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1

Investing in Frankenfirms: Predicting Socially Unacceptable Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the public decides that a product or production process is socially unacceptable, the share price of the firms involved may suffer. The danger is that, out of distaste, peo - ple will refrain from buying the product or the shares. But being able to assess the de - gree of unacceptability can mean being better able to assess how

Baruch Fischhoff; Alain Nadai; Ilya Fischhoff

2001-01-01

2

Is nuclear energy an unacceptable hazard to health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five conclusions were drawn: (1) health evaluation of energy-generating sources for electricity must be limited, at the present time, to coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear. Coal and nuclear power will be the principal fuels for electric power production in the next 25 years. Systematic utilization of alternative renewable energy sources for power production will not have yet been accomplished;

Fabrikant

1981-01-01

3

Managing unacceptable risk: sex offenders, community response, and social policy in the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

This article compares the community protection-risk management model for the control of sex offenders with the clinical and justice models that preceded it and with a restorative justice alternative based on the principle of community reintegration. The author discusses how this community protection-risk management model reflects the new penology as well as the fusion of panopticism and synopticism. The author also discusses the model's actual and potential social costs. He concludes with a brief look at circles of support and accountability. This Canadian approach involves setting up support circles of volunteers who enter into a covenant with persons designated as high-risk sex offenders to help them both to integrate into the community and to reduce the likelihood that they will reoffend. PMID:12150086

Petrunik, Michael G

2002-08-01

4

Monitoring Risk & Health Behaviors  

Cancer.gov

The Applied Research Program supports surveys designed to assess the prevalence of individual and societal risk factors and health behaviors that mediate cancer incidence, morbidity, mortality, and survival.

5

Plastics and Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

Rolf U. Halden

2010-01-01

6

Cigarettes Health Risks  

E-print Network

Cigarettes Health Risks Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of disease and death lung disease. New studies have shown that about half of all regular cigarette smokers die of the 4,000 chemicals found in cigarette smoke are known to be harmful. Some of the most toxic chemicals

Oregon, University of

7

Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.  

PubMed

Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

2006-07-01

8

Estimating risk at a Superfund site using passive sampling devices as biological surrogates in human health risk models.  

PubMed

Passive sampling devices (PSDs) sequester the freely dissolved fraction of lipophilic contaminants, mimicking passive chemical uptake and accumulation by biomembranes and lipid tissues. Public Health Assessments that inform the public about health risks from exposure to contaminants through consumption of resident fish are generally based on tissue data, which can be difficult to obtain and requires destructive sampling. The purpose of this study is to apply PSD data in a Public Health Assessment to demonstrate that PSDs can be used as a biological surrogate to evaluate potential human health risks and elucidate spatio-temporal variations in risk. PSDs were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Willamette River; upriver, downriver and within the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite for 3 years during wet and dry seasons. Based on an existing Public Health Assessment for this area, concentrations of PAHs in PSDs were substituted for fish tissue concentrations. PSD measured PAH concentrations captured the magnitude, range and variability of PAH concentrations reported for fish/shellfish from Portland Harbor. Using PSD results in place of fish data revealed an unacceptable risk level for cancer in all seasons but no unacceptable risk for non-cancer endpoints. Estimated cancer risk varied by several orders of magnitude based on season and location. Sites near coal tar contamination demonstrated the highest risk, particularly during the dry season and remediation activities. Incorporating PSD data into Public Health Assessments provides specific spatial and temporal contaminant exposure information that can assist public health professionals in evaluating human health risks. PMID:21741671

Allan, Sarah E; Sower, Gregory J; Anderson, Kim A

2011-10-01

9

Plastics and health risks.  

PubMed

By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics. PMID:20070188

Halden, Rolf U

2010-01-01

10

Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

Kundrot, Criag E.

2011-01-01

11

Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of conservative and nonconservative assumptions on the probability results. We discuss the methods necessary to assess mission risks once exploration mission scenarios are characterized. Preliminary efforts have produced results that are commensurate with earlier qualitative estimates of risk probabilities in this and other operational contexts, indicating that our approach may be usefully applied in support of the development of human health and performance standards for long-duration space exploration missions. This approach will also enable mission-specific probabilistic risk assessments for space exploration missions.

Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

2006-01-01

12

Health Risks of Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

Cohen, Bernard L.

1978-01-01

13

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-18

14

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Addressing unacceptable performance. 432.104 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE...Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time...

2013-01-01

15

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

...Addressing unacceptable performance. 432.104 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE...Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time...

2014-01-01

16

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Addressing unacceptable performance. 432.104 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE...Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time...

2012-01-01

17

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Addressing unacceptable performance. 432.104 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE...Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time...

2011-01-01

18

Health Risk from Exposure of Organic Pollutants Through Drinking Water Consumption in Nanjing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health risk analysis for 24 organic pollutants in drinking water of Nanjing was conducted. For non-carcinogenic risk,\\u000a the 95th percentile hazard quotient (HQ) values of pollutants were all less than the unacceptable level of one. Considering\\u000a the lifetime carcinogenic risk (LCR), however, the 95th percentile LCR values of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (1.30E-05), benzo(b)fluoranthene\\u000a (3.10E-05), benzo(a)pyrene (3.37E-05) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (2.09E-05) exceeded the

Bing WuYan; Yan Zhang; Xuxiang Zhang; Shupei Cheng

2010-01-01

19

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

de Gispert, Adrià

20

The health risk of radon  

SciTech Connect

Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA`s risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy.

Conrath, S.M.; Kolb, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

1995-10-01

21

HEALTH RISK PERCEPTIONS AND CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines recent developments in the consumer psychology literature examining people's health-related risk perceptions. We first define risk, and discuss the importance of studying risk perceptions in the health domain. We integrate extant models proposed in social and health psychology and build a theoretical model for examining risk perceptions. We then describe the model in terms of the antecedents

Geeta Menon; Priya Raghubir; Nidhi Agrawal

22

Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision-Making Framework for Identifying, Assessing and Managing Health Risks (Health Canada, 2000). 4. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Human Health Risk Assessment of Priority Substances(Health Canada, 1994). 5. CSA-Q8550 Risk Management: Guidelines for Decision-Makers (Canada Standards Association, 1997). 6. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (US National Research Council, 1983). 7. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (US National Research Council, 1996). 8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (enHealth Council of Australia, 2002). 9. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (CCME, 1996). 10. Ecological Risk Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Environment Canada, 1996).11. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1998b). 12. Proposed Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Management (Rampal & Sadhra, 1999). Based on the extensive review of these frameworks, seven key elements that should be included in a comprehensive framework for human health, ecological, and occupational risk assessment and management were identified: 1. Problem formulation stage. 2. Stakeholder involvement. 3. Communication. 4. Quantitative risk assessment components. 5. Iteration and evaluation. 6. Informed decision making. 7. Flexibility. On the basis of this overarching approach to risk management, the following "checklist" to ensure a good risk management decision is proposed: - Make sure you're solving the right problem. - Consider the problem and the risk within the full context of the situation, using a broad perspective. - Acknowledge, incorporate, and balance the multiple dimensions of risk. - Ensure the highest degree of reliability for all components of the risk management process. - Involve interested and effected parties from the outset of the process. - Commit to honest and open communication between all parties. - Employ continuous evaluation throughout the process (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared t

Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

2003-01-01

23

Risk and risk assessment in health emergency management.  

PubMed

This article considers the critical roles of risk and risk assessment in the management of health emergencies and disasters. The Task Force on Quality Control of Disaster Management (TFQCDM) has defined risk as the "objective (mathematical) or subjective (inductive) probability that something negative will occur (happen)". Risks with the greatest relevance to health emergency management include: (1) the probability that a health hazard exists or will occur; (2) the probability that the hazard will become an event; (3) the probability that the event will lead to health damage; and (4) the probability that the health damage will lead to a health disaster. The overall risk of a health disaster is the product of these four probabilities. Risk assessments are the tools that help systems at risk-healthcare organizations, communities, regions, states, and countries-transform their visceral reactions to threats into rational strategies for risk reduction. Type I errors in risk assessment occur when situations are predicted that do not occur (risk is overestimated). Type II errors in risk assessment occur when situations are not predicted that do occur (risk is underestimated). Both types of error may have serious, even lethal, consequences. Errors in risk assessment may be reduced through strategies that optimize risk assessment, including the: (1) adoption of the TFQCDM definition of risk and other terms; (2) specification of the system at risk and situations of interest (hazard, event, damage, and health disaster); (3) adoption of a best practice approach to risk assessment methodology; (4) assembly of the requisite range of expert participants and information; (5) adoption of an evidence-based approach to using information; (6) exclusion of biased, irrelevant, and obsolete information; and (7) complete characterizations of any underlying fault and event trees. PMID:16018501

Arnold, Jeffrey L

2005-01-01

24

Business risk and the health care entrepreneur.  

PubMed

This article addresses issues of business risk in the home health care industry. General concepts of risk are discussed, and the unique attributes affecting risk in the home health industry are identified and reviewed particularly as they affect market entry strategies, differentiation, innovation, and regulation. PMID:8263081

Woerner, L

1994-01-01

25

Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

Tenkate, Thomas D.

1998-01-01

26

Evaluation of Health Risks of Atmospheric Pollutants  

E-print Network

) Evaluation of health risks of atmospheric pollutants Summary 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Harmfulness studies 3.3 Discussion 4 Health effect of particulate pollution caused by a combustion plant 4.1 Origin4 5- (DRAFT) Evaluation of Health Risks of Atmospheric Pollutants Guy Landrieu INERIS Institut

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

An approach for balancing health and ecological risks at hazardous waste sites.  

PubMed

Human health and ecological risks must be balanced at hazardous waste sites in order to ensure that remedial actions prevent unacceptable risks of either type. Actions that are designed to protect humans may fail to protect nonhuman populations and ecosystems or may damage ecosystems. However, there is no common scale of health and ecological risk that would allow comparisons to be performed. This paper presents an approach to addressing this problem based on classifying all risks (i.e., health and ecological risks due contaminants and remediation) as insignificant (de minimis), highly significant (de manifestis), or intermediate. For health risks the classification is based on standard criteria. However, in the absence of national guidance concerning the acceptability of ecological risks, new ecological criteria are proposed based on an analysis of regulatory precedents. Matrices and flow charts are presented to guide the use of these risk categories in remedial decision making. The assessment of mercury contamination of the East Fork Poplar Creek is presented as an example of the implementation of the approach. PMID:7597258

Suter, G W; Cornaby, B W; Hadden, C T; Hull, R N; Stack, M; Zafran, F A

1995-04-01

28

Health risk of chrysotile revisited  

PubMed Central

This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20?µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7?d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration. PMID:23346982

Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raul; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

2013-01-01

29

Office of Risk Management Environmental Health Services  

E-print Network

Office of Risk Management Environmental Health Services 141 General Services Fort Collins, Colorado Provost and Director Colorado State University Extension From: Sally Alexander Environmental Health highway, road, or street which physically interferes with the movement of traffic; 5. a dangerous

30

Health Risk Assessments for Alumina Refineries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10?6. Conclusions: The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries. PMID:24806721

Coffey, Patrick S.

2014-01-01

31

New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

Antle, David

32

Air pollution ranks as largest health risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

33

The Health Risks of Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report compiles scientific evidence and statistics on the health risks of weight loss interventions and is intended to help both professionals and consumers cope in healthful ways with the complex dilemmas of weight. The publication is organized into six chapters: (1) "Risks of Losing Weight"; (2) "Effectiveness of Treatment"; (3) "Weight…

Berg, Frances M.

34

Human health risk assessment for contaminated properties.  

PubMed

Contaminated sites, particularly Superfund sites, not only require remediation but also require health risk analysis of the unremediated site. In this chapter, the term risk refers to the probability and the magnitude of adverse human health effects due to the unintended exposure to chemicals at sites that are contaminated or perceived to be contaminated. The quantitative estimation of this risk, the application to define how clean is clean, and the techniques available to mitigate and manage the risk are discussed: Estimation of exposure or dose and the uncertainties inherent in the calculations Quantitative chemical-specific measures of human toxicity of chemicals used in the RA process The metrics used to estimate the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk Risk management and the concepts of acceptable risk Risk assessment and risk management of contaminated sites PMID:22974744

Salhotra, Atul M

2012-01-01

35

Risk assessment, the environment, and public health.  

PubMed Central

Risks to human health arise from the environment in diverse ways and from many sources. Although there are many social forces to be considered when efforts are made to protect human health, it would seem that public health resources should be devoted to reducing risks arising from the environment in at least rough proportion to the toll they take on human health. Risk assessment, properly, conceived and practiced, is the appropriate tool for assigning risks their rightful order and should be a principal component of public health programs everywhere. The successful application of risk assessments to such goals depends on the developments of a broader view of its nature and content than has been customarily adopted. Images p258-a PMID:8033856

Rodricks, J V

1994-01-01

36

[Forest health ecological risk assessment in China].  

PubMed

Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655

Xiao, Fengjin; Ouyang, Hua; Cheng, Shulan; Zhang, Qiang

2004-02-01

37

Health Benefits and Risks of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linking of the Internet with health and medicine involves all levels of society, including individuals, health care providers, professional organizations, communities, and local and federal governments. A growing body of evidence suggests that despite the benefits of the Internet, this means of communication also figures into the creation of new forms of health risk for some users. This paper

Judith A. Levy; Rita Strombeck

2002-01-01

38

Is Education for Patriotism Morally Required, Permitted or Unacceptable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If patriotism is morally unacceptable, as some philosophers believe, then also education for patriotism cannot be tolerated, although some other non-moral reasons might be in favour of such education. However, it seems that not all types of patriotism can be convincingly rejected as morally unacceptable. Even more, if MacIntyre's claim is correct…

Kodelja, Zdenko

2011-01-01

39

[Work and mental health: risk groups].  

PubMed

Analysis of the Quebec Health survey identified those Quebec industrial sectors and professions in which workers are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being. Risk levels were measured by odds ratio, controlling for: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Results show that those at risk are blue collar workers and less qualified workers of traditional sectors. Lower job latitude could explain those results. Results show that risk of mental health problems is significantly higher in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Risk of mental health problems is higher in the following professions road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repairing; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing, food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors. PMID:8753644

Vézina, M; Gingras, S

1996-01-01

40

Health effects of risk-assessment categories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

1983-10-01

41

GMO: Human Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global level of consumption of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GMOs) is increasing rapidly, since their area of cultivation in the world rose to over 65 million ha in 2003. Environmental and consumer organizations have challenged official risk assessment and risk management on the grounds that long-term effects of GMOs have not been adequately addressed. The imaginary and

G. D'Agnolo; Viale Regina

2005-01-01

42

Predictors of adolescent health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of health risk behaviors of adolescents. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students was recruited from departments and faculties of Atatürk University. The researcher visited university departments 5 working days each week to conduct interviews with the students. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire in their classrooms. The data analysis used multivariate testing to identify predictors of health risk behaviors. The mean score on the health risk behavior scale indicated that the participants sometimes engaged in risky behaviors concerning diet, anger, stress, and disease prevention. The adolescents frequently engaged in risky behavior concerning medical compliance and beliefs about masculinity. Demographically, age, gender, income, and education level of demographic characteristics of the adolescents and, in terms of health status, health behaviors and the experience of a serious disease were significant predictors of adolescent health risk behaviors. In this study, some demographic characteristics were predictors for health risk behaviors, in general, of adolescents. PMID:24722616

Saritas, Seyhan C; Erci, Behice

2014-01-01

43

Perceived risk, health and consumer behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the present paper is to analyse how health attitudes, environmental concern and behaviour are influenced by risk perception. A self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out among Norwegian residents in 1996 and 1997. Respondents belonging to five subsamples participated in the study and a total of 1124 replied to the questionnaire. Perceived risk was measured by asking

TorbjØrn Rundmo

1999-01-01

44

49 CFR 174.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.  

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Requirements § 174.3 Unacceptable hazardous materials...shipments. No person may accept for transportation or transport by rail any shipment of hazardous material that is not in...

2014-10-01

45

Health risks of alcohol use  

MedlinePLUS

... feel better or to block feelings of sadness, depression, nervousness, or worry. But alcohol can: Make these problems worse over time Cause sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone in the ...

46

Health Risks Faced by Turkish Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and Methods. This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results. It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ? three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ? three children, and social isolation. Conclusions. In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs. PMID:25054165

Cakmur, Hulya

2014-01-01

47

Assessing environmental health risks: part 1  

SciTech Connect

Questions about health risks from toxic chemicals in the environment are raised frequently by concerned citizens and scientists alike. How do the authors know whether public exposures to chemical are dangerous to workers in the chemical industry or to residents of communities near industrial sites Is an outbreak of a new disease in a community due to an exposure from a nearby industry or to a communicable disease Can the authors adequately protect human health by relying solely on data from studies of animals exposed in the laboratory Do epidemiologic studies really provide the last word in the analysis of risk And finally, are risks to human health the only risks one should be assessing In this article and the second part which will follow next month, the author reviews the analytical approaches used to quantitatively evaluate public exposures to toxic chemicals. The techniques of exposure assessment, dose reconstruction, risk assessment, and epidemiologic analysis are described, compared, and discussed with regard to their effectiveness in predicting the risks from chemicals in the environment and in protecting the public's health.

Ruttenber, A.J.

1993-04-01

48

Migration, refugees, and health risks.  

PubMed Central

Migration both voluntary and forced is increasing all over the world. People are moving in larger numbers faster and further than at any other time in history. This is happening at a time when many countries are ill-prepared to deal with a changing demography and when policies and attitudes to population movement and immigration are hardening. The health implications of this are many, and, in some cases, illness and death rates associated with migration are exacerbated by a lack of policies needed to make migration a healthy and socially productive process. From a public health point of view, this is having and will continue to have serious ramifications for the people that move, the family they leave behind, and the communities that host the newcomers. PMID:11485671

Carballo, M.; Nerukar, A.

2001-01-01

49

Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk  

PubMed Central

A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

Kokkinos, Peter

2012-01-01

50

What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity? Being overweight or obese isn't a cosmetic ... your risk for other health problems. Overweight and Obesity-Related Health Problems in Adults Coronary Heart Disease ...

51

Women brothel workers and occupational health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel.Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms.Participants and setting: A purposive

J Cwikel; K Ilan; B Chudakov

2003-01-01

52

Tissue allografts and health risks.  

PubMed

Like vascularized transplants, tissue allografts are able to transmit viral and bacterial diseases. Transmission of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C virus) has been proved for sterilized, unprocessed and deep-frozen allografts. It is the prime responsibility of the tissue bank to select the donor correctly and to perform careful biological screening. However, standard screening is not enough to detect a seronegative but contaminated donor. It is necessary to quarantine the tissues until complementary screening confirms the absence of viral disease. If secondary screening is not possible, the tissues should be discarded or should be processed. If donor selection, relevant and appropriate screening tests and adequate procurement of tissues are carefully made, then the risk of disease transmission from tissue allografts will remain remote. PMID:7914392

Delloye, C

1994-01-01

53

Health Risk Information to Reduce Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A growing body of empirical studies indicate that farmers are concerned about how agricultural practices may affect health\\u000a risks and environmental quality. These studies suggest that farmers are not simply profit maximizers. Instead, they have multiple\\u000a objectives that include health and environmental concerns. As a result, their privately optimal behavior can result in less\\u000a use of polluting inputs than would

Scott M. Swinton; Nicole N. Owens; Eileen O. van Ravenswaay

54

Sewage Pollution Risk Assessment for Environmental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous potential for Geographic Information Systems to benefit the management of environmental health is progressively being realised. This paper summarises a new approach to mapping the risks associated with on-site sewage facilities. One of the many intended applications is to help predict and thereby manage sources of pathogens contributing to health issues. Over 284,000 on-site sewage facilities exist in

Steven Kenway; Robert Irvine

2001-01-01

55

#43 Food insecurity, health status and health risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study characterizes food insecure California women and examines their health status outcomes and risk behaviors.METHODS: The study uses data from the 2000 California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), an annual telephone survey of women ages 18 and older. The six-question USDA food security scale was used to assess the food security of the 4,012 respondents.RESULTS: Among all California women,

SC Dumbauld; NL Baumrind

2002-01-01

56

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-01

57

Career Patterns of Unaccepted Applicants to Medical School: A Case Study in Reactions to a Blocked Career Pathway.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Federal contract study with Johns Hopkins University School of Health Services was initiated to analyze career decisions and behavior of unaccepted medical school applicants for implications as to their recruitability to alternative health careers. Questionnaires were sent to a national sample, stratified by sex, of 3,500 of the 16,800…

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Office of Health Manpower Studies.

58

4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in grade/pay level or remove...section. (a) Employee entitlement. A GAO employee whose reduction in grade/pay...to retain, reduce in grade or remove a GAO employee— (1) Shall be made...

2010-01-01

59

4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in grade/pay level or remove...section. (a) Employee entitlement. A GAO employee whose reduction in grade/pay...to retain, reduce in grade or remove a GAO employee— (1) Shall be made...

2011-01-01

60

Branding Guidelines for Portrait Photography Unacceptable Portrait Photography Style  

E-print Network

Branding Guidelines for Portrait Photography Unacceptable Portrait Photography Style Style, it is important that every image communicates a story and does so with maximum impact. For the Clemson brand of the person within the environment. Environments should tie into the subject of the profile, if possible

Duchowski, Andrew T.

61

The (Un)Acceptability of Violence against Peers and Dates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although violence has become an increasing concern, the motivations and justifications for such egregious behavior remain poorly understood. Two hundred and sixty-one college students completed questionnaires concerning acceptance of and participation in two kinds of violence—violence against peers and dating violence. Results indicate that although violence may be commonplace, it is still deemed unacceptable, especially when the violence is motivated

Elizabeth Cauffman; S. Shirley Feldman; Lene Arnett Jensen; Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

2000-01-01

62

Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage  

SciTech Connect

The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

Bogen, K T

2005-11-18

63

Academic Handbook, Admission, Health Risks Page 1 Issued: 2013 11  

E-print Network

of Health Sciences. Students in the Faculty of Health Sciences will be required to care for persons Aid, CPR ­ Health Care Provider (HCP), criminal record check through the Ontario Education ServicesAcademic Handbook, Admission, Health Risks Page 1 Issued: 2013 11 Potential Health Risks

Lennard, William N.

64

A risk communication taxonomy for environmental health  

SciTech Connect

A classification system for risk communication can serve two major purposes: it provides a practical guide to techniques and establishes a framework for further development. By using traditional models of communication elements and management operations, this taxonomy has the advantage of being more readily adapted to the needs of environmental health professionals. Like all taxonomies, it should be continually revised and expanded by the professionals who use it.

Hatfield, T.H. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

65

Expedition health and safety: a risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Little has been published on the risks of participating in an expedition. A questionnaire survey was conducted to quantify those risks and to determine how expedition organizers plan for medical mishaps. 246 expeditions, taking 2381 participants to more than one hundred countries, were studied retrospectively. 65 expeditions (26%) reported no medical incidents; the remaining 181 reported 835 in 130,000 man-days (6.4 per 1000 man-days). 59% of the medical incidents seen on expeditions were preventable, one-third of these being due to gastrointestinal upsets. 78% of medical incidents were classified as minor and only 5% (40) as serious. There was no excess of serious incidents in any particular organizational group or environment. The findings of this survey suggest that the health risks of participating in a well-planned expedition are similar to those encountered during normal active life. PMID:11198684

Anderson, S R; Johnson, C J

2000-01-01

66

A toolbox for health risk related decisions  

SciTech Connect

Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

1996-10-01

67

Expert vs. public perception of population health risks in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of risk analysis, there is ongoing tension between expert risk assessment and public risk perception. This paper presents the results of a health risk perception survey administered to Canadian health experts as a follow-up to a previous survey. A total of 125 experts (75 physicians and 50 toxicologists) recruited through professional organizations completed a self-administered questionnaire in

Daniel Krewski; Michelle C. Turner; Louise Lemyre; Jennifer E. C. Lee

2012-01-01

68

Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Research has suggested that a higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep characteristics exists. However, studies have not thoroughly assessed the potential confounding effects of mental health conditions associated with alterations in sleep. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively assessed the association between sleep characteristics and self-reported incident diabetes among Millennium Cohort Study participants prospectively followed over a 6-year time period. Surveys are administered approximately every 3 years and collect self-reported data on demographics, height, weight, lifestyle, features of military service, sleep, clinician-diagnosed diabetes, and mental health conditions assessed by the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version. Statistical methods for longitudinal data were used for data analysis. RESULTS We studied 47,093 participants (mean 34.9 years of age; mean BMI 26.0 kg/m2; 25.6% female). During 6 years of follow-up, 871 incident diabetes cases occurred (annual incidence 3.6/1,000 person-years). In univariate analyses, incident diabetes was significantly more likely among participants with self-reported trouble sleeping, sleep duration <6 h, and sleep apnea. Participants reporting incident diabetes were also significantly older, of nonwhite race, of higher BMI, less likely to have been deployed, and more likely to have reported baseline symptoms of panic, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. After adjusting for covariates, trouble sleeping (odds ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.03–1.42]) and sleep apnea (1.78 [1.39–2.28]) were significantly and independently related to incident diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Trouble sleeping and sleep apnea predict diabetes risk independent of mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:23835691

Boyko, Edward J.; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

2013-01-01

69

Measuring Attitudes Toward Acceptable and Unacceptable Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes\\u000a about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse\\u000a psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high endorsement. In Study 2,\\u000a items were administered to 1,398 undergraduate students to examine their

Karen S. BuddSteven; Steven Behling; Yan Li; Sangeeta Parikshak; Rachel A. Gershenson; Rachel Feuer; Christina M. Danko

70

Teacher Reference Manual for Learning Resources Identified as "Unacceptable" or "Problematic" during the Curriculum Audit for Tolerance and Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides teachers and school officials with information about the learning resources identified as "problematic" or "unacceptable," for the purpose of developing tolerance and understanding of different social or cultural groups. Forty-two publications are reviewed in the categories of health, home economics, industrial education,…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

71

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta www planning, assessment and audits Develop and implement health & safety policies, procedures and programs, regulations and standards & health and safety records Review safe work procedures Testing and coordination

Machel, Hans

72

Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.  

PubMed

The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development. PMID:21568625

Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

2011-01-01

73

Secure e-Health: managing risks to patient health data.  

PubMed

e-Health, as an inter-jurisdictional enterprise, presents risks to patient health data that involve not only technology and professional protocols but also laws, regulations and professional security cultures. The USA Patriot Act is one example of how national laws can shape these concerns. Secure e-Health therefore requires not only national standardization of professional education and protocols but also global interoperability of regulations and laws. Some progress in this regard has been made in the European context; however, even here developments are incomplete, and nothing similar has been accomplished on a global scale. Professional health information organizations must take the lead in developing appropriate high-level principles for professional certification and security protocols and in harmonizing these on a global basis, so that they can provide a firm and consistent foundation for international treaties. Such developments should occur in concert with other health professions, so that coordinated requirements are integrated into revisions of the relevant codes of ethics. This presentation identifies and addresses some of the ethical and legal issues and proposes a series of recommendations. PMID:17084665

Kluge, Eike-Henner W

2007-01-01

74

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.  

PubMed

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

1993-01-01

75

Social disparities, health risk behaviors, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Overall cancer incidence rates decreased in the most recent time period in both men and women, largely due to improvements in surgical therapeutic approaches (tertiary prevention) and screening programs (secondary prevention), but differences in cancer incidence and survival according to socioeconomic status are documented worldwide. Health risk behaviors, defined as habits or practices that increase an individual’s likelihood of harmful health outcomes, are thought to mediate such inequalities. Discussion Obesity has been related with increased cancer incidence and mortality due to imbalance of leptin and adiponectin which are connected to activation of PI3K, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways and decreasing insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and mTOR signaling via activation of 5 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), respectively. Physical activity has been associated to prevent cancer by the aforementioned obesity-related mechanisms, but also increasing level of circulating vitamin D, which has been related to lower risk of several cancers, and increasing prostaglandin F2a and reducing prostaglandin E2, which are both related with cancer prevention and promotion, respectively. A large number of different substances may induce themselves a direct cytotoxicity and mutagenic action on cells by smoking, whereas alcohol promote immune suppression, the delay of DNA repair, inhibition of the detoxification of carcinogens, the production of acetaldehyde, and the contribution to abnormal DNA methylation. The combined smoking and alcohol drinking habits have been shown to increase cancer risk by smoke action of increasing the acetaldehyde burden following alcohol consumption and alcohol action of enhancing the activation of various procarcinogens contained in tobacco smoke. Conclusions Interventions at the social level may be done to increase awareness about cancer risks and promote changing in unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24267900

2013-01-01

76

Health and safety risks in production agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

1998-01-01

77

Biomonitoring for occupational health risk assessment (BOHRA).  

PubMed

Biological monitoring (BM or biomonitoring) deals with the assessment of individual human exposure, effect and susceptibility to occupational risk factors. It is a fundamental tool in occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) and occupational health practice (OHP) and it has become one of the most, if not the most active area in occupational health (OH) research today. From the few hundred BM papers published in the 80s, there are now several tens of thousand papers published in the peer review literature each year, and the trend is still rising exponentially. As a result, BM has become a priority for the Scientific Committee on Occupational Toxicology (SCOT) of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). Moreover, there has been a long-term interest in biological monitoring by other SCs of ICOH such as the Scientific Committees on Toxicology of Metals (SCTM) and on Rural Health (SCRH). Despite its current popularity, though, BM is not always correctly used or interpreted by those involved in OHRA or OHP. The present review has been prepared to fill this gap and to help preventing misuse and misinterpretation of data. Although the document is meant to be a reference primarily for those involved in OH research and/or practice, it might become of interest for a wider audience within and outside ICOH, including scientists, occupational physicians, industrial hygienists and occupational or public health professionals in general, involved in chemical risk assessment for occupational health. The mission of SCOT and also of other SCs of ICOH, such as SCTM and SCRH, is indeed to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge on biological monitoring and other relevant occupational toxicology aspects and to make them available and useful to the entire OH scientific community. All articles retrieved as of 3 January, 2007 as "Review" with the combined key words "biological monitoring" in PubMed from 2000 to 2007 have been scanned individually. This yielded a total of 1400 articles from a grand total of 2486 (excluding limitation on year of publication). When the title was related to human occupational biological monitoring, the abstract was read and its content was included. Articles outside the 2000-2007 time frame or that are not classified as "Review" in PubMed have also been included, when relevant. The review is in four parts: (a) the introduction, containing the basic principles and definitions of BM and the different types of biomarkers (BMK), their toxicological significance, practical use and limitations, (b) the methodological and analytical aspects of BM in exposed workers, (c) the interpretation and management of BM data, including a number of recommendations to be considered when planning, performing and interpreting BM results and, finally, (d) the ethical aspects of BM. A list of key references to relevant papers or documents has been included. The BM of specific chemicals or groups of chemicals is outside the purpose of the review. The document is aimed to represent the state of the art on biological monitoring in occupational risk assessment. We expect that reference to its content will be made, whenever appropriate, by those involved in occupational health practice and research when dealing with BM issues. The document is not meant, though, to represent a rigid nor a permanent set of rules and it will be periodically updated according to new developments and any significant advance in BM science. Any part of the document, therefore, is open to suggestions by scientifically qualified persons or institutions officially involved in BM and comments should be sent directly to the authors. A preliminary draft of the document has been presented at the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring, Beijing, 10-12 September, 2007. PMID:19446015

Manno, Maurizio; Viau, Claude; Cocker, John; Colosio, Claudio; Lowry, Larry; Mutti, Antonio; Nordberg, Monica; Wang, Sheng

2010-01-15

78

Occupational Health Promotion Programs to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys literature on worksite health promotion programs targeting cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews findings on health-risk appraisal, hypertension control, smoking cessation, weight reduction, exercise, and programs addressing multiple risk factors. Discusses current knowledge, highlights exemplary studies, and identifies problems and…

Glasgow, Russell E.; Terborg, James R.

1988-01-01

79

Bridging Student Health Risks and Academic Achievement through Comprehensive School Health Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research confirms a direct link between student health risk behavior and education outcomes, education behaviors, and student attitudes. This article discusses barriers to comprehensive school health programming; summarizes relevant information concerning several health-risk behaviors (intentional injuries, diet, physical activity, sexual-risk

Symons, Cynthia Wolford; Cinelli, Bethann; James, Tammy C.; Groff, Patti

1997-01-01

80

Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?  

PubMed Central

Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis. PMID:24554877

Rajesh, K. S.; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

2013-01-01

81

[Health risks and advice for Hajj pilgrims].  

PubMed

The Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is the largest mass migration in the world. Each year, 2.5 million Muslims from over 160 countries travel to the same place, 5000-6000 of these being from the Netherlands. During the Hajj, the pilgrims undergo great physical and emotional strain. Good medical preparation including vaccinations is very important for pilgrims who undertake the Hajj, in particular for those who are older and have chronic disease. The chance of transmission of infective disease is also high and rapid contagion of Hajj pilgrims could cause a pandemic. It is therefore important that the responsible doctor is aware of the health risks to the Hajj pilgrim and his environment. PMID:22027471

Visser, Hannah; Lettinga, Kamilla D; Siegert, Carl E H

2011-01-01

82

Do You Know the Health Risks of Being Overweight?  

MedlinePLUS

... of health problems are linked to overweight and obesity? Excess weight may increase the risk for many ... kinds of cancers are linked to overweight and obesity? Being overweight increases the risk of developing certain ...

83

[Cell phones: health risks and prevention].  

PubMed

The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries. PMID:22670334

Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

2012-01-01

84

Positive youth development: reducing the health risks of homeless youth.  

PubMed

This article outlines several preventive health strategies for reducing the health risks of homeless youth related to emotional distress, alcohol and other drug use/abuse, risky sex, and victimization, all of which are well documented as major health risks for homeless youth living on the street. These health risks interrupt normal adolescent development and are primary obstacles to exiting the street culture and lifestyle. Research indicates that risk exposures among adolescents can be moderated and/or buffered by a focus on individual strengths and environmental protective factors such as community support and mentoring. PMID:14734963

Taylor-Seehafer, Margaret A

2004-01-01

85

Catherine Max Opportunities and Risks in Emerging Health  

E-print Network

Catherine Max Opportunities and Risks in Emerging Health and Social Care Policy BIPOICCC and John Appleby, Sustainable Health and Social Care: Connecting Environmental and Financial Performance Care Greener, Community Care 8 April 2011 #12;Health Inequalities `We've never seen health inequalities

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

86

Using SAS® Graphics to Explore Behavioral Health Cost Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral health disorders result in significant economic loss through costs associated with inpatient admissions, lost work days and reduction in at-work productivity. Additionally, over 30% of health plan members with complex health issues have at least one behavioral health issue driving cost risk. This paper looks at graphical representations of cost as part of an effort to develop an overall

Barbara B. Okerson

87

30 CFR 250.135 - What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable...Disqualification § 250.135 What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable...your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS may disapprove or revoke your...

2011-07-01

88

Risk Factors, Health Risks, and Risk Management for Aircraft Personnel and Frequent Flyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such

Jeoum Nam Kim; Byung Mu Lee

2007-01-01

89

Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coaching, contests, group events, and employer incentives. Specifically, we analyzed changes in 15 health risk measures among a cohort of 2606 employees from multiple employer groups who completed a baseline health risk appraisal, blood tests, and biometric screening in 2008 and who were reassessed in 2009. We then compared the data to the Edington Natural Flow of risks. The cohort showed significant reduction in 10 of the health risks measured (9 at P???0.01 and 1 at P???0.05). The most noticeable changes in health risks were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high-risk blood pressure (42.78%), high-risk fasting blood sugar (31.13%), and high-risk stress (24.94%). There was an overall health risk transition among the cohort with net movement from higher risk levels to lower risk levels (P?risk category, a decrease of 3.61% in the moderate-risk category, and a 5.79% decrease in the high-risk category. Compared to Edington's Natural Flow model, 48.70% of individuals in the high-risk category moved from high risk to moderate risk (Natural Flow 31%), 46.35% moved from moderate risk to low risk (Natural Flow 35%), 15.65% moved from high risk to low risk (Natural Flow 6%), and 87.33% remained in the low-risk category (Natural Flow 70%) (P?Health Management 2010;13:275–284) PMID:20879909

Edington, Dee W.; Beg, Sami

2010-01-01

90

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

91

The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

Bamberg, Richard; And Others

1990-01-01

92

Soldier Characteristics, Alcohol Abuse Risk, and Mental Health Risk as Treatment Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat exposure and other factors associated with military service may place soldiers at increased risk of substance use and mental health issues. We examine the importance of soldier characteristics and risk for alcohol abuse and mental health issues in predicting entry into treatment for alcohol abuse and treatment for mental health issues among active duty soldiers (n = 43,342). Results

A. Monique Clinton-Sherrod; Kelle Barrick; Deborah A. Gibbs

2011-01-01

93

Impact of the prevention plan on employee health risk reduction.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coaching, contests, group events, and employer incentives. Specifically, we analyzed changes in 15 health risk measures among a cohort of 2606 employees from multiple employer groups who completed a baseline health risk appraisal, blood tests, and biometric screening in 2008 and who were reassessed in 2009. We then compared the data to the Edington Natural Flow of risks. The cohort showed significant reduction in 10 of the health risks measured (9 at P? 0.01 and 1 at P?0.05). The most noticeable changes in health risks were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high-risk blood pressure (42.78%), high-risk fasting blood sugar (31.13%), and high-risk stress (24.94%). There was an overall health risk transition among the cohort with net movement from higher risk levels to lower risk levels (P<0.01). There was a net increase of 9.40% of people in the low-risk category, a decrease of 3.61% in the moderate-risk category, and a 5.79% decrease in the high-risk category. Compared to Edington's Natural Flow model, 48.70% of individuals in the high-risk category moved from high risk to moderate risk (Natural Flow 31%), 46.35% moved from moderate risk to low risk (Natural Flow 35%), 15.65% moved from high risk to low risk (Natural Flow 6%), and 87.33% remained in the low-risk category (Natural Flow 70%) (P<0.001). PMID:20879909

Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W; Bég, Sami

2010-10-01

94

Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

NONE

1997-02-01

95

Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ  

SciTech Connect

In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

1986-01-23

96

A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia); Goh, Yang Miang [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

2012-01-15

97

Risk behaviors and health: Contrasting individual and population perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses risk behaviors, seem- ingly voluntary actions of individuals that have adverse health consequences. The central theme is to examine these behaviors from two contrasting perspectives, that of the individual and that of the population as a whole. It is argued that distinguishing between individual and pop- ulation views is important for understanding and inter- preting health risk

Robert W. Jeffery

1989-01-01

98

Adolescent Health in the Caribbean: Risk and Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to identify, among youths, factors associated with characteristics such as poor health status, substance use, and suicide risk and to ex- plore the extent to which the risk and protective factors identified cut across health- compromising behaviors. Methods. A survey was administered to representative samples of young people from 9 Caribbean countries. Results. Physical\\/sexual abuse and

Robert W. Blum; Trish Beuhring; Ernest Pate; Sheila Campell-Forrester; Anneke Venema

99

Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

100

Caregivers at Risk: The Implications of Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress, trauma, and crisis are experienced by individuals and families in a wide range of circumstances. This article explores the interaction between caregiver risk, family caregiving capacity, and health disparities. Such disparities not only result in negative health outcomes for individuals, but may also result in multiple needs for long-term care within families, placing family caregivers at risk in terms

Loretta Brewer; Doris Chu

2008-01-01

101

TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

102

Nuclear power — is the health risk too great?  

PubMed Central

Apparently objective and value-free `scientific' assessments of health risks are often highly value-laden and incorporate contentious social assumptions. Mr Wynne exposes some of the complexities underlying attempts to compare the health risks of nuclear and other sources of energy. PMID:7108912

Wynne, B E

1982-01-01

103

Health and safety risk analyses: information for better decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the nature and magnitude of health and safety risks is helpful in setting priorities as well as in making decisions about pursuing recreational activities, foods, jobs, and other aspects of everyday living. Risk-risk situations require a choice among risky alternatives. How safe situations involve a more general choice as to how much of other desired activities to sacrifice for

L. Lave

1987-01-01

104

The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

2001-01-01

105

Depression and Health Risk Behaviors: Towards Optimizing Primary Care Service Strategies for Addressing Risk  

PubMed Central

Purpose Depression and health risk behaviors in adolescents are leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality. Primary care visits provide prime opportunities to screen and provide preventive services addressing risk behaviors/conditions. This study evaluated the co-occurrence of depression and health risk behaviors (focusing on smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, risky sexual behavior, and obesity-risk) with the goal of informing preventive service strategies. Methods Consecutive primary care patients (n=217), ages 13 to 18 years, selected to over-sample for depression, completed a Health Risk Behavior Survey and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and Adolescents (DISC) depression module. Results Youths with DISC-defined past-year depression were significantly more likely to report risk across multiple risk-areas, Wald X2(1)=14.39, p<.001, and to have significantly higher rates of past-month smoking, X2(1)=5.86, p=.02, substance misuse, X2(1)=15.12, p<.001, risky sex, X2 (1) =5.04, p=.03, but not obesity-risk, X2 (1) =0.19, p=.66. Cross-sectional predictors of risk behaviors across risk areas were similar. Statistically significant predictors across all risk domains included: youths’ expectancies about future risk behavior; attitudes regarding the risk behavior; and risk behaviors in peers/others in their environments. Conclusions Depression in adolescents is associated with a cluster of health risk behaviors that likely contribute to the high morbidity and mortality associated with both depression and health risk behaviors. Consistent with the United States National Prevention Strategy (2011) and the focus on integrated behavioral and medical health care, results suggest the value of screening and preventive services using combination strategies that target depression and multiple areas of associated health risk. PMID:25309826

Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Zeledon, Luis Roberto; D'Amico, Elizabeth; LaBorde, Anne; Anderson, Martin; Avina, Claudia; Arslanian, Talin; Do, Minh-Chau; Harwood, Jessica; Shoptaw, Steven

2014-01-01

106

Who comes to a workplace health risk assessment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace health promotion initiatives have proliferated, but there are difficulties in recruiting employees of lower socioeconomic\\u000a status and at higher risk of disease. A survey of health behaviors and attitudes was administered in 20 worksites and the\\u000a opportunity to attend a health risk assessment promoted. Those more likely to attend were women. those of higher occupational\\u000a prestige, and those from

Timothy A. Dobbins; Judy M. Simpson; Brian Oldenburg; Neville Owen; David Harris

1998-01-01

107

The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's Health & Wellness Program on employee health risks.  

PubMed

To be viewed as successful, corporate health promotion and disease prevention programs must demonstrate that they can improve the risk profile of employees as a whole, and, in particular, those employees at highest risk. This study reports the effectiveness of Johnson & Johnson's newly configured Health & Wellness Program in reducing the health risks of 4586 employees who participated in two serial health screening programs, with a minimum of 1 year between screenings. The study also examines the impact of participation in a high-risk intervention program called Pathways to Change on health risk factors. McNemar chi-squared and z-test statistics were used to evaluate changes in health risks over time. Results indicate significant risk reduction in 8 of 13 risk categories examined for all employees who participated in two health risk assessments over an average of 2 3/4 years. When comparing Pathways to Change participants with non-participants, participants outperformed their non-participant counterparts in six categories but performed worse in five other categories that were not specifically targeted by the high-risk program. In two categories, no differences were found. The study underscores the ability of large-scale, well-attended, and comprehensive corporate health and productivity management programs to positively impact the health and well-being of workers. PMID:12024687

Goetzel, Ron Z; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Bruno, Jennifer A; Rutter, Kathleen R; Isaac, Fikry; Wang, Shaohung

2002-05-01

108

Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.?METHODS—The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.?RESULTS—In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.?CONCLUSIONS—Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.???Keywords: self rated health; risk behaviours PMID:11604437

Carlson, P

2001-01-01

109

Public Perception of Population Health Risks in Canada: Health Hazards and Sources of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of health risk perception among 1,503 Canadians was conducted in 2004. The current survey follows-up a previous national survey conducted in 1992 and documents changes in risk perception since that time and investigates new risk issues not previously examined. This article presents a description of the ratings of perceived risk of thirty specific hazards to the Canadian

Daniel Krewski; Louise Lemyre; Michelle C. Turner; Jennifer E. C. Lee; Christine Dallaire; Louise Bouchard; Kevin Brand; Pierre Mercier

2006-01-01

110

RESEARCH ARTICLES Public Perception of Population Health Risks in Canada: Health Hazards and Sources of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of health risk perception among 1,503 Canadians was conducted in 2004. The current survey follows-up a previous national survey conducted in 1992 and documents changes in risk perception since that time and investigates new risk issues not previously examined. This article presents a description of the ratings of perceived risk of thirty specific hazards to the Canadian

Daniel Krewski; Louise Lemyre; Michelle C. Turner; Jennifer E. C. Lee; Christine Dallaire; Louise Bouchard; Kevin Brand; Pierre Mercier

2006-01-01

111

Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers  

PubMed Central

Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

2008-01-01

112

Developing a risk-based air quality health index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

2013-09-01

113

The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

Kim, Oksoo

2002-01-01

114

33 CFR 151.77 - Exceptions for emergencies and health risks.  

... Exceptions for emergencies and health risks. 151.77 Section 151.77... Exceptions for emergencies and health risks. Sections 151.67, 151...food wastes present an imminent health risk to the people on board....

2014-07-01

115

Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

Breslow, Lester

1978-01-01

116

IMPROVING THE USE OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiolic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. The paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. The approach recognizes that the various designs used to increase...

117

Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella.  

PubMed

Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

2014-01-01

118

Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

2014-01-01

119

Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

Harvey, P D

1990-01-01

120

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality\\/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO2, NO2 and total suspended particles

B. R. Gurjar; A. Jain; A. Sharma; A. Agarwal; P. Gupta; A. S. Nagpure; J. Lelieveld

2010-01-01

121

[REACH: a European programme for renewed management of health risks].  

PubMed

The new European directive REACH constitutes a potential step forward for the prevention of health risks linked to industrial chemical production. The conflicts of interest expressed throughout its development and the compromises resulting from those opposing interest situate this directive at the cross-roads of the multiple rationales operating in the occupational health field. The precautionary principal, risk assessment, prevention, regulation, and corporate responsibility will have a role to play in the practical implementation of REACH. PMID:18773843

Gisquet, Elsa; Goldberg, Stephen; Canet, Christine; Brixi, Omar

2008-01-01

122

Essays on health economics and risk preferences  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three essays on hospital response to regulation and risk preferences. Chapter 1 analyzes the Medicare Flex Program which allowed rural hospitals with fewer than 25 beds to convert to ...

Pascu, Iuliana

2013-01-01

123

Environmental risks and children's health: what can PRAMS tell us?  

PubMed

Environmental exposures during pregnancy have a lasting impact on children's health. We combined environmental and maternal risk factor survey data to inform efforts to protect children's health. We made recommendations for future use of such data. A modified version of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) mail survey was conducted based on weighted sampling design with low-income and non-low income women in Monroe County, NY (1,022 respondents). A series of environmental questions were included in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi square tests and Poisson loglinear regression model to identify patterns in environmental health risk and sociodemographic characteristics. We identified women who rented their homes, had lower incomes, and lived in inner city zip codes as "high environmental health risk" (HEHR). HEHR respondents were more likely to report that a health care provider talked with them about lead and on average reported more behaviors to protect their children from lead poisoning. Combining environmental and perinatal risk factor data could yield important recommendations for medical practice, health education, and policy development. However, at present PRAMS gathers only limited and inconsistent environmental data. We found that existing PRAMS environmental questions are insufficient. Further work is needed to develop updated and more comprehensive environmental health survey questions and implement them consistently across the country. PMID:23955384

Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Suter, Barbara J; Cai, Xueya; Brownson, Susan A; Dozier, Ann M

2014-07-01

124

The FRIENDS Emotional Health Program for Minority Groups at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the existence of evidence-based interventions for promoting mental health in children, the number of children at risk remains high. One of the reasons is that such interventions are not reaching specific groups at risk such as low socioeconomic status and ethnic minority groups. This study evaluated an adaptation of a…

Iizuka, Cristina A.; Barrett, Paula M.; Gillies, Robyn; Cook, Clayton R.; Miller, Debbie

2014-01-01

125

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. his article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most co...

126

Violence risk assessment training for local mental health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an initiative undertaken by a clinical team in a medium secure unit to manage their workload by offering training in structured violence risk assessment to local mental health professionals. The HCR-20 violence risk assessment tool was used in this context. A number of half-day training sessions were offered to a multidisciplinary audience in three local areas in

Tanya Garrett; Renarta Rowe

2004-01-01

127

Risk adjusted control charts for health care Willem Albers  

E-print Network

Risk adjusted control charts for health care monitoring Willem Albers Department of Applied membership can be used to adjust the basic negative binomial charts to the actual risk incurred. Attention is also devoted to comparing such conditional charts to their unconditional counterparts. The latter do

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

128

Environmental health science research and human risk assessment.  

PubMed

Environmental health science research, with its focus on fundamental science and disease prevention, is important for the development of rational and cost-effective public health and regulatory policies related to environmental protection. Environmentally related diseases are preventable, yet they impose a major burden on society in terms of human suffering and costs related to health care. Similarly, the expenditure of hundreds of billions of dollars for regulatory compliance is a major economic concern. There is considerable debate regarding current regulatory risk assessment practices for environmental agents. Implicit in all risk assessment schemes is the need to extrapolate from high-exposure studies to low-exposure situations and from known risks in rodents to probable risks in people. Both extrapolations are fraught with uncertainties. These uncertainties are accommodated in risk-assessment schemes by the incorporation of arbitrary "safety factors" and other default approaches. Since these factors are not derived experimentally, they may overestimate or under estimate actual risks. Risk-assessment methodology, its relevance to the human condition, and its use in protecting human health will greatly improve when our expanding knowledge of the basic biology of environmental effects is incorporated into toxicological testing and risk-assessment schemes. Moreover, exciting opportunities now exist to advance our understanding of the environmental and genetic bases of many common diseases and to design effective prevention and intervention strategies to combat their development. This report discusses some of the current opportunities and challenges. PMID:7546220

Olden, K; Klein, J L

1995-09-01

129

INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

130

The Impact of Rape on Women's Sexual Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used cluster analysis to identify three patterns of sexual health risk behaviors in a sample of adult rape survivors (N = 102). Women in the 1st cluster (high risk) reported substantial increases from pre- to postrape in their frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, infrequency of condom use, and frequency of using alcohol and\\/or drugs during

Rebecca Campbell; Tracy Sefl; Courtney E. Ahrens

2004-01-01

131

Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

132

Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater?irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk reduction measures. Participatory research methods and techniques such as focus group discussions, in?depth interviews

Bernard Keraita; Pay Drechsel; Flemming Konradsen

2008-01-01

133

POSSIBILITIES FOR REDUCING HEALTH RISKS IN FOOD RETAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers of organic food stores – as regarding the influence on health – see reliable origin to be the most important criterion during their product selecting decision making process. In the case of traditional foods they find additive artificial materials and GMOs significant among health risks, in the case of organic foods they think that significant problems arise from the

Annamaria Furedi-Kovacs

2008-01-01

134

Possible Health Risks Damage to brain and nervous system.  

E-print Network

which may cause a variety of health issues such as learning disabilities, behavioral problems, seizuresPossible Health Risks Children Damage to brain and nervous system. Behavioral and learning disorders. Slowed growth and low IQ Hearing problems. Headaches. Adults Nerve disorders. Memory

Jia, Songtao

135

Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

2000-01-01

136

Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard

Matthias Barton

2012-01-01

137

Human Health Risk Assessment at a Depleted Uranium Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health risk assessments for depleted uranium are common for Department of Defense (DOD) sites since the metal has various military uses. At a training and experimental site, DU was evaluated in soil in order to make decisions regarding cleanup and future use of the site. At this site, concentrations were found to be protective of human health; DU is

BARBARA G. CALLAHAN; PAUL KOSTECKI; KAREN D. REECE

2004-01-01

138

Educated guesses: Health risk assessment in environmental impact statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and

Pd Harvey

1990-01-01

139

HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

140

Schiffert Health Center TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM  

E-print Network

: ________________________________________ The United States Public Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend, resident, or employee in a congregate living setting (homeless shelter, nursing home, correctional facility

Virginia Tech

141

Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

1992-06-01

142

Adolescent Risk Taking, Neighborhood Social Capital, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the roles of a neighborhood measure of social capital, family affluence, and risk taking on adolescent self-rated health. Methods: This study uses data from the 2384 Canadian students in Grades 9-10 (56.5% female) from the World Health Organization's Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey 2001\\/2002, a nationwide representative sample. Results: Using binary logistic regression models, it is

William F. Boyce; Diane Davies; Owen Gallupe; Danielle Shelley

2008-01-01

143

How does risk sharing between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affect mental health care?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the ways in which allocating the risk for behavioral health care expenses between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affects costs and the use of services. DATA SOURCES: Claims from 87 plans that cover mental health and substance abuse services covering over one million member years in 1996/1997. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-part regression models for health care cost are used. Dependent variables are health care costs decomposed into access to any care, costs per user, any inpatient use, costs per outpatient user, and costs per inpatient user. The study compares full-risk plans, in which the managed care organization provides managed care services and acts as the insurer by assuming the risk for claims costs, with contracts in which the managed care organization only manages care (for a fixed administrative fee) and the employer retains the risk for claims. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-risk plans are not statistically significantly different from non-risk plans in terms of any mental health specialty use or hospitalization rates, but costs per user are significantly lower, in particular for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Risk contracts do not affect initial access to mental health specialty care or hospitalization rates, but patients in risk contracts have lower costs, either because of lower intensity of care or because they are treated by less expensive providers. PMID:11055447

Sturm, R

2000-01-01

144

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications.  

PubMed

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City's MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

2008-04-01

145

[Radon exposure and risks for public health].  

PubMed

Radon is a radioactive gas of natural origin. Its principal isotope is radon-222, stemming from uranium-238 present at various concentrations in all soils. Radon is found everywhere in the earth's atmosphere but has low reactivity by itself. Radon particulate daughters are however responsible for alpha irradiation of the bronchial epithelium. Epidemiologic studies on miners have shown long ago that radon exposure causes an increased risk of lung cancer in these workers. More recently, its risk associated with radon exposure was addressed in public dwellings. It is generally agreed that the risk of lung cancer is plausible in this setting. In particular, radon exposure in some dwellings may be comparable to that undergone by several uranium miner populations. However, simple and low-cost steps can be taken to significantly reduce radon exposure in dwellings. PMID:11148372

Bard, D; Tirmarche, M; Pirard, P

2000-12-01

146

Successful African-American Mathematics Students in Academically Unacceptable High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the reasons why successful mathematics students have been able to thrive in schools labeled "academically unacceptable" and why they have chosen to stay in these "academically unacceptable" schools despite having the option to leave. Qualitative methods including group interviews, individual interviews, and…

Sheppard, Peter

2006-01-01

147

Three Year Health Outcomes Among Older Women at Risk of Elder Abuse: Women's Health Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Older women are at increasing risk of various forms of familial violence, yet detection is poor and very little is known of the long-term health effects of this psychosocial problem. The effectiveness of the ‘Vulnerability to Abuse’ Screening Scale (VASS) in predicting three year health outcomes was investigated among women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health,

Margot J. Schofield; Gita D. Mishra

2004-01-01

148

[The Meninos do Rio Program: lifeworld, adolescence, and health risks].  

PubMed

This study focuses on health risks among teenagers from two towns in the Sao Francisco River Valley (Ibiai and Morada Nova) and slums in Morro das Pedras, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study discusses teaching and extracurricular activities by the Federal University in Minas Gerais in these localities, aimed at promoting health in adolescence. The authors use the Habermas communicative action theory as the main theoretical and methodological approach. The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology, including dynamic observation, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires answered by high school students. Sexuality, work, and violence were the main themes and were associated with numerous health risks. Work in the 10-to-14-year-old group was associated with nearly all types of health risks. The authors analyze the relations between context and adolescent behavior using the Habermasian concept of lifeworld colonization. PMID:15692636

Melo, Elza Machado de; Faria, Horácio Pereira de; Melo, Maria Aparecida Machado de; Chaves, Adriana Braga; Machado, Graziela Paronetto

2005-01-01

149

Infant mental health promotion and the discourse of risk.  

PubMed

The field of infant mental health promotion has rapidly developed in academia, health policy and practice. Although there are roots in earlier childhood health and welfare movements, recent developments in infant mental health promotion are distinct and different. This article examines the development and practice of infant mental health promotion in South Australia. A regional, intersectoral forum with a focus on families and young children was used as a case study. In-depth interviews with forum members were analysed using a governmentality lens. Participants identified a range of risks to the healthy development of the infant. The study suggests that the construction of risk acts as a technique of governing, providing the rationale for intervention for the child, the mother and the public's good. It places responsibility on parents to self-govern. Although the influence of broader social contexts is acknowledged, the problematisation of mothering as risk shifts the focus to individual capacity, rather than encompassing the systems and social conditions that support healthy relationships. This research suggests that the representations of risk are a pervasive and potent influence that can act to undermine health promotion efforts that seek to empower and enable people to have more control over their own health. PMID:24266837

Lawless, Angela; Coveney, John; MacDougall, Colin

2014-03-01

150

Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

1997-01-01

151

Health risks of residential wood heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

152

[Economic evaluation and rationale for human health risk management decisions].  

PubMed

The priority task of human health maintenance and improvement is risk management using the new economic concepts based on the assessment of potential and real human risks from exposure to poor environmental factors and on the estimation of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness ratios. The application of economic tools to manage a human risk makes it possible to assess various measures both as a whole and their individual priority areas, to rank different scenarios in terms of their effectiveness, to estimate costs per unit of risk reduction and benefit increase (damage decrease). PMID:21845769

Fokin, S G; Bobkova, T E

2011-01-01

153

[Economic evaluation and rationale for human health risk management decisions].  

PubMed

The priority task of human health maintenance and improvement is risk management using the new economic concepts based on the assessment of potential and real human risks from exposure to poor environmental factors and on the estimation of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness ratios. The application of economic tools to manage a human risk makes it possible to assess various measures both as a whole and their individual priority areas, to rank different scenarios in terms of their effectiveness, to estimate costs per unit of risk reduction and benefit increase (damage decrease). PMID:21842745

Bobkova, T E; Fokin, S G

2011-01-01

154

Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic research has promise for increasing our understanding of how biological

L. N. Price; E. E. Reider; E. B. Robertson

2006-01-01

155

MINUTES OF THE NUTRITION COORDINATING COMMITTEE (NCC) MEETING, NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH)  

E-print Network

and pesticides in commercial fish. Data from more than 75 government databases and scientific studies (mostly are designated a "health concern" if eating them once/week poses an unacceptable health risk according to EPA. The high contaminant species are further highlighted in red. Eating off the "good" list usually makes sense

Rau, Don C.

156

Maternal Health and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women's health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Most HIV infections in women are in resource-constrained settings where the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality is also unacceptably high, and where most of the 529,000 deaths from complications

James McIntyre

2005-01-01

157

Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-01-01

158

Occupational Health Policies on Risk Assessment in Japan  

PubMed Central

Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law) of Japan requires abnormalities identified in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording "employers shall endeavor." Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifies criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer significant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, financial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations. PMID:22953159

2010-01-01

159

Health Risk Assessment of Irradiated Topaz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-produced blue topaz, indistinguishable from natural blue topaz, is produced by several different techniques. Published information on radionuclides present, activity levels, equipment necessary to detect activated nuclides and dosimetric assessment is lacking. Using a 60 megawatt nuclear reactor, fifty-one samples of colorless topaz from Nigeria, Sri Lanka, India and Brazil were irradiated with thermal and fast neutron fluences ranging from 1.8 times 10 13 to 9.2 times 1018 neutrons cm^{-2}. Seventeen MeV electrons produced by a linear accelerator were also used to irradiate 36 colorless topaz from the same countries. Gamma ray or positron-emitting nuclides were identified using calibrated well-type NaI or germanium detectors. For germanium detectors having relative efficiencies of approximately 20 percent, an analysis time of one hour or more was needed. Geiger Mueller (G-M) detectors, scintillators (plastic and liquid), gas flow proportional counters, a ZnS detector and autoradiography techniques were used to measure charged particle activity. Isotopes produced from neutron activation included 182Ta, ^ {59}Fe, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 124Sb, ^{32 }P, 77As, ^ {183}Ta, 77Ge, 72Ga, and ^{24 }Na. Possible nuclides produced from 17 MeV electron treatment include ^{68 }Ga, 64Cu, ^ {49}Cr, and 18F. Positive identification of the electron activated nuclides was not possible because of the short half-lives involved (<1 day). Of the possible pure beta emitters activated during neutron bombardment, 32P and 35S are the most likely to be produced. The identification of 32P was made using a three point beta absorption analysis with a G-M detector. Skin and breast cancer risk estimates were calculated for various sized topaz containing NRC exempt concentration levels. When compared to a negligible individual risk level (NIRL) of 10^{-7}, the risk of an irradiated topaz in contact with the skin or three inches from breast tissue was a small fraction of the NIRL. At a risk level of 10^{ -7}, nuclides identified in topaz with a table facet area of greater than approximately 0.5 cm ^2 can be detected at twice background levels using a shielded G-M detector having a window thickness of 1.4 to 2.0 mg cm^{-2}.

Nelson, Kevin Lyle

1991-06-01

160

Environmental degradation and health risks in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

As China's capital city, Beijing is experiencing unprecedented environmental degradation accompanied by complex interactions between urbanization and global environmental change, which places human health at risk on a large spatial and temporal scale. For sustainable development that supports environmental and human health in Beijing and during the upcoming "green" Olympic games in 2008, experts and political leaders must acknowledge the urgent health risks from environmental changes related to urbanization. A range of urban health hazards and associated health risks in Beijing result from a variety of factors including heat islands, air pollution, water crisis, soil pollution, infectious diseases, and urban consumerism; in addition, some hazardous health conditions are associated with inequality in living and working conditions. The authors suggest 2 main areas for policy action and research direction: (1) the need to get full-scale information related to environmental monitoring data and health data (and then to provide new methodological approaches and techniques to implement interventions) and (2) the need for effective cooperation among different sectors. PMID:18171645

Qi, Jun; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi

2007-01-01

161

Nanoparticles – known and unknown health risks  

PubMed Central

Manmade nanoparticles range from the well-established multi-ton production of carbon black and fumed silica for applications in plastic fillers and car tyres to microgram quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences are experiencing massive investment worldwide, there will be a further rise in consumer products relying on nanotechnology. While benefits of nanotechnology are widely publicised, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use in the consumer and industrial products are just beginning to emerge. This review provides comprehensive analysis of data available on health effects of nanomaterials. PMID:15588280

Hoet, Peter HM; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Salata, Oleg V

2004-01-01

162

A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.  

PubMed

The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources. PMID:25070413

Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

2014-08-01

163

Mental Health, Are We at Risk?  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental health is an important component of the total positive health and is interwoven closely with the physical and physiological dynamics of the human body. Worldwide, about 500 million people are believed to be suffering from neurotic, stress related and psychological problems. In India, surveys on mental morbidity in various parts of the country suggest a prevalence rate of 18-20 per 1000. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out amongst married women in the age group 18-45 years in an urban community of South Mumbai. Self-reporting questionnaire of 20 items (SRQ 20) developed by the WHO was administered. Statistical analysis was carried out to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disturbance. Result: The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance was found to be 27.27% for the total sample. The study results indicate that somatic symptoms were reported more commonly which could be a manifestation of underlying/burgeoning mental disorders. Conclusions: The results imply a high prevalence of 27.27% of psychiatric disturbance in our community. However, defining mental disorder from a clinical standpoint necessitates identification of the dividing line between despair and depression. It is recommended that women be encouraged to approach counsellors and thus enable further diagnosis and management of Common Mental Disorders in the community. PMID:24695680

Tawar, Shabeena; Bhatia, Sanjana Seth; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

2014-01-01

164

Uncertainty in epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment have long grappled with problems of uncertainty in data and\\u000a their relationships. These uncertainties have become more challenging because of the complex, systemic nature of many of the\\u000a risks. A clear framework defining and quantifying uncertainty is needed. Three dimensions characterise uncertainty: its nature,\\u000a its location and its level. In terms of

David J. Briggs; Clive E. Sabel; Kayoung Lee

2009-01-01

165

Instrumentation in Health Education and the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) Instrument  

E-print Network

the validity and reliability of data collected from 1,992 Indiana middle and high school students with the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) instrument. The AHRBS instrument was created using the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM) theoretical framework...

Smith, Matthew L.

2010-01-14

166

Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

Smith, W.H. (Yale Univ., New Haven CT (USA))

1990-01-01

167

Health risks related to crop farming in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The article aims at describing and summarizing specific risk factors and occupational adverse health effects of agriculture\\u000a related to typical European crops.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and conclusion  A systematic literature review applying a standardized electronic literature search strategy (Medline, Toxnet, EMBASE, AGRICOLA,\\u000a Science Citation Index) was conducted until February 2007. Studies on specific work-related health risks were included as\\u000a well as comprehensive reviews

Andreas Fuchs; Dimitris Kouimintzis; Grit Neumann; Wilhelm Kirch

2007-01-01

168

Effective health risk communication about pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008. PMID:19797744

Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Timothy

2009-10-01

169

Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2010-01-01

170

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: health risk uncertainties and research directions.  

PubMed

With the way cleared for increased use of the fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in the United States, the issue of possible public health impacts associated with this additive has gained greater attention. In assessing potential health risks of particulate Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency not only considered the qualitative types of toxic effects associated with inhaled Mn, but conducted extensive exposure-response analyses using various statistical approaches and also estimated population exposure distributions of particulate Mn based on data from an exposure study conducted in California when MMT was used in leaded gasoline. Because of limitations in available data and the need to make several assumptions and extrapolations, the resulting risk characterization had inherent uncertainties that made it impossible to estimate health risks in a definitive or quantitative manner. To support an improved health risk characterization, further investigation is needed in the areas of health effects, emission characterization, and exposure analysis. PMID:9539013

Davis, J M

1998-02-01

171

Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks. PMID:23525029

Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

2013-01-01

172

Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Many cancer patients use complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) but may not be aware of the potential risks. There are no studies quantifying such risks, but there is some evidence of patient risk from case reports in the literature. A cross-sectional survey of patients attending the outpatient department at a specialist cancer centre was carried out to establish a pattern of herbal remedy or supplement use and to identify potential adverse side effects or drug interactions with conventional medicines. If potential risks were identified, a health warning was issued by a pharmacist. A total of 318 patients participated in the study. Of these, 164 (51.6%) took CAMs, and 133 different combinations were recorded. Of these, 10.4% only took herbal remedies, 42.1% only supplements and 47.6% a combination of both. In all, 18 (11.0%) reported supplements in higher than recommended doses. Health warnings were issued to 20 (12.2%) patients. Most warnings concerned echinacea in patients with lymphoma. Further warnings were issued for cod liver/fish oil, evening primrose oil, gingko, garlic, ginseng, kava kava and beta-carotene. In conclusion, medical practitioners need to be able to identify the potential risks of CAMs. Equally, patients should be encouraged to disclose their use. Also, more research is needed to quantify the actual health risks. PMID:14735185

Werneke, U; Earl, J; Seydel, C; Horn, O; Crichton, P; Fannon, D

2004-01-26

173

Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic  

PubMed Central

Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must consider travel time, the duration of rush-hour, congestion-specific emission estimates, and uncertainties. PMID:23500830

Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

2014-01-01

174

A profile of health risks among blue-collar workers.  

PubMed

Despite national objectives for extending health promotion programs to blue-collar workers and to small work sites, baseline behavior information for planning such programs is lacking. This study seeks to describe the health risks and norms specific to a population of male, blue-collar gas pipeline workers in remote sites. These workers (n = 395) completed a health risk appraisal and a "health gauge" survey designed to measure nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, participatory patterns in health-enhancing activities, group norms, and change efforts. Selected behaviors were similar to those of other Texas men (eg, smoking 27% versus 26%) although others were not (eg, smokeless tobacco 18% versus 8%). Multivariate analysis confirmed the relationship of friends' behavior patterns, risk-taking, and interpersonal experience to four lifestyle health behaviors. With 75% or more of workers expressing an interest in various programs, the findings suggest that programming for this population can be successful if tailored to current behaviors and the worksite culture. PMID:1552385

Gottlieb, N H; Weinstein, R P; Baun, W B; Bernacki, E J

1992-01-01

175

Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance.

Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

2014-01-01

176

Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

2003-01-01

177

Facility siting and health questions: the burden of health risk uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted several evaluations of occupational health problems at or near hazardous waste disposal facilities. Several examples illustrate the variety of public health concerns, including contamination of water supplies, airborne exposure to toxic substances for nearby residential areas, fires affecting nearby residents and local firefighters, and occupational health hazards for workers at these sites. Most of the potential health problems can be prevented with appropriate planning, orientation, and monitoring of the facility. The most difficult part is assuring the community that the design and operation will minimize risks.

Melius, J.M.; Costello, R.J.; Kominsky, J.R.

1984-01-01

178

5 CFR 432.105 - Proposing and taking action based on unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on unacceptable performance. 432.105...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION...and Workforce Performance, Personnel Systems...Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E...

2011-01-01

179

5 CFR 432.105 - Proposing and taking action based on unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on unacceptable performance. 432.105...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION...and Workforce Performance, Personnel Systems...Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E...

2012-01-01

180

5 CFR 432.105 - Proposing and taking action based on unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on unacceptable performance. 432.105...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION...and Workforce Performance, Personnel Systems...Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E...

2013-01-01

181

5 CFR 432.105 - Proposing and taking action based on unacceptable performance.  

...on unacceptable performance. 432.105...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION...and Workforce Performance, Personnel Systems...Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E...

2014-01-01

182

Potential Health Risks The same properties that make asbestos  

E-print Network

Potential Health Risks The same properties that make asbestos valuable also make it a threat to those who work with it. Asbestos fibers can enter the body in either of two ways: by inhalation or by ingestion. The most common route of exposure is from breathing airborne fibers. Inhaled asbestos fibers can

Loudon, Catherine

183

Prepared by Gallagher Student Health & Special Risk Revised April 2014  

E-print Network

Prepared by Gallagher Student Health & Special Risk Revised April 2014 Boston College Dependent or Spring Semester can also be completed online through www.gallagherstudent.com/BC and click on Dependent______ Date of Birth _____/_____/_______ MM / DD / YYYY Phone Number____________________________ Email Address

Huang, Jianyu

184

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-print Network

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED) Date: _______________ ID: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 into contact with a person who has Tuberculosis? ____ No ____ Yes 3. Have you ever used any illegal

Buehrer, R. Michael

185

"Misfearing"--culture, identity, and our perceptions of health risks.  

PubMed

Despite knowing that heart disease kills more women each year than all cancers combined, most women fear breast cancer far more - and their health-related behavior reflects this difference. If our sense of risk is less about fact than about feeling, how do we adjust it? PMID:24521105

Rosenbaum, Lisa

2014-02-13

186

Neural network to identify individuals at health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of diseases such as heart attack and high blood pressure could be reduced by adequate physical activity. However, even though majority of general population claims to perform some physical exercise, only a minority exercises enough to keep a healthy living style. Thus, physical inactivity has become one of the major concerns of public health in the past decade.

Tanja Magoc; Dejan Magoc

2011-01-01

187

Tattooing: another adolescent risk behavior warranting health education.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people. PMID:9419914

Armstrong, M L; Murphy, K P

1997-11-01

188

Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch

B. A. Thomas; F. O. Hoffman; L. F. Miller

1999-01-01

189

Health Risk Behaviors and Aliteracy: Are They Related?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aliteracy is defined as the quality or state of being able to read but the lack of interest in doing so; aliterates can read, but they never read for the love of reading. Aliteracy is said to be prevalent among college students. Also prevalent among college students are risk behaviors that contribute to poor health. Problem behavior theory links a…

Burak, Lydia J.

2003-01-01

190

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

191

Innovative human health and ecological risk assessment techniques at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The [open quotes]Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology[close quotes] (HSBRAM) was developed to enhance the preparation of risk assessments supporting the Hanford site cleanup mission. This methodology satisfies a Hanford federal facility agreement and consent order (tri-party agreement) milestone and is used to evaluate the risk to human health and the environment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The methodology was prepared by the Hanford Risk Assessment Committee (RAC) consisting of tri-party representatives: the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with associated contractors. The risk assessment guidance provided by EPA is sufficiently general to permit tailoring of specific parameters to meet the risk assessment needs of individual sites. The RAC utilized EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, (RAGS) as the cornerstone of the HSBRAM. The RAC added necessary Hanford-specific elements to construct a complete risk assessment guidance for utilization as an independent document. The HSBRAM is a living document because the RAC charter emphasizes the importance of continued methodology reevaluation. The HSBRAM also provides guidelines for the application of EPA's [open quotes]Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment[close quotes] to Hanford-specific environmental baseline risk assessments by including endangered and threatened species in addition to sensitive habitats potentially associated with the Hanford site and guidance for selection of ecotoxicological data. Separate negotiations for the selection of risk parameters for each operable unit were avoided by defining parameters in the HSBRAM. There are 78 past-practice operable units at Hanford requiring risk assessments.

Clarke, S.; Jones, K. (Dames Moore, Richland, WA (United States)); Goller, E. (DOE, Richland, WA (United States))

1993-01-01

192

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains.

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

2013-01-01

193

The Aggregate Risk Index: An intuitive tool providing the health risks of air pollution to health care community and public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European project PASODOBLE (FP7), we set up downstream information services by combining environmental and health data with a view to support the health care community and to improve vulnerable people welfare. Indeed there is a profound relationship between human health, well-being and air pollution levels. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air quality, exposure of populations and their reactivity, to develop and validate air quality indexes and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. This index will be implemented on 3 European sites: Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki), the Netherlands and "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (South East of France). The selected region and cities are among the most affected by the atmospheric pollution in Europe and leads to serious sanitary concerns. The service aims to provide up-to-date, detailed information on air quality discomfort. The Aggregate Risk Index is based on the Cairncross's concept, obtained from the Relative Risk associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants and takes into account the possible effects of a mixture of pollutants. This communication tool, easy to use and intuitive, about the levels of air pollution and the associated health risks, will be used to communicate information to the general population, authorities and to the health care community and will provide advanced warning of potentially health-damaging air pollution events.

Sicard, Pierre; Talbot, Charles; Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Alexandre, Nicolas; Collomp, Rémy

2012-01-01

194

Glossary of terms related to health, exposure, and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Many state and local agencies are developing or implementing programs to control emissions of toxic air pollutants. To successfully carry out these programs, agency personnel must be familiar with a wide range of issues and terms related to health, exposure, and risk assessment for toxic air pollutants. Understanding these issues and terms is not always an easy task. This glossary was prepared by the U.S. EPA's Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) as a resource tool for State and local air pollution control agencies and U.S. EPA Regional Offices. The purpose of the glossary is to define terms that are commonly used in health, exposure, and risk assessments for toxic air pollutants.

Not Available

1989-03-01

195

Inhalation health risks of manganese: an EPA perspective.  

PubMed

In 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denied a petition by Ethyl Corporation to allow the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in unleaded gasoline, because of health concerns related to the inhalation of manganese (Mn) particulate emissions from combusted MMT. Although Ethyl successfully challenged EPA's denial of the petition on legal grounds, issues raised in EPA's health risk assessment have not been resolved to date. This paper summarizes features of the EPA health risk characterization, which included the use of various statistical techniques to derive several estimates of inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for Mn as alternatives to the established value of 0.05 microgram Mn/m3. An exposure assessment projected distributions of personal exposure levels to particulate Mn if MMT were used in all unleaded gasoline. It was estimated that exposure levels of 5-10% of the modeled population might exceed a possible alternative RfC value of 0.1 microgram Mn/m3. However, due to data limitations, the risk characterization for Mn/MMT could raise only qualitative concerns about potential public health impacts and was unable to provide a quantitative estimate of risk. To improve the risk characterization, better information on Mn/MMT population exposures and health effects is needed. Much of this information is expected to be obtained under provisions of Section 211 of the Clean Air Act. Among the specific issues that remain to be resolved are the form or forms of Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline and the potentially different toxic properties of Mn in different forms. PMID:10385909

Davis, J M

1999-01-01

196

Pre-employment antecedents of health resources, job factors and health risk behaviour in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of individual factors in youth as predictors of adult health resources, job factors and health risk behaviour was studied in men and women. The studied health risk behaviours were smoking, use of alcohol and sedentary behaviour. Sense of coherence (SOC) was the used measure of adult health resources. The pre-employment data had been collected from a sample of

Jukka Vuori

1994-01-01

197

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013  

E-print Network

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013 General In general health risk assessment to be a good contribution to the discussion about the potential public health for the disagreements between the experts (i.e. the ESR team who undertook the health risk assessment

Sun, Jing

198

The risk ogf high-risk jobs : psychological health consequences in forensic physicians and ambulance workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers\\u000a\\u000aThis thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress.\\u000a\\u000aA significant number of forensic physicians and ambulance personnel experience serious problems in coming to terms with dramatic events

Eleonore van der Ploeg

2003-01-01

199

Key Scientific Issues in the Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

2006-01-01

200

Key scientific issues in the health risk assessment of trichloroethylene.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

Chiu, Weihsueh A; Caldwell, Jane C; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

2006-09-01

201

Occupational health risks of barbers and coiffeurs in Izmir  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine self-reported occupational health risks and health complaints of barbers and hairdressers. A total of 1284 individuals from 300 workplaces in Izmir participated in this study. The workers completed the questionnaires during their training in occupational health. Self-reported symptoms were allergy: 35% and musculoskeletal symptoms: 32%. The frequency of allergy complaints was found to be significantly higher in older individuals and in women. Allergic complaints were more frequent in i) those having history of allergy, ii) in the group where the use of protective clothing and gloves was lower, iii) in smokers and in those who found ventilation in the workplace to be inadequate. Only 41.2% reported that they used gloves and 15.2% reported the use of protective clothing within the last month. It appears that poor occupational factors in barbers' salons and exposure to hairdressing chemicals bring about health problems of the hairdressers. PMID:20386627

Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Kose, Sukran; Gozaydin, Ayhan; Turken, Melda; Kuzucu, Lutfiye

2009-01-01

202

Approaches to characterizing human health risks of exposure to fibers.  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring and man-made (synthetic) fibers of respirable sizes are substances that have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as priority substances for risk reduction and pollution prevention under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The health concern for respirable fibers is based on the link of occupational asbestos exposure and environmental erionite fiber exposure to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including interstitial lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. There is also considerable laboratory evidence indicating that a variety of fibers of varying physical and chemical characteristics can elicit fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects in animals under certain exposure conditions. This paper discusses key scientific issues and major default assumptions and uncertainties pertaining to the risk assessment of inhaled fibers. This is followed by a description of the types of assessment performed by the U.S. EPA to support risk management actions of new fibers and existing fibers under TSCA. The scope and depth of these risk assessments, however, vary greatly depending on whether the substance under review is an existing or a new fiber, the purpose of the assessment, the availability of data, time, and resources, and the intended nature of regulatory action. In general, these risk assessments are of considerable uncertainty because health hazard and human exposure information is often incomplete for most fibers. Furthermore, how fibers cause diseases and what specific determinants are critical to fiber-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity are still not completely understood. Further research to improve our knowledge base in fiber toxicology and additional toxicity and exposure data gathering are needed to more accurately characterize the health risks of inhaled fibers. PMID:9400747

Vu, V T; Lai, D Y

1997-01-01

203

Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-01-01

204

Human health risk assessment of endosulfan. Part III: Occupational handler exposure and risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) have authority to regulate pesticides, respectively, within the United States and within the state of California. Both agencies are obligated to protect human and environmental health within the geographical boundaries where they have authority. Risk assessment of pesticidal active ingredients is conducted by both USEPA

S. L. Beauvais; M. H. Silva; S. Powell

2010-01-01

205

Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

2014-01-01

206

Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies using such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective: This commentary describes a collaborative effort among several federal and state agencies to advance the next generation of risk assessment. The objective of the NexGen program is to begin to incorporate recent progress in molecular and systems biology into risk assessment practice. The ultimate success of this program will be based on the incorporation of new practices that facilitate faster, cheaper, and/or more accurate assessments of public health risks. Methods: We are developing prototype risk assessments that compare the results of traditional, data-rich risk assessments with insights gained from new types of molecular and systems biology data. In this manner, new approaches can be validated, traditional approaches improved, and the value of different types of new scientific information better understood. Discussion and Conclusions: We anticipate that these new approaches will have a variety of applications, such as assessment of new and existing chemicals in commerce and the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Additionally, results of the effort are likely to spur further research and test methods development. Full implementation of new approaches is likely to take 10–20 years. PMID:22875311

Anastas, Paul T.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Clark, Rebecca M.; Dix, David J.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Preuss, Peter W.

2012-01-01

207

Health risks associated with animal waste from intensive livestock units.  

PubMed

Potential health risks associated with animal waste arise as a consequence of direct microbial problems particularly salmonellosis, indirect microbial problems arising from drug resistance etc., toxic residues from therapeutic or prophylactic agents, or from poisonous gases generated in liquid waste. The biggest of these hazards arises from direct microbial problems but fortunately experience in the UK suggests that these problems can be controlled reasonably well if sensible action is taken both at the planning and operative stages. PMID:386865

Stevens, A J

1978-01-01

208

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors Among African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective\\u000a factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural\\u000a equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder,\\u000a and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was

Nikeea Copeland-Linder; Sharon F. Lambert; Yi-Fu Chen; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

209

Creating an integrated health care system: the health and human risk management model.  

PubMed

This article critiques the current health care system and presents a new conceptual model that offers the potential for an integrated health care system in the future. Health care currently consists of parallel care systems based on the competing conceptual frameworks of the medical model and the psychosocial model. It is argued that psychosocial factors must be included in an integrated system. Research literature is reviewed that documents the need for, the therapeutic effectiveness of, and the medical cost-offset benefits of mental and behavioral health interventions. The Health and Human Risk Management Model is described and illustrated with a case example as well as research outcomes from its implementation at United HealthCare Corporation. PMID:10154064

Bergmark, R E; Dell, P; Attridge, M; Parker, M

1996-01-01

210

Health Risks After Stroke May Linger for at Least 5 Years  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Risks After Stroke May Linger for at Least 5 ... apnea, and mental impairment may affect stroke survivors' risk of serious health problems and death. One expert agreed that longer ...

211

A multiple source approach to acute human health risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has developed in a three-tiered approach to perform an acute noncarcinogenic health risk assessment to comply with requirements contained in USEPA`s Addendum to the Methodology for Assessing health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions`. The addendum document drafted in November 1993 suggests evaluation of short-term emissions and exposures, but it does not provide necessary guidance or methodology. This evaluation becomes extremely complex when several sources contribute to the overall concentration of contaminants in the air. Because each source has a different emission rate, location, and dispersion profile, the compound-specific maximum concentrations are rarely located at the same receptor location, as determined by using the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCT3) dispersion model. Furthermore, evaluation of hazard quotients at various receptor locations from a large number of contaminants from multiple sources is an extremely complex and tedious process. This paper will detail a three-tiered approach which was developed to perform the acute risk assessment, quantify possible advantages and disadvantages associated with each tier, and demonstrate the effects of contributing factors, such as distance, emission rate variability, population/exposure scenarios, and compound speciation. In order to accomplish this task, a sample facility with four different combustion sources was modeled and processed according to the three-tiered approach.

Mower, B. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)] [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1998-12-31

212

Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care  

PubMed Central

High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741

Hudson, P

2003-01-01

213

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

214

The EPA health risk assessment of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT).  

PubMed

This paper describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assessment of potential health risks associated with the possible widespread use of a manganese (Mn)-based fuel additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT). This assessment was significant in several respects and may be instructive in identifying certain methodological issues of general relevance to risk assessment. A major feature of the inhalation health risk assessment was the derivation of Mn inhalation reference concentration (RfC) estimates using various statistical approaches, including benchmark dose and Bayesian analyses. The exposure assessment component used data from the Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study and other sources to estimate personal exposure levels of particulate Mn attributable to the permitted use of MMT in leaded gasoline in Riverside, CA, at the time of the PTEAM study; on this basis it was then possible to predict a distribution of possible future exposure levels associated with the use of MMT in all unleaded gasoline. Qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of the risk characterization are summarized, along with inherent uncertainties due to data limitations. PMID:9523444

Davis, J M; Jarabek, A M; Mage, D T; Graham, J A

1998-02-01

215

The impact of Telephonic Health Coaching on Health Outcomes in a High-risk Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Health coaching is a client-centric process to increase motivation and self-efficacy that supports sustainable lifestyle behavior changes and active management of health conditions. This study describes an intervention offered as a benefit to health plan members and examines health and behavioral outcomes of participants. Methods: High-risk health plan enrollees were invited to participate in a telephonic health coaching intervention addressing the whole person and focusing on motivating health behavior changes. Outcomes of self-reported lifestyle behaviors, perceived health, stress levels, quality of life, readiness to make changes, and patient activation levels were reported at baseline and upon program completion. Retrospectively, these data were extracted from administrative and health coaching records of participants during the first 2 full years of the program. Results: Less than 7% of the 114 615 potential candidates self-selected to actively participate in health coaching, those with the highest chronic disease load being the most likely to participate. Of 6940 active participants, 1082 fully completed health inventories, with 570 completing Patient Activation Measure (PAM). The conditions most often represented in the active participants were depression, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, asthma, and low back pain. In 6 months or less, 89% of participants met at least one goal. Significant improvements occurred in stress levels, healthy eating, exercise levels, and physical and emotional health, as well as in readiness to make change and PAM scores. Discussion: The types of client-selected goals most often met were physical activity, eating habits, stress management, emotional health, sleep, and pain management, resulting in improved overall quality of life regardless of condition. Positive shifts in activation levels and readiness to change suggest that health coaching is an intervention deserving of future prospective research studies to assess the utilization, efficacy, and potential cost-effectiveness of health coaching programs for a range of populations. PMID:24416671

Jonk, Yvonne; O'Connor, Heidi; Riise, Kirsten Sundgaard; Eisenberg, David M.; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

2013-01-01

216

[Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards. PMID:11928670

Szubert, Z; Wilczy?ska, U; Sobala, W

2001-01-01

217

Climate change and human health: present and future risks.  

PubMed

There is near unanimous scientific consensus that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity will change Earth's climate. The recent (globally averaged) warming by 0.5 degrees C is partly attributable to such anthropogenic emissions. Climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely. Here, we summarise the epidemiological evidence of how climate variations and trends affect various health outcomes. We assess the little evidence there is that recent global warming has already affected some health outcomes. We review the published estimates of future health effects of climate change over coming decades. Research so far has mostly focused on thermal stress, extreme weather events, and infectious diseases, with some attention to estimates of future regional food yields and hunger prevalence. An emerging broader approach addresses a wider spectrum of health risks due to the social, demographic, and economic disruptions of climate change. Evidence and anticipation of adverse health effects will strengthen the case for pre-emptive policies, and will also guide priorities for planned adaptive strategies. PMID:16530580

McMichael, Anthony J; Woodruff, Rosalie E; Hales, Simon

2006-03-11

218

Public responses to precautionary information from the Department of Health (UK) about possible health risks from mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding public perceptions of health information is of increasing importance in the light of the growing imperatives upon regulators to communicate information about risk and uncertainty. Communicating the possible health risks from mobile telecommunications is a domain that allows consideration of both public perceptions of uncertain public health information and public responses to precautionary advice. This research reports the results

Julie Barnett; Lada Timotijevic; Richard Shepherd; Victoria Senior

2007-01-01

219

Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors  

E-print Network

1 Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors Xiping Dai and Mark. The process for developing categories and exploring the relationships between health data and risk factors to the analysis of health data and risk factors. The system employs a range of visual and computational components

Klippel, Alexander

220

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

E-print Network

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy Jennifer J. Roberts1 , Rachel A. Wood of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO

Haszeldine, Stuart

221

Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: are health risk behaviors to blame?  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors - smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking - are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23 and 45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9-14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help to reduce later life health inequalities. PMID:24560224

Shaw, Benjamin A; McGeever, Kelly; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

2014-01-01

222

Health and health risks among sexual minority women: an examination of 3 subgroups.  

PubMed

We used 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to examine insurance status, source of routine care, cigarette and alcohol use, and self-rated health among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women who have sex with women, compared with heterosexual women who do not have sex with women. We found higher risks of being uninsured among lesbian and bisexual women, worse self-rated health among bisexual women, higher alcohol use among bisexual and heterosexual women who have sex with women, and higher smoking across all subgroups. PMID:24825204

Przedworski, Julia M; McAlpine, Donna D; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; VanKim, Nicole A

2014-06-01

223

Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

1994-05-01

224

Risk perception and risk communication for training women apprentice welders: a challenge for public health nursing.  

PubMed

This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

2013-01-01

225

Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing  

PubMed Central

This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diessica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

2013-01-01

226

Self-Presentation Can Be Hazardous to Your Health: Impression Management and Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

People's concerns with how others perceive and evaluate them can lead to behaviors that increase the risk of illness and injury. This article reviews evidence that self-presentational motives play a role in several health problems, including HIV infection; skin cancer; malnutrition and eating disorders; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; injuries and accidental death; failure to excercise; and acne. The implications

Mark R. Leary; Lydia R. Tchividijian; Brook E. Kraxberger

1994-01-01

227

Health Risk Surveillance and Health Promotion in a Predominantly Female Border Workforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the feasibility of investigating how health risk behaviors established during youth contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in a young workforce. The population of interest consists of Mexican women living and working on the Mexican side of the United States-Mexico border. Proposed goals would (1) establish…

Villas, Paul

228

Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such as all text. Findings also suggest that factors influencing response to risk communications are impacted by personal risk perception, previous personal experience with risk, sources of information and trust in those sources. Conclusions No single method of message delivery is best. Risk communication strategies that incorporate the needs of the target audience(s) with a multi-faceted delivery method are most effective at reaching the audience. PMID:21040529

2010-01-01

229

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2010-07-01

230

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2012-07-01

231

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2011-07-01

232

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2013-07-01

233

Process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders.  

PubMed Central

In most industrialized countries large numbers of workers are exposed to welding fumes. Although the general pattern of welders' health may not significantly differ from that of workers in other dusty industrial occupations which demonstrate elevated incidence of respiratory tract diseases with long latency periods, the extremely wide range of substances at potentially high concentrations produced by various welding technologies may give rise to undetected process-specific high-risk working conditions: ("hot spots"). The origin, prevalence and range of magnitude of such hot spots, especially for cancer of the respiratory tract, is discussed, with emphasis placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) and Ni accompanying the use of various technologies for the welding of stainless and high alloy steels. The wide variation of health effects found within the industry, however, indicates the need for a standard protocol for future epidemiological studies, as well as for the development of suitable methodologies for experimental risk assessment. PMID:7333241

Stern, R M

1981-01-01

234

Covariance among Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Methods Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other). Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. Results The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a ‘substance use risk factor’ and an ‘unhealthy eating and sedentary factor’. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. Conclusions Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds. PMID:24858838

de la Haye, Kayla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.

2014-01-01

235

Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

2014-07-01

236

Risk to all or none? A comparative analysis of controversies in the health risk assessment of Bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor for which health risk assessment has proven controversial. Conclusions regarding health risks of BPA vary between assessments from "there is no risk to any part of the population" to "there is risk to the entire population". We have carried out a literature study investigating what might be the scientific and/or policy-related reasons for these differences. Ten risk assessments for BPA were scrutinized and several factors were compared between assessments, including estimations of exposure levels, identification of critical study and NOAEL, assessment factors and significance attributed to reports of low-dose effects. Differences in conclusions were mainly influenced by the evaluation of low-dose effects and the uncertainties surrounding the significance of these data for health risk assessment. The results illustrate the impact of differences in risk assessment policy and expert judgment on the risk assessment process and highlight the importance of transparency in this process. PMID:19931376

Beronius, Anna; Rudén, Christina; Håkansson, Helen; Hanberg, Annika

2010-04-01

237

Still! Unacceptable Trends in Kindergarten Entry and Placement. A Position Statement. Revision and Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the persistence of unacceptable trends in kindergarten entry and placement practices narrows the curriculum in kindergarten and primary education, constricts equal educational opportunity, and curtails the exercise of professional responsibilities of early childhood educators, this position statement of the National Association of…

National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education.

238

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...end-use. CFC-11, CFC-12, R-502 Industrial Process Refrigeration (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B Unacceptable...safely in this end-use. CFC-12, R-502 Retail Food Refrigeration (Retrofit and New Equipment/NIKs) R-403B...

2010-07-01

239

30 CFR 250.136 - How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS determine if my operating performance is...Disqualification § 250.136 How will MMS determine if my operating performance is...your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS will consider, individually or...

2010-07-01

240

30 CFR 250.136 - How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will MMS determine if my operating performance is...Disqualification § 250.136 How will MMS determine if my operating performance is...your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS will consider, individually or...

2011-07-01

241

A Comparison of Health Risk Behaviors among College Students Enrolled in a Required Personal Health Course vs. an Elective Personal Health Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on whether health education, specifically personal health classes affects behavior change is inconclusive. In this study, a sample of students from two large southeastern universities enrolled in a required personal health course and an elective personal health course were administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…

Smith, Theresa M. Enyeart; Skaggs, Gary E.; Redican, Kerry J.

2008-01-01

242

Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.  

PubMed

The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia. PMID:18819679

Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

2008-08-01

243

Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. METHODS: Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older

Andreas E Stuck; Kalpa Kharicha; Ulrike Dapp; Jennifer Anders; Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse; Hans Peter Meier-Baumgartner; Danielle Harari; Cameron G Swift; Katja Ivanova; Matthias Egger; Gerhard Gillmann; Jerilyn Higa; John C Beck; Steve Iliffe

2007-01-01

244

Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations  

PubMed Central

Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

2013-01-01

245

Private health care coverage and increased risk of obstetric intervention  

PubMed Central

Background When clinically indicated, common obstetric interventions can greatly improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, variation in intervention rates suggests that obstetric practice may not be solely driven by case criteria. Methods Differences in obstetric intervention rates by private and public status in Ireland were examined using nationally representative hospital discharge data. A retrospective cohort study was performed on childbirth hospitalisations occurring between 2005 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with correction for the relative risk was conducted to determine the risk of obstetric intervention (caesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, induction of labour or episiotomy) by private or public status while adjusting for obstetric risk factors. Results 403,642 childbirth hospitalisations were reviewed; approximately one-third of maternities (30.2%) were booked privately. After controlling for relevant obstetric risk factors, women with private coverage were more likely to have an elective caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45-1.51), an emergency caesarean delivery (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.16) and an operative vaginal delivery (RR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22-1.27). Compared to women with public coverage who had a vaginal delivery, women with private coverage were 40% more likely to have an episiotomy (RR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.38-1.43). Conclusions Irrespective of obstetric risk factors, women who opted for private maternity care were significantly more likely to have an obstetric intervention. To better understand both clinical and non-clinical dynamics, future studies of examining health care coverage status and obstetric intervention would ideally apply mixed-method techniques. PMID:24418254

2014-01-01

246

Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis a virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the buffalo river and three source water dams in the eastern cape.  

PubMed

Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01 % (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

2014-06-01

247

Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our increasingly risk-averse culture. PMID:20102591

2009-01-01

248

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

249

Neural network to identify individuals at health risk  

E-print Network

The risk of diseases such as heart attack and high blood pressure could be reduced by adequate physical activity. However, even though majority of general population claims to perform some physical exercise, only a minority exercises enough to keep a healthy living style. Thus, physical inactivity has become one of the major concerns of public health in the past decade. Research shows that the highest decrease in physical activity is noticed from high school to college. Thus, it is of great importance to quickly identify college students at health risk due to physical inactivity. Research also shows that the level of physical activity of an individual is highly correlated to demographic features such as race and gender, as well as self motivation and support from family and friends. This information could be collected from each student via a 20 minute questionnaire, but the time needed to distribute and analyze each questionnaire is infeasible on a collegiate campus. Thus, we propose an automatic identifier o...

Magoc, Tanja

2011-01-01

250

Occupational Risk Factors and Asthma among Health Care Professionals  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Recent U.S. data suggest an increased risk of work-related asthma among health care workers, yet only a few specific determinants have been elucidated. Objectives: To evaluate associations of asthma prevalence with occupational exposures in a cross-sectional survey of health care professionals. Methods: A detailed questionnaire was mailed to a random sample (n = 5,600) of all Texas physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and occupational therapists with active licenses in 2003. Information on asthma symptoms and nonoccupational asthma risk factors obtained from the questionnaire was linked to occupational exposures derived through an industry-specific job-exposure matrix. Measurements: There were two a priori defined outcomes: (1) physician-diagnosed asthma with onset after entry into health care (“reported asthma”) and (2) “bronchial hyperresponsiveness–related symptoms,” defined through an 8-item symptom-based predictor. Main Results: Overall response rate was 66%. The final study population consisted of 862 physicians, 941 nurses, 968 occupational therapists, and 879 respiratory therapists (n = 3,650). Reported asthma was associated with medical instrument cleaning (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–3.67), general cleaning (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.20–3.40), use of powdered latex gloves between 1992 and 2000 (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.27–3.73), and administration of aerosolized medications (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.05–2.83). The risk associated with latex glove use was not apparent after 2000. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness–related symptoms were associated with general cleaning (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.21–2.19), aerosolized medication administration (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.84), use of adhesives on patients (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22–2.24), and exposure to a chemical spill (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.28–3.21). Conclusions: The contribution of occupational exposures to asthma in health care professionals is not trivial, meriting both implementation of appropriate controls and further study. PMID:17185646

Delclos, George L.; Gimeno, David; Arif, Ahmed A.; Burau, Keith D.; Carson, Arch; Lusk, Christine; Stock, Thomas; Symanski, Elaine; Whitehead, Lawrence W.; Zock, Jan-Paul; Benavides, Fernando G.; Anto, Josep M.

2007-01-01

251

State High-Risk Pools: An Update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association  

PubMed Central

State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the “uninsurable.” In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform. PMID:21228286

Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E.

2011-01-01

252

Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chickens.  

PubMed

The streptogramin antimicrobial combination Quinupristin-Dalfopristin (QD) has been used in the United States since late 1999 to treat patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections. Another streptogramin, virginiamycin (VM), is used as a growth promoter and therapeutic agent in farm animals in the United States and other countries. Many chickens test positive for QD-resistant E. faecium, raising concern that VM use in chickens might compromise QD effectiveness against VREF infections by promoting development of QD-resistant strains that can be transferred to human patients. Despite the potential importance of this threat to human health, quantifying the risk via traditional farm-to-fork modeling has proved extremely difficult. Enough key data (mainly on microbial loads at each stage) are lacking so that such modeling amounts to little more than choosing a set of assumptions to determine the answer. Yet, regulators cannot keep waiting for more data. Patients prescribed QD are typically severely ill, immunocompromised people for whom other treatment options have not readily been available. Thus, there is a pressing need for sound risk assessment methods to inform risk management decisions for VM/QD using currently available data. This article takes a new approach to the QD-VM risk modeling challenge. Recognizing that the usual farm-to-fork ("forward chaining") approach commonly used in antimicrobial risk assessment for food animals is unlikely to produce reliable results soon enough to be useful, we instead draw on ideas from traditional fault tree analysis ("backward chaining") to reverse the farm-to-fork process and start with readily available human data on VREF case loads and QD resistance rates. Combining these data with recent genogroup frequency data for humans, chickens, and other sources (Willems et al., 2000, 2001) allows us to quantify potential human health risks from VM in chickens in both the United States and Australia, two countries where regulatory action for VM is being considered. We present a risk simulation model, thoroughly grounded in data, that incorporates recent nosocomial transmission and genetic typing data. The model is used to estimate human QD treatment failures over the next five years with and without continued VM use in chickens. The quantitative estimates and probability distributions were implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation model for a five-year horizon beginning in the first quarter of 2002. In Australia, a Q1-2002 ban of virginiamycin would likely reduce average attributable treatment failures by 0.35 x 10(-3) cases, expected mortalities by 5.8 x 10(-5) deaths, and life years lost by 1.3 x 10(-3) for the entire population over five years. In the United States, where the number of cases of VRE is much higher, a 1Q-2002 ban on VM is predicted to reduce average attributable treatment failures by 1.8 cases in the entire population over five years; expected mortalities by 0.29 cases; and life years lost by 6.3 over a five-year period. The model shows that the theoretical statistical human health benefits of a VM ban range from zero to less than one statistical life saved in both Australia and the United States over the next five years and are rapidly decreasing. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is robust to key data gaps and uncertainties, e.g., about the extent of resistance transfer from chickens to people. PMID:15028017

Cox, Louis A; Popken, Douglas A

2004-02-01

253

Is genetic makeup a perceived health risk: analysis of a national survey of Canadians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discoveries in human genetics research over the last two decades could influence how the public views health risks and whether they assign genes a primary role in causing illness. Using data from the 2004 Canadian National Health Risk Perception Survey, this analysis explored the perceived risk of genetic makeup and its role in disease, as well as perceptions of the

Holly Etchegary; Louise Lemyre; Brenda Wilson; Dan Krewski

2009-01-01

254

ORIGINAL PAPER A two-dimensional probabilistic acute human-health risk  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER A two-dimensional probabilistic acute human-health risk assessment of insecticide the lowest risk group assessed in this study. Total acute exposure ranged from 0.00003 to 0.0003 mg/kg day-1. Peterson et al. (2006) performed a deterministic human-health risk assessment for acute and subchronic expo

Peterson, Robert K. D.

255

Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. METHODS: The

Edgar Voltmer; Ulf Kieschke; David LB Schwappach; Michael Wirsching; Claudia Spahn

2008-01-01

256

Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection  

SciTech Connect

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

1990-12-31

257

Multiple Threats: The Co-Occurrence of Teen Health Risk Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a portrait of multiple risk-taking among teens. Using recent data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, the report describes the extent to which teens engage in multiple health risk behaviors and contrast it with the extent to which teens…

Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Boggess, Scott; Williams, Sean

258

Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts. PMID:22752687

Choi, Sarah E.; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna

2012-01-01

259

Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1990-12-31

260

Human health risk assessment of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in drinking water.  

PubMed

2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used as a vulcanization accelerator in rubber products that come into contact with potable drinking water. When such products are evaluated for contact with potable water and submitted for ANSI/NSF Standard 61 certification, any chemical extracting from these products must be below an appropriate action level of exposure. As defined by Standard 61, a total allowable concentration (TAC) is the maximum concentration of a nonregulated contaminant allowed in a public drinking water supply, and the single product allowable concentration (SPAC) is 10% of the TAC. Currently, MBT has a TAC of 40 microg/L and a SPAC of 4 microg/L. A comprehensive health effects evaluation of MBT was performed to determine whether these action levels should be revised. Epidemiological investigations indicate that workers occupationally exposed to MBT have an increased risk of death from bladder cancer. Genotoxicity investigations in bacterial and mammalian test systems provide some evidence indicating that MBT has the potential to induce mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Toxicity studies in rats and mice chronically exposed to MBT identified increases in various tumours, such as adrenal gland tumours, pituitary gland tumours, liver tumours and renal pelvis tumours. The biological significance of most of these tumours is questionable due to a variety of factors, such as a lack of dose-response between tumour incidence and dose, and the effect of test article vehicle (corn oil) upon tumour rates. Potential human health effects of exposure to MBT can be predicted from an NTP 2-year cancer study in rats, as well as epidemiological investigations in occupationally exposed workers. A comprehensive review of the epidemiological and toxicological dataset for MBT indicates that the induction of renal pelvis transitional cell tumours is the most sensitive and relevant health effects endpoint upon which to base a revised TAC and SPAC. A multistage model was used to extrapolate to low-dose MBT exposures due to the genotoxicity and clastogenicity of MBT. A TAC of 600 microg/L was derived for MBT, and was based upon an LED10 of 157.681 mg/kg per day. A SPAC of 60 microg/L was derived by multiplying the revised TAC by 0.10, and rounding to one significant figure. These revised action levels are based upon the most sensitive health effects endpoint, as well as current cancer risk assessment methodology. PMID:15941012

Whittaker, Margaret H; Gebhart, Ann Marie; Miller, Thea Clipson; Hammer, Frank

2004-09-01

261

The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

2010-01-01

262

Promotion of health in older people: a randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal in British general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: there is inadequate evidence to support currently formulated NHS strategies to achieve health promotion and preventative care in older people through broad-based screening and assessment in primary care. The most extensively evaluated delivery instrument for this purpose is Health Risk Appraisal (HRA). This article describes a trial using HRA to evaluate the effect on health behaviour and preventative-care uptake

DANIELLE HARARI; S TEVE ILIFFE; K ALPA KHARICHA; M ATTHIAS EGGER; G ERHARD GILLMANN; W. Von Renteln-Kruse; J OHN BECK; C. Swift; A. Stuck

2008-01-01

263

[Stressors in health occupations. Do females have a greater health risk?].  

PubMed

Stressors and health risks in medical professions are still largely ignored. A survey on different studies in nurses, students, doctors and dentists by this author is compared to results of other authors. Special attention is given to role-strain and health risks of women in health jobs. In nursing attention and care for patients is the most important stressor, followed by team conflicts, insecurity, lack of autonomy, workload and authority conflicts. Burnout is the most important shortterm health risk, longterm consequences are scarcely researched. Where direct comparison was studied nurses named higher stress values than doctors. The stressors mentioned by the latter concern great responsibility and decision-making under time pressure, workload, increasing criticism by the public combined with a demanding attitude. Female doctors in addition complain about the strain of emergency services. They especially suffer from the role-strain between job stressors and family responsibilities. Early signs of this stress combination can already be found in female students, but the whole career of female doctors is marked by it. Overall mortality of doctors decreased during the last decade when compared with the general population, but is still worse than that of other professionals of comparable education. Especially suicide-rates are high, for males 2-3 times, for females even 5-6 times that of the general population. This may be explained by a high toll of psychiatric diseases, particularly addiction and depression. All these facts are surprisingly little observed and reflected by the medical community when compared with increasing preventive activities in other job situations. PMID:1529649

Heim, E

1992-01-01

264

Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening  

PubMed Central

Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees. PMID:18601718

Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

2008-01-01

265

Chances and Risks of Nanomaterials for Health and Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials have properties that are often very different from normal materials made of the same substance, which can be used to create novel products with exciting properties. However, the health and environmental impact of these nanomaterials is also changed and their potential risk needs to be studied. There is evidence that some nanomaterials can pass through tissue barriers (including the blood-brain barrier) and cell membranes. This is interesting for medical applications, but it raises concerns about the impact of non-medical nanomaterials. Current research aims at better coordinating research efforts and at better communication between researchers and involved stakeholders. Many research labs and production sites currently follow strategies that were established for dealing with very toxic chemicals and powders, until future research in this field helps identify the appropriate level of protection. All these efforts will ultimately ensure a safe, healthy and environmental friendly production, use and disposal of nanomaterials.

Riediker, Michael

266

Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology.  

PubMed

Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields. PMID:24580858

Hayes, Daniel F; Markus, Hugh S; Leslie, R David; Topol, Eric J

2014-01-01

267

Cyanotoxin management and human health risk mitigation in recreational waters.  

PubMed

The occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial or blue-green algal blooms (HABs) have increased in recent decades, posing a serious threat of illness to humans. In some countries, water contaminated with cyanotoxins that is used for drinking or haemodialysis has posed a particularly serious risk. However, it is now recognized that recreational exposure to natural toxins by skin contact, accidental swallowing of water or inhalation can also cause a wide range of acute or chronic illnesses. In this review, we focus on the importance of cyanotoxin management in recreational waters. The symptoms related with HAB poisonings, the recommended safety concentrations limit for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in such waters, as well as early health hazard indicators of their presence and their monitoring are all discussed. We also present in this review an overview of the methods developed in recent decades for eliminating cyanobacteria and the toxic compounds that they produce. PMID:24664523

Koreivien?, Judita; Anne, Olga; Kasperovi?ien?, J?rat?; Burškyt?, Vilma

2014-07-01

268

Essays on econometric modeling of subjective perceptions of risks in environment and human health  

E-print Network

findings revealed that perceived risk was positively associated with exposure levels and also related individuating factors, in particular smoking habits and one’s current health status. Further evidence was found that the variance of the perceived risk...

Nguyen, To Ngoc

2009-05-15

269

Clustering of Oral and General Health Risk Behaviors in Korean Adolescents: A National Representative Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposesTo investigate the distribution of modifiable oral and general health risk behaviors according to socioeconomic status and to examine the extent of clustering of risk behaviors among Korean adolescents.

Yong-Duk Park; Lauren L. Patton; Hae-Young Kim

2010-01-01

270

Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk BehaviorsA Prospective Analysis of College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month follow-up period. After controlling for age and parents' education, a history

Christine A. Gidycz; Lindsay M. Orchowski; Carrie R. King; Cindy L. Rich

2008-01-01

271

Adolescent Peer Crowd Affiliation: Linkages With Health-Risk Behaviors and Close Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine adolescents' peer crowd affiliation and its linkages with health-risk behaviors, their friends' health-risk behaviors, the presence of close friends in the same peer crowd, and adolescents' social acceptance. Methods: We interviewed 250 high school students and identified six categories: popular, jocks, brains, burnouts, nonconformists, or average\\/other. Adolescents also reported on their health-risk behaviors (including use of cigarettes,

Annette M. La Greca; Mitchell J. Prinstein; Michael D. Fetter

2001-01-01

272

[Assessment of the quality of drinking water in the industrial city and risk for public health].  

PubMed

Karabash city sprang up around the copper plant that uses local copper ore, which was composed of zinc, sulfur, barium, beryllium, arsenic, manganese, lead, antimony, chromium, cadmium, gallium, indium, scandium, thallium, germanium, osmium, and others. Centralized water supply for the city is organized from the lake Serebry and the flowage on the river B. Kialim. Part of the population uses water wells, voids and springs. In Serebry Lake and drinking groundwater there were found significant concentrations of nitrates, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead barium, nickel, mercury and zinc. There are most exposed to toxic hazards from drinking water persons using water from Serebry aqueduct (hazard index for--children/ adults 2.75/1.1, respectively) and decentralized water supply sources (hazard index for children/adults--2.35/1.0). Maximal hazard coefficients were calculated for nitrates, arsenic and antimony. Among the systems mostly exposed to toxic effects are digestive, cardiovascular endocrine, nervous system and skin. Carcinogenic risk is caused by arsenic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and dichloroethane. Carcinogenic risk from water sources of decentralized water supply is 9,6 E-05, for water from Kialim reservoir--7,3 E-05. Maximum carcinogenic risk is associated with the water from the Serebry aqueduct, the risk reaches 2,17 E-04 and is characterized as unacceptable. PMID:25306690

Konshina, L G; Lezhnin, V L

2014-01-01

273

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

2012-10-01

274

Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

2000-01-01

275

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

276

Trihalomethanes in marine mammal aquaria: occurrences, sources, and health risks.  

PubMed

Disinfecting water containing the high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) commonly generated during pinniped husbandry may cause the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Little information is available on DBP levels, sources, and health risks in marine mammal aquaria. Using the commonly observed trihalomethanes (THMs) as a DBP indicator, we monitored concentrations for seven months at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, one of the largest pinniped rehabilitation facilities in the world. Concentrations of THMs ranged 1.1-144.2 ?g/L in pool waters and generally increased with number of animals housed (P < 0.05). To identify the sources of THM precursors in marine mammal aquaria, we intensively monitored the mass flows of potential THM precursors (i.e. food and wastes) in an isolated system with nine individual California sea lions to evaluate the sources and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for 2-5 weeks. The common frozen foods used in feeding pinnipeds, including herring, sardine, and squid, produced an average of 22-34 mg-DOC/g-food in water and 836-1066 ?g-THM/g-food after chlorination, whereas the fecal materials, including fresh scat, decomposed scat, and urine, produced 2-16 mg-DOC/g-waste and 116-768 ?g-THM/g-waste. Food not eaten by animals could cause a sharp increase of DOC and DBP production and therefore should be removed rapidly from pools. Marine mammal husbandry staff and trainers are at risk (5.16 × 10(-4) to 1.30 × 10(-3)) through exposure of THMs, exceeding the negligible risk level (10(-6)) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24805374

Wang, Jun-Jian; Chow, Alex T; Sweeney, Joelle M; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-08-01

277

PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT LINKED TO CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE. (R824995)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Disturbances of climatic and ecological systems can present risks to human health, which are becoming more evident from health studies linked to climate variability, landuse change and global climate change. Waterborne disease agents, such as Giardia cy...

278

Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM?+?image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2?=?0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high correlation between 2000 and 2001 risk indices (r?=?0.98, p?health risk index together with hazard and vulnerability indices to implement tailored programs because exposure to heat and vulnerability do not require the same prevention strategies. PMID:22974194

2012-01-01

279

[Work related health risks among dentist's assistants in Flanders, Belgium].  

PubMed

The aim of this research project was to learn more about work-related health risks among dental assistants in Flanders, Belgium. Forty-seven dental assistants completed an extensive questionnaire concerning ionized radiation, protection against infection and exposure to chemicals such as mercury, disinfectants and acrylates. Collective and personal means of protection, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related stress were also evaluated. Pain in the lower back, neck pain and shoulder pain were reported by, respectively, 15%, 17% and 22% of the respondents. Eczema resulting from skin irritation or contact-allergy was reported by 13%. Twenty-three percent of the assistants did not consistently make use ofa radiation badge; 80% wore a mouth mask and 33% wore protective glasses; and 82% was vaccinated against hepatitis B. Almost 10% reported verbal or physical aggression by patients. The mean stress score was 3.95 on a scale from 0 to 10. The results may contribute to the formulation of a number of recommendations for the improvement of the health of dental assistants. PMID:21882506

Hambach, R; Acke, S; François, G; Alen, Y; Droste, J; van Sprundel, M

2011-01-01

280

Managing facility risk: external threats and health care organizations.  

PubMed

Clinicians and clinical administrators should have a basic understanding of physical and financial risk to mental health facilities related to external physical threat, including actions usually viewed as "terrorism" and much more common sources of violence. This article refers to threats from mentally ill persons and those acting out of bizarre or misguided "revenge," extortionists and other outright criminals, and perpetrators usually identified as domestic or international terrorists. The principles apply both to relatively small and contained acts (such as a patient or ex-patient attacking a staff member) and to much larger events (such as bombings and armed attack), and are relevant to facilities both within and outside the U.S. Patient care and accessibility to mental health services rest not only on clinical skills, but also on a place to practice them and an organized system supported by staff, physical facilities, and funding. Clinicians who have some familiarity with the non-clinical requirements for care are in a position to support non-clinical staff in preventing care from being interrupted by external threats or events such as terrorist activity, and/or to serve at the interface of facility operations and direct clinical care. Readers should note that this article is an introduction to the topic and cannot address all local, state and national standards for hospital safety, or insurance providers' individual facility requirements. PMID:24733720

Reid, Daniel J; Reid, William H

2014-01-01

281

Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach  

PubMed Central

Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified Mexican American fifth graders’ (N = 749) risk profiles based on family, peer, and socio-cultural risk factors and examined the relationships of these risk profiles to mental health symptomatology in seventh grade. Results revealed three distinct profiles that differed quantitatively and qualitatively. Profiles were then linked to levels of mental health symptomatology, with youth in the highest risk profile displaying the most symptoms. Youth in two other risk profiles displayed lower levels. The findings suggest that Mexican American youth develop within distinct risk contexts that differ in their relationships to adjustment. Such findings inform prevention/intervention efforts aimed at reducing mental health problems in adolescence. PMID:23608782

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

2013-01-01

282

Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?  

PubMed

Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 ?g/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 ?g/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

2014-09-01

283

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Common Grazing Management Mistakes  

E-print Network

- ly so that they can handle unforseen situations, recognize the warning signs of unacceptable risks, and correct their management strategies before the rangeland resource is harmed. ?Ranchers have often equated livestock numbers with their wealth... if it harms the natural range ecosystem. Often, too much importance is placed on immediate gross returns from livestock and/or wildlife, and not enough on maintaining rangeland health. Checklist of Mistakes 1) Failure to change from the historical stocking...

White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; Clayton, Lindi

2000-11-01

284

Effects of the federal risk reduction grants on state health education units.  

PubMed

Beginning in 1979, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) awarded risk reduction grants to health education units in state health departments. One of CDC's main policy objectives was to use the risk reduction grants to strengthen those state-level health education units. The present study had two purposes: 1) investigate the impact of the risk reduction grants on the organization, structure, and function of state health education units; and 2) identify factors associated with program success and failure. Twelve state health education units were selected and interviews were conducted with the risk reduction program coordinators in each. Results indicated that in some states the risk reduction grants helped health education units adopt a health promotion philosophy and provided a framework for a more distinct health education program identity and purpose. The most important factor associated with risk reduction program success was support of the philosophy of health promotion by high-level health department administrators. In some states the risk reduction program was placed in a chronic disease unit rather than the health education unit. Program guidance from CDC was inconsistent and led to confusion among program coordinators and wide variations in implementation. PMID:20841144

Bond, B A; Steckler, A

1985-01-01

285

Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch River, from the White Oak Creek Embayment to the city of Kingston, were chosen. The demography of the lower Clinch River supplied information dealing with land use that aided in the determination of sites on which to focus efforts. The locations that proved to be the most significant included Jones Island at Clinch River Mile (CRM) 20.5, Grassy Creek and K-25 (CRM 14), Kingston Steam Plant (CRM 3.5), and the city of Kingston (CRM 0). These areas of interest have historically been and are still primarily agricultural and residential areas. Reference individuals were determined with respect to the pathways involved. The primary radionuclides of interest released from the X-10 facility into the Clinch River via White Oak Creek were identified in the initial screening analysis as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 131}I, {sup 95}Zr, and {sup 95}Nb. Of these radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Zr, and {sup 95}Nb were evaluated for their contribution to the external exposure pathway. This study utilized an object-oriented modeling software package that provides an alternative to the spreadsheet, providing graphical influence diagrams to show qualitative structure of models, hierarchical models to organize complicated models into manageable modules, and intelligent arrays with the power to scale up simple models to handle large problems. The doses and risks estimated in this study are not significant enough to cause a detectable increase in health effects in the population. In most cases, the organ does are well below the limits of epidemiological detection (1 to 30 cSv) for radiation-induced health outcomes. Therefore, it is unlikely that exposure to radionuclides released from the X-10 site is responsible for an increased number of cancers to populations utilizing the Clinch River after 1944.

Thomas, B.A. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1999-09-01

286

Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

287

Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality  

E-print Network

Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L;-Pollutants concentrations [c] ·Average outdoors pollution ·Indoors air quality ·Other sources of intoxication (food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects Health

Menut, Laurent

288

A Usability Problem: Conveying Health Risks to Consumers On the Internet  

PubMed Central

Effectively designing risk information for the public is challenging and selecting the appropriate medium to deliver disease risk information is crucial. In a usability evaluation of a colon cancer risk website, we evaluated the public’s understanding and interpretation of graphical displays of risk information (2 bar graphs). Results from this study suggest that many people do not understand risk and often misinterpret graphical displays of risk and associated terminology. This work shows the importance of not only including representational analysis within user-centered design of consumer health websites, but also evaluating the health and numerical literacy levels of these websites as an aspect of usability testing. PMID:23304313

Johnson, Constance M.; Shaw, Ryan J.

2012-01-01

289

Risk factors for health disorders in computer operators in telecom Serbia.  

PubMed

Computer operators are at risk to develop health disorders related to prolonged computer use. We assessed the occupational risk factors for computer-related health disorders and evaluated health conditions of 939 Serbian computer operators. Musculoskeletal (55.8%), ocular (27.3%) and mental disorders (7.1%) were reported most frequently. Risk factors for health disorders, in both male and female populations, were age; overtime work; negative working atmosphere; awkward posture at work; the presence of vibrations, noise, dust and chemical pollution in the workplace. Negative working atmosphere, body mass index > 30, total job tenure and duration of exposed employment were risk factors for developing health disorders only in males, while smoking was a risk factor only in the female population. Our study showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal and ocular disorders in Serbian computer operators. More effective preventive measures are necessary to improve computer operators' health. PMID:22995131

Blagojevi?, Ljiljana; Petrovi?, Branislav; Blagojevi?, Jelena

2012-01-01

290

Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model  

PubMed Central

Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing the health and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational. Further, a number of efficacious mental health treatments are available for PLWHA yet few positive prevention interventions integrate mental health treatment. We propose that mental health treatment, including behavioral and pharmacologic interventions, can lead to reductions in HIV transmission risk behavior and should be a core component of secondary HIV prevention. We present a conceptual model and recommendations to guide future research on the effect of mental health treatment on HIV transmission risk behavior among PLWHA. PMID:20013043

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Drabkin, Anya S.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Pence, Brian W.

2010-01-01

291

Health risk assessment of chemicals--a commentary on requirements for the provision of training.  

PubMed

Today, only a limited number of training courses specifically in human health risk assessment are available in Europe and although some basic training in health risk assessment is part of most toxicology university programmes, the preparation is often not enough. The purpose of this commentary is to present provision of training program in risk assessment based on common European criteria, easily adopted by institutions across Europe and focusing on risk assessment methodology and procedure. It is worth mentioning that the following paper does not deal with microbiological risk assessment and ecotoxicological risk assessment but mainly with chemical risk assessment. The project focuses on understanding the profile and training requirements of risk assessors in order to design a modular training program covering a range of disciplines in risk assessment and providing a model to establish guidelines for the training and recognition of risk assessors in accordance to a well-defined and properly acknowledged training standard. PMID:24995433

Galli, Corrado L; Altenpohl, Annette

2014-09-01

292

[Obesity and oral health: risk factors of obese patients in dental practice].  

PubMed

For 20 years, on a worldwide scale, the prevalence of obesity has always progressed as well in child as in adult. Obesity is frequently associated with other pathologies: cardiovascular, oncologic, systemic (diabetes) or oral. In this situation, the follow-up of obesity and its co morbidity needs a multidisciplinary approach. Obesity and oral health pathologies have risk factors in common, particularly dietary one. Indeed, it is established that food affects oral health. In the same way, an unbalanced diet raises the risk of overweight or obesity. Thereby, owing to these inter relations, the World Health Organization advocates to insert oral health in the Program for Global Health. First, this study presents the factors of risks that obesity and oral health diseases have in common. After, the risks and the specificity of the care of obese patients are outlined. Consecutively, a program of prevention and education of oral health is proposed. PMID:19266847

Godlewski, A E; Veyrune, J L; Nicolas, E

2008-09-01

293

Iron supplementation in early childhood: health benefits and risks123  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of iron deficiency among infants and young children living in developing countries is high. Because of its chemical properties—namely, its oxidative potential—iron functions in several biological systems that are crucial to human health. Iron, which is not easily eliminated from the body, can also cause harm through oxidative stress, interference with the absorption or metabolism of other nutrients, and suppression of critical enzymatic activities. We reviewed 26 randomized controlled trials of preventive, oral iron supplementation in young children (aged 0–59 mo) living in developing countries to ascertain the associated health benefits and risks. The outcomes investigated were anemia, development, growth, morbidity, and mortality. Initial hemoglobin concentrations and iron status were considered as effect modifiers, although few studies included such subgroup analyses. Among iron-deficient or anemic children, hemoglobin concentrations were improved with iron supplementation. Reductions in cognitive and motor development deficits were observed in iron-deficient or anemic children, particularly with longer-duration, lower-dose regimens. With iron supplementation, weight gains were adversely affected in iron-replete children; the effects on height were inconclusive. Most studies found no effect on morbidity, although few had sample sizes or study designs that were adequate for drawing conclusions. In a malaria-endemic population of Zanzibar, significant increases in serious adverse events were associated with iron supplementation, whereas, in Nepal, no effects on mortality in young children were found. More research is needed in populations affected by HIV and tuberculosis. Iron supplementation in preventive programs may need to be targeted through identification of iron-deficient children. PMID:17158406

Iannotti, Lora L; Tielsch, James M; Black, Maureen M; Black, Robert E

2012-01-01

294

[Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].  

PubMed

The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). PMID:20221968

Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

2010-03-01

295

Quantitative Health Risk Assessment for Particulate Matter, Second External Review Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This second draft quantitative health risk assessment (RA) presents the quantitative assessments of PM-related risks to public health being conducted by staff in EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support the review of the prima...

2010-01-01

296

High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

2007-01-01

297

New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

298

Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation) and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea.

Hak-Ju Kim; Jennifer Prah Ruger

2010-01-01

299

Child, Family, School and Community Risk Factors for Poor Mental Health in Brazilian Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify risk factors for poor child mental health in the southeastern Brazilian municipality of Taubate. Method: In 2001 we carried out a representative school-based survey of Brazilian schoolchildren ages 7 to 14 years (response rate, 83%). We collected extensive data on child mental health and on potential risk and protective…

Goodman, Anna; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Patel, Vikram; Goodman, Robert

2007-01-01

300

Variations in BMI and Prevalence of Health Risks in Diverse Racial and Ethnic Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

When examining health risks associated with the BMI, investigators often rely on the customary BMI thresholds of the 1995 World Health Organization report. However, within-interval variations in morbidity and mortality can be substantial, and the thresholds do not necessarily correspond to identifiable risk increases. Comparing the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, and arthritis among non-Hispanic whites,

Manfred Stommel; Charlotte A. Schoenborn

2010-01-01

301

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

2013-12-01

302

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-04-01

303

Applying the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to Rural Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined current health risk behaviors of rural college freshmen using elements of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS). Student surveys indicated that for some behaviors, the incidence among these rural students was higher than the incidence among freshmen from the NCHRBS (e.g., binge drinking, ever smoking marijuana, and…

Peterson, Yasenka

2001-01-01

304

Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

2010-01-01

305

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns Are Associated With Selected Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity\\/mortality. METHODS. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Lon- gitudinal Study of Adolescent Health;

Melissa C. Nelson; Penny Gordon-Larsen

2009-01-01

306

A Screening-Level Assessment of the Health Risks of Chronic Smoke Exposure for Wildland Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,

Thomas F. Booze; Timothy E. Reinhardt; Sharon J. Quiring; Roger D. Ottmar

2004-01-01

307

Application of the bioecological model and health belief model to self-reported health risk behaviors of adolescents in the united states  

E-print Network

. Adolescents from a suburban Indiana area were asked to complete the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey which assessed egocentrism, self-esteem, social norms, risk perceptions, and the incidence and prevalence of health endangering behaviors. Hierarchical...

Fleary, Sasha A.

2009-05-15

308

Assessment and management of residential radon health risks: a report from the health Canada radon workshop.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and other underground miners have consistently shown miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at increased risk of lung cancer. More recently, concern has arisen about lung cancer risks among people exposed to lower levels of radon in homes. The current Canadian guideline for residential radon exposure was set in 1988 at 800 Bq/m(3). Because of the accumulation of a considerable body of new scientific evidence on radon lung cancer risks since that time, Health Canada sponsored a workshop to review the current state-of-the-science on radon health risks. The specific objectives of the workshop were (1) to collect and assess scientific information relevant to setting national radon policy in Canada, and (2) to gather information on social, political, and operational considerations in setting national policy. The workshop, held on 3-4 March 2004, was attended by 38 invited scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders from Canada and the United States. The presentations on the first day dealt primarily with scientific issues. The combined analysis of North American residential radon and lung cancer studies was reviewed. The analysis confirmed a small but detectable increase in lung cancer risk at residential exposure levels. Current estimates suggest that radon in homes is responsible for approximately 10% of all lung cancer deaths in Canada, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. This was followed by a perspective from an UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) working group on radon. There were two presentations on occupational exposures to radon and two presentations considered the possibility of radon as a causative factor for cardiovascular disease and for cancer in other organs besides the lung. The possible contribution of environmental tobacco smoke to lung cancers in nonsmokers was also considered. Areas for future research were identified. The second day was devoted to policy and operational issues. The presentations began with a perspective from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, followed by a history of radon policy development in Canada. Subsequent presentations dealt with the cost-effectiveness of radon mitigation, Canadian building codes and radon, and a summary of radon standards from around the world. Provincial representatives and a private consultant were given opportunities to present their viewpoints. A number of strategies for reducing residential radon exposure in Canada were recognized, including testing and mitigation of existing homes (on either a widespread or targeted basis) and changing the building code to require that radon mitigation devices be installed at the time a new home is constructed. The various elements of a comprehensive national radon policy were set forth. PMID:16608836

Tracy, Bliss L; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Jing; Zielinski, Jan M; Brand, Kevin P; Meyerhof, Dorothy

2006-04-01

309

Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

2014-05-01

310

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

311

Fathering pregnancies: marking health-risk behaviors in urban adolescents.  

PubMed

Findings are presented from a study conducted to establish self-reported rates and associated correlates of fathering pregnancies among urban male teenagers, and to explore the possibility of using their pregnancy history (PH) as a marker for other health risk behaviors. A blinded, self-administered questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 399 young, nonvirgin men aged 12-19 years old, of mean age 16.3, recruited from April 1994 through March 1996 at an inner-city adolescent outpatient clinic. 93.8% of the subjects were African-American and 24.2% reported causing a PH. A urine sample was collected from 73.5% of the study participants and tested for 5 drugs of abuse. 27.7% of these men had traces of drugs in their urine, of whom more than 97% were positive for cannabinoids. Compared to the young men with no pregnancy history, those with a PH were 13.8 times more likely to report 3 or more lifetime sex partners, 5.4 times more likely to report a history of STDs, 3.1 times more likely to test positive for consuming drugs, and more 2.7 times more likely to be inconsistent or nonusers of condoms. No support was found for an association between violent behavior and PH. PMID:9890359

Guagliardo, M F; Huang, Z; D'Angelo, L J

1999-01-01

312

Complaints in environmental health and the construction of risk as cultural resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article aims to discuss the notion of health risks put forward in complaints about mobile phone masts. This notion is present in a similar way in other complaints linking cancers with industrial sites. The study of three complaints is used to analyse the local process of construction of health risks. The article argues that the social foundations of the notion of health risks and its uses as a cultural resource to develop a community of victims prevent any agreement between local activists and experts on the definition of the health problem.

Calvez, Marcel

2010-11-01

313

Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

1992-01-01

314

Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing\\u000a the health and quality of life of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission\\u000a risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational.\\u000a Further, a number of efficacious mental

Kathleen J. Sikkema; Melissa H. Watt; Anya S. Drabkin; Christina S. Meade; Nathan B. Hansen; Brian W. Pence

2010-01-01

315

A macro environmental risk assessment methodology for establishing priorities among risks to human health and the environment in the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

A macro environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodology was developed for the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) as part of the US Agency for International Development Industrial Environmental Management Project. The DENR allocates its limited resources to mitigate those environmental problems that pose the greatest threat to human health and the environment. The National Regional Industry Prioritization Strategy (NRIPS) methodology was developed as a risk assessment tool to establish a national ranking of industrial facilities. The ranking establishes regional and national priorities, based on risk factors, that DENR can use to determine the most effective allocation of its limited resources. NRIPS is a systematic framework that examines the potential risk to human health and the environment from hazardous substances released from a facility, and, in doing so, generates a relative numerical score that represents that risk. More than 3,300 facilities throughout the Philippines were evaluated successfully with the NRIPS.

Gernhofer, S.; Oliver, T.J. [PRC Environmental Management, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Vasquez, R.

1994-12-31

316

USING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISKS TO HEALTH FROM MICROBES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States goal to reduce health risks from environmental exposures of all kinds of hazards has resulted in the need to assess the risks from exposure to microbes in drinking water. The model for a risk-based conceptual framework and strategy is provided by the US Environm...

317

On the assessment of health risks at superfund sites using Monte Carlo simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, state?of?the?art risk assessment models, and the most current and applicable site specific exposure data are employed in the reassessment of baseline risks at three Superfand Sites for which a Record of Decision has been issued since 1990. The results of this reassessment are compared to health risk assessments based on EPA's conservative or default parameters in estimating

Peter T. Katsumata; William E. Kastenberg

1997-01-01

318

An Exploratory Study of College Health-Risk Behaviors: Implications for Campus Programs and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…

Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.

2000-01-01

319

Communicating with Risk Takers: Information Sources and Health Attitudes, Beliefs, and Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven studies explored the relationships between risk-taking predispositions and health attitudes, beliefs, and involvement. Data were gathered from surveys, and from lab and field experiments on 1,323 subjects. Findings indicated five risk-taking factors: adventurousness, rebelliousness, impulsiveness, physical risk taking, and unconventional…

Ferguson, M. A.; And Others

320

Health, risk and divergence: lay and institutional strategies for preventing and managing disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational or 'expert' approach to risk sees it as a technical matter to be tackled with more science and better risk communication. Risk is understood as an objective concept, relating to the management of future uncertainties, through rational action based on calculations of probability. Within this paradigm professional strategies for preventing and managing disease involve health professionals acting as

Annmarie Ruston; Chatham Maritime

321

[Health risks in different living circumstances of mothers : Analyses based on a population study].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the living circumstances ('Lebenslagen') in mothers which are associated with elevated health risks. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n?=?3129) with underage children. By means of a two-step cluster analysis ten different maternal living circumstances were assessed which proved to be distinct with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position, employment status and family-related factors. Out of the ten living circumstances, one could be attributed to higher socioeconomic status (SES), while five were assigned to a middle SES and four to a lower SES. In line with previous findings, mothers with a high SES predominantly showed the best health while mothers with a low SES tended to be at higher health risk with respect to subjective health, mental health (anxiety and depression), obesity and smoking. However, there were important health differences between the different living circumstances within the middle and lower SES. In addition, varying health risks were found among different living circumstances of single mothers, pointing to the significance of family and job-related living conditions in establishing health risks. With this exploratory analysis strategy small-scale living conditions could be detected which were associated with specific health risks. This approach seemed particularly suitable to provide a more precise definition of target groups for health promotion. The findings encourage a more exrensive application of the concept of living conditions in medical sociology research as well as health monitoring. PMID:25355424

Sperlich, Stefanie

2014-12-01

322

Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

323

The Zero-vision: potential side effects of communicating health perfection and zero risk.  

PubMed

Public health education may have harmful side effects: generate fear, give rise to healthism and contribute to a medical sorting society. To prevent these adverse reactions a new deal for public health communication is presented. It is commended to move public health from omnipotence to moderation, from life style to living conditions, from risk to the bright sides of health, from statistical clone to the holy individual. Furthermore public health communication ought to include uncertainty as authoritarian truth mongering erodes trust. The public health educator must convey compassion and dedication. Rational techno-info is not sufficient. The last golden rule for a new public health is to respect the people. The people are not an inferior mass subjected to basic instincts and irrational fears. Common sense and lay experiences may contribute to the wise management of risk. Therefore public health should develop a people-centered method, recognizing people's own values, perceptions and potentials for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:16469471

Fugelli, Per

2006-03-01

324

Validation of a brief, reliable scale to measure knowledge about the health risks associated with obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Obesity represents a serious threat to health through its association with conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease and certain types of cancer. Knowledge regarding risk to health is an important determinant of behaviour and is the focus of many health education strategies. To the authors’ knowledge, there is no valid and reliable measure of knowledge regarding

J A Swift; C Glazebrook; I Macdonald

2006-01-01

325

Safety & Risk Services Environmental Health and Safety Last Revised: 2011/08/30 1  

E-print Network

Safety & Risk Services Environmental Health and Safety Last Revised: 2011/08/30 1 Biosafety and Biochemistry EHS= Environmental Health & Safety UBC=University of British Columbia Mailing address for all Professor, Health Sciences Voting Faculty p:778-782-3171 f:778-782-5927 niikura@sfu.ca Miriam Rosin

326

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza  

E-print Network

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 2 Animal are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic

Kammen, Daniel M.

327

Report of the Health Education-Risk Reduction Conference (Anaheim, California, October 27-30, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews, recounts, and assesses the accomplishments and progress made to date by many public health professionals engaged collectively in a nationwide health education-risk reduction program. Papers are presented outlining progress by health agencies, working alone or in collaboration, whose basic goals were: (1) inventory of statewide…

Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

328

Risk-rated health insurance programs: a review of designs and important issues.  

PubMed

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW. The purpose of this review is to assist those who work in the field of health promotion when considering the implementation of an individually risk-rated health insurance plan. It does so by introducing the reader to the concept of individually risk-rating health insurance; uncritically reviewing selected risk-rated health insurance plans; and exploring several issues related to plan implementation, administration, and appropriateness. SEARCH METHODS USED. The review is based on the authors' awareness of the literature in the fields of preventive medicine, health promotion, and employee benefits. The six individually risk-rated health insurance programs that are reviewed were chosen because they demonstrate how aspects of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners' Model have been implemented using various combinations of administrative procedures, verification strategies, and types of economic incentives or disincentives. This review is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature. SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT FINDINGS. Individually risk-rated health insurance programs have been established using a variety of administrative procedures, verification strategies, and types of economic incentives or disincentives. The frequency with which these programs are being established is increasing. As the number of risk-rated programs grows, it will be increasingly important to address the many issues that implementing such plans generate: How should lifestyle behaviors be verified? Will healthy lifestyles save money? Can employees fully control their risk factors? Is risk-rating socially responsible? MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. As risk-rating becomes more widespread, there will be a continuing need to address the business, medical, ethical, and legal issues these programs create and to refine them accordingly. The health promotion community has both an opportunity and obligation to see to it that individually risk-rated health insurance programs are implemented in a socially acceptable manner and that the outcomes they generate are cost-beneficial. PMID:10148716

Kaelin, M A; Barr, J K; Golaszewski, T; Warshaw, L J

1992-01-01

329

Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cancer patients use complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) but may not be aware of the potential risks. There are no studies quantifying such risks, but there is some evidence of patient risk from case reports in the literature. A cross-sectional survey of patients attending the outpatient department at a specialist cancer centre was carried out to establish a pattern of

U Werneke; J Earl; C Seydel; O Horn; P Crichton; D Fannon

2004-01-01

330

Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

1992-01-01

331

Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

Atilola, Olayinka

2014-01-01

332

Acculturation, Coping Styles, and Health Risk Behaviors Among HIV Positive Latinas  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationships among acculturation, coping styles, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and medication non-adherence among 219 Latinas living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles, CA. Coping styles were hypothesized to mediate the link between acculturation and health risk behaviors for HIV positive Latinas. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater acculturation was related to less positive coping and more negative coping. In turn, negative coping was associated with more health risk behaviors and more non-adherence. Positive coping was associated with less substance use as reflected in use of cigarettes and alcohol and less non-adherence. Coping styles mediated the relationship between acculturation and health risk behaviors. Findings echo previous works examining the Hispanic Health Paradox wherein more acculturated Latinos exhibit increased risk behavior and maladaptive coping styles. HIV/AIDS interventions need to be mindful of cultural differences within Hispanic populations and be tailored to address these differences. PMID:19847637

Sánchez, Mónica; Stein, Judith; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01

333

A Stochastic Approach To Human Health Risk Assessment Due To Groundwater Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a probabilistic framework to addressing adverse human health effects due to groundwater contamination. One of the main challenges in health risk assessment is in relating it to subsurface data acquisition and to improvement in our understanding of human physiological responses to contamination. In this paper we propose to investigate this problem through an approach that integrates flow, transport and human health risk models with hydrogeological characterization. A human health risk cumulative distribution function is analytically developed to account for both uncertainty and variability in hydrogeological as well as human physiological parameters. With our proposed approach, we investigate under which conditions the reduction of uncertainties from flow physics, human physiology and exposure related parameters might contribute to a better understanding of human health risk assessment. Results indicate that the human health risk cumulative distribution function is sensitive to physiological parameters at low risk values associated with longer travel times. The results show that the worth of hydrogeological characterization in human health risk is dependent on the residence time of the contaminant plume in the aquifer and on the exposure duration of the population to certain chemicals.

de Barros, F. P.; Rubin, Y.

2006-12-01

334

Health risk perception and betel chewing behavior--the evidence from Taiwan.  

PubMed

In this study, we provided an empirical examination of the interaction between people's health risk perception and betel chewing. We hypothesized that a better knowledge of possible health risks would reduce both the number of individuals who currently chew betel and the likelihood of those who do not yet chew betel to begin the habit. We constructed a simultaneous equation model with Bayesian two-stage approach to control the endogeneity between betel chewing and risk perception. Using a national survey of 26,684 observations in Taiwan, our study results indicated that better health knowledge reduced the possibility that people would become betel chewers. We also found that, in general, betel chewers have a poorer health risk perception than other population. Overall, the empirical evidence suggested that health authorities could reduce the odds of people becoming betel chewers by improving their knowledge of betel-chewing's harmful effects. PMID:23911433

Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

2013-11-01

335

Young People's Perspectives on Health: Empowerment, or Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research to date has identified young people's perspectives on a number of health-related topics such as smoking, alcohol, sexual health, physical activity and healthy eating. Whilst this body of research draws important attention towards young people's views on topical health concerns, it arguably remains located within a pre-defined…

Spencer, Grace

2013-01-01

336

Adverse health effects, risk perception and pesticide use behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pesticides on the farm is largely governed by voluntary behavior. It is important to understand what drives farmer’s behavior of pesticide use. Health belief models in public health and social psychology argue that persons who have had adverse health experiences are likely to undertake greater preventive behavior which was tested here. We drew a survey of 163

Muhammad Khan

2009-01-01

337

Medico-legal risk associated with pediatric mental health telephone consultation programs.  

PubMed

Clinicians providing consultation through mental health telephone consultation programs express concern about the potential legal risk of the practice. In this survey of six state mental health telephone consultation program directors, we report the annual number of children referred for consultation and the number of lawsuits against consultant clinicians. Between 2004 and 2010, 3,652 children per year were referred nationally, and there were no medical malpractice lawsuits against clinicians related to telephone consultation program activity. Although medico-legal risk is always present, the findings of this national study suggest the risk for clinicians providing mental health telephone consultation may be lower than perceived. PMID:23208290

Hobbs Knutson, Katherine; Wei, Marlynn H; Straus, John H; Sarvet, Barry; Masek, Bruce J; Stein, Bradley D

2014-03-01

338

[Methods for assessing the potential health risks of traces of pharmaceuticals in drinking water].  

PubMed

Increasing consumption of pharmaceuticals leads also to higher release of its non-metabolized residues into environment, mostly hydrosphere. Some of these substances may reach also processed drinking water. Although it is found in traces, it causes public concern as it can represent a non-targeted and unwanted medication. Toxicologists and public health authorities are appealed to assess potential health risks carefully and to communicate the risk adequately to public. As health risks assessment of environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals is a new field of expertise, its methodology has not been unified and standardized yet, but several different procedures have been proposed and used. The paper provides overview of these methods. PMID:22442888

Kozísek, Frantisek; Jeligová, Hana

2012-01-01

339

AIDS Risk Reduction: A Community Health Education Intervention for Minority High Risk Group Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) community education intervention program developed by the Detroit Health Department health education staff. Discusses background of the program, barriers to program design, theoretical considerations, selection of strategies, and implications for health educators. (CT)

Williams, Linda Stewart

1986-01-01

340

Health-risk assessment of chemical contamination in Puget Sound seafood. Final report 1985-1988  

SciTech Connect

This report provides resource management and health agencies with a general indication of the magnitude of potential human health risks associated with consumption of recreationally harvested seafoods from Puget Sound. Data collection and evaluation focused on a variety of metal and organic contaminants in fish, shellfish and edible seaweeds from 22 locations in the Sound. EPA risk assessment techniques were used to characterize risks to average and high consumer groups for both carcinogens and noncarcinogens. Theoretical risks associated with consumption of both average and high quantities of Puget Sound seafood appear to be comparable to or substantially less than those for fish and shellfish from other locations in the United States.

Williams, L.

1988-09-01

341

An analysis of health promotion and risk behaviors of freshman college students in a rural southern setting.  

PubMed

This study described health promotion and risk behaviors of entering college students in a rural southern setting. A sample of 251 students completed the Health Promotion and Health Risk Survey during a testing period that included other academic surveys. Results indicated that participants believe they are in control of their health. In addition, participants reported that happiness and health were the most important personal values for them. When compared with the National College Health Risk Behavior data, participants in this study were significantly lower in many of the health risk behaviors. PMID:15834356

Rozmus, Cathy L; Evans, Retta; Wysochansky, Mary; Mixon, Diane

2005-02-01

342

Forced Sexual Intercourse and Associated Health-Risk Behaviors Among Female College Students in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) to assess the prevalence of lifetime rape among female college students and to examine the association between rape and health-risk behaviors. The NCHRBS used a mail questionnaire to assess health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of undergraduate students. Twenty percent of female students reported ever

Nancy D. Brener; Pamela M. McMahon; Charles W. Warren; Kathy A. Douglas

1999-01-01

343

RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific  

E-print Network

RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

Barker, Jon

344

Nurse versus community health worker identification of psychosocial risks in pregnancy through a structured interview.  

PubMed

A structured psychosocial risk screening interview, the Prenatal Risk Overview, was administered to 733 women in prenatal care. Either a community health worker (CHW) or a registered nurse (RN) conducted the interview based on day of the week. A comparison of identified risk factors found no significant differences between study samples for six of 13 domains. For CHW interviews, significantly more participants were classified as Moderate/ High Risk for Depression, Lack of Telephone Access, Food Insecurity, and Housing Instability, and as High Risk for Lack of Social Support, Lack of Transportation Access, and Housing Instability. For RN interviews, significantly more participants were classified as High Risk for Alcohol Use. Community health workers successfully conducted psychosocial screening and elicited more self-reported risk than RNs, especially lack of basic needs. Comparing the hourly salary/ wage, the cost for CHWs was 56% lower than for RNs. Preliminary findings support use of paraprofessionals for structured screening interviews. PMID:24185153

Godecker, Amy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Sidebottom, Abbey C

2013-11-01

345

Perspectives of Family Physicians on Computer-assisted Health-risk Assessments  

PubMed Central

Background The firsthand experience of physicians using computer-assisted health-risk assessment is salient for designing practical eHealth solutions. Objective The aim of this study was to enhance understanding about computer-assisted health-risk assessments from physicians’ perspectives after completion of a trial at a Canadian, urban, multi-doctor, hospital-affiliated family practice clinic. Methods A qualitative approach of face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews was used. All interviews were audio recorded and field notes taken. Analytic induction and constant comparative techniques were used for coding and analyses. Interpretation was facilitated by peer audit and insights gained from the social exchange theoretical perspective. Results Ten physicians (seven female and three male) participated in the interviews. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to computer-assisted health-risk assessments: (1) perceived benefits, (2) perceived concerns or challenges, and (3) feasibility. Physicians unanimously acknowledged the potential of computer-assisted health-risk assessments to open dialogue on psychosocial health risks. They also appreciated the general facilitative roles of the tool, such as improving time-efficiency by asking questions on health risks prior to the consultation and triggering patients’ self-reflections on the risks. However, in the context of ongoing physician-patient relationships, physicians expressed concerns about the impact of the computer-assisted health-risk assessment tool on visit time, patient readiness to talk about psychosocial issues when the purpose of the visit was different, and the suitability of such risk assessment for all visits to detect new risk information. In terms of feasibility, physicians displayed general acceptance of the risk assessment tool but considered it most feasible for periodic health exams and follow-up visits based on their perceived concerns or challenges and the resources needed to implement such programs. These included clinic level (staff training, space, confidentiality) and organizational level (time, commitment and finances) support. Conclusions Participants perceived computer-assisted health-risk assessment as a useful tool in family practice, particularly for identifying psychosocial issues. Physicians displayed a general acceptance of the computer tool and indicated its greater feasibility for periodic health exams and follow-up visits than all visits. Future physician training on psychosocial issues should address physicians’ concerns by emphasizing the varying forms of “clinical success” for the management of chronic psychosocial issues. Future research is needed to examine the best ways to implement this program in diverse clinical settings and patient populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00385034; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00385034 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5pV8AGRgt) PMID:20457555

Skinner, Harvey A; Stewart, Donna E; Levinson, Wendy

2010-01-01

346

Residential building codes, affordability, and health protection: a risk-tradeoff approach.  

PubMed

Residential building codes intended to promote health and safety may produce unintended countervailing risks by adding to the cost of construction. Higher construction costs increase the price of new homes and may increase health and safety risks through "income" and "stock" effects. The income effect arises because households that purchase a new home have less income remaining for spending on other goods that contribute to health and safety. The stock effect arises because suppression of new-home construction leads to slower replacement of less safe housing units. These countervailing risks are not presently considered in code debates. We demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the approximate magnitude of countervailing risks by combining the income effect with three relatively well understood and significant home-health risks. We estimate that a code change that increases the nationwide cost of constructing and maintaining homes by $150 (0.1% of the average cost to build a single-family home) would induce offsetting risks yielding between 2 and 60 premature fatalities or, including morbidity effects, between 20 and 800 lost quality-adjusted life years (both discounted at 3%) each year the code provision remains in effect. To provide a net health benefit, the code change would need to reduce risk by at least this amount. Future research should refine these estimates, incorporate quantitative uncertainty analysis, and apply a full risk-tradeoff approach to real-world case studies of proposed code changes. PMID:10765445

Hammitt, J K; Belsky, E S; Levy, J I; Graham, J D

1999-12-01

347

Engaging in Health Behaviors to Lower Risk for Breast Cancer Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Purpose While post-treatment breast cancer survivors face up to twice the cancer risk of the general population, modifiable health behaviors may somewhat reduce this risk. We sought to better understand health behaviors that early stage breast cancer survivors engage in to reduce recurrence risk. Methods Data came from a cross-sectional multi-site survey of 186 early-stage breast cancer survivors who received genomic testing for breast cancer recurrence risk (Oncotype DX) during their clinical care. Study outcomes were meeting health behavior recommendations (daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and having a healthy body mass index (BMI)). Results Approximately three-quarters of survivors we surveyed believed the 3 behaviors might reduce their cancer risk but many did not engage in these behaviors for this purpose: 62% for BMI, 36% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 37% for physical activity. Survivors with higher recurrence risk, as indicated by their genomic test results, were no more likely to meet any of the three health behavior recommendations. Adherence to health behavior recommendations was higher for women who were white, college-educated, and had higher incomes. Conclusions Many nonadherent breast cancer survivors wish to use these behavioral strategies to reduce their risk for recurrence, suggesting an important opportunity for intervention. Improving BMI, which has the largest association with cancer risk, is an especially promising target. PMID:23326466

O'Neill, Suzanne C.; DeFrank, Jessica T.; Vegella, Patti; Richman, Alice R.; Henry, Leonard R.; Carey, Lisa A.; Brewer, Noel T.

2013-01-01

348

Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can provide no more than partial answers to the questions of environmental interactions, interindividual variability, and optimal control levels. Future prospective studies should involve assessment of astronaut well being using sophisticated measures during exposures to levels of CO2 in the range from 2 to 8 mmHg.

James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

2010-01-01

349

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01

350

DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*  

PubMed Central

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

351

Novel Computerized Health Risk Appraisal May Improve Longitudinal Health and Wellness in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Objectives Health Risk Appraisals (HRAs) have been implemented in a variety of settings, however few studies have examined the impact of computerized HRAs systematically in primary care. The study aimed at the development and pilot testing of a novel, comprehensive HRA tool in primary care practices. Methods We designed, implemented and pilot tested a novel, web-based HRA tool in four pair-matched intervention and control primary care practices (N = 200). Outcomes were measured before and 12 months after the intervention using the HRA, patient surveys, and qualitative feedback. Intervention patients received detailed feedback from the HRA and they were encouraged to discuss the HRA report at their next wellness visit in order to develop a personalized wellness plan. Results Estimated life expectancy and its derivatives, including Real Age and Wellness Score were significantly impacted by the HRA implementation (P<0.001). The overall rate of 10 preventive maneuvers improved by 4.2% in the intervention group vs. control (P = 0.001). The HRA improved the patient-centeredness of care, measured by the CAHPS PCC-10 survey (P = 0.05). HRA use was strongly associated with better self-rated overall health (OR = 4.94; 95% CI, 3.85–6.36) and improved up-to-dateness for preventive services (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12–1.32). A generalized linear model suggested that increase in Wellness Score was associated with improvements in patient-centeredness of care, up-to-dateness for preventive services and being in the intervention group (all P<0.03). Patients were satisfied with their HRA-experience, found the HRA report relevant and motivating and thought that it increased their health awareness. Clinicians emphasized that the HRA tool helped them and their patients converge on high-impact, evidence-based preventive measures. Conclusions Despite study limitations, results suggest that a comprehensive, web-based, and goal-directed HRA tool can improve the receipt of preventive services, patient-centeredness of care, behavioral health outcomes, and various wellness indicators in primary care settings. PMID:23650489

Nagykaldi, Z.J.; Voncken-Brewster, V.; Aspy, C.B.; Mold, J.W.

2013-01-01

352

Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon  

SciTech Connect

Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes.

Fisher, D.R.

1980-01-01

353

What You Should Know about Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits  

MedlinePLUS

WHATYOUSHOULDKNOWABOUT Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits V aginal dryness and hot flashes that result from lower levels of ... lives. Although some women are good candidates for hormone therapy (HT), they are unsure about taking it ...

354

A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN (FINAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children , which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the...

355

Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety  

PubMed Central

Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

2012-01-01

356

Interaction of occupational and personal risk factors in workforce health and safety.  

PubMed

Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

Schulte, Paul A; Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

2012-03-01

357

Quantitative Human Health Risk Assessment. Phase 1. Review of Methods and Framework Recommendation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to initiate the process of developing provincial protocols for the application of quantitative human health risk assessment at contaminated sites. This was undertaken via the review of methodologies used by other jurisdictions...

1993-01-01

358

INFLUENCES ON BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS FOOD-RELATED HEALTH RISKS: A PILOT STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This pilot study was designed ,to develop ,a method ,of eliciting information about eating behaviour, food-related health risks, and the issue of BSE\\/nvCJD inparticular. Interest and attention in this subject area has been increasing throughout the 1990s as one health scare follows another. As yet the processes involved in public reaction to food-related risks and resulting behaviour are not

Anné-Lise McDonald; Ian Langford

359

The Risk Behaviors and Mental Health of Detained Adolescents: A Controlled, Prospective Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the behavioral risk factors and mental health needs of adolescents in juvenile detention centers (JDC).MethodA total of 238 boys aged 12–17 years was surveyed who had been admitted to a detention center and compared them with boys from the community (n = 238) matched for sex and age. We assessed behavioral risk factors and mental health problems by

Zhenhua Zhou; Hongyan Xiong; Ran Jia; Guoyu Yang; Tianyou Guo; Zhaoyou Meng; Guangyu Huang; Yao Zhang

2012-01-01

360

Coming Home: Health Status and Homelessness Risk of Older Prerelease Prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Older adults comprise an increasing proportion of the prison and homeless populations. While older age is associated with\\u000a adverse post-release health events and incarceration is a risk factor for homelessness, the health status and homelessness\\u000a risk of older pre-release prisoners are unknown. Moreover, most post-release services are geared towards veterans; it is unknown\\u000a whether the needs of non-veterans differ from

Brie A. Williams; James McGuire; Rebecca G. Lindsay; Jacques Baillargeon; Irena Stijacic Cenzer; Sei J. Lee; Margot Kushel

2010-01-01

361

Family Structure, Mother–Daughter Relationship Quality, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Girls' Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 7,114 adolescent girls (4,269 White, 1,707 African American, and 1,138 Hispanic) and biological mothers from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined how family structure, girls' perceptions of mother–daughter relationship quality, and race and ethnicity related to girls' health risks. In general, results indicate heightened risk for both precocious events and

Michael J. Merten; Carolyn S. Henry

2011-01-01

362

New Hope for Correctional Officers: An Innovative Program for Reducing Stress and Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of a new stress management program on physiological and psychological stress and health\\u000a risk factors among 75 correctional officers. The experimental group received training in emotion self-regulation techniques\\u000a intended to reduce stress and health risk factors. Practice of the techniques was enhanced by heart rate variability feedback,\\u000a which helped participants learn and sustain use of

Rollin McCraty; Mike Atkinson; Lee Lipsenthal; Lourdes Arguelles

2009-01-01

363

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher

Scott F. Stoltenberg; Bryan D. Batien; Denis G. Birgenheir

2008-01-01

364

Cellular Radio Telecommunication for Health Care: Benefits and Risks  

PubMed Central

Cellular radio telecommunication has increased exponentially with many applications to health care reported. The authors attempt to summarize published applications with demonstrated effect on health care, review briefly the rapid evolution of hardware and software standards, explain current limitations and future potential of data quality and security, and discuss issues of safety. PMID:15298996

Sneiderman, Charles A.; Ackerman, Michael J.

2004-01-01

365

Cellular Radio Telecommunication for Health Care: Benefits and Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular radio telecommunication has increased exponentially with many applications to health care reported. The authors attempt to summarize published applications with demonstrated effect on health care, review briefly the rapid evolution of hardware and software standards, explain current limitations and future potential of data quality and security, and discuss issues of safety.

CHARLES A. SNEIDERMAN; MICHAEL J. ACKERMAN

2004-01-01

366

Social Sides of Health Risks: Stigma and Collective Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health threats may not occur in a vacuum; one may need others' support to address a given health condition. For example, in Namibia, parents dying from AIDS-related illnesses leave their orphaned children in need of adoption. If people do not feel threatened by HIV personally, social threats might motivate them to action. We extend the extended parallel process model (Witte,

Rachel A. Smith; Merissa Ferrara; Kim Witte

2007-01-01

367

HEALTH RISK ISSUES RELATED TO MTBE IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite the attention given to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a contaminant in ground water and surface water, the implications of such contamination for human health have not been clearly established to date. Limitations in the databases for both exposure and health effe...

368

RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN ADOLESCENCE: UNDERSTANDING ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH DIFFICULTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread concerns about adolescent mental health difficulties have generated intense debate and resulted in adolescence being high on the policy agenda. Recent government investments aim to ameliorate widely criticised services for adolescence, and redress the negative images of young people. In order to explore the current state of knowledge regarding adolescent mental health, and relate this knowledge to practice, this

Stephen Briggs

2009-01-01

369

Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.  

PubMed

The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings. PMID:24099822

Hardoff, D

2013-09-01

370

Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback  

PubMed Central

Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28%) employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45). Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54) and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60). Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44), increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39), and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17). Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In general employees reported to be satisfied with the HRA, which was also positively associated with initiation of health-behaviour change. These findings indicate that among voluntary participating employees a web-based HRA with tailored feedback may motivate those in greatest need of health-behaviour change and may be a valuable component of workplace health promotion programs. PMID:21388524

2011-01-01

371

Taking responsibility or averting risk? A socio-cultural approach to risk and trust in private health insurance decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing political significance of private health insurance can be located in an altered understanding of the role of individuals and the State in protecting citizens' welfare. In common with other Western societies, contemporary Australia is marked by an expectation that people will fund their own needs and identify and manage their own risks throughout their life course. However, we

Kristin Natalier; Karen Willis

2008-01-01

372

Social capital and risk and protective behaviors: a global health perspective  

PubMed Central

Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes. PMID:23243387

Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang

2011-01-01

373

Human health and performance risk management—an approach for exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During long duration exploration missions, maintaining human health and performance will be essential to enabling success. Therefore, NASA has developed standards through the Health and Medical Technical Authority to insure human health and performance during exploration. Human health standards are the first step in defining acceptable risk for human space flight and take into consideration both short-term (mission) and long-term (lifetime) health risk. These standards are based on the best medical evidence from terrestrial standards; analog spaceflight environments; and spaceflight experience. Standards drive the development of focused program requirements to mitigate risks associated with specific missions. Program requirements include vehicle design as well as health care systems including medical, environmental and countermeasures. NASA has also developed the risk mitigation analysis tool (RMAT), a process to evaluate the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies. The RMAT facilitates documentation and analysis of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies, enables NASA to baseline a risk mitigation approach based on the best evidence, and provides the traceability from research and technology development projects to specific mission deliverables.

Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

374

The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment.Design Health impact assessment study.Setting Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain.Participants 181 982 Bicing subscribers.Main outcomes measures The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity,

David Rojas-Rueda; Audrey de Nazelle; Marko Tainio; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen

2011-01-01

375

Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment  

E-print Network

Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound...

Bruce, Erica Dawn

2009-05-15

376

Who Is at Increased Risk of Health Problems during Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... obese mothers also have an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), stillbirth, and being large for ... Date: 07/15/2013 Related A-Z Topics Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Pregnancy All ...

377

Financial Risk Protection and Universal Health Coverage: Evidence and Measurement Challenges  

PubMed Central

Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC. PMID:25244520

Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B.

2014-01-01

378

Eating Disorders “Mental Health Literacy” in Low Risk, High Risk and Symptomatic Women: Implications for Health Promotion Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and beliefs concerning the nature and treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) were compared among young adult women at low risk of an eating disorder (n = 332), at high risk (n = 83), or already showing symptoms (n = 94). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire that included a measure of eating disorder symptoms. A vignette of a fictional person

Jonathan M. Mond; Phillipa J. Hay; Susan J. Paxton; Bryan Rodgers; Anita Darby; Jodi Nillson; Frances Quirk; Cathy Owen

2010-01-01

379

CONSUMPTION OF BOVINE TONGUE AND THYMUS: A RISK TO PUBLIC HEALTH?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimise the risk to public health that could arise from the consumption of BSE-infected food, several measures such as the removal and destruction of specified risk material (SRM), which includes the tonsils, have to be implemented. The present paper describes the exact anatomical location of the bovine lingual tonsil and demonstrates that the currently prescribed technique for

C. Casteleyn; S. Breugelmans; S. Muylle; W. Van den Broeck; P. Simoens

380

Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

2011-01-01

381

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: The Potential Role of Environmental Risk Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Among several viable explanations for the ubiquitous SES-health gra- dient is differential exposure to environmental risk. We document evidence of inverse relations between income and other indices of SES with environmental risk factors including hazardous wastes and other toxins, ambient and indoor air pollutants, water quality, ambient noise, residential crowding, housing quality, educational facilities, work environments, and neighborhood

Gary W. Evans; Elyse Kantrowitz

2002-01-01

382

A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

F. Jay Murray

1995-01-01

383

Reducing risk, increasing protective factors: Findings from the Caribbean Youth Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo identify the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors, and the risk and protective factors associated with them among youth in the Caribbean, and to predict the likelihood of these outcomes given the presence or absence of the risk and protective factors.

Robert W. Blum; Marjorie Ireland

2004-01-01

384

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

385

Risk factors for skin cancers: a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We examined the associations of constitutional risk factors and sun exposure with the risks of three types of skin cancer simultaneously and evaluated the interaction between constitutional susceptibility and sun exposure in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (200 melanoma, 275 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 283 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 804 controls). Information

Jiali Han; Graham A Colditz; David J Hunter

2006-01-01

386

History of spouse violence against mother: Correlated risks and unique effects in child mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined mental health risk associated with lifetime occurrence of spouse violence against mother among 303 10 to 12 year-old inner-city children. Maternal report data showed a 30% prevalence rate for lifetime occurrence of spouse violence in this sample. Results of correlational analyses indicated that violence against mother was associated with several other historical risk factors including divorce,

Steve Spaccarelli; Irwin N. Sandler; Mark Roosa

1994-01-01

387

Air toxics project studies health risks from wastewater treatment plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

A pioneering air toxics project in Southern California has earned the County Sanitation Districts of Orange County a permit to expand a water treatment plant. It has also created a model for estimating cancer and non-cancer risks from toxic emissions at public works facilities and for evaluating control technologies to protect the public from such health risks.

Wilson, J.W.; Califano, R.J. (Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, NY (USA))

1990-11-01

388

Providing Options for At-Risk Youth: The Health and Media Academies in Oakland. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Health Academy and the Media Academy, two innovative high school intervention programs for at-risk youth in Oakland (California), are examined. A collaborative effort of the school district, business, and community, the academies are school-within-a-school programs that engage about 120 at-risk students each in specific academic curricula for…

Guthrie, Larry F.; And Others

389

Risk management: FIFA's approach for protecting the health of football players  

PubMed Central

Background Sport and exercise have long-term health benefits, but there is also a risk that participants will sustain injuries and/or ill health from these activities. For this reason, international sports governing bodies have a responsibility to identify the risks that exist within their sport and to provide guidance to participants and other stakeholders on how these risks can be controlled within acceptable levels. Purpose To demonstrate how Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), as football's governing body, uses a risk management framework to identify, quantify, mitigate and communicate the risks of injury and ill health in football for men, women and children in all environments. Method All the research papers published by FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) during the period 1994 to 2011 were reviewed and categorised according to an established sport-related risk management framework. Conclusions F-MARC investigated and mitigated 17 areas of risk to footballers' health in a coherent and consistent approach through the process of risk management. PMID:22143999

Fuller, Colin W; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2012-01-01

390

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study  

E-print Network

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study Abstract There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three

Gross, Amit

391

Designing Health Care Risk Management On-Line: Meeting Regulators' Concerns for Fixed-Hour Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experience of creating a continuing professional education on-line risk management program that is designed to meet Florida's educational requirements for licensure as a risk manager in health-care settings and details the challenges faced when the in-class didactic program of 15 eight-hour sessions is reformatted as an…

Hyer, Kathryn; Taylor, Heidi H.; Nanni, Kenneth

2004-01-01

392

Reduction in Sexual Risk Behaviors among College Students Following a Comprehensive Health Education Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers studied college students' sexual behavior and the association of a comprehensive health education program with subsequent sexual risk behavior modifications. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated the intervention created short-term reduction in sexual risk behaviors, but the reduction varied according to gender. (SM)

Turner, James C.; And Others

1993-01-01

393

EPA'S RESEARCH TO IMPROVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS (RIHRA) PROGRAM: OVERVIEW AND WATER-RELATED RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal law requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess drinking water risks and to set standards to insure a safe drinking water supply. iven limited data, risk assessors rely on high dose experimental data, results from occupational health studies, and other da...

394

Health and Ecological Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms: Risk Assessment Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome in order to provide a complete risk assessment of their impacts. Six recognized human poisoning syndromes resulting from

Frances M. Van Dolah; Daniel Roelke; Richard M. Greene

2001-01-01

395

Lifestyle related risk factors for poor health in residential settings for people with intellectual disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on the prevalence and determinants of lifestyle related risk factors for poor health (obesity, poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol abuse) among people with intellectual disabilities. This study reports the prevalence of these risk factors for 500 people with intellectual disabilities living in different forms of residential provision in the UK. Variables which predict the

Janet Robertson; Eric Emerson; Nicky Gregory; Chris Hatton; Steve Turner; Sophia Kessissoglou; Angela Hallam

2000-01-01

396

Health risk behaviours among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to review and summarize research on prevalence of health risk behaviours, their outcomes as well as risk and protective factors among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean. METHODS: Searching of online databases and the World Wide Web as well as hand searching of the West Indian Medical Journal were conducted. Papers on research done

Rohan G Maharaj; Paula Nunes; Shamin Renwick

2009-01-01

397

Future Orientation of Adolescents in Foster Care: Relationship to Trauma, Mental Health, and HIV Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future orientation has been found to protect against risky behaviors in adolescents from diverse backgrounds. However, no studies have specifically examined future orientation as a potential protective factor against HIV risk behaviors in foster care adolescents. In this study, 343 foster care adolescents were interviewed about their future orientation, mental health, trauma histories, and cognitions related to HIV risk behaviors.

Peter Cabrera; Wendy Auslander; Michael Polgar

2009-01-01

398

Passive smoking as an environmental health risk factor.  

PubMed

Initially, tobacco was considered as a decorative plant and only later began to be treated as a herb with special therapeutic properties. With time, it was found that tobacco had strong insecticidal and addictive properties. There also occurred reports about the negative influence of tobacco on human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies smoking as a chronic, progressive disease which is also 'contagious'. It is also considered to be a neurobiotic addiction. Nicotine addiction does not cause changes in the behaviour or functioning of a smoker; however, it adversely affects his or her general health status and the health status of people within their environment. Passive smoking (so-called ETS--Environmental Tobacco Smoke), which means accompanying smokers negatively influences the health of passive smokers. Environmental tobacco smoke, on the one hand, is the result of spontaneous cigarette burning and, on the other hand, the result of the side-stream of cigarette smoke, as well as the smoke exhaled by active smokers. Health personnel should clearly and convincingly present the data concerning the adverse results of smoking, as well as the dangers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, thereby making their patients aware that breaking their addiction will not only be beneficial for their own health, but will also protect non-smokers in their environment from the adverse effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:23020054

Sikorska-Jaroszy?ska, Ma?gorzata H J; Mielnik-B?aszczak, Maria; Krawczyk, Dorota; Nasi?owska-Barud, Alicja; B?aszczak, Jerzy

2012-01-01

399

Self-Affirmation Reduces Biased Processing of Health-Risk Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment tested whether a positive experience (the endorsement and recall of one's past acts of kindness) would reduce biased processing of self-relevant health-risk information. Women college students (N = 66) who reported high or low levels of daily caffeine use were exposed to both risk-confirming and risk-disconfirming information about the link between caffeine consumption and fibrocystic breast disease (FBD).

Mark B. Reed; Lisa G. Aspinwall

1998-01-01

400

Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir Questions? Contact CDC-INFO Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types ... Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 * HPV = human papillomavirus. NOTE: Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval. Both ...

401

Association of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors with Adolescents' Willingness to Engage in eHealth Promotion  

PubMed Central

Objective?This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness.?Methods?A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression).?Results?The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (? =.12, p =.03).?Conclusions?Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566

Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.

2009-01-01

402

Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: A human health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of low levels of pharmaceuticals in rivers and streams, drinking water, and groundwater has raised questions as to whether these levels may affect human health. This report presents human health risk assessments for 26 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and\\/or their metabolites, representing 14 different drug classes, for which environmental monitoring data are available for the United States. Acceptable

Bradley W. Schwab; Eileen P. Hayes; Janice M. Fiori; Frank J. Mastrocco; Nicholas M. Roden; David Cragin; Roger D. Meyerhoff; Vincent J. D’Aco; Paul D. Anderson

2005-01-01

403

Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDA factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.METHODSThe facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved

S Bridgman

2001-01-01

404

Impact of HealthWise South Africa on Polydrug Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the HealthWise South Africa HIV and substance abuse prevention program at impacting adolescents' polydrug use and sexual risk behaviors. HealthWise is a school-based intervention designed to promote social-emotional skills, increase knowledge and refusal skills relevant to substance use and…

Tibbits, Melissa K.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Flisher, Alan J.

2011-01-01

405

Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

2014-01-01

406

Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test. METHODS: A cross

Shaharudin Rafiza; Krishna Gopal Rampal; Aris Tahir

2011-01-01

407

Clinical Decision Making About Psychopathy and Violence Risk Assessment in Public Sector Mental Health Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been extensive research on psychopathy, it is unknown how, or whether, clinicians in public sector mental health settings consider the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) for assessing violence risk. Mental health clinicians (N = 135) from 4 facilities were interviewed by using multiple methods for collecting data on decision making. Participants considered clinical information most often when assessing violence

Eric B. Elbogen; Matthew T. Huss; Alan J. Tomkins; Mario J. Scalora

2005-01-01

408

Electromagnetic radiation and health risks: Cell phones and microwave radiation in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently the public is concerned over the proliferation of cellphone repeater sites around the cities of New Zealand and whether they pose a risk to health. The debate continued for some weeks over the proposal to erect a cellphone repeater in a school yard. The issues that came out of that debate are profiled in this paper -- environmental health

1996-01-01

409

Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Virginia A. Roberts2, Lorraine C. Backer3, Jonathan S. Yoder2, Timothy J. Wade1, Michele C. Hlavsa2 1Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Researc...

410

Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication: Effect of an Educational Package for Public Health Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-service for public health nurses (PHNs) and accompanying educational materials could improve vaccine risk/benefit communication. The content and timing of vaccine communication were recorded during 246 pre-and 217 post-intervention visits in two public health immunization clinics.…

Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Kennen, Estela M.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Arnold, Connie L.; Quinlin, Mackey S.; Bocchini, Joseph A., Jr.

2006-01-01

411

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye

2005-01-01

412

Cyanobacteria: State Monitoring Programs, Beach Closures, and Potential Human Health Risks  

EPA Science Inventory

New England is rich in freshwater lakes and ponds, many of which are subject to cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms that can limit recreational use and cause health problems. This study was conducted to better understand the health risks to human and animal populations that a...

413

Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model) and the impact\\/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health

Carlos Martín-Cantera; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Lydia Roig; Susana Valiente; Katherine Perez; Luis Garcia-Ortiz; Jordi Bel; Fernando Marques; Xavier Mundet; Xavier Bonafont; Marti Birules; Núria Soldevila; Elena Briones

2010-01-01

414

Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

Teachman, Jay

2010-01-01

415

EXTRAPOLATION IN HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

A symposium was conducted in April 1998 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to explore issues of extrapolation in human health and ecological risk assessments. Over the course of three and one half d...

416

The Minimization of Public Health Risks in Newspapers after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

During natural disasters, mass media facilitate the timely provision of accurate information about health risks to the public. This study informs our understanding of such public health discourse, utilizing a content-analysis of 235 newspaper articles in four major metropolitan newspapers published in the five weeks after Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast in August 2005. These data reveal that a

Elisia L. Cohen; Santosh Vijaykumar; Ricardo Wray; Ajlina Karamehic-Muratovic

2008-01-01

417

Traffic-related air pollution and perceived health risk: Lay assessment of an everyday hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the perceived risks to health from traffic-related air pollution among residents of four neighbourhoods in a borough of north London. Drawing on interview and survey data, the first part of the discussion presents views on possible health effects in general terms, and perceived effects on respondents themselves and their families. Respiratory and allergic conditions were found to

Rosemary J. Day

2006-01-01

418

Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project  

PubMed Central

Background Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model) and the impact/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health care. The objectives of our study are: Main aim: To outline the distribution of risk factors associated with Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) in a driving population assigned to a group of primary health care centres in Barcelona province. Secondly, we aim to study the distribution of diverse risk factors related to the possibility of suffering an RTI according to age, sex and population groups, to assess the relationship between these same risk factors and self risk perception for suffering an RTI, and to outline the association between the number of risk factors and the history of reported collisions. Methods/Design Design: Cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: 25 urban health care centres. Study population: Randomly selected sample of Spanish/Catalan speakers age 16 or above with a medical register in any of the 25 participating primary health care centres. N = 1540. Unit of study: Basic unit of care, consisting of a general practitioner and a nurse, both of whom caring for the same population (1,500 to 2,000 people per unit). Instruments of measurement: Data collection will be performed using a survey carried out by health professionals, who will use the clinical registers and the information reported by the patient during the visit to collect the baseline data: illnesses, medication intake, alcohol and psychoactive consumption, and self perception of risk. Discussion We expect to obtain a risk profile of the subjects in relation to RTI in the primary health care field, and to create a group for a prospective follow-up. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00778440. PMID:20233403

2010-01-01

419

HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

420

Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks  

E-print Network

Capital city 0 250 500 1000 km 10°N 10°E 0° 10°W20°W 20°E0° 20°N N #12;#12;23 1 Health, Sanitation, conflicts, poor sanitation, health and institutions ­ in both urban and rural contexts ­ were the issues of inadequate water supply and sanitation (WSS) are high (WHO 2009; World Bank 2009). About 1.6 million children

Richner, Heinz

421

Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food for Public Health Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a World climate, environmental and other global changes would have wide-ranging and, mostly, adverse consequences for human\\u000a health. These changes are a significant and emerging threat to public health, including the growing season, variability of\\u000a crop yields and water demands. Above mentioned factors have been influenced in areas of food security and food safety and\\u000a moreover the food industry struggle for

Elizabeta Mi?ovi?; Mario Gorenjak; Gorazd Meško; Avrelija Cenci?

422

Health risk assessment of kerosene usage in an informal settlement in Durban, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Durban, South Africa studies have shown that more than seven out of ten households in low-income metropolitan areas rely on kerosene for domestic purposes, leading to widespread problems of poor indoor air quality. In light of the known health effects of kerosene usage, this study aimed to quantify the health risk for people living in a densely populated informal settlement known as Cato Crest within the Durban metropolitan area. The pollutants investigated included nitrogen dioxide, benzene and toluene. Nitrogen dioxide is known to affect both respiratory and immune systems, benzene is carcinogenic while toluene has a neurological health end point. All three pollutants are harmful when inhaled. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) health risk assessment (HRA) framework was applied. Information on the exposure patterns of residents in Cato Crest were acquired through questionnaires in which data on fuel use, building structure, cooking habits and time-activity patterns were collected. Air quality monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds was also conducted in the households. The time-activity pattern survey revealed that the exposure periods of individuals in Cato Crest were far greater than the default exposure periods used by the US EPA. The results of the HRA showed that the residents of Cato Crest may experience significant health risks as a result of kerosene usage in their homes. Exposure to 1-h nitrogen dioxide concentration is not likely to produce adverse health effects, whereas exposure over a 24-h period indicates a potential health risk to sensitive individuals in two of the households when US EPA exposure values are used and in all of the households when locally derived exposure values are used. Benzene poses a health risk to sensitive individuals in 50% of the households when local exposure parameters are used, whereas there is no health risk associated with exposure to toluene.

Muller, E.; Diab, R. D.; Binedell, M.; Hounsome, R.

423

Risk Factors for Liver Dysfunction in Middle Aged Men based on Four Year Health Examination Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk Factors for Liver Dysfunction in Middle Aged Men based on Four Year Health Examination Data: Kumiko TAJIMA, et al. Department of Public Health, Gunma University School of Medicine—In order to develop a better lifestyle improvement program, the relationship between lifestyle and changes in liver function were compared through data-linkage of a self-administered questionnaire to the results of annual health

Kumiko TAJIMA; Kazuo TAKEUCHI; Shosuke SUZUKI

1998-01-01

424

The Association of Sleep Duration, Mental Health, and Health Risk Behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq Era Veterans  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Short and long sleep duration have been linked with higher rates of comorbid medical and mental health issues, as well as increased mortality. The current study examined the association between sleep duration, mental health problems, and health risk behaviors in a large sample of U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. Design: NA. Setting: Mid-Atlantic VA Medical Center(s). Patients/Participants: The sample (N = 1,640) included 20% women (n = 333) and had an average age of 37 years (SD = 10.0). Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Results from logistic regression analyses that included age, minority status, gender, military rank, number of deployments, combat exposure, and health risk behaviors as covariates indicated that very short sleep duration (? 5 h of sleep) and long sleep duration (? 9 h) were each associated with increased odds of current post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and smoking; while poor sleep quality was associated with PTSD, panic disorder (PD), MDD, suicidal ideation (SI), and risky drinking. Conclusions: Sleep duration may be an important marker for psychiatric and health risk behavior problems, and our results suggest that clinical assessment of sleep disturbance in this veteran group is warranted to assess for both short and long sleep. Citation: Swinkels CM; Ulmer CS; Beckam JC; Buse N; the VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Registry Workgroup; Calhoun PS. The association of sleep duration, mental health, and health risk behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1019-1025. PMID:23814338

Swinkels, Cindy M.; Ulmer, Christi S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Buse, Natalie; Calhoun, Patrick S.

2013-01-01

425

The impacts of uncertainty and variability in groundwater-driven health risk assessment. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential human health risk from contaminated groundwater is becoming an important, quantitative measure used in management decisions in a range of applications from Superfund to CO2 sequestration. Quantitatively assessing the potential human health risks from contaminated groundwater is challenging due to the many coupled processes, uncertainty in transport parameters and the variability in individual physiology and behavior. Perspective on human health risk assessment techniques will be presented and a framework used to predict potential, increased human health risk from contaminated groundwater will be discussed. This framework incorporates transport of contaminants through the subsurface from source to receptor and health risks to individuals via household exposure pathways. The subsurface is shown subject to both physical and chemical heterogeneity which affects downstream concentrations at receptors. Cases are presented where hydraulic conductivity can exhibit both uncertainty and spatial variability in addition to situations where hydraulic conductivity is the dominant source of uncertainty in risk assessment. Management implications, such as characterization and remediation will also be discussed.

Maxwell, R. M.

2010-12-01

426

Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

2005-01-01

427

Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?  

PubMed Central

Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health ‘gap’ has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors – those present in air, water, food, and soil – due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed. PMID:24802385

Knibbs, Luke D.; Sly, Peter D.

2014-01-01

428

Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: implications for risk assessment.  

PubMed

We undertook a secondary data analysis to study issues relevant to co-occurring mental health and substance disorder in a combined sample of offenders (N = 3,197). Using the Personality Assessment Inventory, we compared the frequency of depressive, traumatic stress, and personality disorder symptom elevations across offenders with and without substance problems, identified the extent to which co-occurring problems were accompanied by risk factors for suicide and aggression, and tested for gender differences. Offenders with substance problems were more likely than others to have increased mental health problems and risk factors for suicide or aggression. Women with substance problems, compared with men, had higher depression, traumatic stress, and borderline features, in addition to lower antisocial features. The frequency with which suicide and aggression risk factors were associated with mental health problems was generally similar across men and women. Measurement issues relevant to co-occurring disorder and risk assessment are discussed. PMID:21787090

Ruiz, Mark A; Douglas, Kevin S; Edens, John F; Nikolova, Natalia L; Lilienfeld, Scott O

2012-03-01

429

Health benefits and risks of reporting HIV-infected individuals by name.  

PubMed Central

With more treatment options emerging for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the policy of reporting HIV-infected individuals by name merits reevaluation. This paper reviews the benefits and risks of name reporting of persons infected with HIV. Public health departments have linked name reporting with medical referrals, risk reduction counseling, and partner notification programs. Yet some studies indicate that people are less likely to be tested for HIV infection when name reporting is implemented. Whether name reporting actually improves individual or public health, therefore justifying the increased risk of loss of confidentiality and possibly reduced testing rates, remains unknown. The lack of health outcome data on name reporting allows beliefs rather than facts to dominate debate about this policy. Before this practice is more widely adopted, a determination should be made as to whether the potential benefits of name reporting outweigh the risks. PMID:9618612

Colfax, G N; Bindman, A B

1998-01-01

430

Association of the oral health impact profile with malnutrition risk in Spanish elders.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine any relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) and malnutrition risk in the elderly using the oral health impact profile (OHIP). We studied 250 institutionalized elderly people, 162 females and 88 males, with and without teeth. Data were gathered on: general health; oral health; malnutrition risk, measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and OHR-QoL, evaluated with the OHIP. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was constructed with malnutrition presence/risk as dependent variable. Mean age was 82.7 ± 8.2 years. Malnutrition or malnutrition risk was shown by 36.8% of the sample. OHIP was associated with malnutrition/risk after adjustment for age, sex, functional status, and mild dementia diagnosis. Malnutrition/risk was 3.43-fold more likely in participants with OHIP-reported "problems" than in those with none. The conclusion of the study was that OHIP-measured OHR-QoL is associated with malnutrition risk. PMID:23763956

Gil-Montoya, J A; Ponce, G; Sánchez Lara, I; Barrios, R; Llodra, J C; Bravo, M

2013-01-01

431

A risk-based regulatory framework for health IT: recommendations of the FDASIA working group.  

PubMed

The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) acting through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and in collaboration with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) was tasked with delivering a report on an appropriate, risk-based regulatory framework for health information technology (IT). An expert stakeholder group was established under the auspices of the Health IT Policy Committee to help provide input into the development of this framework, including how healthcare IT systems could be stratified in terms of risk and recommendations about how the regulatory requirements currently in place should be adapted. In this paper, we summarize the public deliberations and final public report of the expert stakeholder group, and conclude with key suggestions intended to address the charge to recommend the features of a risk-based regulatory framework that promote innovation, protect patient safety, and avoid regulatory duplication. PMID:24763676

Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W

2014-10-01

432

A clinical economics workstation for risk-adjusted health care cost management.  

PubMed

This paper describes a healthcare cost accounting system which is under development at Duke University Medical Center. Our approach differs from current practice in that this system will dynamically adjust its resource usage estimates to compensate for variations in patient risk levels. This adjustment is made possible by introducing a new cost accounting concept, Risk-Adjusted Quantity (RQ). RQ divides case-level resource usage variances into their risk-based component (resource consumption differences attributable to differences in patient risk levels) and their non-risk-based component (resource consumption differences which cannot be attributed to differences in patient risk levels). Because patient risk level is a factor in estimating resource usage, this system is able to simultaneously address the financial and quality dimensions of case cost management. In effect, cost-effectiveness analysis is incorporated into health care cost management. PMID:8563361

Eisenstein, E L; Hales, J W

1995-01-01

433

Environmental Risks to Public Health in the United Arab Emirates: A Quantitative Assessment and Strategic Plan  

PubMed Central

Background: Environmental risks to health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have shifted rapidly from infectious to noninfectious diseases as the nation has developed at an unprecedented rate. In response to public concerns over newly emerging environmental risks, the Environment Agency–Abu Dhabi commissioned a multidisciplinary environmental health strategic planning project. Objectives: In order to develop the environmental health strategic plan, we sought to quantify the illnesses and premature deaths in the UAE attributable to 14 environmental pollutant categories, prioritize these 14 risk factors, and identify interventions. Methods: We estimated the disease burden imposed by each risk factor using an attributable fraction approach, and we prioritized the risks using an empirically tested stakeholder engagement process. We then engaged government personnel, scientists, and other stakeholders to identify interventions. Results: The UAE’s environmental disease burden is low by global standards. Ambient air pollution is the leading contributor to premature mortality [~ 650 annual deaths; 95% confidence interval (CI): 140, 1,400]. Risk factors leading to > 10,000 annual health care facility visits included occupational exposures, indoor air pollution, drinking water contamination, seafood contamination, and ambient air pollution. Among the 14 risks considered, on average, outdoor air pollution was ranked by the stakeholders as the highest priority (mean rank, 1.4; interquartile range, 1–2) and indoor air pollution as the second-highest priority (mean rank 3.3; interquartile range, 2–4). The resulting strategic plan identified 216 potential interventions for reducing environmental risks to health. Conclusions: The strategic planning exercise described here provides a framework for systematically deciding how to invest public funds to maximize expected returns in environmental health, where returns are measured in terms of reductions in a population’s environmental burden of disease. PMID:22357098

Farah, Zeinab S.

2012-01-01

434

Helping High-Risk Youth Move through High-Risk Periods: Personally Controlled Health Records for Improving Social and Health Care Transitions  

PubMed Central

Background New patient-centered information technologies are needed to address risks associated with health care transitions for adolescents and young adults with diabetes, including systems that support individual and structural impediments to self- and clinical-care. Methods We describe the personally controlled health record (PCHR) system platform and its key structural capabilities and assess its alignment with tenets of the chronic care model (CCM) and the social–behavioral and health care ecologies within which adolescents and young adults with diabetes mature. Results Configured as Web-based platforms, PCHRs can support a new class of patient-facing applications that serve as monitoring and support systems for adolescents navigating complex social, developmental, and health care transitions. The approach can enable supportive interventions tailored to individual patient needs to boost adherence, self-management, and monitoring. Conclusions The PCHR platform is a paradigm shift for the organization of health information systems and is consistent with the CCM and conceptualizations of patient- and family-centered care for diabetes. Advancing the approach augers well for improvement around health care transitions for youth and also requires that we address (i) structural barriers impacting diabetes care for maturing youth; (ii) challenges around health and technology literacy; (iii) privacy and confidentiality issues, including sharing of health information within family and institutional systems; and (iv) needs for evaluation around uptake, impacts, and outcomes. PMID:21303624

Weitzman, Elissa R.; Kaci, Liljana; Quinn, Maryanne; Mandl, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01

435

Health programs at risk in wake of '84 election.  

PubMed

President Ronald Reagan's reelection suggests that government will continue to promote policies that favor marketplace allocation of medical care resources and that it will continue to cut social welfare programs, particularly health programs for the elderly and the poor. Unlike previous administrations, which focused on controlling private and public health care costs, President Reagan has targeted Medicare and Medicaid expenditures--a policy which has caused substantial cost shifting to underwrite hospitals' uncompensated and undercompensated care. Physician payment policies likely will receive the greatest attention in spending reduction efforts. Congress, as it showed in the president's first term, can cut spending sharply. Its task, however, has been complicated by the president's campaign declaration that defense spending and Social Security benefits were off-limits. Expected to lead health care debate on Capitol Hill are Sens. Albert Gore, Jr., D-TN, and Phil Gramm, R-TX, and Rep. James Jones, D-OK. PMID:10269772

Iglehart, J K

1985-01-01

436

Is adipose tissue oversold as a health risk?  

PubMed

A high percentage of body fat is considered to be the primary cause of risks associated with high body weight. Yet body fat content per se may not cause the risks. The contribution of obesity to risks may be because overfilled adipose tissue cannot remove offending substances from circulation. The ability to remove excess glucose, lipids, and offending materials from circulation, not the amount of body fat, may be the important factor. People with large, partially filled adipose depots may have less risk than people with small, but filled adipose depots. This concept is supported by many studies. Energy restriction in genetically obese animals greatly increases longevity and slows signs of aging even while the animals remain obese. Weight reduction often corrects weight-associated medical problems in obese persons without returning body-fat levels to normal. Statistically generated desirable body-fat contents or desirable height-weight tables may have little meaning for individuals and may cause more harm than good. Because these standards are not appropriate for some people, they should be discarded as a guide for all. More emphasis should be placed on healthy lifestyles and less on body-fat percentages. PMID:8195553

Abernathy, R P; Black, D R

1994-06-01

437

EPA'S REASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN RISK: DIRECTED HEALTH RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated a reassessment of the risk of exposure to dioxin in the spring of 1991 because of the evolution of scientific thinking as well as the publication of several key experimental studies. his involves a literature reevaluatio...

438

Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure  

SciTech Connect

This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

Whitfield, R.G.

1997-06-30

439

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

2005-01-01

440

A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticides Used in Mosquito Management  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they traditionally have not been used or have been used less frequently. This has resulted in concerns by the public about the risks from insecticide use. The objective of this study was to use reasonable worst-case risk assessment methodologies to evaluate human-health risks for WNV and the insecticides most commonly used to control adult mosquitoes. We evaluated documented health effects from WNV infection and determined potential population risks based on reported frequencies. We determined potential acute (1-day) and subchronic (90-day) multiroute residential exposures from each insecticide for several human subgroups during a WNV disease outbreak scenario. We then compared potential insecticide exposures to toxicologic and regulatory effect levels. Risk quotients (RQs, the ratio of exposure to toxicologic effect) were < 1.0 for all subgroups. Acute RQs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.4726, and subchronic RQs ranged from 0.00014 to 0.2074. Results from our risk assessment and the current weight of scientific evidence indicate that human-health risks from residential exposure to mosquito insecticides are low and are not likely to exceed levels of concern. Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. PMID:16507459

Peterson, Robert K.D.; Macedo, Paula A.; Davis, Ryan S.

2006-01-01

441

Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between patient literacy and hospitalization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Urban public hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: A total of 979 emergency department patients who participated in the Literacy in Health Care study and had completed an intake\\u000a interview and literacy testing with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults were eligible for this study. Of these,

David W. Baker; Ruth M. Parker; Mark V. Williams; W. Scott Clark

1998-01-01

442

[Occupational risks and health: perceptions of indigenous female agricultural workers in Northwestern Mexico].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to learn the perceptions of indigenous female day laborers regarding health-related risks in the workplace, based on their own characterization of the requirements of agricultural work. The concept of occupational risk is understood as a flexible construct in which work conditions and the different perceptions and lived experiences of social actors are interrelated. A microstructural model is employed to explain the occupational risks and their relationship to social inequalities and impacts in health. The methodology used was qualitative, employing non-participant observation, participatory workshops and group interviews during 2011-2012. Sixty indigenous women participated in the study. Results reveal that their perception regarding occupational risks is constructed from everyday practices in their place of work and that most of their work activities place them in situations of risk. PMID:23989629