Letter to Health Professionals Regarding the Risk of Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia Associated with the Consumption of Raw Oysters. June 2005. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healthcareprofessionals

163

What environmental and technological risk communication research and health risk research can learn from each other  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of risk perception and communication has emerged in several disciplines and fields, and there has not been strong convergence between them, especially in Europe and specifically in Britain. The lack of connection between, for example, the fields of health risk and environmental and technological risk, and still more with respect to fears of crime or old age poverty

Ragnar E. Löfstedt; Perri

2008-01-01

164

How health risk from radiation is assessed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The likelihood that a dose of radiation will result in death from cancer at some future time can be estimated by multiplying the dose equivalent by a risk factor, or dose-to-risk conversion factor. Conversion factors, which are based on studies of atomic ...

L. Rahm-Crites

1994-01-01

165

Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Homeland Security Act mandates the development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to, and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define

Kenneth T. Bogen

2005-01-01

166

Human Health Research Program: Incorporating Health into Community Cumulative Risk  

EPA Science Inventory

NERL and EPA?s Regions are developing community-level assessment tools to identify vulnerable populations due to a multiple factors related to chemical exposure and non-chemical stressors. Assessment of risk and development of tools for decision-making and risk prioritization re...

167

Health Risks Information Reaches Secondary School Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cross-sectional study aimed to assess smoking prevention and cessation education delivered as part of the UK National Curriculum and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of health, social influence and other/non-health components. In all, 1789 students aged 11-15 from 12 secondary schools completed online surveys assessing smoking status,…

Ridout, Fran; Charlton, Anne; Hutchison, Iain

2008-01-01

168

Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments.

MARY A. NEWMAN; JOHN B. KACHUBA

1992-01-01

169

Applying Bayesian belief networks to health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health risk of noncarcinogenic substances is usually represented by the hazard quotient (HQ) or target organ-specific\\u000a hazard index (TOSHI). However, three problems arise from these indicators. Firstly, the HQ overestimates the health risk of\\u000a noncarcinogenic substances for non-critical organs. Secondly, the TOSHI makes inappropriately the additive assumption for\\u000a multiple hazardous substances affecting the same organ. Thirdly, uncertainty of the

Kevin Fong-Rey Liu; Che-Fan Lu; Cheng-Wu Chen; Yung-Shuen Shen

170

An examination of cigarette brand switching to reduce health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cigarette brand switching to reduce health risks in a population of young smokers (N=7,998) entering United\\u000a States Air Force Basic Military Training. Because of a comprehensive tobacco ban during training, all smokers were abstinent\\u000a during the study. Results from this investigation suggested that brand switching to reduce health risks was common among current\\u000a smokers (31.3% of males;

C. Keith Haddock; G. Wayne Talcott; Robert C. Klesges; Harry Lando

1999-01-01

171

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality\\/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO2, NO2 and total suspended particles

B. R. Gurjar; A. Jain; A. Sharma; A. Agarwal; P. Gupta; A. S. Nagpure; J. Lelieveld

2010-01-01

172

Health risk factors and self-rated health among job-seekers  

PubMed Central

Background To determine a) proportions of behavior related health risk factors among job-seekers and b) to what extend these are related to self-rated health. Methods Over 12 months, job-seekers were recruited at three job-agencies in northeastern Germany. Among all individuals eligible for study inclusion, 7,906 (79.8%) provided information on smoking, risky drinking, overweight/obesity (body mass index), fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, illicit drug use, and self-rated health. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals stratified by gender, age and duration of unemployment were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicting self-rated health were conducted. Results The proportions of each health-risk factor were high, and 52.4% of the sample (53.4% male, 33.5 years mean age) had 3 or more health risk factors. Mostly, the proportions were particularly high among men and long-term unemployed individuals; e.g. 84.8% of the 18-24 year old long-term unemployed men were current smokers. Proportions of substance use related health risk factors were highest among the 18-24 year olds (e.g. risky drinking 28.7%), and proportions of health risk factors related to nutrition and physical inactivity were highest among the 40-64 year olds (e.g. overweight/obesity 65.4%). Depending on gender, all health risk factors and having 3 or more health risk factors were associated with lower self-rated health; odd ratios ranged between 1.2 for smoking (95% CI: 1.0-1.3) and 1.7 for overweight and physical inactivity (95% CI: 1.5-1.9). Conclusions Prevention efforts to reduce health risk factors and to increase health among job-seekers are needed, and job agencies appear a feasible setting for their implementation.

2011-01-01

173

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications.  

PubMed

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City's MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

2007-03-26

174

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW.

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

2008-01-01

175

Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology Project in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology (ASHRAM) project is an international study funded by the European Commission and managed by an international consortium. For this project, areas in Slovakia, Romania and Hungary were selected for evaluation. The objectives of the study included: (1) to quantify the cancer risks in relation to arsenic ingestion via drinking water; (2) to

Kvetoslava Koppová; Eleonora Fabiánová; Katarina Slotová; Pavlina Bartová; Marek Drímal

176

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. his article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most co...

177

Health hazards of working with ceramics. Recommendations for reducing risks.  

PubMed

Ceramics artists are at risk for pulmonary disease, heavy metal poisoning, and other toxic reactions caused by exposure to clays, glazes, and kiln emissions. Stringent personal hygiene, awareness of hazardous materials, and appropriate safety measures may reduce the health risks of repeated exposures. PMID:2911535

Fuortes, L J

1989-01-01

178

Nuadu Concept for personal management of lifestyle related health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Majority of the health risks and diseases in the modern world are related to lifestyles, e.g., overweight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, sleep deprivation, and stress. Behavioral change towards healthy lifestyles is the key to the prevention and management of these risks, but early and efficient interventions are scarcely available. We present the Nuadu Concept, an ICT (Information and Communication Technologies)

E. Mattila; I. Korhonen; R. Lappalainen; A. Ahtinen; L. Hopsu; T. Leino

2008-01-01

179

The Impact of Rape on Women's Sexual Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used cluster analysis to identify three patterns of sexual health risk behaviors in a sample of adult rape survivors (N = 102). Women in the 1st cluster (high risk) reported substantial increases from pre- to postrape in their frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, infrequency of condom use, and frequency of using alcohol and\\/or drugs during

Rebecca Campbell; Tracy Sefl; Courtney E. Ahrens

2004-01-01

180

Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk

K. G. Garrahan; S. L. Collie

2006-01-01

181

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

182

Parental Marital Status and Adolescents' Health-Risk Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the risk-taking behavior (i.e., smoking, intemperate drinking, and failure to fasten seat belts) of 4,539 Canadian adolescents. Results showed adolescents who lived in intact families engaged in less health-risk behavior than adolescents from separated or divorced families. Results from widowed families were mixed. (JAC)

Saucier, Jean-Francois; Ambert, Anne-Marie

1983-01-01

183

Risk Adjustment for High Utilizers of Public Mental Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Publicly funded mental health systems are increas- ingly implementing managed care systems, such as capitation, to control costs. Capitated contracts may increase the risk for disenrollment or adverse outcomes among high cost clients with severe mental illness. Risk-adjusted payments to providers are likely to reduce providers' incentives to avoid or under-treat these people. However, most research has focused on

Kanika Kapur; Alexander S. Young; Dennis Murata

2001-01-01

184

QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN RISK ASSESSMENT FOR NONCANCER HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The estimation of risk for health effects due to chemical exposure is important to the development of standards for regulating the manufacture, use and release of chemicals into the environment. The quantitative data used to develop risk estimates usually come from laboratory ani...

185

Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

2013-01-01

186

Environmental Health Risks: Information on EPA's Draft Reassessment of Dioxins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other entities, such as the World Health Organization, began assessing the potential human health risks of dioxins in the 1970s, when animal studies on one of them-2,3,7,8-tetrachl orodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD...

2002-01-01

187

Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard

Matthias Barton

2012-01-01

188

Mental Health Risk Factors in Adults with Adverse Childhood Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this study was to investigate the association of multiple interrelated adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health risk factors (MHRF) of affect regulation and ineffective coping strategies. The study also examined the interrelatedness and co-occurrence among MHRFs. Secondary data from The ACE Study of 8,629 adult members of a health maintenance organization who completed a survey

Satvinder S. Dhingra; Marshall W. Kreuter; Faculty Chair

189

Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

2000-01-01

190

Educated guesses: Health risk assessment in environmental impact statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and

Pd Harvey

1990-01-01

191

Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although from a societal point of view a modal shift from car to bicycle may have beneficial health effects due to decreased air pollution emissions, decreased greenhouse gas emissions, and increased levels of physical activity, shifts in individual adverse health effects such as higher exposure to air pollution and risk of a traffic accident may prevail.Objective: We describe whether

Jeroen Johan de Hartog; Hanna Boogaard; Hans Nijland; Gerard Hoek

2010-01-01

192

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: Human Exposure and Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been emphasized due to their threats in fertility, intelligence, and survival. For the last decade, many researchers have investigated EDC-health outcome. However, EDC responses in human were not clearly clarified through experimental and epidemiological data. Therefore, considering particular status of EDC endpoints, we suggest that one of the best ways to prevent unknown health risks

MIHI YANG; MI SEON PARK; HO SUN LEE

2006-01-01

193

Predicting health behaviors with an experimental measure of risk preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a large-scale economics experiment paired with a survey to examine the association between individual risk preference and health-related behaviors among adults aged 18–87 years. Risk preference is measured by the lottery choice experiment designed by Holt and Laury [Holt, C.A., Laury, S.K., 2002. Risk aversion and incentive effects. The American Economic Review 92(5), 1644–1655]. Controlling for subject demographic

Lisa R. Anderson; Jennifer M. Mellor

2008-01-01

194

HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

195

HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

196

Health risks information reaches secondary school smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess smoking prevention and cessation education de- livered as part of the UK National Curriculum and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of health, social influence and other\\/non-health components. In all, 1789 students aged 11-15 from 12 secondary schools completed online surveys assessing smoking status, factors known to be related to smoking and experience of smoking

Fran Ridout; Anne Charlton; Iain Hutchison

2008-01-01

197

Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

1992-06-01

198

Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.  

PubMed Central

Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens.

Scriver, C. R.

1982-01-01

199

Editorial: Capitation and risk adjustment in health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capitation and risk adjustment have become the chosen policy instruments to seek cost containment and equity of access for\\u000a many developed health care systems. Increasingly, this entails the prospective setting of global budgets for the health care\\u000a expenditures incurred by health care plans on behalf of their members. Methods of deriving such budgets are diverse and tailored\\u000a to the specific

Nigel Rice; Peter C. Smith

2000-01-01

200

Adolescent Risk Taking, Neighborhood Social Capital, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the roles of a neighborhood measure of social capital, family affluence, and risk taking on adolescent self-rated health. Methods: This study uses data from the 2384 Canadian students in Grades 9-10 (56.5% female) from the World Health Organization's Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey 2001\\/2002, a nationwide representative sample. Results: Using binary logistic regression models, it is

William F. Boyce; Diane Davies; Owen Gallupe; Danielle Shelley

2008-01-01

201

[Health alert management and emerging risk].  

PubMed

Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. PMID:21051258

Pillonel, J

2010-11-03

202

How does risk sharing between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affect mental health care?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the ways in which allocating the risk for behavioral health care expenses between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affects costs and the use of services. DATA SOURCES: Claims from 87 plans that cover mental health and substance abuse services covering over one million member years in 1996/1997. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-part regression models for health care cost are used. Dependent variables are health care costs decomposed into access to any care, costs per user, any inpatient use, costs per outpatient user, and costs per inpatient user. The study compares full-risk plans, in which the managed care organization provides managed care services and acts as the insurer by assuming the risk for claims costs, with contracts in which the managed care organization only manages care (for a fixed administrative fee) and the employer retains the risk for claims. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-risk plans are not statistically significantly different from non-risk plans in terms of any mental health specialty use or hospitalization rates, but costs per user are significantly lower, in particular for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Risk contracts do not affect initial access to mental health specialty care or hospitalization rates, but patients in risk contracts have lower costs, either because of lower intensity of care or because they are treated by less expensive providers.

Sturm, R

2000-01-01

203

Estimating health risks from natural hazards using risk assessment and epidemiology.  

PubMed

Risk assessment is the process of estimating the likelihood that an adverse effect may result from exposure to a specific health hazard. The process traditionally involves hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization to answer "How many excess cases of disease A will occur in a population of size B due to exposure to agent C at dose level D?" For natural hazards, however, we modify the risk assessment paradigm to answer "How many excess cases of outcome Y will occur in a population of size B due to natural hazard event E of severity D?" Using a modified version involving hazard identification, risk factor characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization, we demonstrate that epidemiologic modeling and measures of risk can quantify the risks from natural hazard events. We further extend the paradigm to address mitigation, the equivalent of risk management, to answer "What is the risk for outcome Y in the presence of prevention intervention X relative to the risk for Y in the absence of X?" We use the preventable fraction to estimate the efficacy of mitigation, or reduction in adverse health outcomes as a result of a prevention strategy under ideal circumstances, and further estimate the effectiveness of mitigation, or reduction in adverse health outcomes under typical community-based settings. By relating socioeconomic costs of mitigation to measures of risk, we we illustrate that prevention effectiveness is useful for developing cost-effective risk management options. PMID:9232018

Malilay, J; Henderson, A; McGeehin, M; Flanders, W D

1997-06-01

204

[The Meninos do Rio Program: lifeworld, adolescence, and health risks].  

PubMed

This study focuses on health risks among teenagers from two towns in the Sao Francisco River Valley (Ibiai and Morada Nova) and slums in Morro das Pedras, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study discusses teaching and extracurricular activities by the Federal University in Minas Gerais in these localities, aimed at promoting health in adolescence. The authors use the Habermas communicative action theory as the main theoretical and methodological approach. The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology, including dynamic observation, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires answered by high school students. Sexuality, work, and violence were the main themes and were associated with numerous health risks. Work in the 10-to-14-year-old group was associated with nearly all types of health risks. The authors analyze the relations between context and adolescent behavior using the Habermasian concept of lifeworld colonization. PMID:15692636

Melo, Elza Machado de; Faria, Horácio Pereira de; Melo, Maria Aparecida Machado de; Chaves, Adriana Braga; Machado, Graziela Paronetto

2005-01-28

205

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

206

Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance: The South Africa experience.  

PubMed

South Africa intends implementing major reforms in the financing of healthcare. Free market reforms in private health insurance in the late 1980s have been reversed by the new democratic government since 1994 with the re-introduction of open enrolment, community rating and minimum benefits. A system of national health insurance with income cross-subsidies, risk-adjusted payments and mandatory membership has been envisaged in policy papers since 1994. Subsequent work has seen the design of a Risk Equalisation Fund intended to operate between competing private health insurance funds. The paper outlines the South African health system and describes the risk equalisation formula that has been developed. The risk factors are age, gender, maternity events, numbers with certain chronic diseases and numbers with multiple chronic diseases. The Risk Equalisation Fund has been operating in shadow mode since 2005 with data being collected but no money changing hands. The South African experience of risk equalisation is of wider interest as it demonstrates an attempt to introduce more solidarity into a small but highly competitive private insurance market. The measures taken to combat over-reporting of chronic disease should be useful for countries or funders considering adding chronic disease to their risk equalisation formulae. PMID:20619476

McLeod, Heather; Grobler, Pieter

2010-11-01

207

Comparative quantification of health risks: Conceptual framework and methodological issues  

PubMed Central

Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been conducted in the context of methodological traditions of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual and methodological issues for quantifying the population health effects of individual or groups of risk factors in various levels of causality using knowledge from different scientific disciplines. The issues include: comparing the burden of disease due to the observed exposure distribution in a population with the burden from a hypothetical distribution or series of distributions, rather than a single reference level such as non-exposed; considering the multiple stages in the causal network of interactions among risk factor(s) and disease outcome to allow making inferences about some combinations of risk factors for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted, including the joint effects of multiple risk factors; calculating the health loss due to risk factor(s) as a time-indexed "stream" of disease burden due to a time-indexed "stream" of exposure, including consideration of discounting; and the sources of uncertainty.

Murray, Christopher JL; Ezzati, Majid; Lopez, Alan D; Rodgers, Anthony; Vander Hoorn, Stephen

2003-01-01

208

Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2.

Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

1997-01-01

209

Health aspects of caffeine: benefits and risks.  

PubMed

This article examines the benefits and risks associated with caffeinated foods and drinks, taking an evidence-based approach to identify appropriate daily caffeine limits. Suggestions are provided on how to structure dietary advice for different patient groups including children, individuals with hypertension, renal patients, athletes and older adults. PMID:19953767

Ruxton, C

210

Dietary acids – a risk to dental health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acids have the potential to dissolve or erode teeth. Dental erosion and dental decay are two very different processes. This review aims to explain what is erosion and how it is caused. Potentially erosive dietary acids in drinks and foods tested under laboratory conditions have resulted in eroded teeth, but epidemiological data on the degree of risk have been more

Alexander Milosevic

2004-01-01

211

Reducing the health risks of sport fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the allure of sport fishing has always been the satisfaction of being able to provide a fresh, healthful meal directly from stream, lake, or ocean. Indeed, most fish and shellfish available in the US are wholesome and unlikely to cause illness. But a recently released Institute of Medicine report on seafood safety warns that consumers of sport fish

J. A. Foran; B. S. Glenn

2009-01-01

212

Health risk assessment in occupational EMF exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study we tried to evaluate the health estate of physiotherapists in relationship with occupational exposure. EMF measurements were made in workplaces, we applied special questionnaires, performed micronucleus test from lymfocytes, and urinary thioethers assay. The results were compared to those of a control group by statistical analytical methods like logistic regression. We found an overexposure of this profession

D. C. Dabala; Didi Surcel; Csaba Szanto

2009-01-01

213

Organizational Injustice as an Occupational Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content to conceive of inequity distress as a hypothetical construct instead of an intervening variable, a half century of research inspired by equity theory has paid little attention to measuring inequity distress. At the turn of the twenty?first century, however, European epidemiologists, interested in determinants of ill health, found that injustice is a source of adverse emotional reactions that put

Jerald Greenberg

2010-01-01

214

Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic…

Price, L. N.; Reider, E. E.; Robertson, E. B.

2006-01-01

215

Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic research has promise for increasing our understanding of how biological

L. N. Price; E. E. Reider; E. B. Robertson

2006-01-01

216

Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and…

Price, L. N.; Reider, E. E.; Robertson, E. B.

2006-01-01

217

Environmental health: Assessing risks to society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and built environment systems that sustains lives by providing healthy living surroundings is under a tremendous pressure from various stressors such as rapid population growth, urbanisation, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation, psychosocial factors and the like. Environmental health is now a global issue wherein humans act both as the destroyers and the victims. All types of environmental pollutions (air, water,

Parvesh K. Chopra; Gopal K. Kanji

2011-01-01

218

In vitro assessment of equivalence of occupational health risk: welders.  

PubMed

The possibility of using in vitro testing to determine the equivalence of risk for various occupational groups is discussed. In the absence of epidemiological evidence or relevant animal in vivo bioassays on which to determine the health effects of specific occupational exposures, it is proposed to use similarities in the in vitro response to substances with known (or strongly suspected) and unknown risk to demonstrate their risk equivalence. Identification and evaluation of a high risk "hot spot" due to exposure to Cr(VI) for stainless steel welders is discussed in terms of recent developments in collection, analysis and bioassay of welding fumes. PMID:6641655

Stern, R M

1983-09-01

219

Effect of Increased Social Unacceptability of Cigarette Smoking on Reduction in Cigarette Consumption  

PubMed Central

Taxes on cigarettes have long been used to help reduce cigarette consumption. Social factors also affect cigarette consumption, but this impact has not been quantified. We computed a social unacceptability index based on individuals’ responses to questions regarding locations where smoking should be allowed. A regression analysis showed that the social unacceptability index and price had similar elasticities and that their effects were independent of each other. If, through an active tobacco control campaign, the average individual’s views on the social unacceptability of smoking changed to more closely resemble the views of California residents, there would be a 15% drop in cigarette consumption, equivalent to a $1.17 increase in the excise tax on cigarettes.

Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

2006-01-01

220

The Health Fair as a Health Promotion Strategy: Effects on Health Risk Behaviors and the Utility of Specific Health Fair Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health fairs, carnivals, and exhibitions are health promotion strategies that have been frequently discussed in recent health-related literature. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if students attending a university health fair experienced greater reductions in health risk behavior compared with those not attending the fair. A second purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of

Chudley E. Werch; David A. Schroeder; Linda L. Matthews

1986-01-01

221

[Nanoparticles (part 2)--advantages and health risk].  

PubMed

Over the recent years, nanotechnologies and their products--nanoparticles--have become extremely popular among scientists. Nanoparticles find numerous applications in many fields, starting with biomedical sciences, through optics, textile, construction, motorization industries, and ending with electricity and electronics. New possibilities of nanoproducts application emerge almost every day. However, it should be remembered that nanoparticles carry both advantages and risks. Small-size-particles enable overcoming the systemic barriers unnoticeably to humans. Exposure to nanoparticles is a serious threat; it may take all possible routes, of which inhalation is the most important one. Toxicity of nanoparticles is manifested by inflammation resulting probably from oxidative stress. Nanosceptics even find certain similarities between nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, one of the most popular nanoparticles, and asbestos fibers. In view of a rapid development of nanotechnologies it is essential to establish adequate criteria for risk assessment that could protect against potential harmful effects arising from specific properties of substances occurring in the form of nanoparticles. PMID:17926516

Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria

2007-01-01

222

Health risks of early swimming pool attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003–2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool

Yvonne Schoefer; Anne Zutavern; Inken Brockow; Torsten Schäfer; Ursula Krämer; Beate Schaaf; Olf Herbarth; Andrea von Berg; H.-Erich Wichmann; Joachim Heinrich

2008-01-01

223

A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.  

PubMed Central

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act. Images Figure 1

Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

1998-01-01

224

A competing risk model for health and food insecurity in the West Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interactions between the risk of food insecurity and the decision to health insure in the Palestinian Territories. The risk of adverse health conditions is insurable; the risk of food insecurity is a background risk and no market insurance exists. The vulnerability to food insecurity influences the individual utility from health insuring. We present a competing risk

Elisa Cavatorta

2010-01-01

225

A Competing Risk Model for Health and Food Insecurity in the West Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interactions between the risk of food insecurity and the decision to health insure in the Palestinian Territories. The risk of adverse health conditions is insurable; the risk of food insecurity is a background risk and no market insurance exists. The vulnerability to food insecurity influences the individual utility from health insuring. We present a competing risk

Elisa Cavatorta; Luca Pieroni

2010-01-01

226

Occupational health and safety risks and potential health consequences perceived by U.S. workers, 1985.  

PubMed Central

Data from the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Questionnaire, part of the 1985 National Health Interview Survey, were used to report workers' perceptions of occupational risk in their present jobs. This information will be used to monitor progress between 1985 and 1990 toward achieving broad goals in health promotion and disease prevention. The proportions of currently employed persons who perceived exposure to health-endangering substances, work conditions, or risks of injuries were reported for age, race, sex, and occupation groups. Occupational groups were further characterized by the proportion of men and women who reported specific exposures (such as exposure to chemicals or to loud noise) and specific health consequences of exposure (such as risk of developing cancer or hearing impairment). Greater proportions of men than women reported perceived risk from exposure to health-endangering substances, work conditions, and injuries in their present job. Also, a greater proportion of workers perceived risk of injury in their present job than other occupational risk categories. The greatest proportions of perceived exposure to occupational risk were reported by farm operators and managers, police and firefighters, and by workers in forestry and fishing occupations. Among workers reporting perceived exposures, chemicals, noise, and risk of injuries from vehicles were cited by the greatest proportion of workers, as were such health consequences as lung and respiratory problems and hearing impairment. Data from this study may be used to target employment groups for health promotion or education and to develop indepth studies of specific occupational groups to reduce or prevent risk at the worksite.

Shilling, S; Brackbill, R M

1987-01-01

227

Lead: Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessments for Selected Case Studies. Volume 1: Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessments - Full-Scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the first volume of the report Lead: Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessments for Selected Areas. This volume describes the quantitative human exposure and health risk assessments conducted to inform the U.S. Environmental Protection Ag...

2007-01-01

228

Occupational health policies on risk assessment in Japan.  

PubMed

Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law) of Japan requires abnormalities identified in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording "employers shall endeavor." Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifies criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer significant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, financial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations. PMID:22953159

Horie, Seichi

2010-09-30

229

Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007  

EPA Science Inventory

This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

230

78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY...human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review...completed comprehensive draft risk assessments for each of the subject...

2013-09-27

231

Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

Smith, W.H. (Yale Univ., New Haven CT (USA))

1990-01-01

232

Health Care Financing Grants and Contracts Report Health Maintenance Organization Risk Contracting Under Medicare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes operational aspects of HMO and competitive medical plan (CMP) risk-based contracting with the Medicare program. The report discusses the financial, marketing, health care delivery, and contract administration considerations surroundi...

1984-01-01

233

Human Health Research Program: Approaches for evaluating public health outcomes of risk management decisions  

EPA Science Inventory

Research to develop tools to link the enactment and implementation of environmental risk mitigation actions such as rules, regulations, or educational outreach to measurable changes in exposure to toxicants and subsequent health effects. Research in this area includes the develo...

234

Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

2013-01-01

235

Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment.  

PubMed

Marine pollution is a major threat to human and environmental health. Given the complexity of function of marine and coastal ecosystems, it is unlikely that a balanced view of the nature and extent of risk will easily be achieved if human and environmental risk assessments continue to be conducted in isolation. Here, the integration of assessment protocols is advocated as a holistic means of improving risk management. Biomarkers can provide the common conceptual framework and measurable endpoints necessary for successful integration. Examples are given of the ways in which suites of biomarkers encompassing molecular change, cellular pathology and physiological impairment can be developed and adapted for human and ecological scenarios. By placing a greater emphasis on the health status of impacted biota, it is more likely that risk assessment will develop the efficiency, reliability and predictive power to adapt to the unforeseen environmental threats that are an inevitable consequence of human development and global change. PMID:17011590

Galloway, Tamara S

2006-10-02

236

Food safety risks and consumer health.  

PubMed

The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor. PMID:20621653

Chassy, Bruce M

2010-06-01

237

Health Risks Caused by Particulate Emission During Laser Cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air contaminants which emerge during laser ablation often cause health risks if released in the workplace and decrease laser cleaning efficiency if redeposited at the material surface. In addition, ultra-fine particles are generated if short pulses are applied. Consequently, a description of the nano-particle aerosol generation and the influence of laser parameters and material surface on the nano-particle size distribution are given in this paper. The high respirability of such particles can pose health risks, so suitable capture systems near the processing zone or personal protective equipment such as respiratory masks are required.

Ostrowski, Roman; Barcikowski, St.; Marczak, J.; Ostendorf, A.; Strzelec, M.; Walter, J.

238

Health risks related to crop farming in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The article aims at describing and summarizing specific risk factors and occupational adverse health effects of agriculture\\u000a related to typical European crops.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and conclusion  A systematic literature review applying a standardized electronic literature search strategy (Medline, Toxnet, EMBASE, AGRICOLA,\\u000a Science Citation Index) was conducted until February 2007. Studies on specific work-related health risks were included as\\u000a well as comprehensive reviews

Andreas Fuchs; Dimitris Kouimintzis; Grit Neumann; Wilhelm Kirch

2007-01-01

239

Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight.

Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2010-01-01

240

Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR){sup 1} and Integral Fast Reactor (IF){sup 2} technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle.

Michaels, G.E.

1992-06-01

241

Assessment of human health risk from lithogenic mercury  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this study was to provide a preliminary assessment of risks associated with the natural geological (lithogenic) occurrence of mercury in Oregon. This involved a two step approach including (1) evaluation of potential exposure to humans from fish consumption and (2) characterization of risk based on knowledge of the associations between MeHg intake, blood and hair MeHg levels and health impairment.

Dunnette, D.A. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

1988-09-01

242

Health risk appraisal modifies cigarette smoking behavior among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), a computer-scored lifestyle analysis questionnaire, can result in significant\\u000a changes in health behavior, a controlled clinical trial with one-year follow-up was conducted among entering freshmen at an\\u000a urban state university. Three hundred fifty entering freshmen were each assigned to one of four groups: HRA with feedback,\\u000a HRA without feedback, initial control, and final

Chun-Wai Chan; John M. Witherspoon

1988-01-01

243

Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water. PMID:23669339

Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

2013-05-10

244

Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Many cancer patients use complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) but may not be aware of the potential risks. There are no studies quantifying such risks, but there is some evidence of patient risk from case reports in the literature. A cross-sectional survey of patients attending the outpatient department at a specialist cancer centre was carried out to establish a pattern of herbal remedy or supplement use and to identify potential adverse side effects or drug interactions with conventional medicines. If potential risks were identified, a health warning was issued by a pharmacist. A total of 318 patients participated in the study. Of these, 164 (51.6%) took CAMs, and 133 different combinations were recorded. Of these, 10.4% only took herbal remedies, 42.1% only supplements and 47.6% a combination of both. In all, 18 (11.0%) reported supplements in higher than recommended doses. Health warnings were issued to 20 (12.2%) patients. Most warnings concerned echinacea in patients with lymphoma. Further warnings were issued for cod liver/fish oil, evening primrose oil, gingko, garlic, ginseng, kava kava and beta-carotene. In conclusion, medical practitioners need to be able to identify the potential risks of CAMs. Equally, patients should be encouraged to disclose their use. Also, more research is needed to quantify the actual health risks. PMID:14735185

Werneke, U; Earl, J; Seydel, C; Horn, O; Crichton, P; Fannon, D

2004-01-26

245

The Perfect Place to Work? Australian Academic Libraries and Unacceptable Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the stereotype of libraries as peaceful retreats, unacceptable behaviour is a reality that desk staff have to deal with. This paper outlines the results of two surveys conducted at Charles Darwin University Library to investigate the extent to which this is a problem in Australian academic libraries. The first survey went to CAUL (Council…

Moorcroft, Heather

2009-01-01

246

Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

2003-01-01

247

Health and safety risk analyses: information for better decisions  

SciTech Connect

Knowing the nature and magnitude of health and safety risks is helpful in setting priorities as well as in making decisions about pursuing recreational activities, foods, jobs, and other aspects of everyday living. Risk-risk situations require a choice among risky alternatives. How safe situations involve a more general choice as to how much of other desired activities to sacrifice for increased safety. How safe situations are inherently more difficult to manage, because they are subject to fuzzy thinking and rhetoric. The large uncertainties of current estimates must be conveyed explicitly to arrive at sensible decisions.

Lave, L.B.

1987-04-17

248

Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America?s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

249

Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

Emerson, Eric

2011-01-01

250

Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

Emerson, Eric

2011-01-01

251

Smoking and HIV: prevalence, health risks, and cessation strategies.  

PubMed

Health hazards due to smoking may undermine benefits of HIV treatment on morbidity and mortality. Over 40% of persons with HIV are current smokers. Health risks of smoking include increases in some HIV-associated infections, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, bacterial pneumonia and other lung disease, and overall mortality. Proven strategies for smoking cessation include various counseling approaches, nicotine replacement therapy and other pharmacotherapy; approaches may need to be individualized to address specific client needs and comorbidities. HIV clinicians and other service providers can have an influential role in screening their patients for smoking and promoting cessation programs to improve health. PMID:22618079

Lifson, Alan R; Lando, Harry A

2012-09-01

252

Predicting health behaviors with an experimental measure of risk preference.  

PubMed

We conduct a large-scale economics experiment paired with a survey to examine the association between individual risk preference and health-related behaviors among adults aged 18-87 years. Risk preference is measured by the lottery choice experiment designed by Holt and Laury [Holt, C.A., Laury, S.K., 2002. Risk aversion and incentive effects. The American Economic Review 92(5), 1644-1655]. Controlling for subject demographic and economic characteristics, we find that risk aversion is negatively and significantly associated with cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, being overweight or obese, and seat belt non-use. In additional specifications, we find that risk aversion is negatively and significantly associated with the likelihood a subject engaged in any of five risky behaviors and the number of risky behaviors reported. PMID:18621427

Anderson, Lisa R; Mellor, Jennifer M

2008-06-07

253

(Health risk assessment on environmental, occupational, and life style hazards)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler was invited to visit NIHS, Tokyo, Japan, to give a lecture to the NIHS staff; traveler then participated in the Symposium on Health Risk Assessment on Environmental, Occupational, and Life Style Hazards, Taipei, Taiwan. Recommendations of the symposium were summarized as: to establish a research institution for risk assessment on environmental, occupational, and life style hazards; to establish a comprehensive data base for risk assessment associated with the above discipline for further information analysis; to establish public confidence through the risk assessment practice advisory committee to ensure scientific technical expertise; and to communicate the results of risk assessments through mass media and enhance public awareness of environmental contamination and associated social and economic impacts.

Lu, Po-Yung.

1989-01-10

254

Health benefits and risks of plant proteins.  

PubMed

Plant proteins have a reduced content of essential amino acids in comparison to animal proteins. A significant reduction of limiting amino acids (methionine, lysine, tryptophan) means lower protein synthesis. In subjects with predominant or exclusive consumption of plant food a higher incidence of hypoproteinemia due to significant reduction of methionine and lysine intakes was observed. On the other hand, lower intake of these amino acids provides a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease via cholesterol regulation by an inhibited hepatic phospholipid metabolism. Vegetarians have a significantly higher intake of non-essential amino acids arginine and pyruvigenic amino acids glycine, alanine, serine. When plant protein is high in non-essential amino acids, down-regulation of insulin and up-regulation of glucagon is a logical consequence. The action of glucagon in the liver is mediated by stimulation of adenyl cyclase that raises cyclic-AMP (adenosine-3,5-monophosphate) concentrations. Cyclic-AMP down-regulates the synthesis of a number of enzymes required for de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, up-regulates key gluconeogenic enzymes and the LDL receptors and decreases the IGF-1 activity (insulin-like growth factor). Cyclic-AMP thus provides a reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors as well as a retardation of cancer development. A sufficient consumption of plant proteins has the protective effects against chronic degenerative diseases (Tab. 2, Ref. 26). PMID:16201743

Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Valachovicova, M

2005-01-01

255

Gravid Health Status, Medication Use, and Risk of Neuroblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of neuroblastoma suggests that prenatal exposures may be important etiologic factors in this disease. The authors describe the role of maternal health status and prenatal medication usage and risk of neuroblastoma . This retrospective study was based on completed interviews with 183 histologically confirmed neuroblastoma cases aged 0-14 years diagnosed among residents of New York State (excluding New

Arthur M. Michalek; Germaine M. Buck; Philip C. Nasca; Andrew N. Freedman; Mark S. Baptists; Martin C. Mahoney

256

High?risk health behaviors associated with various dietary patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously identified dietary patterns among 1,475 male and 780 female normal healthy control subjects in a case?control study of cancer at various sites. In this paper we examine the presence, among persons exhibiting these dietary patterns, of individual health behaviors that may contribute to risks for cancer. Specifically we examine trimming of separable fat from meats, fats used

Elizabeth Randall; James R. Marshall; Saxon Graham; John Brasure

1991-01-01

257

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

258

Health-risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions: Trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this dissertation centers on the development of a method for health risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions within the context of multiple exposure pathways and on its application to a problem of contemporary interest. The emphasis is on toxic metal emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. A comparison of the amount of metal emissions shows

Jinhong

1990-01-01

259

Early health risk factors for violence: Conceptualization, evidence, and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence and aggression are public health problems that can benefit from ongoing research into risk reduction and prevention. Current developmental theories of violence and aggression emphasize biological and psychosocial factors, particularly during adolescence. However, there has been less focus on understanding the interactive, multiplicative effects of these processes. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the pre-, peri-, and postnatal

Jianghong Liu

2011-01-01

260

[Evaluating occupational health risk in titanium alloys production workers].  

PubMed

The authors present data on evaluation of personified and non-personified occupational risk of health disorders in titanium alloys production workers, concerning hygienic, medical and biologic, social and psychologic criteria. One-digit assessment of the work conditions is suggested. PMID:17494305

Bazarova, E L

2007-01-01

261

Risks to mental health patients discharged into the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advances in pharmacological and psychosocial treatments in the 1950s and 1960s facilitated the movement of care for increasing numbers of mentally ill people from the institutions to the community. This represented a radical change in mental health strategy and practice and has brought with it new sets of risks. Due to inherent stigmatisation and some well publicised cases of

Sean Kelly; Hugh McKenna

2004-01-01

262

Acceptable risks: occupational health in the nuclear industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the risk of working in the nuclear power industry. It reviews the history of the industry, government regulatory activities, and current scientific evidence of the health effects of radiation exposure. A discussion of current controversies over reduction in exposure limits is presented along with an analysis of the issues and problems associated with determinations of acceptable workplace

1980-01-01

263

Health Risk Assessment and the Practice of Industrial Hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that there may be as many as 2000 airborne chemicals to which persons could be exposed in the workplace and in the community. Of these, occupational exposure limits have been set for approximately 700 chemicals, and only about 30 chemicals have limits for the ambient air. It is likely that some type of health risk assessment

DENNIS J. PAUSTENBACH

1990-01-01

264

Environmental and Human Health Risks of Aerosolized Silver Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are gaining attention from the academic and regulatory communities, not only because of their antimicrobial effects and subsequent product applications, but also because of their potential health and environmental risks. Whereas AgNPs in the aqueous phase are under intensive study, those in the atmosphere have been largely overlooked, although it is well established that inhalation of nanoparticles

Marina E. Quadros; Linsey C. Marr; Krzysztof Pikon´; Krzysztof Gaska; Lingjuan Wang; Edgar Oviedo-Rondon; John Small; Zifei Liu; Brian Sheldon; Gerald Havenstein; C. Williams; Di Tian; Daniel Cohan; Sergey Napelenok; Michelle Bergin; Yongtao Hu; Michael Chang; Armistead Russell; Ye Xu; Guohe Huang; Xiaosheng Qin; Kuo-Pin Yu; Grace Lee; Guo-Hao Huang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; William Vizuete; Leiran Biton; Harvey Jeffries; Evan Couzo; Yi-Chi Chien; Chenju Liang; Shou-Heng Liu; Shu-Hua Yang; Maciej Kryza; Malgorzata Werner; Marek Blas; Anthony Dore; Mieczyslaw Sobik; Daniel Olsen; Morgan Kohls; Gregg Arney; Kaushlendra Singh; L. Risse; K. C. Das; John Worley; Sidney Thompson; Bryan Comer; James Corbett; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Earl Lee; Chris Prokop; James Winebrake

2010-01-01

265

Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

266

Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to customization to include radioactive waste management or responses to catastrophic releases of radioactive material due to terrorist actions. (authors)

Garrahan, K.G. [EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Collie, S.L. [Tetra Tech, 350 N. St. Paul, Suite 2600, Dallas TX 75201 (United States)

2006-07-01

267

Child health in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and

G Arias Nieto; F Suescun Mutis; R Mercer; M Bonati; I Choonara

2009-01-01

268

Process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders.  

PubMed Central

In most industrialized countries large numbers of workers are exposed to welding fumes. Although the general pattern of welders' health may not significantly differ from that of workers in other dusty industrial occupations which demonstrate elevated incidence of respiratory tract diseases with long latency periods, the extremely wide range of substances at potentially high concentrations produced by various welding technologies may give rise to undetected process-specific high-risk working conditions: ("hot spots"). The origin, prevalence and range of magnitude of such hot spots, especially for cancer of the respiratory tract, is discussed, with emphasis placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) and Ni accompanying the use of various technologies for the welding of stainless and high alloy steels. The wide variation of health effects found within the industry, however, indicates the need for a standard protocol for future epidemiological studies, as well as for the development of suitable methodologies for experimental risk assessment.

Stern, R M

1981-01-01

269

Comfrey: assessing the low-dose health risk.  

PubMed

The regular use of comfrey as part of the diet or for medicinal purposes may be a potential health risk as a result of the presence of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The majority of these alkaloids are hepatotoxic in both animals and humans, and some have been shown to induce tumours in experimental animals. In this article, the toxic properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids are reviewed briefly, with particular reference to their presence in comfrey. The acute and long-term health risks at the normally-low levels of comfrey consumption are evaluated and discussed. On the basis of the data that are available currently, the small but significant long-term risk that is associated with the consumption of comfrey justifies the need to limit its intake. This is being achieved by controls under various state Poisons Acts, but also requires further education on the potential dangers of naturally-occurring chemicals of plant origin. PMID:3059158

Abbott, P J

270

Explaining Health Reform: Questions about the Temporary High-Risk Pool  

MedlinePLUS

... J. Kaiser Family Foundation Twitter Facebook Email topics topics Disparities Policy Global Health Policy Health Costs Health ... about the high-risk pool program. Brief (.pdf) Topics Health Reform Uninsured Tags Coverage Pre-Existing Conditions ...

271

Inhalation health risks of manganese: an EPA perspective.  

PubMed

In 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denied a petition by Ethyl Corporation to allow the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in unleaded gasoline, because of health concerns related to the inhalation of manganese (Mn) particulate emissions from combusted MMT. Although Ethyl successfully challenged EPA's denial of the petition on legal grounds, issues raised in EPA's health risk assessment have not been resolved to date. This paper summarizes features of the EPA health risk characterization, which included the use of various statistical techniques to derive several estimates of inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for Mn as alternatives to the established value of 0.05 microgram Mn/m3. An exposure assessment projected distributions of personal exposure levels to particulate Mn if MMT were used in all unleaded gasoline. It was estimated that exposure levels of 5-10% of the modeled population might exceed a possible alternative RfC value of 0.1 microgram Mn/m3. However, due to data limitations, the risk characterization for Mn/MMT could raise only qualitative concerns about potential public health impacts and was unable to provide a quantitative estimate of risk. To improve the risk characterization, better information on Mn/MMT population exposures and health effects is needed. Much of this information is expected to be obtained under provisions of Section 211 of the Clean Air Act. Among the specific issues that remain to be resolved are the form or forms of Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline and the potentially different toxic properties of Mn in different forms. PMID:10385909

Davis, J M

272

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2013-07-01

273

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

274

Biological risk in nursing care provided in family health units.  

PubMed

There is very frequent exposure to potentially contaminated material in procedures performed by nursing professionals. This exploratory and descriptive study characterizes the potential risk of biological exposure in procedures performed by nursing professionals in ten Family Health units in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. We observed 238 procedures involving potential risk of contact with biological material, in which more than 90% involved the use of needles. The average rates of adherence to standard precautions were: 27.9% hand washing prior to procedures; 41.4% use of gloves; and 88.8% adequate disposal of piercing and cutting instruments. These professionals are subject to risks similar to those which hospital workers are also subjected, because they have a high risk of blood exposure and the frequency with which they handle needles is very high. PMID:20721425

Cardoso, Ana Carla Moreira; De Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

275

[Science, technique, and culture: relations between risk and health practices].  

PubMed

This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world. PMID:15073624

Czeresnia, Dina

2004-04-06

276

TANK S-109 LONG TERM HUMAN HEALTH RISK CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This document provides Tank S-109 long-term human risks calculations, in support of Functions and Requirements document (RPP-18812) as required by milestone M-45-00 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This calculation was performed to provide a screening-level assessment of long-term human health risk associated with potential leakage that could occur during waste retrieval operations for tank S-109 This calculation supports the development of tank S-109 waste retrieval functions and requirements as documented in RPP-18812. Risks associated with current waste and potential residual waste in tank S-109, as well as risk associated with other S farm tanks, were not of interest and were not evaluated.

CARLSON, S.E.

2003-12-16

277

Risk assessment for improved treatment of health considerations in EIA  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) processes are rarely used to complement each other despite potential benefits of such integration. This paper proposes a model for procedural and methodological integration of EIA and RA based on reported best practice approaches. The proposed model stipulates 'embedding' RA into EIA and is organized in accordance with the generic stages of the EIA process. The model forms the basis for the proposed Evaluation Package which can be used as a benchmarking tool for evaluating the effectiveness of integration of RA within particular EIAs. The current paper uses the package for evaluating seven Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of waste incineration facilities in the UK produced between 1990 and 2000. Though RA was found to be an element of these EIAs, its prominence varied considerably from case to case. Systematic application of RA in accordance with the best practice was not observed. Particular omissions were demonstrated in assessing health impacts not directly associated with air emissions, identifying the receptors of health impacts (affected population), interpreting health impacts as health risks, dealing with uncertainties, and risk communications.

Demidova, Olga [Ecoline Environmental Assessment Center, PO Box 7 125047, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: odemidova@eac-ecoline.ru; Cherp, Aleg [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University (CEU), Nador u. 9, 1051, Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: cherpa@ceu.hu

2005-05-15

278

Risk Assessment in Mental Health: Introducing a Traffic Light System in a Community Mental Health Team  

PubMed Central

Aims: To reports a study in which action research approach was utilised to introduce a new system of risk assessment, based on traffic lights, into a community mental health team. Background: Risk management is a serious concern in community mental healthcare where there is less direct, real-time supervision of clients than in other settings, and because inadequate management of risk can have fatal consequences when service users are a risk to themselves and/or others. Design: An action research design was undertaken, using three phases of Look, Think and Act. Methods: Data were collected between January and March of 2012. In the action research phases, qualitative data were collected in focus groups with the team’s multi-disciplinary mental health professionals. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, which involved agreement of themes and interpretations by two researchers. The Look, Think and Act phases guided the development of the project; team members worked collaboratively on the traffic light system, implemented and evaluated it. Findings: Themes were constructed that were discussed across the focus groups. These themes were: Ease of use; Risk identification and management; Legal status; Different teams’ views of risk; Post-implementation evaluation. Conclusion: Action research has been used to implement change in mental health risk management. Others internationally would benefit from considering a Traffic Light System, and in using action research to implement it.

Croucher, S; Williamson, Graham R

2013-01-01

279

Approaches to characterizing human health risks of exposure to fibers.  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring and man-made (synthetic) fibers of respirable sizes are substances that have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as priority substances for risk reduction and pollution prevention under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The health concern for respirable fibers is based on the link of occupational asbestos exposure and environmental erionite fiber exposure to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including interstitial lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. There is also considerable laboratory evidence indicating that a variety of fibers of varying physical and chemical characteristics can elicit fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects in animals under certain exposure conditions. This paper discusses key scientific issues and major default assumptions and uncertainties pertaining to the risk assessment of inhaled fibers. This is followed by a description of the types of assessment performed by the U.S. EPA to support risk management actions of new fibers and existing fibers under TSCA. The scope and depth of these risk assessments, however, vary greatly depending on whether the substance under review is an existing or a new fiber, the purpose of the assessment, the availability of data, time, and resources, and the intended nature of regulatory action. In general, these risk assessments are of considerable uncertainty because health hazard and human exposure information is often incomplete for most fibers. Furthermore, how fibers cause diseases and what specific determinants are critical to fiber-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity are still not completely understood. Further research to improve our knowledge base in fiber toxicology and additional toxicity and exposure data gathering are needed to more accurately characterize the health risks of inhaled fibers.

Vu, V T; Lai, D Y

1997-01-01

280

Approaches to characterizing human health risks of exposure to fibers.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring and man-made (synthetic) fibers of respirable sizes are substances that have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as priority substances for risk reduction and pollution prevention under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The health concern for respirable fibers is based on the link of occupational asbestos exposure and environmental erionite fiber exposure to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including interstitial lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. There is also considerable laboratory evidence indicating that a variety of fibers of varying physical and chemical characteristics can elicit fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects in animals under certain exposure conditions. This paper discusses key scientific issues and major default assumptions and uncertainties pertaining to the risk assessment of inhaled fibers. This is followed by a description of the types of assessment performed by the U.S. EPA to support risk management actions of new fibers and existing fibers under TSCA. The scope and depth of these risk assessments, however, vary greatly depending on whether the substance under review is an existing or a new fiber, the purpose of the assessment, the availability of data, time, and resources, and the intended nature of regulatory action. In general, these risk assessments are of considerable uncertainty because health hazard and human exposure information is often incomplete for most fibers. Furthermore, how fibers cause diseases and what specific determinants are critical to fiber-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity are still not completely understood. Further research to improve our knowledge base in fiber toxicology and additional toxicity and exposure data gathering are needed to more accurately characterize the health risks of inhaled fibers. PMID:9400747

Vu, V T; Lai, D Y

1997-09-01

281

A predictive Bayesian approach to risk analysis in health care  

PubMed Central

Background The Bayesian approach is now widely recognised as a proper framework for analysing risk in health care. However, the traditional text-book Bayesian approach is in many cases difficult to implement, as it is based on abstract concepts and modelling. Methods The essential points of the risk analyses conducted according to the predictive Bayesian approach are identification of observable quantities, prediction and uncertainty assessments of these quantities, using all the relevant information. The risk analysis summarizes the knowledge and lack of knowledge concerning critical operations and other activities, and give in this way a basis for making rational decisions. Results It is shown that Bayesian risk analysis can be significantly simplified and made more accessible compared to the traditional text-book Bayesian approach by focusing on predictions of observable quantities and performing uncertainty assessments of these quantities using subjective probabilities. Conclusion The predictive Bayesian approach provides a framework for ensuring quality of risk analysis. The approach acknowledges that risk cannot be adequately described and evaluated simply by reference to summarising probabilities. Risk is defined by the combination of possible consequences and associated uncertainties.

Aven, Terje; Eidesen, Karianne

2007-01-01

282

Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences  

SciTech Connect

Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

1986-10-01

283

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

This article addresses concepts of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure assessment relevant for health risk assessment based on human studies. We present issues that should be considered when selecting a method for ETS exposure assessment for the purposes of health risk assessment and review data on ETS exposure levels in the workplace and in home environments. Two types of estimates are needed for a quantitative risk assessment of the health effects resulting from occupational ETS exposure: (italic)a(/italic)) an unbiased estimate of the exposure-effect (or dose-response) relation between ETS and the health effect of interest, and (italic)b(/italic)) estimates of the distribution of ETS exposure in different workplaces. By combining the estimated exposure-effect relation with information on exposure distribution for a population of interest, we can calculate the proportions of disease cases attributable to occupational ETS exposure as well as the excess number of cases due to specified exposure conditions. Several dimensions of the exposure profile should be considered when assessing ETS exposure for estimating the exposure-effect relation, including the magnitude of exposure and the biologically relevant time specificity of exposure. The magnitude of exposure is determined by the ETS source strength, environmental factors modifying concentrations, and duration of exposure. Time specificity considerations include the latency period for each health outcome of interest, the time-exposure profile relevant for different disease mechanisms, and the sensitive age period with regard to health effects. The most appropriate indicator of ETS exposure depends on these factors and on the time period that can be assessed with different methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4

Jaakkola, M S; Samet, J M

1999-01-01

284

Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption.

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-01-01

285

Health risk assessment for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-03-07

286

Health risks and health promotion for older women: utility of a health promotion diary.  

PubMed

Elderly women require health screening and health promotion services from nurses and other health care providers. Nurses serving this population require knowledge of age-specific health screening and health promotion services. A case study from a geriatric nurse practitioner's practice demonstrates the complexity of these activities. A diary of such services can help nurses focus on elderly women's needs for health promotion interventions. PMID:9429354

Pizzi, E R; Wolf, Z R

1998-01-01

287

[Occupational risks and health disorders in transport drivers].  

PubMed

This paper presents a review of occupational risks and health disorders in professional drivers employed in public and private transport. Epidemiological studies suggest an excess risk for cardiovascular diseases and musculoskeletal disorders in several categories of professional drivers, such as bus drivers, taxi drivers, truck drivers and forklift truck drivers. Although cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders are of multifactorial origin, some characteristics of occupational exposure in transport drivers (stress, workshift, traffic pollutants, awkward postures, exposure to noise and whole body vibration) may exert at least a concausal role for the onset and the development of these disorders. The predominant role of some confounding factors (inappropriate diet, drinking and smoking habits) makes it more difficult to establish causal associations between professional driving and other adverse health effects (respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genito-urinary disorders, and neoplastic diseases). PMID:23213815

Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M

288

Presenting uncertainty in health risk assessment: initial studies of its effects on risk perception and trust.  

PubMed

Some analysts suggest that discussing uncertainties in health risk assessments might reduce citizens' perceptions of risk and increase their respect for the risk-assessing agency. We tested this assumption with simulated news stories varying simple displays of uncertainty (e.g., a range of risk estimates, with and without graphics). Subjects from Eugene, Oregon, read one story each, and then answered a questionnaire. Three studies tested between 180 and 272 subjects each. Two focus groups obtained more detailed responses to these stories. The results suggested that (1) people are unfamiliar with uncertainty in risk assessments and in science; (2) people may recognize uncertainty when it is presented simply; (3) graphics may help people recognize uncertainty; (4) reactions to the environmental problems in the stories seemed affected less by presentation of uncertainty than by general risk attitudes and perceptions; (5) agency discussion of uncertainty in risk estimates may signal agency honesty and agency incompetence for some people; and (6) people seem to see lower risk estimates (10(-6), as opposed to 10(-3)) as less credible. These findings, if confirmed, would have important implications for risk communication. PMID:7480948

Johnson, B B; Slovic, P

1995-08-01

289

Do risk factors and health behaviours contribute to self-ratings of health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relative importance of five risk factors and health behaviours (namely dietary habits, leisure time exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) on self-ratings of health among the Swedish adult population. The data come from the 1991 Swedish Level of Living Survey, a face-to-face survey interview based on a sample representative of the Swedish population aged

Kristiina Manderbacka; Olle Lundberg; Pekka Martikainen

1999-01-01

290

Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards\\u000afurther harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses\\u000athe development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment\\u000afactors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. \\u000aOptions are presented for a set of default values or probabilistic\\u000adistributions for assessment factors based on the

Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC

2007-01-01

291

Hazardous waste incineration: Evaluating the human health and environmental risks  

SciTech Connect

this book investigates the issues regarding human health impacts from hazardous waste incinerators. It details the characterization of hazardous waste emissions; ways to model the atmospheric dispersion of these emissions; and steps to conduct a comprehensive risk assessment. This book also reviews epidemiology to study the effects of hazardous waste incineration. Background information on the fundamentals of hazardous incineration, and the regulations affecting operation of its facilities is provided.

Roberts, S.M.; Teaf, C.M.; Bean, J.A. [eds.

1999-11-01

292

Fathering pregnancies: marking health-risk behaviors in urban adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To establish self-reported rates and associated correlates of fathering pregnancies in urban teen males, and to explore the possibility of using their pregnancy history as a marker for other health-risk behaviors.Methods: A blinded, self-administered questionnaire was given to the predominantly African-American patients of an inner-city adolescent outpatient clinic. Urine was also collected in a blinded, anonymous fashion, matched to

MarkF Guagliardo; Zhihuan Huang; LawrenceJ D’Angelo

1999-01-01

293

A Public Health Context for Residual Risk Assessment and Risk Management Under the Clean Air Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also

Gail Charnley; Bernard D. Goldstein

294

Exposure to airborne amphibole structures and health risks: Libby, Montana.  

PubMed

Libby, Montana is the site of a large vermiculite deposit that was mined between 1920 and 1990 to extract vermiculite for commercial applications such as insulation, gardening products, and construction materials. The Libby vermiculite deposit also contains amphibole minerals including tremolite, actinolite, richterite, and winchite. Historically, Libby mine workers experienced high exposures to amphibole structures, and, as a group, have experienced the health consequences of those occupational exposures. It has been suggested that Libby residents also have been and continue to be exposed to amphibole structures released during the vermiculite mining operations and therefore are at increased risk for disease. The Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted two epidemiological-type studies of residents living in Libby and the surrounding areas to assess these risks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed exposure data in Libby and used those data to project risks of asbestos-associated disease for Libby residents. The EPA has placed the Libby Asbestos Site, which includes the mine and the town of Libby, on its National Priority List of hazardous waste sites in need of clean up. This article presents a review of the exposure studies conducted in Libby and an analysis of health risks based on the data collected in those studies. Libby mine workers have experienced elevated levels of asbestos-associated disease as a consequence of their occupational exposures to amphibole structures. Libby residents' exposures typically are substantially lower than mine workers' historical exposures, and the health risk projections for residents are, accordingly, substantially lower. PMID:18006127

Price, Bertram

2007-10-10

295

A multiple source approach to acute human health risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has developed in a three-tiered approach to perform an acute noncarcinogenic health risk assessment to comply with requirements contained in USEPA`s Addendum to the Methodology for Assessing health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions`. The addendum document drafted in November 1993 suggests evaluation of short-term emissions and exposures, but it does not provide necessary guidance or methodology. This evaluation becomes extremely complex when several sources contribute to the overall concentration of contaminants in the air. Because each source has a different emission rate, location, and dispersion profile, the compound-specific maximum concentrations are rarely located at the same receptor location, as determined by using the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCT3) dispersion model. Furthermore, evaluation of hazard quotients at various receptor locations from a large number of contaminants from multiple sources is an extremely complex and tedious process. This paper will detail a three-tiered approach which was developed to perform the acute risk assessment, quantify possible advantages and disadvantages associated with each tier, and demonstrate the effects of contributing factors, such as distance, emission rate variability, population/exposure scenarios, and compound speciation. In order to accomplish this task, a sample facility with four different combustion sources was modeled and processed according to the three-tiered approach.

Mower, B. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1998-12-31

296

Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies using such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective: This commentary describes a collaborative effort among several federal and state agencies to advance the next generation of risk assessment. The objective of the NexGen program is to begin to incorporate recent progress in molecular and systems biology into risk assessment practice. The ultimate success of this program will be based on the incorporation of new practices that facilitate faster, cheaper, and/or more accurate assessments of public health risks. Methods: We are developing prototype risk assessments that compare the results of traditional, data-rich risk assessments with insights gained from new types of molecular and systems biology data. In this manner, new approaches can be validated, traditional approaches improved, and the value of different types of new scientific information better understood. Discussion and Conclusions: We anticipate that these new approaches will have a variety of applications, such as assessment of new and existing chemicals in commerce and the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Additionally, results of the effort are likely to spur further research and test methods development. Full implementation of new approaches is likely to take 10–20 years.

Anastas, Paul T.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Clark, Rebecca M.; Dix, David J.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Preuss, Peter W.

2012-01-01

297

Public responses to precautionary information from the Department of Health (UK) about possible health risks from mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding public perceptions of health information is of increasing importance in the light of the growing imperatives upon regulators to communicate information about risk and uncertainty. Communicating the possible health risks from mobile telecommunications is a domain that allows consideration of both public perceptions of uncertain public health information and public responses to precautionary advice. This research reports the results

Julie Barnett; Lada Timotijevic; Richard Shepherd; Victoria Senior

2007-01-01

298

Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

2011-01-01

299

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

300

Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care.  

PubMed

High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741

Hudson, P

2003-12-01

301

Oral health and mortality risk in the institutionalised elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly.

Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, Jose A.; Willumsen, Tiril

2012-01-01

302

Multiple Health-Risk Behaviour and Psychological Distress in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a school-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data of demographics, weight status, physical activity, screen-time, diet, substance use, and psychological distress were derived from a representative sample of 2935 students in grades 9 to 12 (Mage = 15.9 years) from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results: Overall prevalence of psychological distress was 35.1%. Significant associations were shown between psychological distress and the following: being female, tobacco use, not meeting physical activity and screen-time recommendations, and inadequate consumption of breakfast and vegetables. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for targeting greater physical health promotion for adolescents at risk of mental health problems.

Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Faulkner, Guy E.; Irving, Hyacinth M.

2012-01-01

303

Focusing on Children's Inhalation Dosimetry and Health Effects for Risk Assessment: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children's health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children's health assessment is constantly advancing, indicating the need for continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children's inhalation dosimetry and child-specific adverse health effects are of particular concern for risk assessment. When focusing on this topic within

Brenda Foos; Melanie Marty; Joel Schwartz; William Bennett; Jacqueline Moya; Annie M. Jarabek; Andrew G. Salmon

2007-01-01

304

Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk Behaviors: A Prospective Analysis of College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…

Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.

2008-01-01

305

[Demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health risk perception].  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation was to study the specific features of health risk perception in Novodvinsk dwellers in relation to gender, age, education, occupation, and income. A cross-sectional study was performed. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey of 695 subjects aged 18 years or older, who lived in Novodvinsk. Risk factors were ranked to define their hazard priorities. The chi2 test of the hypothesis that there are no differences in risk perception between different population groups was carried out. No statistically significant gender differences were found in high risk perception. Respondents less than 30 years of age are inclined to exaggerate the risk of chemical pollution of the environment as compared to 45 year olds (chi2 = 4.97; p = 0.025). It is more characteristic for subjects with a higher education and employees to refer lifestyle to as a high risk factor than for those who have lower education levels and workers (chi2 = 6.34; p = 0.010 and chi2 = 28.58; p < 0.001; respectively). Respondents with a specialized secondary education and workers more frequently regard radioactive pollution of the environment as a high risk (chi2 = 5.43; p = 0.019 and chi2 = 3.39; p = 0.050 and chi2 = 5.43; p = 0.019, respectively). Mean- and low-income subjects consider a low quality of life to be a high risk than those who have higher income (chi2 = 12.35; p < 0.01). PMID:21384585

Ungurianu, T N; Novikov, S M

306

An Integrated Risk Assessment Tool to Evaluate the Existing Risk Managment System Within a Health Care Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is a method used to identify risks within an organisation. It is required by the Safety Health and Welfare at Work Act, 189 for the purpose of safety management. No one method can effectively identify all types of hazard and risks within organisations. The insufficiency of individual risk assessment techniques to generate objective data as to the level

Laura F. Breen

2001-01-01

307

IMPACT OF FDA DRUG RISK COMMUNICATIONS ON HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION AND HEALTH BEHAVIORS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW  

PubMed Central

Objective To review literature on the impact of FDA drug risk communications on medication utilization, health care services use, and health outcomes. Data Sources The authors searched MEDLINE and the Web of Science for manuscripts published between January 1990 and November 2010 that included terms related to drug utilization, the FDA, and advisories or warnings. We manually searched bibliographies and works citing selected articles and consulted with experts to guide study selection. Study Selection Studies were included if they involved an empirical analysis evaluating the impact of an FDA risk communication. Data Extraction We extracted the drug(s) analyzed, relevant FDA communication(s), data source, analytical method, and main outcome(s) assessed. Results Of the 1432 records screened, 49 studies were included. These studies covered sixteen medicines or therapeutic classes; one-third examined communications regarding antidepressants. Most used medical or pharmacy claims and few rigorously examined patient-provider communication, decision-making or risk perceptions. Advisories recommending increased clinical or laboratory monitoring generally led to decreased drug use, but only transient and modestly increased monitoring. Communications targeting specific subpopulations often spilled over to other groups. Repeated or sequential advisories tended to have larger but delayed effects and decreased incident more than prevalent use. Drug-specific warnings were associated with particularly large decreases in utilization, though the magnitude of substitution within therapeutic classes varied across clinical contexts. Conclusions While some FDA drug risk communications had immediate, strong impacts, many had either delayed or no impact on health care utilization or health behaviors. These data demonstrate the complexity of using risk communication to improve the quality and safety of prescription drug use, and suggest the importance of continued assessments of the effect of future advisories and label changes. Identifying factors that are associated with rapid and sustained responses to risk communications will be important for informing future risk communication efforts.

Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Higashi, Ashley S.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Conti, Rena; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Zhu, Shu; Garfield, Craig F.; Alexander, G. Caleb

2012-01-01

308

Identifying population subgroups at risk for underestimating weight health risks and overestimating physical activity health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

People may incorrectly perceive that their body weight or Physical Activity (PA) meets health recommendations; this provides an obstacle for change. In this study self-reported BMI and PA were assessed in relation to questions regarding perception of meeting weight and PA recommendations. Signal detection analysis was used to identify population subgroups. Study outcomes showed that 34.4 per cent of the

Corneel Vandelanotte; Mitch J. Duncan; Christine Hanley; W. Kerry Mummery

2011-01-01

309

Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception  

PubMed Central

Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (P<.001); social factors, including media attention (P<.001); private resources, including life quality (P<.001) and health lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)—have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the contribution of social factors to the public health risk perception levels by state (R2=23.37%). The interaction effects between flu incidence and social factors for our search terms did not add to the explanatory power of our regression models (R2<1%). Conclusions Our study suggests a practical way to measure the public’s health risk perception for certain diseases using online information search volume by state. The social environment influences public risk perception regardless of disease incidence. Thus, monitoring the social variables can be very helpful in being ready to respond to the public’s behavior in dealing with public health threats.

Scammon, Debra L

2013-01-01

310

Sharps injuries in the home health care setting: risks for home health care workers.  

PubMed

Home health care nurses are at risk of needlesticks and blood exposures, yet few studies have been conducted related to such exposures in the home health care setting. This article describes a cross sectional prevalence pilot study of needlesticks and blood exposures conducted among three home health care agencies in the San Francisco Bay area. Needlestick and blood exposure reports from 1993 to 1996 were submitted from three home health care agencies. The exposures were categorized using an existing categorization system and compiled into a composite report. A total of 52 exposures occurred; nurses sustained 92% of exposures. Twenty-three percent occurred before, during, or after needle disposal; 17% from manipulating intravenous/access ports; 15% from improper disposal; and 13.5% during or after blood draw. Needle safety devices need to be specifically designed for the unique home health care setting and for a standardized rate of calculating needlestick injuries in this setting. PMID:15068100

Haiduven, Donna; Ferrol, Shalah

2004-03-01

311

PARADIGMS FOR ALCOHOL USE AND CO OCCURRING BEHAVIORAL HEALTH RISK FACTORS AMONG WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use often co-occurs with one or more other behavioral health risk factors that can place women and their offspring at heightened risk for morbidity and mortality. Women with co-occurring alcohol use and behavioral health risk factors, such as tobacco use, illicit drug use, and mental illness are especially vulnerable. These women are not only at increased risk for hazardous

James Tsai; R. Louise Floyd; Mary J. O'Connor

312

The relationship of repeated health risk appraisal and lifestyle behavior change in employed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of repeated Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), and the personalized feedback that they generate on employed adults. Health risk appraisals are used extensively by employers as a worksite wellness intervention to improve employee health status and reduce health care costs. In this study, secondary analysis of three years of HRA data

Vicki Lynn Simpson

2011-01-01

313

Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among…

Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

2002-01-01

314

Global climate changes, natural disasters, and travel health risks.  

PubMed

Whether the result of cyclical atmospheric changes, anthropogenic activities, or combinations of both, authorities now agree that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. To date, most reports of the public health outcomes of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on heat stroke deaths following heat waves, drowning deaths in floods and tsunamis, and mosquito-borne infectious disease outbreaks following tropical storms and cyclones. Accurate predictions of the true public health outcomes of global climate change are confounded by several effect modifiers including human acclimatization and adaptation, the contributions of natural climatic changes, and many conflicting atmospheric models of climate change. Nevertheless, temporal relationships between environmental factors and human health outcomes have been identified and may be used as criteria to judge the causality of associations between the human health outcomes of climate changes and climate-driven natural disasters. Travel medicine physicians are obligated to educate their patients about the known public health outcomes of climate changes, about the disease and injury risk factors their patients may face from climate-spawned natural disasters, and about the best preventive measures to reduce infectious diseases and injuries following natural disasters throughout the world. PMID:17107430

Diaz, James H

315

Using the Pregnancy Perception of Risk Questionnaire to assess health care literacy gaps in maternal perception of prenatal risk.  

PubMed

In order to make appropriate decisions, patients must be able to understand and use the context-specific health information with which they have been provided, and health providers must be able to convey information to patients who possess varying degrees of health literacy. Adherence to medical recommendations often depends on patient perception of their medical risks and the importance they attach to those risks. In obstetrics, maternity patients are generally identified as high risk or non-high risk (routine). Conferring the designation of "high risk" may confer additional benefits in educational efforts, literacy evaluation, and relief of educational barriers to care that are reflected in high-risk patients' higher assessments of their risks. In this study, medically identified risk factors were reviewed for patients in the high-risk and routine obstetrical clinics. Patients labeled as "routine" might still possess significant numbers and types of medically identified risk factors (MIFs) due to patients' socioeconomic status and health risks. If prenatal risk is a spectrum, adaptation of obstetrical health care materials and culturally appropriate counseling may mitigate gaps between patient understanding of their MIF number and type and patient risk perception in order to reach the goal of universally improved patient adherence to medical recommendations. PMID:19860304

Headley, Adrienne J; Harrigan, John

2009-10-01

316

Multiple risk factors and the likelihood of patient-physician communication and health maintenance services in medicare health plans.  

PubMed

This study examined both individual and combined effects of race, education, and health-based risk factors on health maintenance services among Medicare plan members. Data were from 110 238 elderly completing the 2006 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey. Receipt of recommended patient-physician communication and interventions for urinary incontinence, physical activity, falls, and osteoporosis was modeled as a function of risk factors. Low education decreased the odds of receiving services; poor health increased odds. Race had little effect. Evidence suggested moderation among competing effects. While clinicians target services to most at-risk elderly individuals, patients with low education experience gaps. Synergies among co-occurring risks warrant further research. PMID:23222012

Ng, Judy H; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Kong, Vivian W; Pawlson, L Gregory

317

Implications of Type 2 Diabetes on Adolescent Reproductive Health Risk  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this article was to summarize scientific knowledge from an expert panel on reproductive health among adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Using a mental model approach, a panel of experts—representing perspectives on diabetes, adolescents, preconception counseling, and reproductive health—was convened to discuss reproductive health issues for female adolescents with T2D. Results Several critical issues emerged. Compared with adolescents with type 1 diabetes, (1) adolescents with T2D may perceive their disease as less severe and have less experience managing it, putting them at risk for complications; (2) T2D is more prevalent among African Americans, who may be less trusting of the medical establishment; (3) T2D is associated with obesity, and it is often difficult to change one’s lifestyle within family environments practicing sedentary and dietary behaviors leading to obesity; (4) teens with T2D could be more fertile, because obesity is related to earlier puberty; (5) although obese teens with T2D have a higher risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is associated with infertility, treatment with metformin can increase fertility; and (6) women with type 2 diabetes are routinely transferred to insulin before or during pregnancy to allow more intensive management. Conclusions Findings from the expert panel provide compelling reasons to provide early, developmentally appropriate, culturally sensitive preconception counseling for teens with T2D.

Downs, Julie S.; Arslanian, Silva; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine; Copeland, Valire Carr; Doswell, Willa; Herman, William; Lain, Kristine; Mansfield, Joan; Murray, Pamela J.; White, Neil; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

2012-01-01

318

Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks?  

PubMed

Although from a societal point of view a modal shift from car to bicycle may have beneficial health effects due to decreased air pollution emissions and increased levels of physical activity, shifts in individual adverse health effects such as higher exposure to air pollution and risk of a traffic accident may prevail. We have summarized the literature for air pollution, traffic accidents, and physical activity using systematic reviews supplemented with recent key studies. We quantified the impact on all-cause mortality when 500,000 people would make a transition from car to bicycle for short trips on a daily basis in the Netherlands. We estimate that beneficial effects of increased physical activity are substantially larger (3-14 months gained) than the potential mortality effect of increased inhaled air pollution doses (0.8-40 days lost) and the increase in traffic accidents (5-9 days lost). Societal benefits are even larger because of a modest reduction in air pollution and traffic accidents. On average, the estimated health benefits of cycling were substantially larger than the risks relative to car driving for individuals shifting their mode of transport. PMID:22124913

Hartog, Jeroen Johan de; Boogaard, Hanna; Nijland, Hans; Hoek, Gerard

2011-12-01

319

Risk assessment in mental health care: values and costs.  

PubMed

Risk assessment has assumed increasing salience in mental health care in a number of countries. The frequency of serious violent incidents perpetrated by people with a mental illness is an insufficient explanation. Understandings of mental illness and of the role of those charged with their care (or control) play a key role. "Moral outrage", associated with an implied culpability when certain types of tragedy occur, is very significant. This leads to tensions concerning the role of post-incident inquiries, and contributes to a flawed conception of what such inquiries can offer. At the same time, understanding of probability and prediction is generally very poor, among both professionals and the public. Unrealistic expectations for risk assessment and management in general psychiatric practice carry a variety of significant costs, taking a number forms, to those with a mental illness, to mental health professionals and to services. Especially important are changes in professional practice and accountabilities that are significantly divorced from traditional practice, implications for trust in patient-clinician relationships and the organisations in which mental health professionals work, and practices that often breach the ethical principle of justice (or fairness) and heighten discrimination against people with mental illness. PMID:23296543

Szmukler, George; Rose, Nikolas

2013-01-07

320

[Professional biological risk factors of health care workers].  

PubMed

Health care workers are attributed to the group at highest risk of biological factors, as they are daily exposed to fluids of the human body. The risk of sharps injuries and exposure to blood is associated with bloodborne infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and type of professional biological risk factors, to evaluate the use of personal protective devices, application of immunoprophylaxis to health care workers in the surgical departments. METHODS. A retrospective study was carried out from January to June 2006. Data were collected in the surgical departments of Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine. An anonymous questionnaire survey was performed. RESULTS. More than half (51.4%) of the respondents experienced sharps injuries, 62.1% were exposed to biological fluids, and 39.6% of the workers experienced both injury and exposure. In all cases, the hands were injured during sharps injuries. Exposure of healthy skin and eyes to biological fluids occurred in 63% and 20% of the cases, respectively. Majority of exposures were blood splashes (60%). Physicians most frequently experienced sharps injury during the surgery (79.3%), nurses - during the preparation of instruments (35.1%), supporting staff - disposing the waste (75.8%). Commonly physicians were injured by surgical needles (72.4%), nurses - by needlestick (72.4%), and supporting staff - by glass waste (60.6%). Majority of the respondents (86%) were not vaccinated with HB vaccine. No personal protective equipment was used by 14.5% of the respondents during sharps injuries and 5% during exposures. CONCLUSIONS. More than half of the respondents experienced sharps injury or exposure to biological fluids during the study period. Physicians and nurses experience sharps injury and exposure to biological fluids more commonly as compared to supporting staff. Hepatitis B vaccination is insufficient among health care workers. PMID:19667747

Gailiene, Greta; Cenenkiene, Regina

2009-01-01

321

Dental Office Waste - Public Health and Ecological Risk  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk.

Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

2009-01-01

322

Wind turbines: is there a human health risk?  

PubMed

The term "Wind Turbine Syndrome" was coined in a recently self-published book, which hypothesized that a multitude of symptoms such as headache and dizziness resulted from wind turbines generating low frequency sound (LFS). The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the research that has examined the relationship between human health effects and exposure to LFS and sound generated from the operation of wind turbines. At present, a specific health condition has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature that has been classified as a disease caused by exposure to sound levels and frequencies generated by the operation of wind turbines. Communities are experiencing a heightened sense of annoyance and fear from the development and siting of wind turbine farms. High-quality research and effective risk communication can advance this course from one of panic to one of understanding and exemplification for other environmental advancements. PMID:23621051

Roberts, Jennifer D; Roberts, Mark A

2013-04-01

323

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P. K.; Borak, T. B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J. E.; Eckerman, K. F.; Gundersen, L. C. S.; Harley, N. H.; Hess, C. T.; Kinner, N. E.; Kopecky, K. J.; Mckone, T. E.; Sextro, R. G.; Simon, S. L.

2000-01-01

324

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J. [and others

2000-03-15

325

Health Risk Assessment for Area 514 RCRA Closure  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a USDOE research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. The specific area that is the subject of this document, Area 514, was the location of active LLNL waste treatment facilities until November 2003, and the operations there were authorized under interim status. The site is being closed pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. The DTSC-approved ''Closure Plan for Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility, LLNL 2004'', states clean closure concentrations for certain organic compounds, metals and metalloids. if all soil samples contained measured concentrations less than these levels, it was agreed that the site would meet the requirements for clean closure. However, if the samples had measured concentrations greater than the clean closure levels, a more detailed risk assessment could be prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the actual measured levels. Soil samples collected from 33 locations in Area 514 were analyzed for 37 constituents of potential concern, as identified by the Closure Plan. Many of these compounds and elements were not detected. However, 10 metals or metalloids were present at levels above the clean closure requirements, and 19 organic compounds were identified as contaminants of potential concern. Following the guidance in the Closure Plan, a health risk assessment is presented in this document to demonstrate the low level of potential health effects from the remaining constituents and to support clean closure of the site. Three types of hypothetical receptors were identified: an intrusive construction worker conducting trenching in the area, a bystander worker in a nearby building, and a future resident. Of the worker receptors, the intrusive construction worker was found to have the greater overall chronic exposure, with a theoretical calculated carcinogenic risk of 4 x 10{sup -8}, a chronic hazard index of 8 x 10{sup -3}, and an acute hazard index of 9 x 10{sup -1}. The estimated incremental cancer risk for the residential receptor, 1 x 10{sup -6}, was calculated by adjusting contaminant concentrations to account for background levels of metals at the Livermore LLNL site. When no adjustments for background concentrations are made, the estimated incremental cancer risk is 3 x 10{sup -6}. The chronic hazard index for the residential receptor, 2 x 10{sup -1}, was developed without accounting for background concentrations of metals. These values are all below levels associated with health concerns, and support the conclusion that further cleanup of the area is not necessary.

Gallegos, G M; Hall, L C

2005-05-26

326

What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.  

PubMed

The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

2012-11-04

327

Effects on cardiovascular disease risk of a web-based health risk assessment with tailored health advice: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A large proportion of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden can potentially be prevented by primary prevention programs addressing major causal risk factors. A Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback for individual health promotion is a promising strategy. We evaluated the effect on CVD risk of such a program among employees of a Dutch worksite. Methods: We conducted a prospective follow-up study among 368 employees who voluntarily participated in a Web-based HRA program at a single Dutch worksite in 2008. The program included a multicomponent HRA through a Web-based electronic questionnaire, biometrics, and laboratory evaluation. The results were combined with health behavior change theory to generate tailored motivational and educational health advice. On request, a health counseling session with the program physician was available. Follow-up data on CVD risk were collected 1 year after initial participation. The primary outcome was a change in Framingham CVD risk at 6 months relative to baseline. We checked for a possible background effect of an increased health consciousness as a consequence of program introduction at the worksite by comparing baseline measurements of early program participants with baseline measurements of participants who completed the program 6 months later. Results: A total of 176 employees completed follow-up measurements after a mean of 7 months. There was a graded relation between CVD risk changes and baseline risk, with a relative reduction of 17.9% (P = 0.001) in the high-risk category (baseline CVD risk ?20%). Changes were not explained by additional health counseling, medication, or an increase in health consciousness within the company. Conclusions: Voluntary participation in a Web-based HRA with tailored feedback at the worksite reduced CVD risk by nearly 18% among participants at high CVD risk and by nearly 5% among all participants. Web-based HRA could improve CVD risk in similar populations. Future research should focus on the persistence of the effects underlying the CVD risk reduction.

Colkesen, Ersen B; Ferket, Bart S; Tijssen, Jan GP; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; van Kalken, Coenraad K; Peters, Ron JG

2011-01-01

328

Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health: A Population Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable risk factor for adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there are still gaps regarding large population risk assessment. Results from the nationwide Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used along with air quality monitoring measurements to implement a systematic evaluation of PM-related CVD risks at the national and regional scales. CVD status and individual-level risk factors were collected from more than 500,000 BRFSS respondents across 2,231 contiguous U.S. counties for 2007 and 2009. Chronic exposures to PM pollutants were estimated with spatial modeling from measurement data. CVD outcomes attributable to PM pollutants were assessed by mixed-effects logistic regression and latent class regression (LCR), with adjustment for multicausality. There were positive associations between CVD and PM after accounting for competing risk factors: the multivariable-adjusted odds for the multiplicity of CVD outcomes increased by 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23–1.43) and 1.15 (1.07–1.22) times per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 respectively in the LCR analyses. After controlling for spatial confounding, there were moderate estimated effects of PM exposure on multiple cardiovascular manifestations. These results suggest that chronic exposures to ambient particulates are important environmental risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity.

Feng, Jing; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

329

40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Refrigeration and Air ConditioningâUnacceptable Substitutes... (a) because of their physical or chemical properties, or... (ii) determine that the physical or chemical properties...requirements:(a) because of their physical or chemical properties,...

2013-07-01

330

Integrated approach for managing health risks at work--the role of occupational health nurses.  

PubMed

Currently, many organizations are using a department-centered approach to manage health risks at work. In such a model, segregated departments are providing employee benefits such as health insurance, workers' compensation, and short- and long-term disability or benefits addressing work-life issues. In recent years, a new model has emerged: health and productivity management (HPM). This is an employee-centered, integrated approach, designed to increase efficiency, reduce competition for scarce resources, and increase employee participation in prevention activities. Evidence suggests that corporations using integrated HPM programs achieve better health outcomes for their employees, with consequent increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. Occupational health nurses are well positioned to assume leadership roles in their organizations by coordinating efforts and programs across departments that offer health, wellness, and safety benefits. To assume their role as change agents to improve employees' health, nurses should start using the language of business more often by improving their communication skills, computer skills, and ability to quantify and articulate results of programs and services to senior management. PMID:17323873

Marinescu, Luiza G

2007-02-01

331

Multi-risk Infants: Predicting attachment security from sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health risk among African-American preterm infants  

PubMed Central

Background Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods 112 high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads participated. Psychosocial (maternal depression, stress and self-efficacy) and sociodemographic risk (poverty, maternal education, marital status) were maternal self-report (0–4 months). Infant health risk was obtained from hospital charts. Infant-mother attachment (12 months) and maternal sensitivity (4 months) were assessed with Q-sort measures. Findings Psychosocial and sociodemographic, but not infant health risk, negatively related to attachment. Both were mediated by maternal sensitivity. Conclusions The impact of risk domains on attachment security was mediated by maternal sensitivity. Results emphasize the need for early intervention programs targeting premature infants to identify and address environmental and personal factors that place parenting at risk.

Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M

2010-01-01

332

Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our increasingly risk-averse culture.

2009-01-01

333

Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of\\u000a disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South\\u000a African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle

Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander; Chris Buckmaster; Craig Nossel; Liezel Dreyer; Fiona Bull; Timothy D Noakes; Estelle V Lambert

2008-01-01

334

The perception of health care risk: patients, health care staff and society  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Nuovo Zingarelli, dictionary of the Italian language, defines risk as “the possibility of harmful or negative consequences following not always predictable circumstances”. A statistical-epidemiological type of definition is far removed from the social and psychological conception that the population attributes to the risk of harm, which is related to interior processes and emotional reactions. Information on risks interacts with knowledge, personal values and beliefs to produce a subjective expression that is perception. Materials and methods Two years after instituting the Hospital Quality and Risk Management Unit at S. Giovanni Battista Molinette Hospital (Turin, Italy) it became clear that it was necessary to determine the perception of health care risk among nursing staff. Therefore, nursing teams from eight sub-departmental units in six departments were invited to participate in an assessment project. Results The project was undertaken by four nursing teams composed of four head nurses (project representatives) and 45 professional nurses. The aims of the project were understood by all four groups; three participated with interest, one only in part. Three groups considered that it would be useful to continue the project, while the other group did not discuss this point. Conclusions The project on the perception of health care risk by nursing staff revealed that mistaken identification of the patient, errors during the administration of treatment and poor communication among colleagues and with doctors and patients were the risks of error perceived as most important by nurses. Heavy work loads, staff shortages, technical and structural problems, and gaps in professional knowledge were identified as the factors related to the occurrence of adverse events. These data differed from management’s perception because no incident report forms had ever been received from these nursing teams.

Fiandra, Umberto; Raciti, Ida Marina; Mosso, Roberto; Calipari, Giuseppe; Rapellino, Marco

2008-01-01

335

Food Preference Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Assessing Dietary Risk of Cardiovascular Disease within Health Risk Appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Nutrition components of health risk appraisals (HRAs) aim to rapidly and accurately assess dietary be- haviors that increase disease risk. Because cognitive re- search suggests that recalling food likes\\/dislikes may be simpler and more accurate than recalling intake, we tested whether a preference measure was predictive of cardiovascular disease risk factors within an HRA. Methods HRA participants (422 primarily

VALERIE B. DUFFY; SARAH A. LANIER; HEATHER L. HUTCHINS; LINDA S. PESCATELLO; MARCIA K. JOHNSON; LINDA M. BARTOSHUK

336

State High-Risk Pools: An Update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association  

PubMed Central

State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the “uninsurable.” In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform.

Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E.

2011-01-01

337

40 CFR Appendix G to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 3, 1999...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...March 3, 1999, Final rule, Effective April 2, 1999. Refrigerants Unacceptable Substitutes End-use Substitute Decision...Unacceptably high greenhouse gas emissions from direct release of refrigerant to the atmosphere. [64 FR 10378, Mar. 3,...

2012-07-01

338

Concentrations and Potential Health Risks of Metals in Lip Products  

PubMed Central

Background: Metal content in lip products has been an issue of concern. Objectives: We measured lead and eight other metals in a convenience sample of 32 lip products used by young Asian women in Oakland, California, and assessed potential health risks related to estimated intakes of these metals. Methods: We analyzed lip products by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and used previous estimates of lip product usage rates to determine daily oral intakes. We derived acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) based on information used to determine public health goals for exposure, and compared ADIs with estimated intakes to assess potential risks. Results: Most of the tested lip products contained high concentrations of titanium and aluminum. All examined products had detectable manganese. Lead was detected in 24 products (75%), with an average concentration of 0.36 ± 0.39 ppm, including one sample with 1.32 ppm. When used at the estimated average daily rate, estimated intakes were > 20% of ADIs derived for aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese. In addition, average daily use of 10 products tested would result in chromium intake exceeding our estimated ADI for chromium. For high rates of product use (above the 95th percentile), the percentages of samples with estimated metal intakes exceeding ADIs were 3% for aluminum, 68% for chromium, and 22% for manganese. Estimated intakes of lead were < 20% of ADIs for average and high use. Conclusions: Cosmetics safety should be assessed not only by the presence of hazardous contents, but also by comparing estimated exposures with health-based standards. In addition to lead, metals such as aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese require further investigation.

Liu, Sa; Rojas-Cheatham, Ann

2013-01-01

339

Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposure to Children (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft document, Framework For Assessing Health Risks of Environmental Exposure to Children , can serve as a resource on children's health risk assessment and it addresses the need to provide a comprehensive and consistent framework for considering children in risk asses...

340

Monte Carlo techniques for quantitative uncertainty analysis in public health risk assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most public health risk assessments assume and combine a series of average, conservative, and worst-case values to derive a conservative point estimate of risk. This procedure has major limitations. This paper demonstrates a new methodology for extended uncertainty analyses in public health risk assessments using Monte Carlo techniques. The extended method begins as do some conventional methods--with the preparation of

Kimberly M. Thompson; David E. Burmaster; E. A. Crouch

1992-01-01

341

Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes.  

PubMed

Hair dyes and their ingredients have moderate to low acute toxicity. Human poisoning accidents are rare and have only been reported following oral ingestion. Contact sensitisation to hair dyes has been a safety issue, mainly as a consequence of unprotected professional exposure. Although the use of hair dyes has dramatically increased in industrialised countries during the last decades, the prevalence of sensitisation to hair dyes in the general and professional populations has stabilised or declined. In vitro genotoxicity tests on hair dye ingredients frequently had positive results, although their correlation with in vivo carcinogenicity for the chemical class of oxidative hair dye ingredients (aromatic amines) is uncertain. Positive in vivo genotoxicity results on hair dyes are rare. Studies in man found no evidence of genotoxic effects of hair dyes or their ingredients. On the basis of mechanistic studies, some in vivo positive hair dye ingredients (p-aminophenol, Lawsone) have been shown to pose no or negligible risk to human health. Although a recent case-control epidemiology study suggested an association of hair dye use and bladder cancer, a number of other studies, including prospective investigations on large populations, found no or negative correlations for bladder or other cancers. Although in vivo topical carcinogenicity studies on hair dye ingredients or commercial formulations yielded no evidence for systemic toxicity or carcinogenicity, oral carcinogenicity studies on hair dye ingredients at oral doses up to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) suggested that some ingredients are carcinogenic in rodents. Human systemic exposure to various (14)C-labelled oxidative hair dyes under conditions of use was below 1.0% of the amount applied. Conservative risk assessments suggested no or negligible cancer risk, including for ingredients that were found to be positive in oral carcinogenicity studies. The results of reproductive toxicity studies and epidemiological investigations suggested that hair dyes and their ingredients pose no risk of adverse reproductive effects. In conclusion, the weight of evidence suggests that consumer or professional exposure to hair dyes poses no carcinogenic or other human health risks. PMID:15019177

Nohynek, Gerhard J; Fautz, Rolf; Benech-Kieffer, Florence; Toutain, Herve

2004-04-01

342

Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chickens.  

PubMed

The streptogramin antimicrobial combination Quinupristin-Dalfopristin (QD) has been used in the United States since late 1999 to treat patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections. Another streptogramin, virginiamycin (VM), is used as a growth promoter and therapeutic agent in farm animals in the United States and other countries. Many chickens test positive for QD-resistant E. faecium, raising concern that VM use in chickens might compromise QD effectiveness against VREF infections by promoting development of QD-resistant strains that can be transferred to human patients. Despite the potential importance of this threat to human health, quantifying the risk via traditional farm-to-fork modeling has proved extremely difficult. Enough key data (mainly on microbial loads at each stage) are lacking so that such modeling amounts to little more than choosing a set of assumptions to determine the answer. Yet, regulators cannot keep waiting for more data. Patients prescribed QD are typically severely ill, immunocompromised people for whom other treatment options have not readily been available. Thus, there is a pressing need for sound risk assessment methods to inform risk management decisions for VM/QD using currently available data. This article takes a new approach to the QD-VM risk modeling challenge. Recognizing that the usual farm-to-fork ("forward chaining") approach commonly used in antimicrobial risk assessment for food animals is unlikely to produce reliable results soon enough to be useful, we instead draw on ideas from traditional fault tree analysis ("backward chaining") to reverse the farm-to-fork process and start with readily available human data on VREF case loads and QD resistance rates. Combining these data with recent genogroup frequency data for humans, chickens, and other sources (Willems et al., 2000, 2001) allows us to quantify potential human health risks from VM in chickens in both the United States and Australia, two countries where regulatory action for VM is being considered. We present a risk simulation model, thoroughly grounded in data, that incorporates recent nosocomial transmission and genetic typing data. The model is used to estimate human QD treatment failures over the next five years with and without continued VM use in chickens. The quantitative estimates and probability distributions were implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation model for a five-year horizon beginning in the first quarter of 2002. In Australia, a Q1-2002 ban of virginiamycin would likely reduce average attributable treatment failures by 0.35 x 10(-3) cases, expected mortalities by 5.8 x 10(-5) deaths, and life years lost by 1.3 x 10(-3) for the entire population over five years. In the United States, where the number of cases of VRE is much higher, a 1Q-2002 ban on VM is predicted to reduce average attributable treatment failures by 1.8 cases in the entire population over five years; expected mortalities by 0.29 cases; and life years lost by 6.3 over a five-year period. The model shows that the theoretical statistical human health benefits of a VM ban range from zero to less than one statistical life saved in both Australia and the United States over the next five years and are rapidly decreasing. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is robust to key data gaps and uncertainties, e.g., about the extent of resistance transfer from chickens to people. PMID:15028017

Cox, Louis A; Popken, Douglas A

2004-02-01

343

Evaluating the multiple benefits of marine water quality improvements: how important are health risk reductions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine water pollution affects many recreational sites around the world. It has impacts not only on recreational activities but also on health risks for those who come into direct contact with the water. Few economic studies have explicitly considered the health risks of bathing in polluted marine waters and none have attempted to separate health benefits from other benefits of

Fernando S Machado; Susana Mourato

2002-01-01

344

Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. METHODS: The

Edgar Voltmer; Ulf Kieschke; David LB Schwappach; Michael Wirsching; Claudia Spahn

2008-01-01

345

Elevated Risk of Arrest for Veteran's Administration Behavioral Health Service Recipients in Four Florida Counties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relative contribution of mental and substance abuse disorders to criminal justice involvement by examining the relative risk of arrest for three groups of adult male recipients of VA behavioral health care services. These groups include men served for both substance abuse and mental health, for only substance abuse, and for only mental health. The relative risk

John A. Pandiani; Robert Rosenheck; Steven M. Banks

2003-01-01

346

Bayesian Updating of Model-Based Risk Estimates Using Imperfect Public Health Surveillance Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-based estimation of the human health risks resulting from exposure to environmental contaminants can be an important tool for structuring public health policy. Due to uncertainties in the modeling process, the outcomes of these assessments are usually probabilistic representations of a range of possible risks. In some cases, health surveillance data are available for the assessment population over all or

Owen J. Devine; Judith R. Qualters

2008-01-01

347

Perceived health risks and perceptions of expert consensus in modern food society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with perceptions of food and health risks. Relevant questions are: (1) To what degree do consumers associate specific negative health consequences with food additives and genetically modified food, and do their perceptions differ from the experts’ views? (2) How do consumers perceive experts’ evaluations of health risks connected to food additives and genetically modified food? The results

Anne Haukenes

2004-01-01

348

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-01-01

349

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-12-31

350

Health risk factors among the Amish: results of a survey.  

PubMed

The Amish are a unique societal subgroup deliberately setting themselves apart from the modern world through religious beliefs and practices. Few reports and no systematic studies have been conducted on Amish health behaviors. A representative sample of 400 Amish adults residing in Holmes County, Ohio, were interviewed using the Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFS). For comparison, a representative sample of 773 non-Amish adults responded to the same survey through telephone interviews. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension was lower among Amish than non-Amish, obesity was greater among Amish than non-Amish women but similar among men, and stress responses were more prevalent among Amish than non-Amish. While some differences between groups could be influenced by response biases, many are supported by less systematic observations of Old Order Amish societies. Patterns of health behavior reflect characteristics of Amish culture and may be responsible for certain favorable mortality rates among the Amish population. Need for cultural sensitivity is evident in health promotion program design and implementation. PMID:2347695

Fuchs, J A; Levinson, R M; Stoddard, R R; Mullet, M E; Jones, D H

1990-01-01

351

Algorithms for the determination of unacceptable HLA antigen mismatches in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

One of the major tasks of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) laboratories is the pretransplant determination of unacceptable HLA antigen mismatches (UAM) in organ transplant recipients. HLA antigen specificities are determined against which the patient has circulating alloantibodies that are expected to harm the transplanted organ. Using the information on UAM, negative crossmatch (XM) prediction or 'virtual XM' is possible when a potential donor's complete HLA typing is available. Before the introduction of solid-phase antibody detection assays, UAM were determined using the complement-dependent cytotoxicity methodology. After the introduction of the single antigen bead technique, however, various UAM determination algorithms have emerged. In this report, six different laboratories worldwide present how they determine UAM in their collective of kidney transplant recipients in the pretransplant phase and proceed thereafter to transplantation. PMID:23718733

Süsal, C; Roelen, D L; Fischer, G; Campos, E F; Gerbase-DeLima, M; Hönger, G; Schaub, S; Lachmann, N; Martorell, J; Claas, F

2013-05-30

352

Newly Emerging Environmental Health Risks in a Risk Society: A case study of the public perception of food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-modern societies were subjected to risks attributed to fate, and human-made hazards that were considered manageable. Late-modern society is increasingly exposed to emerging environmental health risks that are products of the modernization process itself (e.g. genetically modified organisms). These risks result from broad changes in the environment and\\/or human activity. Some of these provoke high public perceptions of risk, and

HarringtonDanielW

2011-01-01

353

The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

2010-01-01

354

Venturing into new territory--health systems as Medicare risk contractors.  

PubMed

With each congressional budget debate, hospital and health system executives are reminded of their vulnerability to Medicare reimbursement rates. As health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have entered into Medicare risk contracts and negotiated separate hospital reimbursement rates, hospital and health system executives have recognized even less control of their Medicare reimbursement. One way for health systems to regain control of the Medicare dollar is to develop a Medicare risk contract that directly receives and distributes the Medicare risk premium. Before hospital and health system executives invest in the start-up and operational capital necessary to bid for a risk contract, careful analysis of the efficacy of the contract's contribution to the margin should be undertaken. The following will review observations and lessons from HMO Medicare risk contracting and introduce a methodology that health system executives can use to evaluate the annual financial impact of entering the business of direct Medicare risk contracting. PMID:10159999

Daniel, B A

1996-01-01

355

Effects of informing workers of their health risks from exposure to toxic materials  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the mental health, attitudes, and smoking behaviors of 133 workers who had been informed of health risks from exposure to toxic materials on the job with 137 workers who worked in similar conditions but who had not been told that their health was at risk because of exposure to toxic materials. The informed workers reported more health problems than controls, but there were no significant differences between the informed and uninformed groups in mental health, attitudes toward health hazards in or outside of the workplace, or in smoking rates. Ninety percent of all respondents felt that exposed workers definitely should be told of their health risks. These findings indicate little psychological risk from informing workers about their risks because of exposure to toxic substances and a strong desire on the part of workers to be informed.

Houts, P.S.; McDougall, V.

1988-01-01

356

76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...interested in conducting microbial risk assessments on land- applied...

2011-05-26

357

75 FR 1770 - An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study...in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study...incorporating genomic data into risk assessment. This report describes an...

2010-01-13

358

77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment To Inform Decision Making AGENCY...A Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...agencywide program by the EPA Risk Assessment Forum. The EPA is...

2012-07-30

359

77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making AGENCY...Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making. Any...available via the internet on the Risk Assessment Forum web page...

2012-09-12

360

Contaminated land: can acute exposure be a significant health risk? Two case studies and associated risk assessment methods.  

PubMed

Contaminated land risk assessments generally focus on the chronic health risks, arising from long-term, low-level exposure to the contaminants, and a number of risk assessment tools are in routine use. Situations where significant acute risks might be present are not commonly encountered, and methods for risk assessment are less well established. We present two recent case studies from the northwest of England, the first an area of public open space, and the second an occupied school site, with the associated risk assessments. PMID:24056759

Kowalczyk, George; Brown, Mark; Twigg, Rebecca; Welfare, William; Macklin, Yolande

2013-09-25

361

Climate change: present and future risks to health, and necessary responses.  

PubMed

Recent observed changes in Earth's climate, to which humans have contributed substantially, are affecting various health outcomes. These include altered distributions of some infectious disease vectors (ticks at high latitudes, malaria mosquitoes at high altitudes), and an uptrend in extreme weather events and associated deaths, injuries and other health outcomes. Future climate change, if unchecked, will have increasing, mostly adverse, health impacts - both direct and indirect. Climate change will amplify health problems in vulnerable regions, influence infectious disease emergence, affect food yields and nutrition, increase risks of climate-related disasters and impair mental health. The health sector should assist society understand the risks to health and the needed responses. PMID:21682780

McMichael, A J; Lindgren, E

2011-07-13

362

Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk BehaviorsA Prospective Analysis of College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month follow-up period. After controlling for age and parents' education, a history

Christine A. Gidycz; Lindsay M. Orchowski; Carrie R. King; Cindy L. Rich

2008-01-01

363

Adolescent Peer Crowd Affiliation: Linkages With Health-Risk Behaviors and Close Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine adolescents' peer crowd affiliation and its linkages with health-risk behaviors, their friends' health-risk behaviors, the presence of close friends in the same peer crowd, and adolescents' social acceptance. Methods: We interviewed 250 high school students and identified six categories: popular, jocks, brains, burnouts, nonconformists, or average\\/other. Adolescents also reported on their health-risk behaviors (including use of cigarettes,

Annette M. La Greca; Mitchell J. Prinstein; Michael D. Fetter

2001-01-01

364

Socio–economic differences in health risk behavior in adolescence: Do they exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio–economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio–economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio–economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The relation between socio–economic status (SES) and health risk behaviors was examined, by testing both the main

Jolanda Tuinstra; Johan W. Groothoff; Doeke Post

1998-01-01

365

Physical activity and breast cancer risk: the Women's Health Study (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It is biologically plausible for physical activity to decrease breast cancer risk; however, epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent findings. We therefore examined physical activity and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study.

I-Min Lee; Kathryn M. Rexrode; Nancy R. Cook; Charles H. Hennekens; Julie E. Buring

2001-01-01

366

Planning and implementation efficacy as a determinant of health risk communication outcomes: Case studies of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted under the auspices of the Subcommittee on Risk Communication and Education of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs (CCEHRP) to determine how Public Health Service (PHS) agencies are communicating information about health risk, what factors contributed to effective communication efforts, and what specific principles, strategies, and practices best promote more effective health risk

1994-01-01

367

PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT LINKED TO CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE. (R824995)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Disturbances of climatic and ecological systems can present risks to human health, which are becoming more evident from health studies linked to climate variability, landuse change and global climate change. Waterborne disease agents, such as Giardia cy...

368

Synopsis of Researcher Meeting: Bottlenose Dolphin Health and Risk Assessment Project, February 22-24, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A meeting was convened on February 22-24, 2005 in Charleston, South Carolina to bring together researchers collaborating on the Bottlenose Dolphin Health and Risk Assessment (HERA) Project to review and discuss preliminary health-related findings from cap...

P. A. Fair G. D. Bossart

2005-01-01

369

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE HEALTH RISK OF AIR TOXIC CHEMICALS: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology program to provide key health effects data missing from the current data ...

370

Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

2004-01-01

371

Carcinogenic Human Health Risks Associated with Consuming Contaminated Fish from Five Great Lakes Areas of Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline human health risk assessments have been performed at five Areas of Concern (AOC) as part of the U.S. EPA's Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program. Carcinogenic risks were estimated for complete exposure pathways using risk assessment protocols adapted from the U.S. EPA Superfund program. The greatest carcinogenic risks resulted from consuming contaminated fish. This paper provides a

Judy L. Crane

1996-01-01

372

Detention under the Mental Health Act: balancing rights, risks and needs for services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health law has to balance considerations of both justice, and health and welfare. In the political climate of the 1990s mental health services have become targeted on those with serious mental illness, to address the objectives of containing risks and limiting service expenditure. This paper identifies that increasing rates of detention under the Mental Health Act through the 1990s

Barbara Hatfield; Valerie Antcliff

2001-01-01

373

Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

374

A Test of Association Between Spatially Defined Exposure Patterns and Health Outcome Risk Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the availability of geographically referenced health and environmental quality data of high spatial resolution have created new opportunities in environmental epidemiology. Novel statistical methods for linking health, exposure, and hazards are required to underpin the development of public health tracking. A test for the association between spatial contours of health risk and exposure is outlined. This test is

Jessica Read; Ian Matthews; Barry Nix

2007-01-01

375

Human health and performance risk management—an approach for exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During long duration exploration missions, maintaining human health and performance will be essential to enabling success. Therefore, NASA has developed standards through the Health and Medical Technical Authority to insure human health and performance during exploration. Human health standards are the first step in defining acceptable risk for human space flight and take into consideration both short-term (mission) and long-term

Jeffrey R. Davis; Jennifer A. Fogarty; Elizabeth E. Richard

2008-01-01

376

Risk behaviour in adolescence: the relationship between developmental and health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research is beginning to suggest that the descriptive knowledge base of adolescent risk behaviour is not conceptually\\u000a based and is inadequate to sufficiently inform a comprehensive assessment of adolescent health and risk. The aim of this paper\\u000a is to contribute towards the knowledge of adolescent risk behaviour. Building on a developmental perspective, links between\\u000a health risk behaviour and the

Klaus Hurrelmann; Matthias Richter

2006-01-01

377

Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM?+?image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2?=?0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high correlation between 2000 and 2001 risk indices (r?=?0.98, p?health risk index together with hazard and vulnerability indices to implement tailored programs because exposure to heat and vulnerability do not require the same prevention strategies.

2012-01-01

378

Human health risk assessment related to cyanotoxins exposure.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the risk assessment associated with human exposure to cyanotoxins, secondary metabolites of an ubiquitous group of photosynthetic procariota. Cyanobacteria occur especially in eutrophic inland and coastal surface waters, where under favorable conditions they attain high densities and may form blooms and scums. Cyanotoxins can be grouped according to their biological effects into hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, and toxins with irritating potential, also acting on the gastrointestinal system. The chemical and toxicological properties of the main cyanotoxins, relevant for the evaluation of possible risks for human health, are presented. Humans may be exposed to cyanotoxins via several routes, with the oral one being by far the most important, occurring by ingesting contaminated drinking water, food, some dietary supplements, or water during recreational activities. Acute and short-term toxic effects have been associated in humans with exposure to high levels of cyanotoxins in drinking and bathing waters. However, the chronic exposure to low cyanotoxin levels remains a critical issue. This article identifies the actual risky exposure scenarios, provides toxicologically derived reference values, and discusses open issues and research needs. PMID:18259982

Funari, Enzo; Testai, Emanuela

2008-01-01

379

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

380

Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

381

Outdoor radioactivity and health risks in Balikesir, northwestern Turkey.  

PubMed

External irradiation from radionuclides naturally present in the environment or released from man-made practices or events is usually an important component of the exposure of human populations. These exposures derive primarily from gamma radiation arising from the decay of these radionuclides at locations outside the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the radioactivity levels and health risks due to terrestrial radionuclides in the soil of Balikesir, one of the largest cities of the country, northwestern Turkey. For this purpose, activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil and outdoor gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic) have been investigated in the city of Balikesir. In addition, maps for the radionuclide activity concentrations of soil and the outdoor gamma dose rate distributions have been plotted for the region. The average activities of radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K, (235)U and (137)Cs in the soil were determined to be 37.6 ± 10.8, 54.7 ± 15.1, 674.5 ± 203.2, 3.6 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the region. The average outdoor gamma dose rates due to terrestrial and cosmic radiations were found to be 78.5 ± 12.4 and 48.9 ± 5.8 nGy h(-1) with the total of 127.4 ± 18.9 nGy h(-1) in the region. Annual effective dose due to environmental outdoor gamma radiation exposures was determined to be 156.3 nSv. The mean estimated cancer risk values were found to be 0.063 × 10(-2) for the region using risk factors of ICRP 103. The results of the study were discussed with the studies done in other cities of Turkey and the worldwide averages. PMID:21441564

Kapdan, E; Varinlioglu, A; Karahan, G

2011-03-26

382

Mexican American adolescents' profiles of risk and mental health: a person-centered longitudinal approach.  

PubMed

Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified Mexican American fifth graders' (N = 749) risk profiles based on family, peer, and socio-cultural risk factors and examined the relations of these risk profiles to mental health symptomatology in seventh grade. Results revealed three distinct profiles that differed quantitatively and qualitatively. Profiles were then linked to levels of mental health symptomatology, with youth in the highest risk profile displaying the most symptoms. Youth in two other risk profiles displayed lower levels. The findings suggest that Mexican American youth develop within distinct risk contexts that differ in their relations to adjustment. Such findings inform prevention/intervention efforts aimed at reducing mental health problems in adolescence. PMID:23608782

Zeiders, Katharine H; Roosa, Mark W; Knight, George P; Gonzales, Nancy A

2013-04-20

383

Metabolic Risk and Health Behaviors in Minority Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of sex and race/ethnicity on metabolic risk and health behaviors in minority youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 173 seventh graders (46% male and 54% female; 49% Hispanic and 51% African American) with BMI ?85th percentile and a family history of diabetes were assessed with weight, height, BMI, percent body fat, and waist circumference measures. Laboratory indexes included 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests with insulin levels at 0 and 2 h, fasting A1C, and lipids. Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Youth also completed questionnaires evaluating health behaviors. RESULTS Average BMI (31.6 ± 6.4 kg/m2) and percent body fat (39.5 ± 10.6%) were high. All participants demonstrated insulin resistance with elevated HOMA-IR values (8.5 ± 5.2). Compared with African American youth, Hispanic youth had higher triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol despite similar BMI. Hispanic youth reported lower self-efficacy for diet, less physical activity, and higher total fat intake. Male youth had higher glucose (0 and 2 h) and reported more physical activity, more healthy food choices, and higher calcium intake than female youth. CONCLUSIONS Screening high-risk youth for insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities is recommended. Promoting acceptable physical activities and healthy food choices may be especially important for Hispanic and female youth.

Holl, Marita G.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Womack, Julie A.; Jefferson, Vanessa L.; Grey, Margaret

2011-01-01

384

Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model  

PubMed Central

Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing the health and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational. Further, a number of efficacious mental health treatments are available for PLWHA yet few positive prevention interventions integrate mental health treatment. We propose that mental health treatment, including behavioral and pharmacologic interventions, can lead to reductions in HIV transmission risk behavior and should be a core component of secondary HIV prevention. We present a conceptual model and recommendations to guide future research on the effect of mental health treatment on HIV transmission risk behavior among PLWHA.

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Drabkin, Anya S.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Pence, Brian W.

2010-01-01

385

Evaluation and use of epidemiological evidence for environmental health risk assessment: WHO guideline document.  

PubMed Central

Environmental health risk assessment is increasingly being used in the development of environmental health policies, public health decision making, the establishment of environmental regulations, and research planning. The credibility of risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. It is, therefore, imperative that the processes and methods used to evaluate the evidence and estimate health risks are clear, explicit, and based on valid epidemiological theory and practice. Epidemiological Evidence for Environmental Health Risk Assessment is a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline document. The primary target audiences of the guidelines are expert review groups that WHO (or other organizations) might convene in the future to evaluate epidemiological evidence on the health effects of environmental factors. These guidelines identify a set of processes and general approaches to assess available epidemiological information in a clear, consistent, and explicit manner. The guidelines should also help in the evaluation of epidemiological studies with respect to their ability to support risk assessment and, consequently, risk management. Conducting expert reviews according to such explicit guidelines would make health risk assessment and subsequent risk management and risk communication processes more readily understood and likely to be accepted by policymakers and the public. It would also make the conclusions reached by reviews more readily acceptable as a basis for future WHO guidelines and other recommendations, and would provide a more rational basis for setting priorities for future research.

2000-01-01

386

A usability problem: conveying health risks to consumers on the Internet.  

PubMed

Effectively designing risk information for the public is challenging and selecting the appropriate medium to deliver disease risk information is crucial. In a usability evaluation of a colon cancer risk website, we evaluated the public's understanding and interpretation of graphical displays of risk information (2 bar graphs). Results from this study suggest that many people do not understand risk and often misinterpret graphical displays of risk and associated terminology. This work shows the importance of not only including representational analysis within user-centered design of consumer health websites, but also evaluating the health and numerical literacy levels of these websites as an aspect of usability testing. PMID:23304313

Johnson, Constance M; Shaw, Ryan J

2012-11-03

387

A Usability Problem: Conveying Health Risks to Consumers On the Internet  

PubMed Central

Effectively designing risk information for the public is challenging and selecting the appropriate medium to deliver disease risk information is crucial. In a usability evaluation of a colon cancer risk website, we evaluated the public’s understanding and interpretation of graphical displays of risk information (2 bar graphs). Results from this study suggest that many people do not understand risk and often misinterpret graphical displays of risk and associated terminology. This work shows the importance of not only including representational analysis within user-centered design of consumer health websites, but also evaluating the health and numerical literacy levels of these websites as an aspect of usability testing.

Johnson, Constance M.; Shaw, Ryan J.

2012-01-01

388

Relationships Between Animal Health Monitoring and the Risk Assessment Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Risk assessment is part of the risk analysis process as it is used in veterinary medicine to estimate risks related to international trade and food safety. Data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS) are used throughout the risk assessment process for hazard identification, release assessment, exposure assessment and consequence assessment. As the quality of risk assessments depends to a

KDC Stärk

2001-01-01

389

Ten modifiable health risk factors are linked to more than one-fifth of employer-employee health care spending.  

PubMed

An underlying premise of the Affordable Care Act provisions that encourage employers to adopt health promotion programs is an association between workers' modifiable health risks and increased health care costs. Employers, consultants, and vendors have cited risk-cost estimates developed in the 1990s and wondered whether they still hold true. Examining ten of these common health risk factors in a working population, we found that similar relationships between such risks and total medical costs documented in a widely cited study published in 1998 still hold. Based on our sample of 92,486 employees at seven organizations over an average of three years, $82,072,456, or 22.4 percent, of the $366,373,301 spent annually by the seven employers and their employees in the study was attributed to the ten risk factors studied. This amount was similar to almost a quarter of spending linked to risk factors (24.9 percent) in the 1998 study. High risk for depression remained most strongly associated with increased per capita annual medical spending (48 percent, or $2,184, higher). High blood glucose, high blood pressure, and obesity were strongly related to increased health care costs (31.8 percent, 31.6 percent, and 27.4 percent higher, respectively), as were tobacco use, physical inactivity, and high stress. These findings indicate ongoing opportunities for well-designed and properly targeted employer-sponsored health promotion programs to produce substantial savings. PMID:23129678

Goetzel, Ron Z; Pei, Xiaofei; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Henke, Rachel M; Kowlessar, Niranjana; Nelson, Craig F; Metz, R Douglas

2012-11-01

390

Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.?METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time of the incident. The literature on the long term health risks of asbestos was reviewed, and combined with evidence on asbestos exposure to estimate community health risk.?RESULTS—Risk was almost entirely from exposure to fire fallout of chrysotile in asbestos bitumen paper covering the factory roof. Amosite was only detected in a few samples and in trace amounts. The number of people who lived in the area of fallout was 16 000 to 48 000. From a non-threshold model with assumptions likely to overestimate risk, the lung cancer risk is estimated to be undetectably small. Risk of mesothelioma from chrysotile exposure, and risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma from amosite exposure were based on observational studies and were estimated to be even lower than that of lung cancer risk from chrysotile exposure. Academically, there are assumptions that while reasonable cannot be proven, for example, the validity of extrapolating observed risk from much higher exposures to lower exposures, estimates of individual exposure, and that there is no threshold for asbestos to cause cancer.?CONCLUSIONS—The author is unaware of a similar study on long term health risks in a community exposed to asbestos in a fire. It is concluded that, using methods that do not underestimate risk, risk is undetectably small. Practical lessons from this methodology and approach to health risk assessment are discussed.???Keywords: asbestos; environmental pollutants; mesothelioma; health risk assessment; lung cancer

Bridgman, S

2001-01-01

391

Health risk assessment of residents living on harbour sludge.  

PubMed

A modelled approach for the assessment of exposure and health risks in a case of soil pollution with an unknown but probably large number of potential contaminants is presented. In 1983 the Steendijkpolder, a housing estate of about 800 houses, an agglomeration of schools and a tennis hall was built directly on a 4-m-thick layer of harbour sludge. The sludge originated from around 20 harbour basins in Rotterdam and the industrial area around the Nieuwe Waterweg. In the soil organic solvents, PAH's, aldrin, dieldrin, isodrin, telodrin and several heavy metals were found to be present as contaminants. Not all contaminants, including a number of halogenated compounds, were identified. The investigation of the other relevant environmental compartments in this situation, e.g. drinking-water, indoor-air and home grown vegetables showed that soil ingestion was the predominant route of intake of contaminants. Therefore the exposure of infants (age: 2-3 years) was calculated. The calculated intake of PAH by soil ingestion was around half the average intake of PAH in the daily diet. The extra exposure to drins (a group of cyclodiene insecticides) due to soil ingestion and inhaled contaminated indoor air was calculated to exceed twice the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of dieldrin. The calculated maximal intake of Pb by soil ingestion exceeded the average intake of Pb in the daily diet by around 1.4 times. The maximal intake by soil ingestion of the other identified contaminants was relatively low. It was concluded that with the present knowledge the calculated exposure would not result in observable health damage. PMID:3198287

van Wijnen, J H; Stijkel, A

1988-01-01

392

New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

393

Mental Health, Social Environment and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Adolescent Service Users: A Gender Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined individual mental health problems (depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse) and social environment (family, peer, and neighborhood) factors associated with the sexual risk behaviors of male and female adolescents. Interviews with 778 adolescents, aged 14 to 18, showed that both mental health problems and social environment were related to adolescents' involvement in sexual risk behaviors. Conduct disorder symptoms,

Yu-Wen Chen; Arlene Rubin Stiffman; Li-Chen Cheng; Peter Dore

1997-01-01

394

An Approach to Occupational Health Risk Management for a Diversified International Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk management program is presented which is effective in handling occupational health risks in a diversified multinational corporation. The three-step program of plant reviews involves initial assessment visits designed to determine the compliance status and degree of sophistication of the occupational health program. These assessments are followed by more formal assurance reviews which include consultation, training, and program support.

G. H. ANDERSEN; A. C. SMITH; L. T. DAIGLE

1989-01-01

395

Quantitative Health Risk Assessment for Particulate Matter, Second External Review Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This second draft quantitative health risk assessment (RA) presents the quantitative assessments of PM-related risks to public health being conducted by staff in EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support the review of the prima...

2010-01-01

396

Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

2012-01-01

397

Human Health Risks Associated with Drug Residues in Animal-Derived Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulteration of food supply by agricultural chemicals has gained national attention as a potential health hazard. Public fears over chemical residues in foods do not appear commensurate with the risks established through experimental or epidemiologic studies. This paper examines the risk to human health from consumption of drug residues in animal-derived foods. In particular, it focuses on antimicrobial residues and

Stephen F. Sundlof

1994-01-01

398

High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and…

Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

2007-01-01

399

Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index and Health Risk Factors among Middle Aged Thais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are important contributors to major causes of health risk factors such as high blood cholesterol, high fasting blood sugar and high blood pressure. This analysis was designed to assess the associations between WC, BMI and each health risk factor in suitable cut-off points for WC and BMI among middle aged men and

K. Narksawat; J. Podang; P. Punyarathabundu; A. Podhipak

2007-01-01

400

[Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].  

PubMed

Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases. PMID:23461181

Shur, P Z; Za?tseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

2012-01-01

401

Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college…

Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

2012-01-01

402

Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation) and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea.

Hak-Ju Kim; Jennifer Prah Ruger

2010-01-01

403

A Screening-Level Assessment of the Health Risks of Chronic Smoke Exposure for Wildland Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,

Thomas F. Booze; Timothy E. Reinhardt; Sharon J. Quiring; Roger D. Ottmar

2004-01-01

404

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-01-20

405

Prospective method for estimating occupational health risks in new energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

In design, development, and acceptance of new energy technologies, concern for health and safety is increasingly important. Determining risks for emerging technologies is difficult because health statistics associated with these new alternatives are unavailable. Nevertheless boundaries on such risks must be determined to identify potentially significant hazards and to permit technology comparisons to be made. An approach to determining occupational health costs is to disaggregate labor requirements of an emerging industy by different worker classifications. Risks to workers can then be determined for these classifications from occupational health statistics of related industries. By summing risks for each worker classification, prospective estimates of individual and societal risk from an emerging technology can be developed. Although this approach identifies accident-related effects, it cannot be used to quantitate occupationally induced disease. An example of this method analyzing different photovoltaic fabrication alternatives is given. Individual vs. societal risk is considered in these analyses.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Briggs, T.; Ungers, L.; Hamilton, L.D.

1981-09-01

406

Health risks of dietary exposure to perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) form a diverse group of chemicals with surface-active properties manufactured for over 50 years. In recent years, a number of studies have reported the ubiquitous distribution of PFCs in human tissues and wildlife. Although the relative importance of the routes of human exposure to these compounds is not well established yet, it has been suggested that food intake and packaging, water, house dust, and airborne are all potentially significant sources. However, dietary intake is probably the main route of exposure to these compounds, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFCs. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding the concentrations of PFCs in foodstuffs, human dietary exposure to these compounds and their health risks. The influence of processing, cooking and packaging on the PFCs levels in food is also discussed. Because of the rather limited information about human dietary exposure, studies to determine exposure to PFCs through the diet for the general population of a number of countries are clearly necessary. The correlation of PFCs body burdens and dietary intake of PFCs should be also established. PMID:21864910

Domingo, José L

2011-08-23

407

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-07-05

408

Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

409

Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing\\u000a the health and quality of life of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission\\u000a risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational.\\u000a Further, a number of efficacious mental

Kathleen J. Sikkema; Melissa H. Watt; Anya S. Drabkin; Christina S. Meade; Nathan B. Hansen; Brian W. Pence

2010-01-01

410

Adolescent Girls’ Offending and Health-Risking Sexual Behavior: The Predictive Role of Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have highlighted high levels of risk for girls who have been exposed to traumatic experiences, but little is known about the exact relationship between traumatic experiences and problems with delinquency and health-risking sexual behavior (e.g., precipitory and\\/or exacerbatory roles). However, numerous short- and long-term detrimental effects have been linked to trauma, delinquency, and health-risking sexual behavior. The utility

Dana K. Smith; Leslie D. Leve; Patricia Chamberlain

2006-01-01

411

The Zero-vision: potential side effects of communicating health perfection and zero risk.  

PubMed

Public health education may have harmful side effects: generate fear, give rise to healthism and contribute to a medical sorting society. To prevent these adverse reactions a new deal for public health communication is presented. It is commended to move public health from omnipotence to moderation, from life style to living conditions, from risk to the bright sides of health, from statistical clone to the holy individual. Furthermore public health communication ought to include uncertainty as authoritarian truth mongering erodes trust. The public health educator must convey compassion and dedication. Rational techno-info is not sufficient. The last golden rule for a new public health is to respect the people. The people are not an inferior mass subjected to basic instincts and irrational fears. Common sense and lay experiences may contribute to the wise management of risk. Therefore public health should develop a people-centered method, recognizing people's own values, perceptions and potentials for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:16469471

Fugelli, Per

2006-02-15

412

Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

Pastorok, R.A.

1986-06-01

413

Effects of fear on risk and control judgements and memory: Implications for health promotion messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health promotion messages that evoke fear are often used to decrease unrealistic optimism regarding risks, convince people to control their behaviour, and make risks memorable. The relations among emotions, risk and control judgements, and memory are not well understood, however. In the current study, participants (N = 94) were assigned to fearful, angry, happy, or neutral emotion-elicitation conditions. They then

Heather Lench; Linda Levine

2005-01-01

414

Health, risk and divergence: lay and institutional strategies for preventing and managing disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational or 'expert' approach to risk sees it as a technical matter to be tackled with more science and better risk communication. Risk is understood as an objective concept, relating to the management of future uncertainties, through rational action based on calculations of probability. Within this paradigm professional strategies for preventing and managing disease involve health professionals acting as

Annmarie Ruston; Chatham Maritime

415

Risk Factors for Falls in Older Disabled Women With Diabetes: The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of this study was to determine whether older disabled women with diabetes have an increased risk of falls compared to women without diabetes and to identify fall risk factors among this high-risk subgroup of patients. Methods. Data are from the Women's Health and Aging Study I (n ¼ 1002, age ? 65 years), a prospective, population- based

Stefano Volpato; Suzanne G. Leveille; Caroline Blaum; Linda P. Fried; Jack M. Guralnik

2005-01-01

416

Lifestyle behavior change and repeat health risk appraisal participation: a structural equation modeling approach.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose. Health risk appraisals (HRAs) have been used to address multiple health concerns and lifestyle behaviors. We explore the longitudinal relationship between emotional health, stage of change for five lifestyle behaviors, and lifestyle risks using HRA-generated data. Design. Secondary analysis of 3 years of HRA data. Setting. A large health care management services provider. Subjects. A total of 7535 adults employed across three companies who completed consecutive HRAs over a 3-year period. Measures. Self-report items concerning participant health, lifestyle behaviors, disease risk factors, job/life satisfaction, safety, and biometrics. Analysis. Structural equation modeling tested a hypothesized longitudinal, fully cross-lagged panel design. Results. Results indicated that greater numbers of physical and behavioral risks classified as high risk were associated with greater intention to change or an actual change in lifestyle behavior in the following year. In addition, poorer emotional health was associated with a higher number of risks. Conclusion. Data from repeat participation in HRAs can be useful in studying multiple risk behaviors and related health measures, supporting the design and evaluation of effective, individualized, and responsive health promotion activities for working adults. PMID:23621625

Simpson, Vicki L; Hyner, Gerald C; Anderson, James G

2013-04-26

417

Employing Effective Counseling Strategies for Redirecting Unacceptable School Behaviors among Urban Boys in the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Grade Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This practicum was designed to decrease the number of times boys in third, fourth, and fifth grade classes met with the school guidance counselor for unacceptable behaviors and to improve the attitudes of the boys and their parents. Pre- and post-attitudinal and observational questionnaires were administered to 30 randomly selected third, fourth,…

Hill, Venola L.

418

[French School of Public Health (FSPH). II. Risk analysis and regulation].  

PubMed

The project of a center for risk analysis and regulation is founded paradoxical statement: although health risks and crisis are major a focus of society and a driving force for institutional change and regulations, France, contrary to many industrialized countries, has no multidisciplinary center in this field. This is likely due to the weakness of French risk research, resulting in few international publications and little visibility. The creation of the French School of Public Health (FSPH) brings an opportunity to fill this gap by gathering together, in the same center, researchers and teachers specializing in risk assessment and management--the conceptual basis of public health. The main objectives of this risk center, which will link the scientific knowledge on health with the public decision-making process, are--to organize a network of researchers with expertise in risk analysis and regulation;--to bolster the presence of French risk research on the international stage;--to increase international publication and to share experiences and methodological innovations with other countries ; and 4) to organize integrated training on health risks. Through the development of analyses on risk evaluation and regulation, this center will contribute to the promotion of public health. PMID:17969552

Setbon, Michel

2007-02-01

419

Reaching at risk groupsThe importance of health storytelling in Los Angeles Latino media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latinos are at high risk for many health problems, but are often missed by traditional health communication campaigns aired through general audience channels. This article explores Latinos’ connections to communication channels for health goals - both mediated and interpersonal and media that is general audience and geo-ethnic (targeted toward a specific ethnicity and\\/or community). Data from a random digit dial

Holley A. Wilkin; Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach

2006-01-01

420

Preventive Health Practices and Behavioural Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screening and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We compared

Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; E. Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

2012-01-01

421

Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation

Dariusz Leszczynski; Zhengping Xu

2010-01-01

422

Concepts of Self-Rated Health: Specifying the Gender Difference in Mortality Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study addresses the question of how the relation between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality differs between genders. In addition to the general question, four specific concepts of SRH are distinguished: SRH in comparison with age peers, SRH in comparison with one's own health 10 years ago, and current and future health perceptions. For these concepts, the gender-specific risks

Dorly J. H. Deeg; Didi M. W. Kriegsman

2003-01-01

423

Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: bibliography of health effects and risk assessment information. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document provides state and local air agencies and other Clearinghouse users with citations to selected publications pertaining to health effects and risk assessment of toxic pollutants. These documents were published by the following four agencies: National Academy of Sciences, the World Health Organization, the National Cancer Institute of Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control. In

A. S. Pelland; B. K. Post; R. C. Mead

1984-01-01

424

Rationing in the emergency department: the good, the bad, and the unacceptable  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Waiting times in emergency departments (EDs) are an important government priority. Although substantial efforts are currently being made to reduce waiting times, little attention has been paid to the patients' view. We used qualitative methods to explore patients' perspectives on waiting times and other approaches to rationing and prioritisation. Methods: Face to face, in depth, qualitative interviews (n = 11) explored how patients valued waiting times for non-urgent ED care. The framework approach (identifying a thematic framework through repeated re-reading) was used to analyse transcripts. Results: Interviewees found some forms of rationing and prioritisation acceptable. They expected rationing by delay, but required explanations or information on the reason for their wait. They valued prioritisation by triage (rationing by selection) and thought that this role could be expanded for the re-direction of non-urgent patients elsewhere (rationing by deflection). Interviewees were mainly unwilling or unable to engage in prioritisation of different types of patients, openly prioritising only those with obvious clinical need, and children. However, some interviewees were willing to ration implicitly, labelling some attenders as inappropriate, such as those causing a nuisance. Others felt it was unacceptable to blame "inappropriate" attenders, as their attendance may relate to lack of information or awareness of service use. Explicit rationing between services was not acceptable, although some believed there were more important priorities for NHS resources than ED waiting times. Interviewees disagreed with the hypothetical notion of paying to be seen more quickly in the ED (rationing by charging). Conclusions: Interviewees expected to wait and accepted the need for prioritisation, although they were reluctant to engage in judgements regarding prioritisation. They supported the re-direction of patients with certain non-urgent complaints. However, they perceived a need for more explanation and information about their wait, the system, and alternative services.

Cross, E; Goodacre, S; O'Cathain, A; Arnold, J

2005-01-01

425

Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study reports an efficacy trial of four work-site health promotion programs. It was predicted that strategies making use of behavioral counseling would produce a greater reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors than screening and educational strategies. METHODS. Twenty-eight work sites were randomly allocated to a health risk assessment, risk factor education, behavioral counseling, or behavioral counseling plus incentives intervention. Participants were assessed before the intervention and at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS. Compared with the average of the health risk assessment and risk factor education conditions, there were significantly higher validated continuous smoking cessation rates and smaller increases in body mass index and estimated percentage of body fat in the two behavioral counseling conditions. The behavioral counseling condition was associated with a greater reduction in mean blood pressure than was the behavioral counseling plus incentives condition. On average among all groups, there was a short-term increase in aerobic capacity followed by a return to baseline levels. CONCLUSIONS. Work-site interventions that use behavioral approaches can produce lasting changes in some cardiovascular risk factors and, if implemented routinely, can have a significant public health impact.

Gomel, M; Oldenburg, B; Simpson, J M; Owen, N

1993-01-01

426

Personality Pathology as a Risk Factor for Negative Health Perception  

PubMed Central

Previous findings suggest that self-perception of health relates to many physical health outcomes, including mortality. Many factors appear to shape health perceptions, like personality. Little research, however, has focused on whether personality pathology may affect perceived health. This preliminary study examined the unique effects of personality pathology on health perceptions beyond those of objective health and normal personality factors. We studied an epidemiologically-based, representative sample (N=697) of Saint Louis residents (ages 55–64). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Health Status Inventory were used to collect reports of health perceptions, chronic illnesses, and physical functioning. Personality traits were measured with the revised NEO Personality Inventory and personality disorders were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Number of physical illnesses, physical functioning, normal personality, and personality disorders all predicted self-perception of health separately. Personality disorders also predicted health perception above and beyond objective health and personality variables. These findings elucidate the importance of personality pathology in understanding perceived health and suggest that certain patterns of pathology may be particularly detrimental to subjective health.

Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

427

Gambling with Your Health: Predictors of Risk for AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in terms of risk-related behaviors, and to investigate the factors that may be involved in putting one at risk, a study conducted telephone interviews with 493 randomly selected adults (18 years or older) in Austin, Texas in the fall of 1987. Respondents answered approximately 40…

Lasorsa, Dominic L.; Shoemaker, Pamela J.

428

Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

1992-01-01

429

Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

1992-01-01

430

HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Health Insurance Coverage in Men Who Have Sex with Men.  

PubMed

Research on the association between health insurance coverage and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) is sparse. We hypothesized that MSM with health insurance would be less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior based on previous research showing that insured persons increase contact with providers which can improve health knowledge, decrease tendency to engage in unhealthy behaviors, and raise awareness about health risks. As part of a study testing an online HIV prevention intervention, we collected information on health insurance and sexual behavior from MSM (n=650). Overall, men with health insurance had a 28% reduced prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse male partners (UAIMP) in the 90 days prior to the survey. Potential explanations include access to healthcare providers and awareness of sexual health. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanism through which health insurance is protective. PMID:23180980

Brunsberg, Sarah A; Rosser, B R Simon; Smolenski, Derek

2012-06-01

431

HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Health Insurance Coverage in Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Research on the association between health insurance coverage and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) is sparse. We hypothesized that MSM with health insurance would be less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior based on previous research showing that insured persons increase contact with providers which can improve health knowledge, decrease tendency to engage in unhealthy behaviors, and raise awareness about health risks. As part of a study testing an online HIV prevention intervention, we collected information on health insurance and sexual behavior from MSM (n=650). Overall, men with health insurance had a 28% reduced prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse male partners (UAIMP) in the 90 days prior to the survey. Potential explanations include access to healthcare providers and awareness of sexual health. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanism through which health insurance is protective.

Brunsberg, Sarah A.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Smolenski, Derek

2012-01-01

432

Legal and ethical implications of health care provider insurance risk assumption.  

PubMed

From bedside to boardroom, nurses deal with the consequences of health care provider insurance risk assumption. Professional caregiver insurance risk refers to insurance risks assumed through contracts with third parties, federal and state Medicare and Medicaid program mandates, and the diagnosis-related groups and Prospective Payment Systems. This article analyzes the financial, legal, and ethical implications of provider insurance risk assumption by focusing on the degree to which patient benefits are reduced. PMID:21116141

Cox, Thomas

433

Socioeconomic differences in health risk behaviour in adolescence: do they exist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Socio?economic,diÄerences in risk behaviors,in adolescence,can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio?economic,health diÄerences in adulthood. We studied whether,or not socio?eco- nomic,diÄerences in health risk behaviors,are present in male and,female adolescents in The Nether- lands. The relation between socio?economic status (SES) and health risk behaviors was examined, by testing both the main,and interaction eÄects of SES and gender

J. Tuinstra; J. W. Groothoff; D. Van; D. Post

1998-01-01

434

Aging Risk and Health Care Expenditure in Korea  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the impact of population aging on health care expenditures in Korea. Examination of the age-expenditure profile reveals that health care resources are allocated more for the older cohort of population over time, suggesting significant growth of health care expenditures due to population aging. We contend, however, that population aging is considered as a parameter rather than an independent variable to explain rising health care expenditures. This paper shows that population aging is not found to be a significant determinant of health care expenditures according to the econometric analysis using OECD health data and time-series data for Korea. Using the components decomposition method, which measures the contribution of each component of health care expenditure, we estimate that population aging contributes only less than 10 percent.

Tchoe, Byongho; Nam, Sang-Ho

2010-01-01

435

[The socio-hygienic monitoring as an integral system for health risk assessment and risk management at the regional level].  

PubMed

The information and analytical framework for the introduction of health risk assessment and risk management methodologies in the Sverdlovsk Region is the system of socio-hygienic monitoring. Techniques of risk management that take into account the choice of most cost-effective and efficient actions for improvement of the sanitary and epidemiologic situation at the level of the region, municipality, or a business entity of the Russian Federation, have been developed and proposed. To assess the efficiency of planning and activities for health risk management common method approaches and economic methods of "cost-effectiveness" and "cost-benefit" analyses provided in method recommendations and introduced in the Russian Federation are applied. PMID:23805689

Kuzmin, S V; Gurvich, V B; Dikonskaya, O V; Malykh, O L; Yarushin, S V; Romanov, S V; Kornilkov, A S

436

The Representation of Risk in Routine Medical Experience: What Actions for Contemporary Health Policy?  

PubMed Central

Background The comprehension of appropriate information about illnesses and treatments, can have beneficial effects on patients’ satisfaction and on important health outcomes. However, it is questionable whether people are able to understand risk properly. Aim To describe patients’ representation of risk in common medical experiences by linking such a representation to the concept of trust. A further goal was to test whether the representation of risk in the medical domain is associated to the level of expertise. The third goal was to verify whether socio-demographic differences influence the representation of risk. Methods Eighty voluntary participants from 6 health-centers in northern Italy were enrolled to conduct a semi-structured interview which included demographic questions, term-associations about risk representation, closed and open questions about attitudes and perception of risk in the medical context, as well as about medical expertise and trust. Results The results showed that people do not have in mind a scientific definition of risk in medicine. Risk is seen as a synonym for surgery and disease and it is often confused with fear. However, general knowledge of medical matters helps people to have a better health management through risk identification and risk information, adoption of careful behaviors and tendency to have a critical view about safety and medical news. Finally, trust proved to be an important variable in risk representation and risk and trust were correlated positively. Conclusions People must receive appropriate information about the risks and benefits of treatment, in a form that they can understand and apply to their own circumstances. Moreover, contemporary health policy should empower patients to adopt an active self-care attitude. Methodologies to enhance people’s decision-making outcomes based on better risk communication should be improved in order to enable low literacy population as well elderly people to better understand their treatment and associated risk.

Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Antonietti, Alessandro

2012-01-01

437

[Comment on the perception of risk and its relationship to advancements in health knowledge].  

PubMed

Since World War II, industrialized Western societies have been making significant public investments that have yielded spectacular improvements in the health status of their populations. Yet despite such considerable strides, it is nonetheless evident that lay peoples are expressing both more scepticism than in the past and greater mistrust toward medical science and biomedicine, even as they show increasing concern about health risks. In this article we intend to discuss some of the broader opportunities that the analysis of lay risk perceptions offers for appreciating the concerns of lay peoples about health-related issues as well as to provide new insights in population health. PMID:18457291

Proulx, Michelle; Gravel, Sylvie; Monnais, Laurence; Leduc, Nicole

438

Cardiovascular and behavioral risk factors in relation to self-assessed health status.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore biomedical and behavioral risk factors in relation to self-assessed physical, mental and general health status in an open adult Croatian population sample. Subjective experience of health status was assessed with the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). Out of 9070 respondents, we defined two groups with respect to cardiovascular (CV) risk factors: (1) a healthy group of individuals who did not state the presence of any covered chronic disease or disorder (N = 1,817), and (2) a group with CV risk which included individuals who reported having high blood pressure or high blood cholesterol or high blood sugar diagnosed (N = 360). When adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, these two groups differed in self-assessed health status. The group with CV risk factors showed an average lower level of subjective health status than the healthy group. At the level of specific health dimensions, the group with CV risks reported significantly lower general and mental health, but they reported healthier behaviors at the present time. We analyzed the measured health behaviors in predicting individual differences in the physical, mental and general health of the healthy group. Physical activity was revealed as a significant predictor of all three aspects of subjective health. Socio-economic variables of age, gender and self-assessed economic status contributed significantly to the explanation of all three aspects of subjective health. Our findings emphasize that psychological, physical, and social factors are inextricably linked in maintaining cardiovascular health, thus showing the importance of targeting health-related behaviors, especially physical activity, in preventive strategies and programs. PMID:19563154

Mavrinac, Gorka Vuleti?; Sersi?, Darja Masli?; Mujki?, Aida

2009-04-01

439

Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?  

PubMed

There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In some places at which heavy anthropogenic contamination of drinking water sources occurs, advanced drinking water treatment is increasingly being implemented. This treatment employs particle removal, ozone oxidation of organic material and activated charcoal adsorption of the oxidation products. Such processes will remove industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, pharmaceutical products and hormones. Populations for which only basic wastewater and drinking water treatment are available remain vulnerable. PMID:16823090

Falconer, Ian R

2006-06-01

440

The pasteurized state: milk, health and the government of risk.  

PubMed

In the late 1940s, Florence Sabin, a retired professor of medicine, returned to her home in Colorado to launch a massive public health campaign. Seeing "filthy milk" as an important vector of disease, she struggled not just pasteurized milk, but a pasteurized state government that was capable of regulating the milk industry. In the process, she brought managerialism into public health by fighting against the political machines and introducing Robert McNamara's systems analysis into government for the first time. Sabin's innovation, which united business, government and public health in new ways, transformed the way that public health is managed even today. PMID:21840061

Dunn, Elizabeth Cullen

2011-08-12

441

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01

442

A test of association between spatially defined exposure patterns and health outcome risk contours.  

PubMed

Advances in the availability of geographically referenced health and environmental quality data of high spatial resolution have created new opportunities in environmental epidemiology. Novel statistical methods for linking health, exposure, and hazards are required to underpin the development of public health tracking. A test for the association between spatial contours of health risk and exposure is outlined. This test is examined using, as an example, the spatial contours of congenital malformation risk obtained from a routine dataset in the vicinity of a landfill site and an exposure model based on exponential reduction with distance from the site. Spatial contours of risk of congenital malformation were simulated using the exposure model stated and a given population pattern. These were compared with the corresponding expected risk derived from routine birth data to yield relative risk contours. For each simulation three test statistics were devised: the slope of the regression line of standardized relative risk on exposure level, the proportion of standardized relative risks above zero, and the mean standardized relative risk of individuals not subject to exposure. The distributions of these test statistics (under the null no exposure from site and alternative hypotheses) were determined from a simulation exercise. A comparison of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves between those relating to the proposed test and those relating to a widely used method proposed by Stone (1988) demonstrated our test to be more efficient. Formal statistical testing of the concordance between spatial contours of risk and environmental exposure enables optimal use of spatial data. PMID:18049994

Read, Jessica; Matthews, Ian; Nix, Barry

2007-12-01

443

LONGITUDINAL INDICATORS OF POLICY IMPACT ON POLLUTION, EXPOSURE AND HEALTH RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The overarching goal of this research is to develop state level indicators of environmental pollution, population exposure, and population health risks. The investigation will include a longitudinal analysis of changes over time that will provide a framework for evaluating th...

444

Communicating with the public about environmental health risks: A case study of waste-to-energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts to implement waste-to-energy as part of a comprehensive solid waste management strategy frequently arouse intense local opposition, and potential health risks are often stressed in the public debate. How local governments respond to the public's ...

L. M. Luderer

1990-01-01

445

Assessing System-Wide Occupational Health and Safety Risks of Energy Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Input-output modeling is now being used to assess systemwide occupational and public health and safety risks of energy technologies. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of this method are presented, and some of its important limitations discussed. It...

M. D. Rowe

1981-01-01

446

Radiological Health Risks from Accidents during Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential radiological health risks from severe accident scenarios during the transportation of spent nuclear fuels are estimated. These extremely low probability, but potentially credible, scenarios are characterized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commis...

S. Y. Chen Y. C. Yuan

1988-01-01

447

Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

448

A novel cardiovascular risk screening and health promotion service learning course  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Cardiovascular (CV) Risk Screening and Health Promotion course was created to develop the pharmacy student's ability to conduct screening and assessment in a community setting and to supplement skills introduced in the required Patient Assessment course.

Kathleen Packard; Emily Sexson; Mikayla Spangler; Ryan Walters

2010-01-01

449

Health-Risk Appraisal of Naval Special Operations Forces Personnel Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between exposure to extreme physical and mental activities and adverse environments to the susceptibility to injuries, disease, and death has not been examined for Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel. The purpose of the Health Risk ...

K. R. Johnson M. Q. Wang

2000-01-01

450

Options for Incorporating Children's Inhaled Dose into Human Health Risk Assessment (Journal Article)  

EPA Science Inventory

Context: Increasing attention has been placed on inhalation dosimetry in children because of children?s greater air intake and unique windows of vulnerability for various toxicants and health outcomes. However, risk assessments have not incorporated this information as dosimetr...

451

Human Health Risks with the Subtherapeutic Use of Penicillin or Tetracyclines in Animal Feed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study reviews the human health consequences and risk associated with the use of penicillin and tetracyclines at subtherapeutic concentrations in animal feed. The study discusses the biological impact of resistance to antimicrobial agents; the quantifi...

1988-01-01

452

Pharmacists as Health Educators and Risk Communicators in the Prevention of Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research study, 'Pharmacists as Health Educators and Risk Communicators in the Prevention of Prostate Cancer' is a prostate cancer education for prevention project. The principle investigator is Cynthia Warrick, formerly at Howard University; she is n...

C. Warrick

2004-01-01

453

Health Behavior Risk Factors Across Age as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives The current study examines the prevalence of health risk behaviors and their cumulative effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a sample of adults. Age cohort is also examined to determine the role of age in predicting CVD and risky health behaviors. Method Medical records of a sample of adults from the Seattle Longitudinal Study categorized into one of four age-group cohorts were examined. Data regarding participants’ health risk behaviors were examined individually and cumulatively for predicting later CVD diagnosis. Results The prevalence of CVD increases with age, obesity, and risky medical checkups. Female risky sleepers are more likely to receive a CVD diagnosis than men who report risky sleep patterns (p < .05). Discussion A high risk of CVD appears to exist for adults across the life span, and several risky health behaviors also seem to place individuals more at risk for being diagnosed with CVD.

Cardi, Michelle; Munk, Niki; Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.

2010-01-01

454

Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: Bibliography of Health Effects and Risk Assessment Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides state and local air agencies and other Clearinghouse users with citations to selected publications pertaining to health effects and risk assessment of toxic pollutants. These documents were published by the following four agencies: N...

A. S. Pelland B. K. Post R. C. Mead

1984-01-01

455

Self-rated health within the Canadian immigrant population: risk and the healthy immigrant effect.  

PubMed

Set within the determinants of health framework and drawing upon Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey, this paper explores the self-assessed health of Canada's immigrant population. Using both descriptive and multivariate techniques, including logistic regression and survival analysis, the intent is to identify differences in self-assessed health between the immigrant and native-born populations, the factors that contribute to immigrant self-assessed health, and the factors associated with declining self-assessed health status. In each case, the key questions are whether differences in health status exist between the native- and foreign-born. Results indicate mixed support for the Healthy Immigrant Effect, with the native- and foreign-born neither more nor less likely to rank their health as fair or poor. However, results from the proportional hazards model indicated that the native-born were at lower risk to transition to poor health. PMID:15626530

Newbold, K Bruce

2005-03-01

456

Assessment and Evaluation of Risks to Health from Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos, thalidomide, and smog in the environment have all given spectacular evidence of the power of man-made chemical substances to harm people. Phenobarbitone, paracetamol, DDT and penicillin are chemicals that have given large benefits for small risk. Epidemiological evidence allows us to consider dose, response and cost for some of these. For new chemicals we try to assess risk before

A. E. M. McLean

1981-01-01

457

Unacceptable Cosmesis in a Protocol Investigating Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Active Breathing Control for Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report interim cosmetic results and toxicity from a prospective study evaluating accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) administered using a highly conformal external beam approach. Methods and Materials: We enrolled breast cancer patients in an institutional review board-approved prospective study of APBI using beamlet intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at deep-inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy fractions twice daily. Dosimetric parameters in patients who maintained acceptable cosmesis were compared with those in patients developing unacceptable cosmesis in follow-up, using t-tests. Results: Thirty-four patients were enrolled; 2 were excluded from analysis because of fair baseline cosmesis. With a median follow-up of 2.5 years, new unacceptable cosmesis developed in 7 patients, leading to early study closure. We compared patients with new unacceptable cosmesis with those with consistently acceptable cosmesis. Retrospective analysis demonstrated that all but one plan adhered to the dosimetric requirements of the national APBI trial. The mean proportion of a whole-breast reference volume receiving 19.25 Gy (V50) was lower in patients with acceptable cosmesis than in those with unacceptable cosmesis (34.6% vs. 46.1%; p = 0.02). The mean percentage of this reference volume receiving 38.5 Gy (V100) was also lower in patients with acceptable cosmesis (15.5% vs. 23.0%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: The hypofractionated schedule and parameters commonly used for external beam APBI and prescribed by the ongoing national trial may be suboptimal, at least when highly conformal techniques such as IMRT with management of breathing motion are used. The V50 and V100 of the breast reference volume seem correlated with cosmetic outcome, and stricter limits may be appropriate in this setting.

Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-David, Merav A.; Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A.; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-01-15

458

Adolescent Girls' Offending and Health-Risking Sexual Behavior: The Predictive Role of Trauma  

PubMed Central

Several studies have highlighted high levels of risk for girls who have been exposed to traumatic experiences, but little is known about the exact relationship between traumatic experiences and problems with delinquency and health-risking sexual behavior (e.g., precipitory and/or exacerbatory roles). However, numerous short- and long-term detrimental effects have been linked to trauma, delinquency, and health-risking sexual behavior. The utility of diagnostic and experiential trauma measures in predicting the greatest risk for poor outcomes for delinquent girls was examined in this study. Results indicate that the experiential measures of trauma (cumulative and composite trauma scores) significantly predicted adolescent offending and adolescent health-risking sexual behavior, whereas the diagnostic measures of trauma (full and partial diagnostic criteria) did not.

Smith, Dana K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

2007-01-01

459

Adolescent girls' offending and health-risking sexual behavior: the predictive role of trauma.  

PubMed

Several studies have highlighted high levels of risk for girls who have been exposed to traumatic experiences, but little is known about the exact relationship between traumatic experiences and problems with delinquency and health-risking sexual behavior (e.g., precipitory and/or exacerbatory roles). However, numerous short- and long-term detrimental effects have been linked to trauma, delinquency, and health-risking sexual behavior. The utility of diagnostic and experiential trauma measures in predicting the greatest risk for poor outcomes for delinquent girls was examined in this study. Results indicate that the experiential measures of trauma (cumulative and composite trauma scores) significantly predicted adolescent offending and adolescent health-risking sexual behavior, whereas the diagnostic measures of trauma (full and partial diagnostic criteria) did not. PMID:17043319

Smith, Dana K; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

2006-11-01

460

Assessing adaptation to the health risks of climate change: what guidance can existing frameworks provide?  

PubMed

Climate change adaptation assessments aim at assisting policy-makers in reducing the health risks associated with climate change and variability. This paper identifies key characteristics of the climate-health relationship and of the adaptation decision problem that require consideration in climate change adaptation assessments. It then analyzes whether these characteristics are appropriately considered in existing guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment and in pertinent conceptual models from environmental epidemiology. The review finds three assessment guidelines based on a generalized risk management framework to be most useful for guiding adaptation assessments of human health. Since none of them adequately addresses all key challenges of the adaptation decision problem, actual adaptation assessments need to combine elements from different guidelines. Established conceptual models from environmental epidemiology are found to be of limited relevance for assessing and planning adaptation to climate change since the prevailing toxicological model of environmental health is not applicable to many climate-sensitive health risks. PMID:18231945

Füssel, Hans-Martin

2008-02-01

461

Communication of risk: health hazards from mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible health hazards from mobile phones arise from the use of the phones themselves and via the base stations that relay signals. Except for an increase in traffic accidents induced by the use of mobile phones in cars the evidence for a health hazard is at most indirect, but it cannot be entirely dismissed; the phones have not been widely

D. R. Cox

2003-01-01

462

Cellular Radio Telecommunication for Health Care: Benefits and Risks  

PubMed Central

Cellular radio telecommunication has increased exponentially with many applications to health care reported. The authors attempt to summarize published applications with demonstrated effect on health care, review briefly the rapid evolution of hardware and software standards, explain current limitations and future potential of data quality and security, and discuss issues of safety.

Sneiderman, Charles A.; Ackerman, Michael J.

2004-01-01

463

Women Prisoners' Mental Health: Vulnerabilities, Risks and Resilience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies 49 incarcerated women to examine the complex relationship among women's criminal history, victimization, relational supports, personal strengths and their mental health. A cluster analysis produced four typologies shaping recommendations for assessment and treatment. Findings suggest that women with the greatest mental health needs have…