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1

Ethnocentrism is an unacceptable rationale for health care policy: a critique of transplant tourism position statements.  

PubMed

Medical tourism has emerged as a global health care phenomenon, valued at $60 billion worldwide in 2006. Transplant tourism, unlike other more benign forms of medical tourism, has become a flashpoint within the transplant community, underscoring the uneasy relationships among science, religion, politics, ethics and international health care policies concerning the commercialization of transplantation. Numerous professional associations have drafted or issued position statements condemning transplant tourism. Often the criticism is misdirected. The real issue concerns both the source and circumstances surrounding the procurement of donor organs, including commercialization. Unfortunately, many of the position statements circulated to date represent an ethnocentric and decidedly western view of transplantation. As such, the merits of culturally insensitive policy statements issued by otherwise well-intended transplant professionals, and the organizations they represent, must be evaluated within the broader context of foreign relations and diplomacy, as well as cultural and ethical relativity. Having done so, many persons may find themselves reluctant to endorse statements that have produced a misleading social desirability bias, which, to a great extent, has impeded more thoughtful and inclusive deliberations on the issues. Therefore, instead of taking an official position on policy matters concerning the commercial aspects of transplantation, international professional associations should offer culturally respectful guidance. PMID:18444938

Evans, R W

2008-06-01

2

Radon Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Health Risks (September 2009) The United Nation's World Health Organization ( ... 26 K) . For More Information on Radon Health Risks Radon Frequently Asked Questions EPA's 2003 Updated Radon ...

3

Eczema Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Eczema Health Risks HealthDay January 22, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... with eczema. But a new study finds the health risks from this disease may go way beyond ...

4

Just health: on the conditions for acceptable and unacceptable priority settings with respect to patients' socioeconomic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that the higher the socioeconomic status (SES) of patients, the better their health and life expectancy. SES also influences the use of health services—the higher the patients' SES, the more time and specialised health services provided. This leads to the following question: should clinicians give priority to individual patients with low SES in order to enhance

Kristine Bærøe; Berit Bringedal

2011-01-01

5

An effective science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unacceptable students in grades 4 -- 8: A Delphi study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored science-specific strategies and materials that might be effective components in a Response to Intervention (RTI) science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, a nationwide panel of 63 experts in the field of science education identified and came to consensus on 44 effective strategies and six instructional materials and types of equipment for supplemental instruction in science, resulting in a three tier RTI tutorial model. This model provides an initial guide for science educators in applicable practices for each tier of the RTI framework, and was developed to assist administrators, program managers, and science educators in developing effective, systemic RTI instructional programming for science education in grades 4 -- 8, and may provide an additional planning tool in determining evidence-based practices that may lead to achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Future research on specific intervention strategies within science and their effects on science achievement are needed, as well as a further examination to test the efficacy of the model on rates of science achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students.

Adair, J. Kathleen

6

Environmental Health Risk Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To complete this activity, students can follow the instructions and the tutorial in the Environmental Health Risk Inventory website. In doing this, they will gain an understanding of how to use on-line tools and databases as well as the processes of compiling an environmental health risk inventory for a specific locale. In the activity, students will address the question: "how healthy is your neighborhood?" Students will address anthropogenic and naturally-occurring health risks in their hometown or neighborhood by using data collected from online mapping tools and databases. Students will also complete a reflective summary based on the data that they collect.

Laurie Cantwell

7

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to help instructors and students locate and use online databases and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to research environmental risks in their own neighborhoods. Materials include a tutorial that provides a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory, using an example in Bozeman, Montana. The activity page contains an assignment and instructions for completing environmental health risk inventories, and there is also a page of links to mapping tools available on the internet, links to the tutorials for each mapping tool, and a list of online databases with searchable health-related information and data.

Laurie Cantwell

2004-01-01

8

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's always great to learn about an interesting new resource for teaching college students about environmental health, and this one is quite handy. Created as part of the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College, the Environmental Health Risk Assessment site helps instructors and students "locate and use some of the numerous health-related tools and databases that can be found on the web." Here visitors can look over the Tutorial, which is designed to give interested parties a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory. Also, the site includes an activity that can be used in the classroom, along with a list of vetted mapping tools available across the Web. The site is rounded out by four external links to related resources, including one that looks at the relationship between geology and human health.

2010-02-26

9

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides  

MedlinePLUS

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides Este Web page está disponible en español Questions on Pesticides? Contact the National Pesticide Information Center ( ... of Toxicity Tests EPA Requires for Human Health Risk Assessments EPA evaluates studies conducted over different periods ...

10

Estimating risk at a Superfund site using passive sampling devices as biological surrogates in human health risk models  

PubMed Central

Passive sampling devices (PSDs) sequester the freely dissolved fraction of lipophilic contaminants, mimicking passive chemical uptake and accumulation by biomembranes and lipid tissues. Public Health Assessments that inform the public about health risks from exposure to contaminants through consumption of resident fish are generally based on tissue data, which can be difficulties to obtain and requires destructive sampling. The purpose of this study is to apply PSD data in a Public Health Assessment to demonstrate that PSDs can be used as a biological surrogate to evaluate potential human health risks and elucidate spatio-temporal variations in risk. PSDs were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Willamette River; upriver, downriver and within the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite for three years during wet and dry seasons. Based on an existing Public Health Assessment for this area, concentrations of PAHs in PSDs were substituted for fish tissue concentrations. PSD measured PAH concentrations captured the magnitude, range and variability of PAH concentrations reported for fish/shellfish from Portland Harbor. Using PSD results in place of fish data revealed an unacceptable risk level for cancer in all seasons but no unacceptable risk for non-cancer endpoints. Estimated cancer risk varied by several orders of magnitude based on season and location. Sites near coal tar contamination demonstrated the highest risk, particularly during the dry season and remediation activities. Incorporating PSD data into Public Health Assessments provides specific spatial and temporal contaminant exposure information that can assist public health professionals in evaluating human health risks. PMID:21741671

Allan, Sarah E.; Sower, Gregory J.; Anderson, Kim A.

2013-01-01

11

Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

Kundrot, Criag E.

2011-01-01

12

Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of conservative and nonconservative assumptions on the probability results. We discuss the methods necessary to assess mission risks once exploration mission scenarios are characterized. Preliminary efforts have produced results that are commensurate with earlier qualitative estimates of risk probabilities in this and other operational contexts, indicating that our approach may be usefully applied in support of the development of human health and performance standards for long-duration space exploration missions. This approach will also enable mission-specific probabilistic risk assessments for space exploration missions.

Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

2006-01-01

13

Health Risks of Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

Cohen, Bernard L.

1978-01-01

14

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-18

15

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

de Gispert, Adrià

16

Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk  

MedlinePLUS

Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using three key measures: Body mass index (BMI) ... lower your risk of developing those diseases. Healthy Weight Tip Waist circumference can help assess your weight ...

17

Cigarettes Health Risks  

E-print Network

of Quitting You will feel better: Your heart rate and blood pressure will drop, you will produce less smoke. Better Physical Health: Within... 20 Minutes: Blood pressure decreases, and pulse slows percent of these deaths are from cancer, 35 percent from heart disease and stroke, and 25 percent from

Oregon, University of

18

Multipathways human health risk assessment of trihalomethane exposure through drinking water.  

PubMed

Life-time human health risk of cancer attributed to trihalomethanes in drinking water in an urban-industrialized area of Karachi (Pakistan) was conducted through multiple pathways of exposure. The extent of cancer risk was compared with USEPA guidelines. Human health cancer risk for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) through ingestion and dermal routes were estimated in "acceptable-low risk" (?1.0E-06; ?5.10E-05), whereas through inhalation route it was estimated under "acceptable-high risk" (?5.10E-05; ?1.0E-04) category. However, at some industrial-urban areas cancer risk for CHCl3 were estimated under "unacceptable risk" (?1.0E-04) through inhalation route. PMID:25797412

Siddique, Azhar; Saied, Sumayya; Mumtaz, Majid; Hussain, Mirza M; Khwaja, Haider A

2015-06-01

19

Health risks at the Hajj.  

PubMed

Annually, millions of Muslims embark on a religious pilgrimage called the "Hajj" to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The mass migration during the Hajj is unparalleled in scale, and pilgrims face numerous health hazards. The extreme congestion of people and vehicles during this time amplifies health risks, such as those from infectious diseases, that vary each year. Since the Hajj is dictated by the lunar calendar, which is shorter than the Gregorian calendar, it presents public-health policy planners with a moving target, demanding constant preparedness. We review the communicable and non-communicable hazards that pilgrims face. With the rise in global travel, preventing disease transmission has become paramount to avoid the spread of infectious diseases, including SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fever. We examine the response of clinicians, the Saudi Ministry of Health, and Hajj authorities to these unique problems, and list health recommendations for prospective pilgrims. PMID:16564364

Ahmed, Qanta A; Arabi, Yaseen M; Memish, Ziad A

2006-03-25

20

Emerging Issues for our Nation's Health: The Intersection of Marijuana Use and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

Current marijuana use rates are the highest in the past decade and not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and/or recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes but little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context to the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use. This topic has potential important implications for our nation's health as we relax our approach to marijuana but continue to have unacceptable rates of cardiometabolic illnesses. PMID:24471513

Vidot, Denise C.; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Messiah, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

21

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Addressing unacceptable performance. 432.104 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE...Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time...

2010-01-01

22

5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage. This...probationary period for unacceptable performance. (b) Basis for action...rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established...

2010-01-01

23

5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage. This...probationary period for unacceptable performance. (b) Basis for action...rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established...

2011-01-01

24

5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage. This...probationary period for unacceptable performance. (b) Basis for action...rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established...

2014-01-01

25

5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage. This...probationary period for unacceptable performance. (b) Basis for action...rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established...

2012-01-01

26

5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...402 Removal: Unacceptable performance. (a) Coverage. This...probationary period for unacceptable performance. (b) Basis for action...rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established...

2013-01-01

27

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

28

Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision-Making Framework for Identifying, Assessing and Managing Health Risks (Health Canada, 2000). 4. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Human Health Risk Assessment of Priority Substances(Health Canada, 1994). 5. CSA-Q8550 Risk Management: Guidelines for Decision-Makers (Canada Standards Association, 1997). 6. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (US National Research Council, 1983). 7. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (US National Research Council, 1996). 8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (enHealth Council of Australia, 2002). 9. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (CCME, 1996). 10. Ecological Risk Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Environment Canada, 1996).11. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1998b). 12. Proposed Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Management (Rampal & Sadhra, 1999). Based on the extensive review of these frameworks, seven key elements that should be included in a comprehensive framework for human health, ecological, and occupational risk assessment and management were identified: 1. Problem formulation stage. 2. Stakeholder involvement. 3. Communication. 4. Quantitative risk assessment components. 5. Iteration and evaluation. 6. Informed decision making. 7. Flexibility. On the basis of this overarching approach to risk management, the following "checklist" to ensure a good risk management decision is proposed: - Make sure you're solving the right problem. - Consider the problem and the risk within the full context of the situation, using a broad perspective. - Acknowledge, incorporate, and balance the multiple dimensions of risk. - Ensure the highest degree of reliability for all components of the risk management process. - Involve interested and effected parties from the outset of the process. - Commit to honest and open communication between all parties. - Employ continuous evaluation throughout the process (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared t

Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

2003-01-01

29

[Health risks of oral contraceptives].  

PubMed

Oral contraceptives (OC) are either composed of a combination of an estrogen derivative (usually ethinly estradiol) and a progestogen, or they contain a progestogen only. OC are characterized by a high effectiveness and have a low failure rate if taken correctly. Most women tolerate OC relatively well, but adverse effects do occur which are driven by the estrogen dose as well as by the type of progestogen. The most frequently reported adverse effects are nausea or vomiting, breast tenderness, headache or inbalanced mood, but these unwanted side effects are often transient. The fear of weight gain of many OC users is not necessarily supported by data from studies which report relatively little differences in body mass index on average during OC use. Nevertheless, substantial weight gain can occur in individual women. The widely discussed fear of breast cancer is also not justified, and the risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer is reduced for women who use OC on a regular basis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the adverse effect with the greatest potential for serious harm if pulmonary embolism develops. This rare, but potentially dangerous adverse effect of OC has been discussed emotionally for many years and keeps attracting a lot of public interest. VTE is rare in young women, but the VTE risk is increased two- to sixfold for OC users as compared to non-users. The VTE risk increases with increasing estrogen dose, is highest in the first year of use, and is higher for OC from the third generation (containing desogestrel, gestodene or norgestimate) than for OC from the second generation (containing levonorgestrel) or than for the progestogen-only pill. According to most studies, OC containing the progestogens drospirenone or cyproterone acetate are similar with regard to VTE risks than OC from the third generation. Individual genetic susceptibility affecting the clotting system plays a major role in the risk of developing VTE in combination with OC, and smoking is also an important contributing factor to an increased VTE risk for women using OC. It is important that doctors and pharmacists inform new users of OC about potential health risks of OC use, and that the personal and family history of previous health risks is assessed thoroughly in order to rule out that important and relevant contraindications are present when a women starts taking OC. PMID:21656494

Meier, Christoph R

2011-06-01

30

[Health risks of mobile phones].  

PubMed

Health problems related to the use of cellular telephones become a "hot" journalistic topic. Incompetent and uninformed authors of newspaper articles inform, deform and sometimes even frighten their users with malignant effects of electromagnetic radiation starting with impairment of psychic concentration, sleep disorders till development brain tumors. Such (and so far not proved apprehensions) have to be confound with scientific arguments. One of the first studies aimed at possibility of brain tumor formation brought about negative answer. The lack of empirical evidences of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation cancerogenity suggests that cellular phones do not represent a serious risk of cancer. PMID:11503194

Bart?n?k, P

2001-07-19

31

Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

Tenkate, Thomas D.

1998-01-01

32

Personality, risky health behaviour, and perceived susceptibility to health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations between personality (Five-Factor Model), risky health behaviours, and perceptions of susceptibility to health risks among 683 university students. The hypothesis was that personality would aÄect perceptions of susceptibility to health risks in two ways: directly, irrespective of risky health behaviours, and indirectly, through the eÄects of personality on risky health behaviours. The students were surveyed about

Margarete Vollrath; Daria Knoch; Loredana Cassano

1999-01-01

33

The Health Risks of Asian Americans. Editorial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States, relatively little is known about the health risks and morbidity of different Asian-American groups. A national survey (National Health Interview Survey) is needed to clarify the health risks of major Asian-American subgroups. (SLD)

Yu, Elena S. H.

1991-01-01

34

Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

Borcherding, Donald

1997-01-01

35

Risk contracts in managed mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prologue: The term risk contracting has become a familiar part of the vocabulary and the landscape of managed care. Risk contracting refers to an arrangement whereby the cost or claims risk for an insured population is borne by the entity that is desig- nated to bear risk: a prepaid plan or, as is increasingly the case for mental health care,

Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire; Joseph P. Newhouse

1995-01-01

36

Robust Risk Adjustment in Health Insurance  

E-print Network

Aug 7, 2014 ... Risk adjustment is used to calibrate payments to health plans based on the relative health status of ... regression models: platinum, gold, silver, bronze, and catastrophic for adult, child, and infant, ..... Mental Illness. 1.5.

2014-08-07

37

Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth  

PubMed Central

Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

2010-01-01

38

Health risk of chrysotile revisited  

PubMed Central

This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20?µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7?d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration. PMID:23346982

Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raúl; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

2013-01-01

39

Health Risk Assessments for Alumina Refineries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10?6. Conclusions: The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries. PMID:24806721

Coffey, Patrick S.

2014-01-01

40

Air pollution ranks as largest health risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

41

Schiffert Health Center TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM  

E-print Network

Schiffert Health Center TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Name that tuberculosis skin testing (PPD) be performed on all individuals who may be at increased risk of tuberculosis tuberculosis · Use of illegal injected drugs · At risk of being infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Virginia Tech

42

Risk assessment and risk communication in environmental health in Poland.  

PubMed

Efficient prevention activities can reduce disease, caused by environmental factors as well as costs to the health-care system, but it is impossible without understanding by the society of when, where, how and why exposures occur. Physicians and other health-care professionals may have an important role to play in communication of these potential dangers as the public requires information from knowledgeable and trusted sources about environmental risks and methods to avoid them. Epidemiological study in Poland shows that the health risk awareness in the society is not satisfactory and improvement of communication processes is essential to reduce individual risk factors. PMID:21859749

Marchwi?ska-Wyrwa?, Ewa; Teaf, Christopher M; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Hajok, Ilona

2012-10-01

43

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL ACTIONS § 432.104 Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time during the performance appraisal cycle that an employee's performance is determined to be unacceptable in one or more critical...

2014-01-01

44

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL ACTIONS § 432.104 Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time during the performance appraisal cycle that an employee's performance is determined to be unacceptable in one or more critical...

2011-01-01

45

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL ACTIONS § 432.104 Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time during the performance appraisal cycle that an employee's performance is determined to be unacceptable in one or more critical...

2013-01-01

46

5 CFR 432.104 - Addressing unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL ACTIONS § 432.104 Addressing unacceptable performance. At any time during the performance appraisal cycle that an employee's performance is determined to be unacceptable in one or more critical...

2012-01-01

47

Health effects of risk-assessment categories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

1983-10-01

48

Risk communication for environmental health hazards.  

PubMed

Starting with the analysis of communication problems in the field of therapeutical and environmental risks the special requirements and challenges of communicating environmental health risks will be outlined. Important problems of this type of risk communication include: (1) The political context which imposes a new role structure upon the doctor and the people involved, (2) the special importance of credibility of scientific statements, given the limited understanding of health risks related to the environment, and (3) the strong emotional component and therefore the conflict-proneness of communication. PMID:10507138

Wiedemann, P M; Schütz, H

1999-08-01

49

Semantic Interoperability of Health Risk Assessments  

PubMed Central

The health insurance and benefits industry has administered Health Risk Assessments (HRAs) at an increasing rate. These are used to collect data on modifiable health risk factors for wellness and disease management programs. However, there is significant variability in the semantics of these assessments, making it difficult to compare data sets from the output of 2 different HRAs. There is also an increasing need to exchange this data with Health Information Exchanges and Electronic Medical Records. To standardize the data and concepts from these tools, we outline a process to determine presence of certain common elements of modifiable health risk extracted from these surveys. This information is coded using concept identifiers, which allows cross-survey comparison and analysis. We propose that using LOINC codes or other universal coding schema may allow semantic interoperability of a variety of HRA tools across the industry, research, and clinical settings. PMID:22195174

Rajda, Jay; Vreeman, Daniel J.; Wei, Henry G.

2011-01-01

50

Risk, health and parenting culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Editorial, we have three aims. We mainly aim to highlight the key issues raised in the papers that follow, and orient readers to some thematic and methodological connections between them. We have divided the papers into three thematic groups: expert-led constructions of the risk-managing parent; risk society and the development of parental identity with reference to food; and

Ellie Lee; Jan Macvarish; Jennie Bristow

2010-01-01

51

Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement  

MedlinePLUS

... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

52

Adolescent Health Risk Profiles: The Co-Occurrence of Health Risks among Females and Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis examines the complexity of adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative study of students. The current sample includes 12,955 students (6,626 females and 6,329 males) in grades 9 through 12. Cluster analysis was conducted separately by gender to examine the interrelationships among eight health risk behaviors:

Janine M. Zweig; Laura Duberstein Lindberg; Karen Alexander McGinley

2001-01-01

53

Health risk perception in Canada II: Worldviews, attitudes and opinions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present the results of a national survey of 1500 Canadians on their attitudes and opinions about health risks. Ratings of perceived risk, sources of information on health risks and responsibility for risk management were also investigated, with findings reported separately. A high degree of concern about health risks was associated with industrial pollution and chemical products

Daniel Krewski; Paul Slovic; Sheryl Bartlett; James Flynn; C. K. Mertz

1995-01-01

54

Health Risks Faced by Turkish Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and Methods. This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results. It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ? three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ? three children, and social isolation. Conclusions. In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs. PMID:25054165

Çakmur, Hülya

2014-01-01

55

Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

Huff, Janice L.

2014-01-01

56

Assessing environmental health risks: part 1  

SciTech Connect

Questions about health risks from toxic chemicals in the environment are raised frequently by concerned citizens and scientists alike. How do the authors know whether public exposures to chemical are dangerous to workers in the chemical industry or to residents of communities near industrial sites Is an outbreak of a new disease in a community due to an exposure from a nearby industry or to a communicable disease Can the authors adequately protect human health by relying solely on data from studies of animals exposed in the laboratory Do epidemiologic studies really provide the last word in the analysis of risk And finally, are risks to human health the only risks one should be assessing In this article and the second part which will follow next month, the author reviews the analytical approaches used to quantitatively evaluate public exposures to toxic chemicals. The techniques of exposure assessment, dose reconstruction, risk assessment, and epidemiologic analysis are described, compared, and discussed with regard to their effectiveness in predicting the risks from chemicals in the environment and in protecting the public's health.

Ruttenber, A.J.

1993-04-01

57

Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk  

PubMed Central

A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

Kokkinos, Peter

2012-01-01

58

Health Risk Behaviors among California College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk behaviors among students attending 4-year colleges in California were examined. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey for College Students was administered in a two-stage (29 universities, 5,652 students) random sample. All campuses and 3,810 (69%) students participated in the survey. In the 30 days preceding the survey, 36.7% of the students had binged at least once while drinking; 25.3%

Kevin Patrick; Jennifer R. Covin; Mark Fulop; Karen Calfas; Chris Lovato

1997-01-01

59

Risk communication activities of state health agencies.  

PubMed Central

Surveys concerning the risk communication practices and needs of state health agencies were completed by agency commissioners and designated staff of 48 states and territories. These data indicate that agencies are expending more effort on responding to requests for information than on initiating dialogues with interested constituencies or alerting the public to risk. The data also suggest a gap between the stated philosophy and practice of the agencies. PMID:2003630

Chess, C; Salomone, K L; Sandman, P M

1991-01-01

60

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-01

61

Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented. PMID:20723144

Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

2010-12-01

62

Evaluating Potential Health Risks in Relocatable Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only limited data exist describing potential exposures to chemical and biological agents when using portable classrooms or outlining how to assess and reduce associated health risks. Evaluating indoor air quality involves examining ventilating rates, volatile organic compounds, and microbiologicals. Open communication among key stakeholders is…

Katchen, Mark; LaPierre, Adrienne; Charlin, Cary; Brucker, Barry; Ferguson, Paul

2001-01-01

63

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over

Geoffrey A. Codd; Louise F. Morrison; James S. Metcalf

2005-01-01

64

Diabetes in pregnancy: health risks and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes in pregnancy is increasing and therefore it is important to raise awareness of the associated health risks to the mother, the growing fetus, and the future child. Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in diabetic pregnancies through increased stillbirths and congenital malformation rates. These are mainly the result of early fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia. In the mother, pregnancy

Sarah Ali; Anne Dornhorst

2011-01-01

65

Ozone Standards Pose Health Risks, Scientists Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A three-dimensional model of atmospheric chemistry was used to simulate background ozone for the United States. A great variability in ozone was found, depending upon the season, elevation, and geographic area. This indicates that the EPA is overestimating the ozone background level in the United States, and as a result is underestimating the health risk associated with ozone pollution.

AGU

66

Occupational health risk to nanoparticulate exposure.  

PubMed

The evolution of nanotechnology from laboratory research to full-scale production has led to the need to understand the health risk to workers in that industry from the dispersion of nanoparticles escaping from various aspects of the production process. Risk is a function of both the hazard imposed by a compound or material and the expected exposure level. Therefore, research to evaluate proper exposure assessment methods specific to nanoparticles in a workplace atmosphere, as well as research on the toxicological properties of nanoparticles, has been conducted to better understand methods for protecting the health of workers in this burgeoning industry. From an assessment standpoint, researchers are evaluating both the accuracy and validity of currently available instruments and the merits of each of the three metrics – mass, surface area, and count – as indicators of exposure that provide the most relevant indication of worker health risk. Likewise, toxicologists are employing both in vitro and in vivo methods to understand the potential hazard to workers who may inhale aerosolized nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of current research efforts in nanoparticle exposure assessment and toxicology with an emphasis on how information from both fields of study combine to provide guidance to minimize the health risk posed by nanoparticulate exposure in the workplace. PMID:24592427

O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T

2013-01-01

67

[Public health risk maps using geostatistical methods].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate an application of geostatistical methods to public health risk maps through the identification of areas with elevated concentrations of heavy metals. The study focused on the element lead (Pb) from aerial transportation or loading of particles due to soil leaching in an area with major urban and industrial concentration in the Baixada Santista on the coastland of São Paulo State, Brazil. Maps with the spatial distribution of lead were produced using ordinary kriging; subsequently indicative kriging was performed to identify soil sites with contamination levels higher than the maximum acceptable level defined by the Sao Paulo State Environmental Control Agency. The resulting maps showed areas with increased probability of public health risk. The methodology proved to be a promising approach for decision-making related to health public policies and environmental planning. PMID:15692648

Lourenço, Roberto Wagner; Landim, Paulo Milton Barbosa

2005-01-01

68

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

69

Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Impaired Driving Fact Sheets - Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women’s Health Although men are more likely ...

70

Women brothel workers and occupational health risks  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

2003-01-01

71

48 CFR 1815.305-70 - Identification of unacceptable proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...complete the initial evaluation of any proposal when it is determined that the proposal is unacceptable because: (1...development acquisitions, a substantial design drawback is evident in the proposal, and sufficient correction or...

2011-10-01

72

48 CFR 1815.305-70 - Identification of unacceptable proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...complete the initial evaluation of any proposal when it is determined that the proposal is unacceptable because: (1...development acquisitions, a substantial design drawback is evident in the proposal, and sufficient correction or...

2012-10-01

73

48 CFR 1815.305-70 - Identification of unacceptable proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...complete the initial evaluation of any proposal when it is determined that the proposal is unacceptable because: (1...development acquisitions, a substantial design drawback is evident in the proposal, and sufficient correction or...

2010-10-01

74

48 CFR 1815.305-70 - Identification of unacceptable proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...complete the initial evaluation of any proposal when it is determined that the proposal is unacceptable because: (1...development acquisitions, a substantial design drawback is evident in the proposal, and sufficient correction or...

2013-10-01

75

48 CFR 1815.305-70 - Identification of unacceptable proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...complete the initial evaluation of any proposal when it is determined that the proposal is unacceptable because: (1...development acquisitions, a substantial design drawback is evident in the proposal, and sufficient correction or...

2014-10-01

76

A risk communication taxonomy for environmental health  

SciTech Connect

A classification system for risk communication can serve two major purposes: it provides a practical guide to techniques and establishes a framework for further development. By using traditional models of communication elements and management operations, this taxonomy has the advantage of being more readily adapted to the needs of environmental health professionals. Like all taxonomies, it should be continually revised and expanded by the professionals who use it.

Hatfield, T.H. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

77

Which College Students Are at Higher Health Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic health risk appraisal was used to determine which demographic factors were associated with higher health risk among college students at an urban state university. Students’ real age was assessed as the primary indicator of health risk and it was associated to demographic characteristics. Real age represents the physiological age of the body based on lifestyle choices, and this

Marcia H. Magnus

2010-01-01

78

Expedition health and safety: a risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Little has been published on the risks of participating in an expedition. A questionnaire survey was conducted to quantify those risks and to determine how expedition organizers plan for medical mishaps. 246 expeditions, taking 2381 participants to more than one hundred countries, were studied retrospectively. 65 expeditions (26%) reported no medical incidents; the remaining 181 reported 835 in 130,000 man-days (6.4 per 1000 man-days). 59% of the medical incidents seen on expeditions were preventable, one-third of these being due to gastrointestinal upsets. 78% of medical incidents were classified as minor and only 5% (40) as serious. There was no excess of serious incidents in any particular organizational group or environment. The findings of this survey suggest that the health risks of participating in a well-planned expedition are similar to those encountered during normal active life. PMID:11198684

Anderson, S R; Johnson, C J

2000-01-01

79

A dynamic human health risk assessment system.  

PubMed

An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors. PMID:22778520

Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

2012-05-01

80

Risk adjusting community rated health plan premiums: a survey of risk assessment literature and policy applications.  

PubMed

This paper surveys recent health care reform debates and empirical evidence regarding the potential role for risk adjusters in addressing the problem of competitive risk segmentation under capitated financing. We discuss features of health plan markets affecting risk selection, methodological considerations in measuring it, and alternative approaches to financial correction for risk differentials. The appropriate approach to assessing risk differences between health plans depends upon the nature of market risk selection allowed under a given reform scenario. Because per capita costs depend on a health plan's population risk, efficiency, and quality of service, risk adjustment will most strongly promote efficiency in environments with commensurately strong incentives for quality care. PMID:7639879

Giacomini, M; Luft, H S; Robinson, J C

1995-01-01

81

Reliability, resilience and vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of time-dependent health risks: A hypothetical case study of wellhead protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothetical case study of groundwater contaminant protection was carried out using time-dependent health risk calculations. The case study focuses on a hypothetical zoning project for parcels of land around a well field in northern Indiana, where the control of cancer risk relative to a mandated cancer risk threshold is of concern in the management strategy. Within our analysis, we include both uncertainty in the subsurface transport and variability in population behavior in the calculation of time-dependent health risks. From these results we introduce risk maps, a visual representation of the probability of an unacceptable health risk as a function of population behavior and the time at which exposure to the contaminant begins. We also evaluate the time-dependent risks with three criteria from water resource literature: reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (RRV). With respect to health risk from a groundwater well, the three criteria determine: the probability that a well produces safe water (reliability), the probability that a contaminated well returns to an uncontaminated state within a specified time interval (resilience), and the overall severity in terms of health impact of the contamination at a well head (vulnerability). The results demonstrate that the distributions of RRV values for each parcel of land are linked to the time-dependent concentration profile of the contaminant at the well, and the toxicological characteristics of the contaminant. The proposed time-dependent risk calculation expands on current techniques to include a continuous exposure start time, capable of reproducing the maximum risk while providing information on the severity and duration of health risks. Overall this study suggests that, especially in light of the inherent complexity of health-groundwater systems, RRV are viable criteria for relatively simple and effective evaluation of time-dependent health risk. It is argued that the RRV approach, as applied to consideration of potential health impact, allows for more informed, health-based decisions regarding zoning for wellhead protection.

Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

2012-12-01

82

Human Health Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are currently hundreds of available consumer products that contain nanoscale materials. Human exposure is, therefore, likely to occur in occupational and environmental settings. Mounting evidence suggests that some nanomaterials exert toxicity in cultured cells or following in vivo exposures, but this is dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the materials and the dose. This Working Group report summarizes the discussions of an expert scientific panel regarding the gaps in knowledge that impede effective human health risk assessment for nanomaterials, particularly those that are suspended in a gas or liquid and, thus, deposit on skin or in the respiratory tract. In addition to extensive descriptions of material properties, the Group identified as critical research areas: external and internal dose characterization, mechanisms of response, identification of sensitive subpopulations, and the development of screening strategies and technology to support these investigations. Important concepts in defining health risk are reviewed, as are the specific kinds of studies that will quickly reduce the uncertainties in the risk assessment process.

Elder, A.; Lynch, I.; Grieger, K.; Chan-Remillard, S.; Gatti, A.; Gnewuch, H.; Kenawy, E.; Korenstein, R.; Kuhlbusch, T.; Linker, F.; Matias, S.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Pinto, V. R. S.; Rudnitsky, R.; Savolainen, K.; Shvedova, A.

83

Health Insurance and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Compared to those with health insurance, the uninsured receive less care for chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes and they experience higher mortality. Methods We investigated the relations of health insurance status to prevalence, treatment, and control of major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants in sex-specific age-adjusted analyses. Participants who attended either the seventh Offspring cohort examination cycle (1998–2001) or the first Third Generation cohort examination cycle (2002–2005) were studied. Results Among 6098 participants, 3.8% were uninsured at the time of the FHS clinic examination and participants’ ages ranged from 19 to 64 years. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated LDL cholesterol was similar for the insured and uninsured, however the proportion of those who obtained treatment and achieved control of these risk factors was lower among the uninsured. Uninsured men and women were less likely to be treated for hypertension with odds ratios for treatment of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07–0.56) for men and 0.31 (95% CI 0.12–0.79) for women. Among men, the uninsured were less likely to receive treatment or achieve control of elevated LDL cholesterol than the insured, with odds ratios of 0.12 (95% CI 0.04–0.38) for treatment and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05–0.56) for control. Conclusions The treatment and control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are lower among uninsured adults. Increasing the proportion of insured individuals may be a means to improve the treatment and control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and reduce health disparities. PMID:20670729

Brooks, Erica L.; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Murabito, Joanne M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Sorlie, Paul; Levy, Daniel

2010-01-01

84

Social disparities, health risk behaviors, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Overall cancer incidence rates decreased in the most recent time period in both men and women, largely due to improvements in surgical therapeutic approaches (tertiary prevention) and screening programs (secondary prevention), but differences in cancer incidence and survival according to socioeconomic status are documented worldwide. Health risk behaviors, defined as habits or practices that increase an individual’s likelihood of harmful health outcomes, are thought to mediate such inequalities. Discussion Obesity has been related with increased cancer incidence and mortality due to imbalance of leptin and adiponectin which are connected to activation of PI3K, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways and decreasing insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and mTOR signaling via activation of 5 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), respectively. Physical activity has been associated to prevent cancer by the aforementioned obesity-related mechanisms, but also increasing level of circulating vitamin D, which has been related to lower risk of several cancers, and increasing prostaglandin F2a and reducing prostaglandin E2, which are both related with cancer prevention and promotion, respectively. A large number of different substances may induce themselves a direct cytotoxicity and mutagenic action on cells by smoking, whereas alcohol promote immune suppression, the delay of DNA repair, inhibition of the detoxification of carcinogens, the production of acetaldehyde, and the contribution to abnormal DNA methylation. The combined smoking and alcohol drinking habits have been shown to increase cancer risk by smoke action of increasing the acetaldehyde burden following alcohol consumption and alcohol action of enhancing the activation of various procarcinogens contained in tobacco smoke. Conclusions Interventions at the social level may be done to increase awareness about cancer risks and promote changing in unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24267900

2013-01-01

85

Health and safety risks in production agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

1998-01-01

86

Biomonitoring for occupational health risk assessment (BOHRA).  

PubMed

Biological monitoring (BM or biomonitoring) deals with the assessment of individual human exposure, effect and susceptibility to occupational risk factors. It is a fundamental tool in occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) and occupational health practice (OHP) and it has become one of the most, if not the most active area in occupational health (OH) research today. From the few hundred BM papers published in the 80s, there are now several tens of thousand papers published in the peer review literature each year, and the trend is still rising exponentially. As a result, BM has become a priority for the Scientific Committee on Occupational Toxicology (SCOT) of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). Moreover, there has been a long-term interest in biological monitoring by other SCs of ICOH such as the Scientific Committees on Toxicology of Metals (SCTM) and on Rural Health (SCRH). Despite its current popularity, though, BM is not always correctly used or interpreted by those involved in OHRA or OHP. The present review has been prepared to fill this gap and to help preventing misuse and misinterpretation of data. Although the document is meant to be a reference primarily for those involved in OH research and/or practice, it might become of interest for a wider audience within and outside ICOH, including scientists, occupational physicians, industrial hygienists and occupational or public health professionals in general, involved in chemical risk assessment for occupational health. The mission of SCOT and also of other SCs of ICOH, such as SCTM and SCRH, is indeed to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge on biological monitoring and other relevant occupational toxicology aspects and to make them available and useful to the entire OH scientific community. All articles retrieved as of 3 January, 2007 as "Review" with the combined key words "biological monitoring" in PubMed from 2000 to 2007 have been scanned individually. This yielded a total of 1400 articles from a grand total of 2486 (excluding limitation on year of publication). When the title was related to human occupational biological monitoring, the abstract was read and its content was included. Articles outside the 2000-2007 time frame or that are not classified as "Review" in PubMed have also been included, when relevant. The review is in four parts: (a) the introduction, containing the basic principles and definitions of BM and the different types of biomarkers (BMK), their toxicological significance, practical use and limitations, (b) the methodological and analytical aspects of BM in exposed workers, (c) the interpretation and management of BM data, including a number of recommendations to be considered when planning, performing and interpreting BM results and, finally, (d) the ethical aspects of BM. A list of key references to relevant papers or documents has been included. The BM of specific chemicals or groups of chemicals is outside the purpose of the review. The document is aimed to represent the state of the art on biological monitoring in occupational risk assessment. We expect that reference to its content will be made, whenever appropriate, by those involved in occupational health practice and research when dealing with BM issues. The document is not meant, though, to represent a rigid nor a permanent set of rules and it will be periodically updated according to new developments and any significant advance in BM science. Any part of the document, therefore, is open to suggestions by scientifically qualified persons or institutions officially involved in BM and comments should be sent directly to the authors. A preliminary draft of the document has been presented at the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring, Beijing, 10-12 September, 2007. PMID:19446015

Manno, Maurizio; Viau, Claude; Cocker, John; Colosio, Claudio; Lowry, Larry; Mutti, Antonio; Nordberg, Monica; Wang, Sheng

2010-01-15

87

An Integrated Framework for Risk Management and Population Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional medical model of health and health policy development has focused on individuals and the role of medical care in preventing and treating disease and injury. Recent attention to health inequities and social determinants of health has raised the profile of population heath and evidence-based strategies for improving the health of whole populations. At the same time, risk science

Daniel Krewski; Victoria Hogan; Michelle C. Turner; Patricia L. Zeman; Ian McDowell; Nancy Edwards; Joseph Losos

2007-01-01

88

Errors, mistakes, blunders, outliers, or unacceptable results: how many?  

PubMed

We have studied 219353 individual clinical chemistry results obtained in methods comparison studies. Each result was prospectively compared with its replicate, comparative, or repeat value to identify differences from expected values. Unacceptable results were defined as differing from the expected values by < or = 7 SDs or CVs. We believe these differences represent special-cause variation and should be expressed as unacceptable rates per million results (ppm). We observed 447 ppm unacceptables: 196 ppm in control samples and 251 ppm in patients' samples. Results judged likely to alter patient care occurred at a rate of 41 ppm. To better understand the magnitude of these rates, we compared these results with reports of error rates in HIV testing and the airline industry. The measurements reported were made for the purpose of quality improvement, not judgment or discovery. The significance of these findings for laboratorians, manufacturers, and regulators is discussed. PMID:9267313

Witte, D L; VanNess, S A; Angstadt, D S; Pennell, B J

1997-08-01

89

The Impact of an Integrated Population Health Enhancement and Disease Management Program on Employee Health Risk, Health Conditions, and Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the impact of an integrated population health enhancement program on employee health risks, health conditions, and productivity. Specifically, we analyzed changes in these measures among a cohort of 543 employees who completed a health risk assessment in both 2003 and 2005. We compared these findings with 2 different sets of employees who were not offered health enhancement

Ron Loeppke; Sean Nicholson; Michael Taitel; Matthew Sweeney; Vince Haufle; Ronald C. Kessler

2008-01-01

90

Becoming overweight: is there a health risk?  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity is becoming widespread enough to generate an acceptable and misleading social status. By 2030, in the USA up to 86 % of adults will be overweight or obese. Some selected statistical data based on the body mass index (BMI) indicated that overweight was not associated with increased mortality, this provoked a conceivable interest. Added to this is the observation that while the prevalence of obesity is dramatically increasing, the cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy in the European Union and USA has improved. When more sensitive indicators of body adiposity and its distribution than the BMI, like the waist-thigh ratio in both sexes and the waist-hip ratio in women are projected on mortality, it becomes obvious that even overweight is associated with an increased health risk. Gaining excessive body fat is a continuous, frequently progressive process. Present obesity epidemic in childhood will manifest with deleterious consequences only in future years when adolescents reach adulthood. Prevention is thus essential even before the overweight sets in. Improved life expectancy observed in large populations despite obesity epidemic, is a favourable medical success in the management of hypertension, of serum lipid disorders and diabetes. While encouraging, when it is observed in large population, it does not take away the potential health risk of a metabolic disorder in an individual who is overweight (Fig. 7, Ref. 25). PMID:25318909

Ginter, E; Simko, V

2014-01-01

91

The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

2012-01-01

92

75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...requires that a health risk assessment be included...conducted in other patient populations such as...providers-- that help patients and providers manage priority risks identified by the HRA...70010

2010-11-16

93

Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ®) What ... be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for ...

94

Modelling of risk management in health care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To evaluate the use of neural networks in healthcare facilities risk management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data used to develop the input to the national health service facilities risk exposure system (NHSFRES) was solicited from 60 healthcare managers. Risk exposure system has been developed using the risk knowledge that was articulated from experienced healthcare operators through postal questionnaires and

M. I. Okoroh; B. D. Ilozor; P. P. Gombera

2006-01-01

95

UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND RISK MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES SECTION through the proper management of asbestos containing material (ACM) throughout campus buildings. II. SCOPE

Azevedo, Ricardo

96

The relation between adolescent self assessment of health and risk behaviours: Could a global measure of health provide indications of health risk exposures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations’ physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents’ subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing health conditions. It is unknown whether adolescents place more emphasis on mental or physical health functioning

Stephen Nkansah-Amankra; Ashley Dawn Walker

2012-01-01

97

Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?  

PubMed Central

Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis. PMID:24554877

Rajesh, K. S.; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

2013-01-01

98

The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

Bamberg, Richard; And Others

1990-01-01

99

Pentagon surface wipe sampling health risk assessment.  

PubMed

Within hours after the terrorist attack on the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, an extensive sampling effort was initiated within the building to include surface wipe sampling for select coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins/furans) and lead. A risk-based screening level method was utilized to determine the necessity of additional sampling and to assess the potential for emergency response crews, remediation crews, and returning Pentagon workers to have adverse health impact from exposure to the PCBs. dioxins/furans, and lead on nonporous surfaces. The screening level method included all exposure pathways: dermal absorption, incidental ingestion, and inhalation. Various U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance documents provided the basis for the method. The underlying assumptions were that the PCBs, dioxins/furans, and lead were contained in the dust or soot layer found on nonporous surfaces, that sampling results were representative of the surfaces from which they were taken, and that the analytical methods employed were able to detect 100% of these substances. A few of the limitations associated with this method included the lack of toxicity values for dermal absorption and the lack of accurate, discrete dermal-exposure values. Evaluation results indicated that additional sampling was not necessary and that concentrations of PCBs, dioxins/furans, and lead on nonporous surfaces were below levels expected to cause adverse health impacts to emergency response crews, remediation crews, and returning Pentagon workers. PMID:12539870

Gaborek, B J; Mullikin, J M; Pitrat, A T; Cummings, L; May, L M

2001-06-01

100

An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species.

Suter, Glenn W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin L. King Drive, MC-A130, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)]. E-mail: suter.glenn@epa.gov; Vermeire, Theo [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (Netherlands); Munns, Wayne R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin L. King Drive, MC-A130, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Sekizawa, Jun [Tokushima University (Japan)

2005-09-01

101

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

102

Risk Factors, Health Risks, and Risk Management for Aircraft Personnel and Frequent Flyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such

Jeoum Nam Kim; Byung Mu Lee

2007-01-01

103

Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ  

SciTech Connect

In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

1986-01-23

104

Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

NONE

1997-02-01

105

A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia); Goh, Yang Miang [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

2012-01-15

106

State risk pools and mental health care use  

Microsoft Academic Search

State risk pools provide an opportunity for persons with mental health and substance abuse (MH\\/ SA) problems to purchase health insurance. This study uses data from eight risk pools during the period 1988-1991 to analyze the utilization and enrollment experience for persons who submit claims for MH\\/ SA treatment. Special consideration is given to the effect of variation in inpatient

B. H. McFarland; Rebecca T. Slifkin

1995-01-01

107

Risk behaviors and health: Contrasting individual and population perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses risk behaviors, seem- ingly voluntary actions of individuals that have adverse health consequences. The central theme is to examine these behaviors from two contrasting perspectives, that of the individual and that of the population as a whole. It is argued that distinguishing between individual and pop- ulation views is important for understanding and inter- preting health risk

Robert W. Jeffery

1989-01-01

108

TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

109

Nuclear power — is the health risk too great?  

PubMed Central

Apparently objective and value-free `scientific' assessments of health risks are often highly value-laden and incorporate contentious social assumptions. Mr Wynne exposes some of the complexities underlying attempts to compare the health risks of nuclear and other sources of energy. PMID:7108912

Wynne, B E

1982-01-01

110

Identification of emerging occupational safety and health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies as well as shifting economic, social and demographic conditions lead to continuously changing work environments and let emerge new occupational safety and health (OSH) risks. Due to this development the assessment and analysis of emerging occupational risks play an important role to ensure most early identification and efficient prevention, thus contributing to the health and well-being of workers

E. Flaspöler; E. Brun

111

Structure of Health Risk Behavior Among High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors test the contention of R. Jessor's (1977) problem behavior theory that adolescent health risk behaviors comprise a single behavioral syndrome. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster analysis are used to analyze data from a statewide survey of high school students' (n = 5,537) health risk behaviors. A classical MDS analysis was calculated to test the dimensionality of the behaviors.

Karen Basen-Engquist; Elizabeth W. Edmundson; Guy S. Parcel

1996-01-01

112

Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard

J. M. Farber; W. H. Rossb; J. Harwig

1996-01-01

113

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes

S. Moses; R. C. Bailey; A. R. Ronald

1998-01-01

114

Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

115

Groundwater Quality Safety Evaluation Based on Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water safety is an important part in water scientific field. The traditional living drinking-water quality assessment can not evaluate wholly the impacts of groundwater quality on human body. The groundwater health risk assessment is applied to evaluate the quality of groundwater providing to an important city in west of China in this paper. The analysis shows that health risk

Duan Lei; Wang Wenke

2010-01-01

116

Assessment of environmental health risk for drinking water sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to drinking water is one of the important ways to influence human health. This study calculated the health risk of adults and children for drinking water sources in the Fuyang city. The results showed that the total health risk of adults and children caused by water quality was 6.75 × 10-5 and 8.15 × 10-5, which exceeded the highest acceptable risk of 5.0 × 10-5 from the International Radiation Committee, but was still lower than the maximum risk level of 1.0 × 10-4 from US EPA. The health risk of children is 20% higher than that of adults, so we should pay more attention to children for drinking water health issues.

Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Wang, Junneng; Zeng, Dong; Han, Qiuping

117

Measuring Attitudes Toward Acceptable and Unacceptable Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes\\u000a about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse\\u000a psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high endorsement. In Study 2,\\u000a items were administered to 1,398 undergraduate students to examine their

Karen S. BuddSteven; Steven Behling; Yan Li; Sangeeta Parikshak; Rachel A. Gershenson; Rachel Feuer; Christina M. Danko

118

The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

2001-01-01

119

Lifestyles, Risks on Health and Longevity, and Insurances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the behavior of a person facing two risks, longevity (the risk to survive …nancial resources) and sickness (the risk to incur excessive medical expenses). The be- havior is represented as the choice between two dierent lifestyles. With the …rst one an individual devotes …nancial resources to remain in good health, with the eects of a higher life expectancy

Pierre Lasserre; Louise Lavoie

2008-01-01

120

Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review

Donna Fitzpatrick-Lewis; Jennifer Yost; Donna Ciliska; Shari Krishnaratne

2010-01-01

121

[Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

2014-07-01

122

Hormones in Adolescents: Is Your Child's Health At Risk?  

E-print Network

Hormones in Adolescents: Is Your Child's Health At Risk ---- --- ------ -- -------- --- ----- - ---- ------- ---- --- ------ -- -------- --- ----- - ---- ------- --- ----- -- ---- ------ ----- -------- ---- ------ ------- --- ------ -------- the university of Chicago Physicians at matteson invite you to an in-depth look at thyroid disease, obesity and other hormone-linked health issues impacting your child's health. Enjoy a buffet dinner and hear from

Pritchard, Jonathan

123

The impact of an integrated population health enhancement and disease management program on employee health risk, health conditions, and productivity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the impact of an integrated population health enhancement program on employee health risks, health conditions, and productivity. Specifically, we analyzed changes in these measures among a cohort of 543 employees who completed a health risk assessment in both 2003 and 2005. We compared these findings with 2 different sets of employees who were not offered health enhancement programming. We found that the DIRECTV cohort showed a significant reduction in health risks after exposure to the program. Relative to a matched comparison group, the proportion of low-risk employees at DIRECTV in 2005 was 8.2 percentage points higher; the proportion of medium-risk employees was 7.1 percentage points lower; and the proportion of high-risk employees was 1.1 percentage points lower (p < 0.001). The most noticeable changes in health risk were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high cholesterol; an improvement in diet; a reduction of heavy drinking; management of high blood pressure; improved stress management; increased exercise; fewer smokers; and a drop in obesity rates. We also found that a majority of employees who improved their risk levels from 2003 to 2005 maintained their gains in 2006. Employees who improved their risks levels also demonstrated relative improvement in absenteeism. Overall, this study provides additional evidence that integrated population health enhancement positively impacts employees' health risk and productivity; it also reinforces the view that "good health is good business." PMID:19108644

Loeppke, Ron; Nicholson, Sean; Taitel, Michael; Sweeney, Matthew; Haufle, Vince; Kessler, Ronald C

2008-12-01

124

Public Perception of Population Health Risks in Canada: Health Hazards and Sources of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of health risk perception among 1,503 Canadians was conducted in 2004. The current survey follows-up a previous national survey conducted in 1992 and documents changes in risk perception since that time and investigates new risk issues not previously examined. This article presents a description of the ratings of perceived risk of thirty specific hazards to the Canadian

Daniel Krewski; Louise Lemyre; Michelle C. Turner; Jennifer E. C. Lee; Christine Dallaire; Louise Bouchard; Kevin Brand; Pierre Mercier

2006-01-01

125

Developing a risk-based air quality health index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

2013-09-01

126

Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers  

PubMed Central

Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

2008-01-01

127

76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability...availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration...comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all...

2011-07-06

128

76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends...reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

2011-08-24

129

Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

2011-01-01

130

Health insurance: The tradeoff between risk pooling and moral hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing optimal health insurance coverage involves a trade-off between the gain from risk reduction and the deadweight loss from moral hazard. This paper examines this trade-off empirically by estimating both the demand for health insurance and the demand for health services. It relies on data from a randomized controlled trial of cost-sharing's effects on the use of health services and

Willard G. Manning; M. Susan Marquis

1996-01-01

131

Health visitors' child protection work: exploratory study of risk assessment.  

PubMed

This paper outlines a small-scale research project that utilised a modified grounded theory approach in order to explore the role of risk assessment in health visitors' child protection work. A review of the literature investigated the role of risk assessment in current health and social care policy. Structured focus group and interview work enabled the opinions of health visitors to be collected about the factors that enable them to identify, analyse and manage issues of risk to children.Transcripts were analysed with reference to the literature review. The health visitors considered aspects of their relationship with clients to influence the identification, analysis and management of risk to children. The results suggest that health visitors are not convinced that the Common Assessment Framework or health assessment tools assist in their management of risk to children. The findings of this study are based on data collected from a small sample of health visitors, and conclusions are therefore tentative, but aim to contribute to wider professional debate about risk management in child protection work. PMID:19480117

Selbie, Jean

2009-05-01

132

What environmental and technological risk communication research and health risk research can learn from each other  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of risk perception and communication has emerged in several disciplines and fields, and there has not been strong convergence between them, especially in Europe and specifically in Britain. The lack of connection between, for example, the fields of health risk and environmental and technological risk, and still more with respect to fears of crime or old age poverty

Ragnar E. Löfstedt; Perri

2008-01-01

133

Cancer Risk Reduction in Mexican American Women: The Role of Acculturation, Education, and Health Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-factor schema for the development of culturally appropriate cancer risk reduction interventions for Mexican American women. Regarding this approach, risk factors for two major cancer areas are reviewed: cigarette smoking and obesity\\/diet. We first describe a schema that facilitates the planning of strategies associated with preferred health interventions and preventive approaches for cancer risk reduction with

Hector Balcazar; Felipe G. Castro; Jennifer L. Krull

1995-01-01

134

Characterizing public health and microbial risks due to water contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

This research track evaluates risks associated with the occurrence of waterborne disease in the population. A clear understanding of the health burden associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water is critical to developing regulations that are protective of public healt...

135

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta www, monitoring and inspection of facilities and equipment Compliance assurance Consultation in facility Provide technical expertise and service to departments in aspects of hazardous waste management, re

Machel, Hans

136

Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

2014-01-01

137

Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

Harvey, P D

1990-01-01

138

Depressive symptoms and behavioural health risks in young women attending an urban sexual health clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Adolescence is a time of increased health risk behaviours and depressive symptoms and disorders. Most young people with depressive disorders, however, are not under the care of specialist child and adolescent mental health services, and there is increasing interest in identifying alternative appropriate settings which are acceptable for young people and may attract those at high risk for depressive

V. Fernandez; T. Kramer; G. Fong; A. Doig; M. E. Garralda

2009-01-01

139

Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

Breslow, Lester

1978-01-01

140

Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women.  

PubMed

Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

Littleton, Heather L; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Buck, Katherine S; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C

2013-03-01

141

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Instructions Frequently Asked Questions Training Manual Resources Glossary Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool FAQs Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool High Quality Physical Education ...

142

Health risk factors and self-rated health among job-seekers  

PubMed Central

Background To determine a) proportions of behavior related health risk factors among job-seekers and b) to what extend these are related to self-rated health. Methods Over 12 months, job-seekers were recruited at three job-agencies in northeastern Germany. Among all individuals eligible for study inclusion, 7,906 (79.8%) provided information on smoking, risky drinking, overweight/obesity (body mass index), fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, illicit drug use, and self-rated health. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals stratified by gender, age and duration of unemployment were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicting self-rated health were conducted. Results The proportions of each health-risk factor were high, and 52.4% of the sample (53.4% male, 33.5 years mean age) had 3 or more health risk factors. Mostly, the proportions were particularly high among men and long-term unemployed individuals; e.g. 84.8% of the 18-24 year old long-term unemployed men were current smokers. Proportions of substance use related health risk factors were highest among the 18-24 year olds (e.g. risky drinking 28.7%), and proportions of health risk factors related to nutrition and physical inactivity were highest among the 40-64 year olds (e.g. overweight/obesity 65.4%). Depending on gender, all health risk factors and having 3 or more health risk factors were associated with lower self-rated health; odd ratios ranged between 1.2 for smoking (95% CI: 1.0-1.3) and 1.7 for overweight and physical inactivity (95% CI: 1.5-1.9). Conclusions Prevention efforts to reduce health risk factors and to increase health among job-seekers are needed, and job agencies appear a feasible setting for their implementation. PMID:21854611

2011-01-01

143

INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

144

Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR)¹ and Integral Fast Reactor (IF)² technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed

Michaels

1992-01-01

145

The FRIENDS Emotional Health Program for Minority Groups at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the existence of evidence-based interventions for promoting mental health in children, the number of children at risk remains high. One of the reasons is that such interventions are not reaching specific groups at risk such as low socioeconomic status and ethnic minority groups. This study evaluated an adaptation of a…

Iizuka, Cristina A.; Barrett, Paula M.; Gillies, Robyn; Cook, Clayton R.; Miller, Debbie

2014-01-01

146

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

147

Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

2013-01-01

148

Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

149

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. his article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most co...

150

Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

151

Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multiple insurance funds serving different population groups may compromise equity due to differential revenue raising capacity and an unequal distribution of high risk members among the funds. This occurs when the funds exist without mechanisms in place to promote income and risk cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Methods Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Results There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status to CHF households, but a lower concentration of identified risk factors. Conclusion Mechanisms for broader risk spreading and cross-subsidisation across the funds are necessary for the promotion of equity. These include risk equalisation to adjust for differential risk distribution and revenue raising capacity of the funds. Expansion of CHF coverage is equally important, by addressing non-financial barriers to CHF enrolment to encourage wealthy non-members to join, as well as subsidised membership for the poorest. PMID:25574326

Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis

2014-01-01

152

Educated guesses: Health risk assessment in environmental impact statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and

Pd Harvey

1990-01-01

153

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: Human Exposure and Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been emphasized due to their threats in fertility, intelligence, and survival. For the last decade, many researchers have investigated EDC-health outcome. However, EDC responses in human were not clearly clarified through experimental and epidemiological data. Therefore, considering particular status of EDC endpoints, we suggest that one of the best ways to prevent unknown health risks

MIHI YANG; MI SEON PARK; HO SUN LEE

2006-01-01

154

Fraud in mental health practice: A risk management perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health practitioners sometimes face the dilemma of being ethical and honest and thus not meeting client needs, or of committing fraud to meet those needs. This paper presents some precipitants for fraud in mental health. Some costs of fraud are reviewed for administration, policy, and planning, for ethical and legal issues, and in research. Risk management implications are also

William A. Maesen

1991-01-01

155

Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

2000-01-01

156

Essays on health economics and risk preferences  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three essays on hospital response to regulation and risk preferences. Chapter 1 analyzes the Medicare Flex Program which allowed rural hospitals with fewer than 25 beds to convert to ...

Pascu, Iuliana

2013-01-01

157

The health risks of new-wave vegetarianism  

PubMed Central

Many young people call themselves vegetarians because they don't eat meat, but the eating style they are adopting is fraught with health risks. In this article, which won CMAJ's 1996 Army Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest for Canadian journalism students, Laura Brydges Szabo looks at the "new vegetarianism" and the recommendations health care professionals are making to young people intent on following this incomplete diet. The contest encourages journalism students to write on health care topics. PMID:9164409

Szabo, L

1997-01-01

158

The health risks of new-wave vegetarianism.  

PubMed

Many young people call themselves vegetarians because they don't eat meat, but the eating style they are adopting is fraught with health risks. In this article, which won CMAJ's 1996 Army Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest for Canadian journalism students, Laura Brydges Szabo looks at the "new vegetarianism" and the recommendations health care professionals are making to young people intent on following this incomplete diet. The contest encourages journalism students to write on health care topics. PMID:9164409

Szabo, L

1997-05-15

159

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

2008-01-01

160

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

161

"Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... light, low, and mild on cigarette packaging and advertising taking steps to reduce youth access FDA also ... Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health Professionals FDA Archive Links on this page:

162

HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

163

HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

164

Integrating Risk Adjustment and Enrollee Premiums in Health Plan Payment  

PubMed Central

In two important health policy contexts – private plans in Medicare and the new state-run “Exchanges” created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PMID:24308878

McGuire, Thomas G.; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D.; Zuvekas, Samuel

2013-01-01

165

[The Meninos do Rio Program: lifeworld, adolescence, and health risks].  

PubMed

This study focuses on health risks among teenagers from two towns in the Sao Francisco River Valley (Ibiai and Morada Nova) and slums in Morro das Pedras, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study discusses teaching and extracurricular activities by the Federal University in Minas Gerais in these localities, aimed at promoting health in adolescence. The authors use the Habermas communicative action theory as the main theoretical and methodological approach. The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology, including dynamic observation, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires answered by high school students. Sexuality, work, and violence were the main themes and were associated with numerous health risks. Work in the 10-to-14-year-old group was associated with nearly all types of health risks. The authors analyze the relations between context and adolescent behavior using the Habermasian concept of lifeworld colonization. PMID:15692636

Melo, Elza Machado de; Faria, Horácio Pereira de; Melo, Maria Aparecida Machado de; Chaves, Adriana Braga; Machado, Graziela Paronetto

2005-01-01

166

Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

1992-06-01

167

Approaches to Oral Nutrition Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health plays a significant role in overall and nutritional health. This role becomes increasingly important for patients\\u000a with oral or medical illness, patients with physical limitations that affect chewing ability, and patients who take medications\\u000a that affect immune surveillance, oral ecology, and oral physiology. The primary focus of this chapter is to describe approaches\\u000a to oral nutrition and diet

Riva Touger-Decker; David A. Sirois

168

Health risk appraisal: review of evidence for effectiveness.  

PubMed Central

Since its introduction some two decades ago, health risk appraisal (HRA) has become a standard offering in the health promotion repertoire. The technique's distinctive feature is its use of epidemiologic data to generate quantitative risk messages for the client. Yet despite the dedication and considerable investments that have gone into HRA's development, dissemination, and use, there is only limited empirical evidence that these quantitative risk messages have any effect on clients. There do not appear to be any formal studies of HRA's effect on participation in health promotion programs, although increasing recruitment is regarded as a major benefit of using HRA. There are few indications of HRA effects on health beliefs. Most positive reports of effects on behavior change come from uncontrolled studies; several randomized controlled trials have yielded ambiguous findings. Virtually no data exist concerning the impact of the quantitative risk messages that distinguish HRA from other assessment techniques and that have motivated the substantial efforts toward developing and refining HRA. HRA has evident appeal and is probably a useful health education device for middle-class, middle-aged, nonminority clients. It may well have desirable effects on health-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors when accompanied by counseling or education, but available evidence has not established its effectiveness. Given the difficulty of obtaining definitive evidence of the effectiveness of HRA and specifically of its use of quantitative risk projections, the need for such evidence is debatable. An adequately funded and reviewed research program to examine whether projections of absolute risk affect knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to change is recommended as the most fruitful next step. Epidemiologically based HRA procedures that provide feedback in terms of qualitative statements or relative risk may be a promising approach to prospective health assessment. PMID:3679843

Schoenbach, V J; Wagner, E H; Beery, W L

1987-01-01

169

[Health alert management and emerging risk].  

PubMed

Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. PMID:21051258

Pillonel, J

2010-12-01

170

Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 × 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 × 10?5 and 1.97 × 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for central tendency exposure to trichloroethylene was 1.71 for male and female residents. The hazard indexes for reasonable maximum exposure were 3.27 and 2.41 for males and females, respectively. These values were over one, which is equivalent to the threshold value. This result showed that adverse cancer and non-cancer health effects may occur and that some risk management of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A was needed. PMID:24278607

Sin, Saemi

2012-01-01

171

Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose-response models can impact the probability of human health risk exceeding a regulatory threshold.

de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

2013-12-01

172

In vitro assessment of equivalence of occupational health risk: welders.  

PubMed Central

The possibility of using in vitro testing to determine the equivalence of risk for various occupational groups is discussed. In the absence of epidemiological evidence or relevant animal in vivo bioassays on which to determine the health effects of specific occupational exposures, it is proposed to use similarities in the in vitro response to substances with known (or strongly suspected) and unknown risk to demonstrate their risk equivalence. Identification and evaluation of a high risk "hot spot" due to exposure to Cr(VI) for stainless steel welders is discussed in terms of recent developments in collection, analysis and bioassay of welding fumes. PMID:6641655

Stern, R M

1983-01-01

173

Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

1997-01-01

174

Measuring risk, managing values: health technology and subjectivity in Denmark.  

PubMed

Based on fieldwork among Danes with a diagnosed risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease, this paper investigates how the technological possibilities of diagnosing and monitoring invisible risks shape understandings of health and form subjectivity. It focuses on the experiences of being diagnosed with a risk condition in the form of high blood pressure or elevated blood glucose and the ensuing use of measuring devices. It argues that measurements of these conditions can be seen as 'formative processes' that produce and maintain a view of health as something that can best be known through the use of medical technology. The numerical values such measurements yield are seen as true indicators of health, and doing something about risk conditions is felt to be a personal imperative. The formative processes illustrated in this paper are motivational and thought provoking. The informants do not experience new symptoms after being diagnosed; rather they reflect upon their health in a new way and numbers become associated with personal responsibility and morality. However, because numbers influence subjective experiences, they can come to take up too much space in everyday life. Therefore, people have reservations about how often they should measure their values at home. The formative processes of being diagnosed with a risk condition are thus about subjectivity both in the sense of being subject to the demands of living with an illness and of being a subject who acts to keep life from being colonized by concerns about health. PMID:24761746

Andersen, Julie Høgsgaard; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-12-01

175

78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability AGENCY...EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review...Agency has completed comprehensive draft risk assessments for each of the subject...

2013-06-26

176

78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability AGENCY...EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review...process, the Agency has completed draft risk assessments for each of the subject...

2013-03-20

177

Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007  

EPA Science Inventory

This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

178

78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY...EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review...Agency has completed comprehensive draft risk assessments for each of the subject...

2013-09-27

179

The Health Fair as a Health Promotion Strategy: Effects on Health Risk Behaviors and the Utility of Specific Health Fair Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health fairs, carnivals, and exhibitions are health promotion strategies that have been frequently discussed in recent health-related literature. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if students attending a university health fair experienced greater reductions in health risk behavior compared with those not attending the fair. A second purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of

Chudley E. Werch; David A. Schroeder; Linda L. Matthews

1986-01-01

180

Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic…

Price, L. N.; Reider, E. E.; Robertson, E. B.

2006-01-01

181

Organizational Injustice as an Occupational Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content to conceive of inequity distress as a hypothetical construct instead of an intervening variable, a half century of research inspired by equity theory has paid little attention to measuring inequity distress. At the turn of the twenty?first century, however, European epidemiologists, interested in determinants of ill health, found that injustice is a source of adverse emotional reactions that put

Jerald Greenberg

2010-01-01

182

Review of health risks of low testosterone and testosterone administration.  

PubMed

Hypogonadism is prevalent in older men and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older hypogonadal men is a promising therapy. However, a number of important clinical concerns over TRT safety remain unsolved due to a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials directly comparing the health risks of untreated hypogonadism vs long-term use of TRT. Meta-analyses of clinical trials of TRT as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: polycythemia, an increase in prostate-related events, and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There are other purported health risks but their incidence can be neither confirmed nor denied based on the small number of subjects that have been studied to date. Furthermore, subsequent literature is equivocal with regard to the safety and utility of TRT and this topic has been subject to contentious debate. Since January 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration has released two official announcements regarding the safety of TRT and clinical monitoring the risks in TRT users. Additionally, the health risks related to the clinical presentation of low or declining testosterone levels not been resolved in the current literature. Because TRT is prescribed in the context of putative risks resulting from reduced testosterone levels, we reviewed the epidemiology and reported risks of low testosterone levels. We also highlight the current information about TRT utilization, the risks most often claimed to be associated with TRT, and current or emerging alternatives to TRT. PMID:25879005

Jia, Huanguang; Sullivan, Charles T; McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Morrow, Matthew; Borst, Stephen E

2015-04-16

183

Review of health risks of low testosterone and testosterone administration  

PubMed Central

Hypogonadism is prevalent in older men and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older hypogonadal men is a promising therapy. However, a number of important clinical concerns over TRT safety remain unsolved due to a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials directly comparing the health risks of untreated hypogonadism vs long-term use of TRT. Meta-analyses of clinical trials of TRT as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: polycythemia, an increase in prostate-related events, and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There are other purported health risks but their incidence can be neither confirmed nor denied based on the small number of subjects that have been studied to date. Furthermore, subsequent literature is equivocal with regard to the safety and utility of TRT and this topic has been subject to contentious debate. Since January 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration has released two official announcements regarding the safety of TRT and clinical monitoring the risks in TRT users. Additionally, the health risks related to the clinical presentation of low or declining testosterone levels not been resolved in the current literature. Because TRT is prescribed in the context of putative risks resulting from reduced testosterone levels, we reviewed the epidemiology and reported risks of low testosterone levels. We also highlight the current information about TRT utilization, the risks most often claimed to be associated with TRT, and current or emerging alternatives to TRT. PMID:25879005

Jia, Huanguang; Sullivan, Charles T; McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Morrow, Matthew; Borst, Stephen E

2015-01-01

184

Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-01-01

185

[Summer beef barbeque--a health risk?].  

PubMed

The consumption of poultry and pork meat has increased in Finland, but beef has become slightly less favored. Summer is, however, the season for barbequing, many people buying more meat and sausages than normally. The increase in the usage of red or processed meat has a linear association with a growing risk of intestinal cancer. For each 100 g of grilled meat, 200 g of vegetables should be grilled or eaten as salad. PMID:22880375

Fogelholm, Mikael; Heinonen, Marina

2012-01-01

186

Environmental degradation and health risks in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

As China's capital city, Beijing is experiencing unprecedented environmental degradation accompanied by complex interactions between urbanization and global environmental change, which places human health at risk on a large spatial and temporal scale. For sustainable development that supports environmental and human health in Beijing and during the upcoming "green" Olympic games in 2008, experts and political leaders must acknowledge the urgent health risks from environmental changes related to urbanization. A range of urban health hazards and associated health risks in Beijing result from a variety of factors including heat islands, air pollution, water crisis, soil pollution, infectious diseases, and urban consumerism; in addition, some hazardous health conditions are associated with inequality in living and working conditions. The authors suggest 2 main areas for policy action and research direction: (1) the need to get full-scale information related to environmental monitoring data and health data (and then to provide new methodological approaches and techniques to implement interventions) and (2) the need for effective cooperation among different sectors. PMID:18171645

Qi, Jun; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi

2007-01-01

187

Health Risks of Limited-Contact Water Recreation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Wastewater-impacted waters that do not support swimming are often used for boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing. Little is known about the health risks of these limited-contact water recreation activities. Objectives: We evaluated the incidence of illness, severity of illness, associations between water exposure and illness, and risk of illness attributable to limited-contact water recreation on waters dominated by

Samuel Dorevitch; Preethi Pratap; Meredith Wroblewski; Daniel O. Hryhorczuk; Hong Li; Li C. Liu; Peter A. Scheff

2012-01-01

188

Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

Smith, W.H. (Yale Univ., New Haven CT (USA))

1990-01-01

189

Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.  

PubMed

Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks. PMID:23525029

Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

2013-03-01

190

Which college students are at higher health risk?  

PubMed

An electronic health risk appraisal was used to determine which demographic factors were associated with higher health risk among college students at an urban state university. Students' real age was assessed as the primary indicator of health risk and it was associated to demographic characteristics. Real age represents the physiological age of the body based on lifestyle choices, and this is often different to chronological age. Approximately 26.0% of 576 students were more than 5 years older than their chronological age, 29.8% were 0 to 5 years older, 29.8% were 0 to 5 years younger, and 14.1% were more than 5 years younger than their chronological age. Students who were male, Black, and nonnutrition majors had significantly higher positive real age differentials: their bodies were more likely to be more than 5 years older than their chronological age. Students with significantly lower negative real age differential--those whose real age was lower than their chronological age--were female and nutrition majors. Students were significantly more likely to report that they were "very motivated" if they were female (88.6%), compared with male (66.7%). These data suggest that when health disparities are assessed at the level of real age differential and motivation to make lifestyle changes, male Black college students are at highest health risk and they are less likely to be "very motivated" to make lifestyle changes than their peers. PMID:19477732

Magnus, Marcia H

2010-03-01

191

Zoonoses in Europe: a risk to public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases originating from animal reservoirs (zoonoses) are a\\u000aconstant threat to public health. Recent examples are the outbreaks of\\u000aavian influenza and SARS. Although it is unpredictable which zoonoses\\u000awill emerge in the coming years in Europe, this report aims to summarize\\u000acurrent scientific knowledge on the risks of (emerging) zoonoses for\\u000ahuman public health in Europe. For this

Giessen JWB van der; Isken LD; Tiemersma EW

2007-01-01

192

Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.  

PubMed

Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must consider travel time, the duration of rush-hour, congestion-specific emission estimates, and uncertainties. PMID:23500830

Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

2013-04-15

193

Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic  

PubMed Central

Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must consider travel time, the duration of rush-hour, congestion-specific emission estimates, and uncertainties. PMID:23500830

Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

2014-01-01

194

Nanoparticles – known and unknown health risks  

PubMed Central

Manmade nanoparticles range from the well-established multi-ton production of carbon black and fumed silica for applications in plastic fillers and car tyres to microgram quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences are experiencing massive investment worldwide, there will be a further rise in consumer products relying on nanotechnology. While benefits of nanotechnology are widely publicised, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use in the consumer and industrial products are just beginning to emerge. This review provides comprehensive analysis of data available on health effects of nanomaterials. PMID:15588280

Hoet, Peter HM; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Salata, Oleg V

2004-01-01

195

Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance. PMID:25298605

Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

2014-01-01

196

Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

2003-01-01

197

Mental Health, Are We at Risk?  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental health is an important component of the total positive health and is interwoven closely with the physical and physiological dynamics of the human body. Worldwide, about 500 million people are believed to be suffering from neurotic, stress related and psychological problems. In India, surveys on mental morbidity in various parts of the country suggest a prevalence rate of 18-20 per 1000. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out amongst married women in the age group 18-45 years in an urban community of South Mumbai. Self-reporting questionnaire of 20 items (SRQ 20) developed by the WHO was administered. Statistical analysis was carried out to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disturbance. Result: The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance was found to be 27.27% for the total sample. The study results indicate that somatic symptoms were reported more commonly which could be a manifestation of underlying/burgeoning mental disorders. Conclusions: The results imply a high prevalence of 27.27% of psychiatric disturbance in our community. However, defining mental disorder from a clinical standpoint necessitates identification of the dividing line between despair and depression. It is recommended that women be encouraged to approach counsellors and thus enable further diagnosis and management of Common Mental Disorders in the community. PMID:24695680

Tawar, Shabeena; Bhatia, Sanjana Seth; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

2014-01-01

198

High-deductible health plans and the new risks of consumer-driven health insurance products.  

PubMed

Consumer-driven health care is the most noteworthy development in health insurance since the widespread adoption of health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations in the 1980s. The most common consumer-driven health plan is the high-deductible health plan, which is essentially a catastrophic health insurance plan, often linked with tax-advantaged spending accounts, with very high deductibles, fewer benefits, and higher cost-sharing than conventional health maintenance organization or preferred provider organization plans. The financial risks are significant under high-deductible health plans, especially for low- to moderate-income families and for families whose children have special health care needs. Of concern for pediatricians are the potential quality risks that are predictable in high-deductible health plans, in which families are likely to delay or avoid seeking care, especially preventive care (if it is not exempted from the deductible), when they are faced with paying for care before the deductible is met. This policy statement provides background information on the most common consumer-driven health plan model, discusses the implications for pediatricians and families, and offers recommendations pertaining to health plan product design, education, practice administration, and research. PMID:17332218

Johnson, Anthony D; Wegner, Steven E

2007-03-01

199

Intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging (O-arm) for assessment of pedicle screw position: Does it prevent unacceptable screw placement?  

PubMed Central

Background Pedicle screws are biomechanically superior over other spinal fixation devices. When improperly positioned, they lose this advantage and put adjacent structures at risk. Accurate placement is therefore critical. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans are the imaging gold standard and have shown malposition rates ranging from 2% to 41%. The O-arm (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, Colorado) is an intraoperative CT scanner that may allow intervention for malpositioned screws while patients are still in the operating room. However, this has not yet been shown in clinical studies. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the O-arm for evaluating pedicle screw position by answering the following question: What is the rate of intraoperative pedicle screw revision brought about by O-arm imaging information? A secondary question was also addressed: What is the rate of unacceptable thoracic and lumbar pedicle screw placement as assessed by intraoperative O-arm imaging? Methods This is a case series of consecutive patients who have undergone spine surgery for which an intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) CT scan was used to assess pedicle screw position. The study comprised 602 pedicle screws (235 thoracic and 367 lumbar/sacral) placed in 76 patients, and intraoperative 3D (O-arm) imaging was obtained to assess screw position. Action taken at the time of surgery based on imaging information was noted. An independent review of all scans was also conducted, and all screws were graded as either optimal (no breach), acceptable (breach ?2 mm), or unacceptable (breach >2 mm). The rate of pedicle screw revision, as detected by intraoperative 3D CT scan, was determined. Results On the basis of 3D imaging information, 17 of 602 screws (2.8%) in 14 of 76 cases (18.4%) were revised at the time of surgery. On independent review of multiplanar images, 11 screws (1.8%) were found to be unacceptable, 32 (5.3%) were acceptable, and 559 (92.9%) were optimal. All unacceptable screws were revised to an optimal or acceptable position, and an additional 6 acceptable screws were revised to an optimal position. Thus, by the end of the cases, none of the 602 pedicle screws in the 76 surgical procedures was in an unacceptable position. Conclusion The new-generation intraoperative 3D imaging system (O-arm) is a useful tool that allows more accurate assessment of pedicle screw position than plain radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. It prompted intraoperative repositioning of 2.8% of pedicle screws in our series. Most importantly, it allowed identification and revision of all unacceptably placed pedicle screws without the need for reoperation. PMID:25694871

Sembrano, Jonathan N.; Polly, David W.; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T.; Santos, Edward Rainier G.

2012-01-01

200

Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

Emerson, Eric

2011-01-01

201

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.  

PubMed

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

2013-10-01

202

Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.  

PubMed

We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

2012-01-01

203

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

204

Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

2008-01-01

205

Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

Powell, Anastasia

2007-01-01

206

Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

207

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

208

Health Risks of Homeless AdolescentsImplications for Holistic Nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the exact number of homeless adolescents is unknown, it is estimated that this population may exceed 2 million. Literally living on the streets, homeless youth are at risk for a variety of physical, psychosocial, and spiritual health problems. Many engage in \\

Lynn Rew

1996-01-01

209

Cardiovascular health and awareness in high risk college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the altered perceptions of health in African American youth.In the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), African Americans had the highest rate of obesity and diagnosed diabetes in the nation. Approximately 14% of individuals 18 to 29 years of age are obese. In addition to diabetes, rates of uncontrolled dyslipidemia and

Cori M. Brock; Deborah S. King; Thomas K. Harrell; Wendy B. White; Nimr Fahmy; Jimmy L. Stewart

2005-01-01

210

Health Risk Behaviors and Aliteracy: Are They Related?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aliteracy is defined as the quality or state of being able to read but the lack of interest in doing so; aliterates can read, but they never read for the love of reading. Aliteracy is said to be prevalent among college students. Also prevalent among college students are risk behaviors that contribute to poor health. Problem behavior theory links a…

Burak, Lydia J.

2003-01-01

211

Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks  

E-print Network

Part I Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks and Institution, Autochthony and Integration: Urban and Rural Development Challenges in West Africa Guéladio Cissé1 1 requiring careful con- sideration in West Africa were identified, classified and synthesised during

Richner, Heinz

212

A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

213

Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk to human health posed by contaminated soil in a residential area depends on the potential extent of exposure to soil and on the toxic properties of the contaminants. A detailed soil exposure analysis is presented for young children, older children, and adults living in a house surrounded by contaminated soil. From this analysis, a lifetime exposure model is

John K. Hawley

1985-01-01

214

Childhood Obesity: Do Parents Recognize This Health Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined parents’ understanding of excess weight as a health risk, knowledge of healthy eating habits, and recognition of obesity in their children.Research Methods and Procedures: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed during well-care visits involving children 4 to 8 years of age at a pediatric faculty practice. Parents indicated their level of concern about excess weight and other

Debra Etelson; Donald A. Brand; Patricia A. Patrick; Anushree Shirali

2003-01-01

215

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-print Network

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED) Date: _______________ ID: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 into contact with a person who has Tuberculosis? ____ No ____ Yes 3. Have you ever used any illegal

Buehrer, R. Michael

216

Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

217

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013  

E-print Network

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013 General In general health risk assessment to be a good contribution to the discussion about the potential public health for the disagreements between the experts (i.e. the ESR team who undertook the health risk assessment

Sun, Jing

218

Health risk assessment of heavy metals in shallow groundwater of Jinghuiqu irrigation district  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantitatively describe the harm of heavy metals in groundwater on public health in the shallow groundwater of the Jinghuiqu irrigation district, the health risk of heavy metals ZDV assessed based on the model for health risk analysis and the monitoring data in 2009>,The result shows that: The health risks of Cr (?Ì ) to the individual person

Ling Jiang; Xiu Yi; Kun-rong Lai

2011-01-01

219

Health care workers and the risk of HIV transmission.  

PubMed

A physician with the AIDS Program at the Centers for Disease Control examines epidemiological data on the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection to U.S. health care personnel. Isolated cases of such infection have created unnecessary anxiety among those caring for AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Combined studies of almost 1,400 health care workers and 1,300 dental personnel suggest that, in the absence of known risk factors, the risk of HIV infection even after mucous membrane exposure or parenteral innoculation of infected blood or other body fluids is extremely low--at maximum, probably less than one per 200 incidents, compared with the 6% to 30% risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after parenteral exposure to the blood of HBV-infected patients. Allen concludes that the already low risk of HIV transmission in health care settings can be further reduced by strict attention to infection control guidelines and to preventing accidents with sharp instruments. PMID:11650066

Allen, James R

1988-01-01

220

The Aggregate Risk Index: An intuitive tool providing the health risks of air pollution to health care community and public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European project PASODOBLE (FP7), we set up downstream information services by combining environmental and health data with a view to support the health care community and to improve vulnerable people welfare. Indeed there is a profound relationship between human health, well-being and air pollution levels. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air quality, exposure of populations and their reactivity, to develop and validate air quality indexes and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. This index will be implemented on 3 European sites: Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki), the Netherlands and "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (South East of France). The selected region and cities are among the most affected by the atmospheric pollution in Europe and leads to serious sanitary concerns. The service aims to provide up-to-date, detailed information on air quality discomfort. The Aggregate Risk Index is based on the Cairncross's concept, obtained from the Relative Risk associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants and takes into account the possible effects of a mixture of pollutants. This communication tool, easy to use and intuitive, about the levels of air pollution and the associated health risks, will be used to communicate information to the general population, authorities and to the health care community and will provide advanced warning of potentially health-damaging air pollution events.

Sicard, Pierre; Talbot, Charles; Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Alexandre, Nicolas; Collomp, Rémy

2012-01-01

221

Do the Health Benefits of Cycling Outweigh the Risks?  

PubMed Central

Background Although from a societal point of view a modal shift from car to bicycle may have beneficial health effects due to decreased air pollution emissions, decreased greenhouse gas emissions, and increased levels of physical activity, shifts in individual adverse health effects such as higher exposure to air pollution and risk of a traffic accident may prevail. Objective We describe whether the health benefits from the increased physical activity of a modal shift for urban commutes outweigh the health risks. Data sources and extraction We have summarized the literature for air pollution, traffic accidents, and physical activity using systematic reviews supplemented with recent key studies. Data synthesis We quantified the impact on all-cause mortality when 500,000 people would make a transition from car to bicycle for short trips on a daily basis in the Netherlands. We have expressed mortality impacts in life-years gained or lost, using life table calculations. For individuals who shift from car to bicycle, we estimated that beneficial effects of increased physical activity are substantially larger (3–14 months gained) than the potential mortality effect of increased inhaled air pollution doses (0.8–40 days lost) and the increase in traffic accidents (5–9 days lost). Societal benefits are even larger because of a modest reduction in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and traffic accidents. Conclusions On average, the estimated health benefits of cycling were substantially larger than the risks relative to car driving for individuals shifting their mode of transport. PMID:20587380

de Hartog, Jeroen Johan; Boogaard, Hanna; Nijland, Hans; Hoek, Gerard

2010-01-01

222

Children's health and their mothers' risk of divorce or separation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine how children's health conditions are related to their mothers' risk of divorce or separation. The study is based on data from over 7,000 children born to once-married mothers identified in the 1988 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. The effects of 15 childhood health conditions on the mothers' risk of divorce are estimated with Cox's proportional hazard models. Controlling for demographic, marital, and reproductive measures, we find that mothers' prospects for divorce are affected both positively or negatively by their children's health status, depending on the type of childhood condition and, in the case of low birth weight children, timing within the marriage. Women whose children have congenital heart disease, cerebral palsy, are blind, or had low birth weight appear to have higher risks of marital disruption than mothers of healthy children. In contrast, mothers whose children have migraines, learning disabilities, respiratory allergies, missing/deformed digits or limbs, or asthma have somewhat lower rates of divorce. PMID:9446957

Joesch, J M; Smith, K R

1997-01-01

223

[Operational units for health risk management (patient safety)].  

PubMed

In 1995 INSALUD began to develop performance measures in the field of risk management, and following transfer of powers to the regions, these led to the development of operational units in individual healthcare centres. These units, which consist of a group of health professionals, including managers, aim to identify, evaluate, analyse and deal with health risks, to enhance patient safety. Their organisational structure can vary in accordance with the needs, resources and philosophy of each individual organisation. This paper presents the experience of the risk management units developed in four Spanish regions: Madrid, the Basque Country, Galicia and INGESA (Ceuta and Melilla). It also includes reflections on assessment of their impact and on their future role in improving safety in healthcare services. PMID:19572456

Pardo Hernández, A; Claveria Fontán, A; García Urbaneja, M; López Barba, J

2008-12-01

224

Cardiovascular health informatics: risk screening and intervention.  

PubMed

Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

Hartley, Craig J; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2012-09-01

225

Cardiovascular Risk Surveillance to Develop a Nationwide Health Promotion Strategy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The Grenada Heart Project aims to study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial determinants of the cardiovascular health in Grenada in order to develop and implement a nationwide cardiovascular health promotion program. METHODS We recruited 2,827 adults randomly selected from the national electronic voter list. The main outcome measures were self-reported cardiovascular disease and behavioral risk factors, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, point-of-care testing for glucose and lipids, and ankle-brachial index. Risk factors were also compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Survey data. RESULTS Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors were: overweight and obesity—57.7% of the population, physical inactivity—23.4%, diabetes—13.3%, hypertension—29.7%, hypercholesterolemia—8.6%, and smoking—7%. Subjects who were physically active had a significantly lower 10-year Framingham risk score (p < 0.001). Compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey data, Grenadian women had higher rates of adiposity, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas Grenadian men had a higher rate of diabetes, a similar rate of hypertension, and lower rates of the other risk factors. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6%; stroke and coronary heart disease were equally prevalent at ~2%. CONCLUSION This randomly selected adult sample in Grenada reveals prevalence rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes significantly exceeding those seen in the United States. The contrasting, paradoxically low levels of prevalent cardiovascular disease support the concept that Grenada is experiencing an obesity-related “risk transition.” These data form the basis for the implementation of a pilot intervention program based on the Institute of Medicine recommendations and may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25691303

Bansilal, Sameer; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Woodward, Mark; Iyengar, Rupa; Hunn, Marilyn; Lewis, Marcelle; Francis, Lesley; Charney, Alexander; Graves, Claire; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin

2015-01-01

226

High-risk health behaviors associated with various dietary patterns.  

PubMed

We have previously identified dietary patterns among 1,475 male and 780 female normal healthy control subjects in a case-control study of cancer at various sites. In this paper we examine the presence, among persons exhibiting these dietary patterns, of individual health behaviors that may contribute to risks for cancer. Specifically we examine trimming of separable fat from meats, fats used in cooking and as additions to foods, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Results indicate that men and women differ in possession of these high-risk behaviors. Women are more likely to trim fat from meat, consume less alcohol, and have lower exposures to smoking. Their dietary patterns are more independent of the fats used. Several eating patterns are positively associated with total fat intake but differ in their associations with high-risk behaviors. These data suggest that assessing risk associated with dietary patterns sheds more light on disease relationships than studies of single nutrients. PMID:1796009

Randall, E; Marshall, J R; Graham, S; Brasure, J

1991-01-01

227

Occupational health risks of barbers and coiffeurs in Izmir  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine self-reported occupational health risks and health complaints of barbers and hairdressers. A total of 1284 individuals from 300 workplaces in Izmir participated in this study. The workers completed the questionnaires during their training in occupational health. Self-reported symptoms were allergy: 35% and musculoskeletal symptoms: 32%. The frequency of allergy complaints was found to be significantly higher in older individuals and in women. Allergic complaints were more frequent in i) those having history of allergy, ii) in the group where the use of protective clothing and gloves was lower, iii) in smokers and in those who found ventilation in the workplace to be inadequate. Only 41.2% reported that they used gloves and 15.2% reported the use of protective clothing within the last month. It appears that poor occupational factors in barbers' salons and exposure to hairdressing chemicals bring about health problems of the hairdressers. PMID:20386627

Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Kose, Sukran; Gozaydin, Ayhan; Turken, Melda; Kuzucu, Lutfiye

2009-01-01

228

Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences  

SciTech Connect

Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

1986-10-01

229

Risk Assessment in Mental Health: Introducing a Traffic Light System in a Community Mental Health Team  

PubMed Central

Aims: To reports a study in which action research approach was utilised to introduce a new system of risk assessment, based on traffic lights, into a community mental health team. Background: Risk management is a serious concern in community mental healthcare where there is less direct, real-time supervision of clients than in other settings, and because inadequate management of risk can have fatal consequences when service users are a risk to themselves and/or others. Design: An action research design was undertaken, using three phases of Look, Think and Act. Methods: Data were collected between January and March of 2012. In the action research phases, qualitative data were collected in focus groups with the team’s multi-disciplinary mental health professionals. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, which involved agreement of themes and interpretations by two researchers. The Look, Think and Act phases guided the development of the project; team members worked collaboratively on the traffic light system, implemented and evaluated it. Findings: Themes were constructed that were discussed across the focus groups. These themes were: Ease of use; Risk identification and management; Legal status; Different teams’ views of risk; Post-implementation evaluation. Conclusion: Action research has been used to implement change in mental health risk management. Others internationally would benefit from considering a Traffic Light System, and in using action research to implement it. PMID:23878620

Croucher, S; Williamson, Graham R

2013-01-01

230

Successful African-American Mathematics Students in Academically Unacceptable High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the reasons why successful mathematics students have been able to thrive in schools labeled academically unacceptable and (2) why they have chosen to stay in these academically unacceptable schools despite having the option to leave for a better performing school. Qualitative methods including…

Sheppard, Peter A., IV

2005-01-01

231

Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-01-01

232

[Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].  

PubMed

In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies. PMID:19921497

Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

2009-12-01

233

C: Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization  

E-print Network

Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors / edited by Majid Ezzati... [et al.]. 2 v. + v.3 in 1 CD-ROM. Contents: vol. 1, Childhood and maternal undernutrition—Other nutrition-related risk factors and physical activity—Addictive substances— vol. 2, Sexual and reproductive health—Environmental and occupational risks—Other selected risks—Distribution of risks by poverty—Data analysis and results—Multi-risk assessment.—Annex tables CD-ROM, Population

Majid Ezzati; Alan D. Lopez; Anthony Rodgers; Christopher J. L. Murray

234

Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

2014-01-01

235

[Occupational risks and health disorders in transport drivers].  

PubMed

This paper presents a review of occupational risks and health disorders in professional drivers employed in public and private transport. Epidemiological studies suggest an excess risk for cardiovascular diseases and musculoskeletal disorders in several categories of professional drivers, such as bus drivers, taxi drivers, truck drivers and forklift truck drivers. Although cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders are of multifactorial origin, some characteristics of occupational exposure in transport drivers (stress, workshift, traffic pollutants, awkward postures, exposure to noise and whole body vibration) may exert at least a concausal role for the onset and the development of these disorders. The predominant role of some confounding factors (inappropriate diet, drinking and smoking habits) makes it more difficult to establish causal associations between professional driving and other adverse health effects (respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genito-urinary disorders, and neoplastic diseases). PMID:23213815

Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M

2012-01-01

236

[Risk factors and health effects in the land transport sector].  

PubMed

The transport is a particularly complex sector. There are companies of different size that perform public or private transport, by road or rail, goods or passengers. Companies involved in the sector in Italy are 137,394 with 1,121,203 workers. There are also about 150,000 workers of auxiliary services and an unknown number of workers engaged in intra-companies transportation of goods. The main risk factors are those due to the high probability of accidents, the presence of noise and vibration, ergonomic aspects, work-related stress. Health surveillance is carried out by various organizations and individuals identified by the rules. Medical controls for professional driving licence are performed by local authorities and preventive and periodic health surveillance and medical fitness about occupational risk according to the law (Legislative Decree 81/08) depends on the responsibility of the company physician. PMID:23213816

Cristaudo, A

2012-01-01

237

Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents With Chronic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of risk behaviors and to measure the extent of co-occurrence of these behaviors in chronically ill and healthy adolescents. METHODS.Data were drawn from the 2002 Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health database, a nationally representative survey of 7548 adolescents in postman- datory school aged 16 to 20 years. There were

Joan-Carles Suris; Christina Akre; Susan M. Sawyer

2010-01-01

238

Application of the modular risk analaysis approach health impact analyses  

SciTech Connect

The modular risk analysis approach is being used to evaluate health impacts for several Hanford related human health impact analyses. The modular risk analysis approach separates contaminant source inventory [source quantity (Q)], the contaminant release rate [unit flux factor time series (UFF{sup series})], the environmental transport [unit transport factor time series (UTF{sup series})], the exposure assumptions [unit dose factor (UDF)], and health impacts [unit impact factor (UIF)] into components. These factors are combined to provide an estimate of the human health impact for a particular scenario represented by the factors selected. The UFF{sup series} is the forcing function and the UTF{sup series} is the response function of the system. The forcing function represents the release from the source to the system (e.g., groundwater transport environment). The response function represents the transport through the system. These two terms are combined using a mathematical convoluted method as a time series. The component definition can be conducted concurrently to reduce analysis time. The final analysis then consists of simple combinations of the source terms and unit factors. After the different components have been refined, any component can be modified without impact to the other components and the risk estimates can be quickly re-evaluated. This approach can be used for all major transport and exposure pathways. The modular risk analysis approach is described with emphasis on the linkage of the transport and exposure pathway analyses. The results can be used to assist in the difficult decision making process that needs to be made on radioactive and hazardous cleanup at a site.

Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-01

239

Hazardous waste incineration: Evaluating the human health and environmental risks  

SciTech Connect

this book investigates the issues regarding human health impacts from hazardous waste incinerators. It details the characterization of hazardous waste emissions; ways to model the atmospheric dispersion of these emissions; and steps to conduct a comprehensive risk assessment. This book also reviews epidemiology to study the effects of hazardous waste incineration. Background information on the fundamentals of hazardous incineration, and the regulations affecting operation of its facilities is provided.

Roberts, S.M.; Teaf, C.M.; Bean, J.A. [eds.

1999-11-01

240

Assessing risk for violence on home health visits.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop and test measures for assessing risk of violence toward staff during home visits. Home visiting health workers from public and private home visiting programs in a Mid-Atlantic state (n = 130) were surveyed to assess exposure to risky home visits, verbal and physical violence, and workplace violence safety climate. Two measures demonstrated evidence of reliability and validity moving the safety research closer to developing tools and processes for protecting home care clinicians. PMID:20463511

McPhaul, Kathleen; Lipscomb, Jane; Johnson, Jeffrey

2010-05-01

241

Integrating human health and ecological concerns in risk assessments.  

PubMed

The interconnections between ecosystems, human health and welfare have been increasingly recognized by the US government, academia, and the public. This paper continues this theme by addressing the use of risk assessment to integrate people into a single assessment. In a broad overview of the risk assessment process we stress the need to build a conceptual model of the whole system including multiple species (humans and other ecological entities), stressors, and cumulative effects. We also propose converging landscape ecology and evaluation of ecosystem services with risk assessment to address these cumulative responses. We first look at how this integration can occur within the problem formulation step in risk assessment where the system is defined, a conceptual model created, a subset of components and functions selected, and the analytical framework decided in a context that includes the management decisions. A variety of examples of problem formulations (salmon, wild insects, hyporheic ecosystems, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, nitrogen fertilization, toxic chemicals, and oil spills) are presented to illustrate how treating humans as components of the landscape can add value to risk assessments. We conclude that the risk assessment process should help address the urgent needs of society in proportion to importance, to provide a format to communicate knowledge and understanding, and to inform policy and management decisions. PMID:10978558

Cirone, P A; Bruce Duncan, P

2000-11-01

242

76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...considerations for conducting human health risk assessments on potential...

2011-05-26

243

Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors  

E-print Network

1 Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors Xiping Dai and Mark. The process for developing categories and exploring the relationships between health data and risk factors to the analysis of health data and risk factors. The system employs a range of visual and computational components

Klippel, Alexander

244

DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT L. Malherbe INERIS, E-mail : laure.malherbe@ineris.fr Abstract Human health risk assessment is a site-based approach sampling strategy for human health risk assessment. On the contrary there are several approaches which can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

2001-88 DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT L : + 33 (0)3 44 55 68 99, E-mail : laure.malherbe@ineris.fr 1 Introduction - Human health risk assessment : stakes of a relevant soil sampling strategy ? Human health risk assessment is a site-based approach which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

E-print Network

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy Jennifer J. Roberts1 , Rachel A. Wood of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO

Haszeldine, Stuart

247

Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care  

PubMed Central

High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741

Hudson, P

2003-01-01

248

Patterns of Health-Risk Behavior among Japanese High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed Japanese high school students' health risk behavior patterns, examining clustering and accumulation of health risk behaviors. Physical inactivity and alcohol use were the most common risk behaviors. Prevalence rates for most risk behaviors varied by demographic variables. Smoking, drinking, and sexual intercourse clustered among both…

Takakura, Minoru; Nagayama, Tomoko; Sakihara, Seizo; Willcox, Craig

2001-01-01

249

Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

2014-01-01

250

[Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards. PMID:11928670

Szubert, Z; Wilczy?ska, U; Sobala, W

2001-01-01

251

Propagating uncertainty from hydrology into human health risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydro-geologic modeling and uncertainty assessment of flow and transport parameters can be incorporated into human health risk (both cancer and non-cancer) assessment to better understand the associated uncertainties. This interdisciplinary approach is needed now more than ever as societal problems concerning water quality are increasingly interdisciplinary as well. For example, uncertainty can originate from environmental conditions such as a lack of information or measurement error, or can manifest as variability, such as differences in physiological and exposure parameters between individuals. To complicate the matter, traditional risk assessment methodologies are independent of time, virtually neglecting any temporal dependence. Here we present not only how uncertainty and variability can be incorporated into a risk assessment, but also how time dependent risk assessment (TDRA) allows for the calculation of risk as a function of time. The development of TDRA and the inclusion of quantitative risk analysis in this research provide a means to inform decision makers faced with water quality issues and challenges. The stochastic nature of this work also provides a means to address the question of uncertainty in management decisions, a component that is frequently difficult to quantify. To illustrate this new formulation and to investigate hydraulic mechanisms for sensitivity, an example of varying environmental concentration signals resulting from rate dependencies in geochemical reactions is used. Cancer risk is computed and compared using environmental concentration ensembles modeled with sorption as 1) a linear equilibrium assumption and 2) first order kinetics. Results show that the up scaling of these small-scale processes controls the distribution, magnitude, and associated uncertainty of cancer risk.

Siirila, E. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

2013-12-01

252

Health and health risks among sexual minority women: an examination of 3 subgroups.  

PubMed

We used 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to examine insurance status, source of routine care, cigarette and alcohol use, and self-rated health among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women who have sex with women, compared with heterosexual women who do not have sex with women. We found higher risks of being uninsured among lesbian and bisexual women, worse self-rated health among bisexual women, higher alcohol use among bisexual and heterosexual women who have sex with women, and higher smoking across all subgroups. PMID:24825204

Przedworski, Julia M; McAlpine, Donna D; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; VanKim, Nicole A

2014-06-01

253

Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception  

PubMed Central

Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (P<.001); social factors, including media attention (P<.001); private resources, including life quality (P<.001) and health lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)—have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the contribution of social factors to the public health risk perception levels by state (R2=23.37%). The interaction effects between flu incidence and social factors for our search terms did not add to the explanatory power of our regression models (R2<1%). Conclusions Our study suggests a practical way to measure the public’s health risk perception for certain diseases using online information search volume by state. The social environment influences public risk perception regardless of disease incidence. Thus, monitoring the social variables can be very helpful in being ready to respond to the public’s behavior in dealing with public health threats. PMID:23773974

Scammon, Debra L

2013-01-01

254

[Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors. PMID:25388324

Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

2014-10-01

255

Environmental Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

1999-01-01

256

Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing  

PubMed Central

This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

2013-01-01

257

Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

1994-05-01

258

Height and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important cause of mortality in the adult population. Height has been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and an increased risk of arrhythmias, but also with decreased risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting a complex association with SCD. Methods We examined the association of adult height with the risk of physician-adjudicated SCD in two large population-based cohorts: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Results Over an average follow-up time of 11.7 years in CHS, there were 199 (3.6%) cases of SCD among 5,556 participants. In ARIC, over 12.6 years, there were 227 (1.5%) cases of SCD among 15,633 participants. In both cohorts, there was a trend towards decreased SCD with taller height. In fixed effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio per 10 cm of height was 0.84 (95%CI 0.73, 0.98, p=0.03). The association of increased height with lower risk of SCD was slightly attenuated after inclusion of risk factors associated with height, such as hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The association appeared stronger among men than women in both cohorts. Conclusion In two population-based prospective cohorts of different ages, greater height was associated with lower risk of SCD. PMID:24360853

Rosenberg, Michael A.; Lopez, Faye L.; B?žková, Petra; Adabag, SelcukPhD; Chen, Lin Y.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Kronmal, Richard A.; Siscovick, David S.; Alonso, Alvaro; Buxton, Alfred; Folsom, Aaron R.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

259

[Cardiovascular risk factors on the Framingham Risk Score among hypertensive patients attended by family health teams].  

PubMed

The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is used to stratify cardiovascular risk. This study sought to identify the prevalence of risk factors used in the FRS and the use of drugs that reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). It is cross-sectional study, which evaluated a random sample of hypertensive patients in the FHS in northern Minas Gerais. Data were collected through interviews and from medical records. 505 hypertensive patients were evaluated in 9 municipalities of the region, with a predominance of women; 325 (64.4%), mean age of 66.4 years. In 90% of hypertensive patients there was at least one associated risk factor. The grouping of three or more factors occurred in 79 (15.7%) patients. Dyslipidemia was found in 188 (37.2%), diabetes in 101 (20%) and smoking in 36 (7.1%). The use of anti-hypertensive drugs was observed in 481 (95.2%) patients. The use of other cardioprotective drugs was higher among patients with 3 or more risk factors: 45.6% used antiplatelet and 27.8% used lipid-lowering drugs. The prevalence of risk factors from the FRS in the population studied was quite high and the use of cardioprotective drugs was seen to be restricted. Strategies to increase the use of FRS may improve the management of hypertension in the FHS. PMID:24897474

Pimenta, Henderson Barbosa; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

2014-06-01

260

Occupational health in surgery: risks extend beyond the operating room.  

PubMed

Surgeons routinely work with potentially infectious materials. The risk of acquiring a disease from one percutaneous exposure is 0.3-0.4% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 6-30% for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 2.7-10% for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Rates of blood contacts vary but may reach up to 11.9 per 100 h in the operating room. Residents are at highest risk, and obstetrics and gynaecology surgeons suffered the highest rate of exposures (10%) as a group. Contributing risk factors include trauma or emergency orthopaedic procedures, high patient blood loss, long procedures and holding tissue by hand while suturing. However, across occupations, nurses and other health workers experience greater risks than surgeons regarding potentially infectious exposures. Preventive measures such as the HBV vaccine and protective devices (i.e. self-capping needles, needle-free i.v. systems and improved barrier materials) have reduced the occupational risk of acquiring a blood-borne infection, which allows attention to be given to the psychosocial risks which may be more significant, yet are often overlooked. Doctors are at greater risk of divorce, alcoholism, substance abuse and suicide than are members of comparable professional groups. One study found that general surgeons had the highest rates of suicide of all doctors. According to family surveys, surgeons tend to be oblivious to the effects of work stressors, and may benefit from greater self-awareness; sharing of feelings and responsibilities with colleagues, family and patients; being willing to delegate work to others; setting work limits; and broadening perspectives in their approach to work. PMID:7575289

Patz, J A; Jodrey, D

1995-09-01

261

Exploring Electronic Health Records as a Population Health Surveillance Tool of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the utility of using electronic health record (EHR) data for periodic community health surveillance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors through 2 research questions. First, how many years of EHR data are needed to produce reliable estimates of key population-level CVD health indicators for a community? Second, how comparable are the EHR estimates relative to those from community screenings? The study takes place in the context of the Heart of New Ulm Project, a 10-year population health initiative designed to reduce myocardial infarctions and CVD risk factor burden in a rural community. The community is served by 1 medical center that includes a clinic and hospital. The project screened adult residents of New Ulm for CVD risk factors in 2009. EHR data for 3 years prior to the heart health screenings were extracted for patients from the community. Single- and multiple-year EHR prevalence estimates were compared for individuals ages 40-79 years (N=5918). EHR estimates also were compared to screening estimates (N=3123). Single-year compared with multiyear EHR data prevalence estimates were sufficiently precise for this rural community. EHR and screening prevalence estimates differed significantly-systolic blood pressure (BP) (124.0 vs. 128.9), diastolic BP (73.3 vs. 79.2), total cholesterol (186.0 vs. 201.0), body mass index (30.2 vs. 29.5), and smoking (16.6% vs. 8.2%)-suggesting some selection bias depending on the method used. Despite differences between data sources, EHR data may be a useful source of population health surveillance to inform and evaluate local population health initiatives. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25290223

Sidebottom, Abbey C; Johnson, Pamela Jo; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Sillah, Arthur; Winden, Tamara J; Boucher, Jackie L

2014-10-01

262

Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such as all text. Findings also suggest that factors influencing response to risk communications are impacted by personal risk perception, previous personal experience with risk, sources of information and trust in those sources. Conclusions No single method of message delivery is best. Risk communication strategies that incorporate the needs of the target audience(s) with a multi-faceted delivery method are most effective at reaching the audience. PMID:21040529

2010-01-01

263

Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-01-01

264

Assessing the risk of ballast water treatment to human health.  

PubMed

Ballast water management systems utilizing noxious chemicals have to be approved according to the Ballast Water Convention by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The approval procedure requires human health risk assessment. Our objective was to evaluate the existing human health risk assessment process for ballast water management systems. Towards this end, we analyzed the available applications for IMO approval. Since the majority of active substances currently in use are oxidative compounds the corresponding treatment systems generate and release a large number of disinfection by-products. The application dossiers only select a number of by-products for risk assessment. We propose a more comprehensive approach based on the type of ballast water management system, the quality of water treated and the toxicity of compounds discharged into the environment. Subsequent to effects assessment we propose to classify substances according to a hazard evaluation procedure, based on an approach used for maritime transport. We identified a need for better exposure assessment. This requires knowledge of exposure situations. We provide a comprehensive listing of occupational and non-occupational exposure settings and quantification models for exposure assessment. PMID:22107915

Banerji, Sangeeta; Werschkun, Barbara; Höfer, Thomas

2012-04-01

265

Process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders.  

PubMed Central

In most industrialized countries large numbers of workers are exposed to welding fumes. Although the general pattern of welders' health may not significantly differ from that of workers in other dusty industrial occupations which demonstrate elevated incidence of respiratory tract diseases with long latency periods, the extremely wide range of substances at potentially high concentrations produced by various welding technologies may give rise to undetected process-specific high-risk working conditions: ("hot spots"). The origin, prevalence and range of magnitude of such hot spots, especially for cancer of the respiratory tract, is discussed, with emphasis placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) and Ni accompanying the use of various technologies for the welding of stainless and high alloy steels. The wide variation of health effects found within the industry, however, indicates the need for a standard protocol for future epidemiological studies, as well as for the development of suitable methodologies for experimental risk assessment. PMID:7333241

Stern, R M

1981-01-01

266

Covariance among Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Methods Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other). Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. Results The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a ‘substance use risk factor’ and an ‘unhealthy eating and sedentary factor’. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. Conclusions Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds. PMID:24858838

de la Haye, Kayla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.

2014-01-01

267

Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration

Jonathan R Leake; Andrew Adam-Bradford; Janette E Rigby

2009-01-01

268

5 CFR 432.105 - Proposing and taking action based on unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on unacceptable performance. 432.105...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION...and Workforce Performance, Personnel Systems...Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E...

2010-01-01

269

What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks  

PubMed Central

The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

2012-01-01

270

What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.  

PubMed

The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

2012-01-01

271

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

2000-01-01

272

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2011-07-01

273

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2012-07-01

274

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2010-07-01

275

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2014-07-01

276

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2013-07-01

277

Insolvency risk in health carriers: innovation, competition, and public protection.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the framework of regulatory and managerial devices that have evolved in response to the special dangers to the public posed by insolvency of health carriers. These devices include "prudential" measures designed to decrease the likelihood of insolvency, and measures to "protect enrollees" in the event that insolvency occurs nevertheless. It also reviews the current debate over how this framework should be adapted to new forms of risk-bearing entities, especially provider-sponsored networks engaged in direct contracting with purchasers of coverage. Parallels to solvency concerns in the banking industry are explored. PMID:9018940

Akula, J L

1997-01-01

278

Wind turbines: is there a human health risk?  

PubMed

The term "Wind Turbine Syndrome" was coined in a recently self-published book, which hypothesized that a multitude of symptoms such as headache and dizziness resulted from wind turbines generating low frequency sound (LFS). The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the research that has examined the relationship between human health effects and exposure to LFS and sound generated from the operation of wind turbines. At present, a specific health condition has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature that has been classified as a disease caused by exposure to sound levels and frequencies generated by the operation of wind turbines. Communities are experiencing a heightened sense of annoyance and fear from the development and siting of wind turbine farms. High-quality research and effective risk communication can advance this course from one of panic to one of understanding and exemplification for other environmental advancements. PMID:23621051

Roberts, Jennifer D; Roberts, Mark A

2013-04-01

279

Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health: A Population Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable risk factor for adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there are still gaps regarding large population risk assessment. Results from the nationwide Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used along with air quality monitoring measurements to implement a systematic evaluation of PM-related CVD risks at the national and regional scales. CVD status and individual-level risk factors were collected from more than 500,000 BRFSS respondents across 2,231 contiguous U.S. counties for 2007 and 2009. Chronic exposures to PM pollutants were estimated with spatial modeling from measurement data. CVD outcomes attributable to PM pollutants were assessed by mixed-effects logistic regression and latent class regression (LCR), with adjustment for multicausality. There were positive associations between CVD and PM after accounting for competing risk factors: the multivariable-adjusted odds for the multiplicity of CVD outcomes increased by 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23–1.43) and 1.15 (1.07–1.22) times per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 respectively in the LCR analyses. After controlling for spatial confounding, there were moderate estimated effects of PM exposure on multiple cardiovascular manifestations. These results suggest that chronic exposures to ambient particulates are important environmental risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:22432017

Feng, Jing; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

280

Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed Central

Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:4076081

Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

1985-01-01

281

Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.  

PubMed

Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

2013-01-01

282

Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations  

PubMed Central

Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

2013-01-01

283

Private health care coverage and increased risk of obstetric intervention  

PubMed Central

Background When clinically indicated, common obstetric interventions can greatly improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, variation in intervention rates suggests that obstetric practice may not be solely driven by case criteria. Methods Differences in obstetric intervention rates by private and public status in Ireland were examined using nationally representative hospital discharge data. A retrospective cohort study was performed on childbirth hospitalisations occurring between 2005 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with correction for the relative risk was conducted to determine the risk of obstetric intervention (caesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, induction of labour or episiotomy) by private or public status while adjusting for obstetric risk factors. Results 403,642 childbirth hospitalisations were reviewed; approximately one-third of maternities (30.2%) were booked privately. After controlling for relevant obstetric risk factors, women with private coverage were more likely to have an elective caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45-1.51), an emergency caesarean delivery (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.16) and an operative vaginal delivery (RR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22-1.27). Compared to women with public coverage who had a vaginal delivery, women with private coverage were 40% more likely to have an episiotomy (RR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.38-1.43). Conclusions Irrespective of obstetric risk factors, women who opted for private maternity care were significantly more likely to have an obstetric intervention. To better understand both clinical and non-clinical dynamics, future studies of examining health care coverage status and obstetric intervention would ideally apply mixed-method techniques. PMID:24418254

2014-01-01

284

Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposure to Children (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft document, Framework For Assessing Health Risks of Environmental Exposure to Children , can serve as a resource on children's health risk assessment and it addresses the need to provide a comprehensive and consistent framework for considering children in risk asses...

285

Monte Carlo techniques for quantitative uncertainty analysis in public health risk assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most public health risk assessments assume and combine a series of average, conservative, and worst-case values to derive a conservative point estimate of risk. This procedure has major limitations. This paper demonstrates a new methodology for extended uncertainty analyses in public health risk assessments using Monte Carlo techniques. The extended method begins as do some conventional methods--with the preparation of

Kimberly M. Thompson; David E. Burmaster; E. A. Crouch

1992-01-01

286

Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.  

PubMed

Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

2014-06-01

287

Human Health Risks of Selenium-Contaminated Fish: A Case Study for Risk Assessment of Essential Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening level human health risk assessment (HHRA) was applied to evaluate the human health implications of consuming selenium found in fish tissues collected downstream of coal mines in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The study evaluated the potential for adverse human health effects associated with selenium, and considered known and potential benefits of selenium and fish ingestion. The results indicated

G. S. Lawrence; P. M. Chapman

2007-01-01

288

The Health Fair as a Health Promotion Strategy: Effects on Health Risk Behaviors and the Utility of Specific Health Fair Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students who attended a two-day campus health fair reduced health risk behavior compared to those who did not attend the fair. The impact of specific activities at the fair also was evaluated. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

1986-01-01

289

Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.  

PubMed

The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

2015-02-11

290

Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection  

SciTech Connect

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

1990-12-31

291

Environmental health risk assessment of nickel contamination of drinking water in a country town in NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the health risks associated with consumption of drinking water with elevated nickel concentration in a NSW country town named Sampleton. Methods: We used enHealth Guidelines (2002) as our risk assess- ment tool. Laboratory test results for nickel in water samples were compared with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004 and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for

Noore Alam; Stephen J. Corbett; Helen C. Ptolemy

2008-01-01

292

Health risk analysis of the Rio de Janeiro water supply using Geographical Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of health risk in population groups is based on environmental, socio-economic, and health data. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to simultaneousl y analyse databases with different origins. The case of health risk related to vulnerability of water supply in the city of Rio de Janeiro was examined using information on the water supply system with epidemiological, and

CHRIS IOVAM BARCELLOS

2000-01-01

293

The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

1998-01-01

294

Nutrition Information, Health Risks, Time Preference and Demand for Healthy Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The impacts of health risks, nutrition information and time preference on individual diet choices are explored in this study. Using National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and Nutrition Supplement Survey conducted by Statistics Canada, our econometric analyses suggest that decision makers with higher health risk, more nutrition information and lower time preference are more likely to adopt healthy eating behavior.

Getu Hailu

295

Health Risks of Limited-Contact Water Recreation  

PubMed Central

Background: Wastewater-impacted waters that do not support swimming are often used for boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing. Little is known about the health risks of these limited-contact water recreation activities. Objectives: We evaluated the incidence of illness, severity of illness, associations between water exposure and illness, and risk of illness attributable to limited-contact water recreation on waters dominated by wastewater effluent and on waters approved for general use recreation (such as swimming). Methods: The Chicago Health, Environmental Exposure, and Recreation Study was a prospective cohort study that evaluated five health outcomes among three groups of people: those who engaged in limited-contact water recreation on effluent-dominated waters, those who engaged in limited-contact recreation on general-use waters, and those who engaged in non–water recreation. Data analysis included survival analysis, logistic regression, and estimates of risk for counterfactual exposure scenarios using G-computation. Results: Telephone follow-up data were available for 11,297 participants. With non–water recreation as the reference group, we found that limited-contact water recreation was associated with the development of acute gastrointestinal illness in the first 3 days after water recreation at both effluent-dominated waters [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.96] and general-use waters (1.50; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.07). For every 1,000 recreators, 13.7 (95% CI: 3.1, 24.9) and 15.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 25.7) cases of gastrointestinal illness were attributable to limited-contact recreation at effluent-dominated waters and general-use waters, respectively. Eye symptoms were associated with use of effluent-dominated waters only (AOR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.06). Among water recreators, our results indicate that illness was associated with the amount of water exposure. Conclusions: Limited-contact recreation, both on effluent-dominated waters and on waters designated for general use, was associated with an elevated risk of gastrointestinal illness. PMID:22030231

Pratap, Preethi; Wroblewski, Meredith; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.; Li, Hong; Liu, Li C.; Scheff, Peter A.

2011-01-01

296

Suicide risk and mental health co-morbidities in a probationer population.  

PubMed

Mental health problems are disproportionately represented in the community corrections system with limited information on the epidemiology of mental health and correlated factors such as suicide among probationers. This study recruited 2,077 probationers who completed screeners for mental health and substance disorders and suicide risk. Results found 13% of probationers were at high risk of suicide. Those who screened positive for a mental health condition were between 2 and 8 times more likely to screen positive for suicide risk. Allocation of additional resources to mental health in the criminal justice system and to effectively coordinate existing mental health services is needed. PMID:25069419

Cardarelli, Roberto; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Malone, Kendra; Fulda, Kimberly G; Ellison, Michael; Sivernell, Ron; Shabu, Tanjina

2015-02-01

297

Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity. PMID:25074305

Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

2014-06-01

298

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-12-31

299

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-01-01

300

Newly Emerging Environmental Health Risks in a Risk Society: A case study of the public perception of food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-modern societies were subjected to risks attributed to fate, and human-made hazards that were considered manageable. Late-modern society is increasingly exposed to emerging environmental health risks that are products of the modernization process itself (e.g. genetically modified organisms). These risks result from broad changes in the environment and\\/or human activity. Some of these provoke high public perceptions of risk, and

HarringtonDanielW

2011-01-01

301

Race-dependent health risks of upper body obesity.  

PubMed

For Caucasian women, an excess of abdominal fat is a potent risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is limited information regarding the health risks of upper body obesity for African-American women despite a higher prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases and a reportedly higher prevalence of abdominal fat accumulation. This study aimed to determine whether UBO, independent of total body fatness, is as potent a diabetic and CVD risk factor for black women as has been confirmed for white women. Diabetes and CVD risks and androgenic status were assessed in nondiabetic, premenopausal women of similar body fatness who differed by race (black or white) and body fat distribution (UBO or lower body obesity). In black women, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the only measurement adversely affected by abdominal fat; HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in the black UBO group (1.14 +/- 0.05 mM) compared with the black LBO group (1.37 +/- 0.08 mM). This contrasts markedly with our findings in white women. In confirmation of previous reports, white UBO women, compared with white LBO counterparts, had significantly higher glucose (967.6 vs. 709.2 mM/2 h) and insulin (120.5 vs. 52.1 pM/2 h) areas and significantly lower peripheral insulin sensitivities (0.99 vs. 2.95 x 10(-4) min-1/microU/ml). In addition, HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the white UBO group (1.03 mM) compared with the white LBO group (1.49 mM), whereas plasma TG levels (white UBO, 1.72 vs. white LBO, 0.88 mM) and dBPs (white UBO, 84 vs. white LBO, 75 mmHg) were significantly higher.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8454103

Dowling, H J; Pi-Sunyer, F X

1993-04-01

302

Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health. PMID:24990431

Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

2014-09-01

303

The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

2010-01-01

304

Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk BehaviorsA Prospective Analysis of College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month follow-up period. After controlling for age and parents' education, a history

Christine A. Gidycz; Lindsay M. Orchowski; Carrie R. King; Cindy L. Rich

2008-01-01

305

Health risk assessment maps for arsenic groundwater content: application of national geochemical databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assesses the feasibility of calculating and visualizing health risk estimates from exposure to groundwater\\u000a contaminated with arsenic (As) using data from national geochemical databases. The potential health risk associated with As-contaminated\\u000a groundwater was assessed based on an elaboration of existing geochemical data in accordance with accepted methodological procedures\\u000a established for human health risk assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Stanislav Rapant; Katarína Kr?mová

2007-01-01

306

Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1990-12-31

307

Risk behaviour in adolescence: the relationship between developmental and health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research is beginning to suggest that the descriptive knowledge base of adolescent risk behaviour is not conceptually\\u000a based and is inadequate to sufficiently inform a comprehensive assessment of adolescent health and risk. The aim of this paper\\u000a is to contribute towards the knowledge of adolescent risk behaviour. Building on a developmental perspective, links between\\u000a health risk behaviour and the

Klaus Hurrelmann; Matthias Richter

2006-01-01

308

PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT LINKED TO CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE. (R824995)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Disturbances of climatic and ecological systems can present risks to human health, which are becoming more evident from health studies linked to climate variability, landuse change and global climate change. Waterborne disease agents, such as Giardia cy...

309

Preventing Disability Among Working Participants in Kansas’ High-risk Insurance Pool: Implications for Health Reform  

E-print Network

Health conditions that prevent individuals from working full time can restrict their access to health insurance. For people living in the 35 states that offer high-risk pools, coverage is available but premiums are 125–200% ...

Hall, Jean P.; Moore, Janice M.; Welch, Greg W.

2011-01-01

310

Loved Ones Caring for Brain-Injured Veterans May Face Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... February 9, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Caregivers Traumatic Brain Injury Veterans and Military Family Health MONDAY, Feb. 9, ... Some loved ones who care for veterans with brain injuries may be at increased risk for chronic health ...

311

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE HEALTH RISK OF AIR TOXIC CHEMICALS: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology program to provide key health effects data missing from the current data ...

312

Mexican American Adolescents’ Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach  

PubMed Central

Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified Mexican American fifth graders’ (N = 749) risk profiles based on family, peer, and socio-cultural risk factors and examined the relationships of these risk profiles to mental health symptomatology in seventh grade. Results revealed three distinct profiles that differed quantitatively and qualitatively. Profiles were then linked to levels of mental health symptomatology, with youth in the highest risk profile displaying the most symptoms. Youth in two other risk profiles displayed lower levels. The findings suggest that Mexican American youth develop within distinct risk contexts that differ in their relationships to adjustment. Such findings inform prevention/intervention efforts aimed at reducing mental health problems in adolescence. PMID:23608782

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

2013-01-01

313

Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology  

PubMed Central

Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields. PMID:24580858

2014-01-01

314

Cyanotoxin management and human health risk mitigation in recreational waters.  

PubMed

The occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial or blue-green algal blooms (HABs) have increased in recent decades, posing a serious threat of illness to humans. In some countries, water contaminated with cyanotoxins that is used for drinking or haemodialysis has posed a particularly serious risk. However, it is now recognized that recreational exposure to natural toxins by skin contact, accidental swallowing of water or inhalation can also cause a wide range of acute or chronic illnesses. In this review, we focus on the importance of cyanotoxin management in recreational waters. The symptoms related with HAB poisonings, the recommended safety concentrations limit for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in such waters, as well as early health hazard indicators of their presence and their monitoring are all discussed. We also present in this review an overview of the methods developed in recent decades for eliminating cyanobacteria and the toxic compounds that they produce. PMID:24664523

Koreivien?, Judita; Anne, Olga; Kasperovi?ien?, J?rat?; Burškyt?, Vilma

2014-07-01

315

Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality  

E-print Network

(food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects HealthHealth Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L;-Pollutants concentrations [c] ·Average outdoors pollution ·Indoors air quality ·Other sources of intoxication

Menut, Laurent

316

Can the school make a difference? A multilevel analysis of adolescent risk and health behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this article is to assess the relationship between the structural and (health) policy variables of the school and characteristics of the individual on the risk and health behaviour of adolescents. Individual and school level effects on seven health-related behaviours are simultaneously estimated, using multilevel modelling. The data are from the Flemish health behaviour in school-aged children

Lea Maes; John Lievens

2003-01-01

317

Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

318

Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM?+?image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2?=?0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high correlation between 2000 and 2001 risk indices (r?=?0.98, p?health risk index together with hazard and vulnerability indices to implement tailored programs because exposure to heat and vulnerability do not require the same prevention strategies. PMID:22974194

2012-01-01

319

Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

2000-01-01

320

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

2012-10-01

321

Trihalomethanes in marine mammal aquaria: occurrences, sources, and health risks.  

PubMed

Disinfecting water containing the high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) commonly generated during pinniped husbandry may cause the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Little information is available on DBP levels, sources, and health risks in marine mammal aquaria. Using the commonly observed trihalomethanes (THMs) as a DBP indicator, we monitored concentrations for seven months at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, one of the largest pinniped rehabilitation facilities in the world. Concentrations of THMs ranged 1.1-144.2 ?g/L in pool waters and generally increased with number of animals housed (P < 0.05). To identify the sources of THM precursors in marine mammal aquaria, we intensively monitored the mass flows of potential THM precursors (i.e. food and wastes) in an isolated system with nine individual California sea lions to evaluate the sources and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for 2-5 weeks. The common frozen foods used in feeding pinnipeds, including herring, sardine, and squid, produced an average of 22-34 mg-DOC/g-food in water and 836-1066 ?g-THM/g-food after chlorination, whereas the fecal materials, including fresh scat, decomposed scat, and urine, produced 2-16 mg-DOC/g-waste and 116-768 ?g-THM/g-waste. Food not eaten by animals could cause a sharp increase of DOC and DBP production and therefore should be removed rapidly from pools. Marine mammal husbandry staff and trainers are at risk (5.16 × 10(-4) to 1.30 × 10(-3)) through exposure of THMs, exceeding the negligible risk level (10(-6)) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24805374

Wang, Jun-Jian; Chow, Alex T; Sweeney, Joelle M; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-08-01

322

Heavy metals in agricultural soils and crops and their health risks in Swat District, northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in agricultural soils and crops (fruits, grains and vegetable) and their possible human health risk in Swat District, northern Pakistan. Cd concentration was found higher than the limit (0.05 mg/kg) set by world health organization in 95% fruit and 100% vegetable samples. Moreover, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn in the soils were shown significant correlations with those in the crops. The metal transfer factor (MTF) was found highest for Cd followed by Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu>Mn, while the health risk assessment revealed that there was no health risk for most of the heavy metals except Cd, which showed a high level of health risk index (HRI?10E-1) that would pose a potential health risk to the consumers. PMID:23721688

Khan, Kifayatullah; Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Waqas, Muhammad; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

2013-08-01

323

Psychosocial determinants of mental health and risk behaviours in adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of emotional problems among children and adolescents in Portugal. Gender, developmental aspects, their psychosocial determinants, and the time trends over 8 years were also explored. The three waves of a cross-sectional survey obtained from the HBSC nationally representative samples of 10-17 year old children and adolescents in 1998, 2002, and 2006, were used. Specific composite indexes included emotional and somatic symptoms, substances' use, demographic and psychosocial factors. Girls reported more emotional symptoms, and boys reported more substances' use. Emotional symptoms and substances' use increased with age, in contrast school commitment and perception of safe neighbourhood decreased with age. With age, the communication with the family tends to become more difficult, while communication with the friends tends to become easier. Along the three waves, substances' use and emotional symptoms have shown a general pattern of decrease. Results were discussed according to literature and their consequences for the understanding of emotional problems and substance use in childhood and adolescence. Mental health promotion includes both the prevention of emotional problems and risk behaviours; determinants include individual factors and a range of psychosocial factors. Mental health problems have a huge impact on adolescents' well-being; however it is often a poorer area of intervention in school based interventions. Gender differences are highlighted. PMID:25001551

Carvalho, Marina; De Matos, Margarida Gaspar

2014-07-01

324

Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment  

PubMed Central

Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

2014-01-01

325

Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in Beijing based on the thermal environment.  

PubMed

Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

326

Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?  

PubMed

Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 ?g/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 ?g/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

2014-09-01

327

[Assessment of the quality of drinking water in the industrial city and risk for public health].  

PubMed

Karabash city sprang up around the copper plant that uses local copper ore, which was composed of zinc, sulfur, barium, beryllium, arsenic, manganese, lead, antimony, chromium, cadmium, gallium, indium, scandium, thallium, germanium, osmium, and others. Centralized water supply for the city is organized from the lake Serebry and the flowage on the river B. Kialim. Part of the population uses water wells, voids and springs. In Serebry Lake and drinking groundwater there were found significant concentrations of nitrates, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead barium, nickel, mercury and zinc. There are most exposed to toxic hazards from drinking water persons using water from Serebry aqueduct (hazard index for--children/ adults 2.75/1.1, respectively) and decentralized water supply sources (hazard index for children/adults--2.35/1.0). Maximal hazard coefficients were calculated for nitrates, arsenic and antimony. Among the systems mostly exposed to toxic effects are digestive, cardiovascular endocrine, nervous system and skin. Carcinogenic risk is caused by arsenic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and dichloroethane. Carcinogenic risk from water sources of decentralized water supply is 9,6 E-05, for water from Kialim reservoir--7,3 E-05. Maximum carcinogenic risk is associated with the water from the Serebry aqueduct, the risk reaches 2,17 E-04 and is characterized as unacceptable. PMID:25306690

Konshina, L G; Lezhnin, V L

2014-01-01

328

Social Comparison Framing in Health News and Its Effect on Perceptions of Group Risk  

PubMed Central

News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents’ perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents’ risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and non-comparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities. PMID:23829419

Bigman, Cabral A.

2013-01-01

329

Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women) completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the mid point of the scales. T-values ranged from -13.1 and -12.1 for the perceived risk of being divorced and loosing all teeth to -8.2 and -7.8 (p < 0.001) for having gum disease and toothdecay. Multivariate analyses using General Linear Models, GLM, revealed gender differences in comparative risk judgements for gum disease, whereas social position varied systematically with risk judgements for tooth decay, gum disease and air pollution. The odds ratios for being comparatively optimistic with respect to having gum disease were 2.9, 1.9, 1.8 and 1.5 if being satisfied with dentition, having a favourable view of health situation, and having high and low involvement with health enhancing and health detrimental behaviour, respectively. Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience. PMID:12186656

Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

2002-01-01

330

A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China  

PubMed Central

The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally lower than that of respondents from other areas except for items such as natural disasters, smoking, medical X-rays, and mental stress, which are exceptions. PMID:23712317

Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

2013-01-01

331

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Common Grazing Management Mistakes  

E-print Network

- ly so that they can handle unforseen situations, recognize the warning signs of unacceptable risks, and correct their management strategies before the rangeland resource is harmed. ?Ranchers have often equated livestock numbers with their wealth... if it harms the natural range ecosystem. Often, too much importance is placed on immediate gross returns from livestock and/or wildlife, and not enough on maintaining rangeland health. Checklist of Mistakes 1) Failure to change from the historical stocking...

White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; Clayton, Lindi

2000-11-01

332

Relationships Between Animal Health Monitoring and the Risk Assessment Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Risk assessment is part of the risk analysis process as it is used in veterinary medicine to estimate risks related to international trade and food safety. Data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS) are used throughout the risk assessment process for hazard identification, release assessment, exposure assessment and consequence assessment. As the quality of risk assessments depends to a

KDC Stärk

2001-01-01

333

Challenging assumptions about risk factors and the role of screening for violence risk in the field of mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research demonstrates that mental illness is not a major cause of violence yet assumptions about a link and concern about the risks posed by mentally disordered people has resulted in the predominance of a public safety role for mental health services (Munro and Rumgay 2000). In consequence, screening, classifying and monitoring individuals considered to pose a potential risk to others

Joan Langan

2010-01-01

334

Unintended outcomes of health care delivery and the need for a national risk management approach.  

PubMed

Unlike the situation in occupational health and safety, there is no nationally coordinated approach to risk management to prevent unintended outcomes of health care provision and improve health care quality. There is a related absence of linkages between quality assurance process, other programs aimed at patient injury prevention and professional indemnity insurance systems. This article discusses the Australian health policy direction and argues for a coordinated national health risk management approach developed through contract requirements which include duty of care and information provision, nationally approved standards and codes, professional liability requirements, and supporting health education, research and information technology development. PMID:10387905

O'Donnell, C

1999-01-01

335

Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.?METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time of the incident. The literature on the long term health risks of asbestos was reviewed, and combined with evidence on asbestos exposure to estimate community health risk.?RESULTS—Risk was almost entirely from exposure to fire fallout of chrysotile in asbestos bitumen paper covering the factory roof. Amosite was only detected in a few samples and in trace amounts. The number of people who lived in the area of fallout was 16 000 to 48 000. From a non-threshold model with assumptions likely to overestimate risk, the lung cancer risk is estimated to be undetectably small. Risk of mesothelioma from chrysotile exposure, and risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma from amosite exposure were based on observational studies and were estimated to be even lower than that of lung cancer risk from chrysotile exposure. Academically, there are assumptions that while reasonable cannot be proven, for example, the validity of extrapolating observed risk from much higher exposures to lower exposures, estimates of individual exposure, and that there is no threshold for asbestos to cause cancer.?CONCLUSIONS—The author is unaware of a similar study on long term health risks in a community exposed to asbestos in a fire. It is concluded that, using methods that do not underestimate risk, risk is undetectably small. Practical lessons from this methodology and approach to health risk assessment are discussed.???Keywords: asbestos; environmental pollutants; mesothelioma; health risk assessment; lung cancer PMID:11707487

Bridgman, S

2001-01-01

336

Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that their heterosexual peers, but spoke less about religion. CONCLUSIONS Not only should this issue be studied in more detail, but preventative actions aimed at adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior should be widened. PMID:24789636

de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

2014-01-01

337

Situational, Psychosocial, and Physical Health—Related Correlates of HIV\\/AIDS Risk Behaviors in Homeless Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biopsychosocial perspective is employed to assess associations among situational and psychosocial variables related to health, health care, and HIV\\/AIDS risk behaviors among 479 homeless men (aged 18-64 years). Poor health was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors and was only modestly associated with injection drug use (IDU). Health care was not significantly associated with sexual risk behavior or

Judith A. Stein; Adeline M. Nyamathi; Jazmin I. Zane

2009-01-01

338

Clinical risk management in mental health: a qualitative study of main risks and related organizational management practices  

PubMed Central

Background A scientific understanding of clinical risk management (CRM) in mental health care is essential for building safer health systems and for improving patient safety. While evidence on patient safety and CRM in physical health care has increased, there is limited research on these issues in mental health care. This qualitative study provides an overview of the most important clinical risks in mental health and related organizational management practices. Methods We conducted in-depth expert interviews with professionals responsible for CRM in psychiatric hospitals. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed applying qualitative content analysis to thematically sort the identified risks. Results The main concerns for CRM in mental health are a) violence and self-destructive behavior (i.e. protecting patients and staff from other patients, and patients from themselves), b) treatment errors, especially in the process of therapy, and c) risks associated with mental illnesses (e.g. psychosis or depression). This study identified critical differences to CRM in hospitals for physical disorder and challenges specific to CRM in mental health. Firstly, many psychiatric patients do not believe that they are ill and are therefore in hospital against their will. Secondly, staff safety is a much more prominent theme for CRM in mental health care as it is directly related to the specifics of mental illnesses. Conclusions The current study contributes to the understanding of patient safety and raises awareness for CRM in mental health. The mental health specific overview of central risks and related organizational management practices offers a valuable basis for CRM development in mental health and an addition to CRM in general. PMID:23379842

2013-01-01

339

Reporting risk, producing prejudice: how news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.  

PubMed

News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. PMID:24785268

Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

2014-06-01

340

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-04-01

341

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

2013-12-01

342

Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

2010-01-01

343

High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

2007-01-01

344

FOCUSING ON CHILDREN?S INHALATION DOSIMETRY AND HEALTH EFFECTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...

345

FOCUSING ON CHILDREN'S INHALATION DOSIMETRY AND HEALTH EFFECTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION (Journal Article)  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...

346

Applying the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to Rural Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined current health risk behaviors of rural college freshmen using elements of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS). Student surveys indicated that for some behaviors, the incidence among these rural students was higher than the incidence among freshmen from the NCHRBS (e.g., binge drinking, ever smoking marijuana, and…

Peterson, Yasenka

2001-01-01

347

Human Health Risk Assessment of Non-Regulated Xenobiotics in Recycled Water: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water suppliers face increased pressure to explain the relative health risks from non-regulated xenobiotics that may be present in recycled water, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds. This report reviews their occurrence, fate, and recent human health risk assessments for potable and non-potable water reuse. The most effective advanced treatment for PPCPs is reverse osmosis

Jean-François Debroux; Jeffrey A. Soller; Megan H. Plumlee; Laura J. Kennedy

2012-01-01

348

Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

2012-01-01

349

The Effects of Occupational Health and Safety Risk Factors on Job Satisfaction in Hotel Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational health and safety risk factors can have direct or indirect effects on levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and the job productivity of workers in service companies as well as other types of industries. In this paper, the effects of physical, biological, chemical and socio-psychological risk factors, related to occupational safety and health, encountered in hotel enterprises on job

Gonca Kilic; Murat Selim Selvi

2009-01-01

350

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns Are Associated With Selected Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity\\/mortality. METHODS. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Lon- gitudinal Study of Adolescent Health;

Melissa C. Nelson; Penny Gordon-Larsen

2009-01-01

351

New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

352

Effective risk communication in children's environmental health: lessons learned from 9/11.  

PubMed

In situations with visible threats to children's health, pediatric health care providers must be prepared to communicate the health risks of environmental exposures. Several factors influence the effectiveness of such discussions: whether the individual providing the information is considered a reliable source, the familiarity of the physician and parent/guardian with these issues, and the limited research specifically assessing risk of exposure in childhood. This article describes the theory behind effective risk communication using examples from events following September 11, 2001. It shares lessons learned and provides a template for risk communication that can guide pediatric providers. PMID:17306682

Galvez, Maida P; Peters, Richard; Graber, Nathan; Forman, Joel

2007-02-01

353

Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

2014-05-01

354

The Perfect Place to Work? Australian Academic Libraries and Unacceptable Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the stereotype of libraries as peaceful retreats, unacceptable behaviour is a reality that desk staff have to deal with. This paper outlines the results of two surveys conducted at Charles Darwin University Library to investigate the extent to which this is a problem in Australian academic libraries. The first survey went to CAUL (Council…

Moorcroft, Heather

2009-01-01

355

[Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].  

PubMed

The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). PMID:20221968

Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

2010-03-01

356

Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).  

PubMed

The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. PMID:25454234

Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

2015-01-01

357

Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

1992-01-01

358

HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study described HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons and determined factors associated with HIV. METHODS: We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among male-to-female transgender persons was 35%. African American race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82, 11.96), a history of injection drug use (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.56, 4.62), multiple sex partners (adjusted OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.50, 4.62), and low education (adjusted OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.68) were independently associated with HIV. Among female-to-male transgender persons, HIV prevalence (2%) and risk behaviors were much lower. Most male-to-female (78%) and female-to-male (83%) transgender persons had seen a medical provider in the past 6 months. Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: High HIV prevalence suggests an urgent need for risk reduction interventions for male-to-female transgender persons. Recent contact with medical providers was observed, suggesting that medical providers could provide an important link to needed prevention, health, and social services. PMID:11392934

Clements-Nolle, K; Marx, R; Guzman, R; Katz, M

2001-01-01

359

Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

Pastorok, R.A.

1986-06-01

360

[Health risks in different living circumstances of mothers. Analyses based on a population study].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the living circumstances ('Lebenslagen') in mothers which are associated with elevated health risks. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n?=?3129) with underage children. By means of a two-step cluster analysis ten different maternal living circumstances were assessed which proved to be distinct with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position, employment status and family-related factors. Out of the ten living circumstances, one could be attributed to higher socioeconomic status (SES), while five were assigned to a middle SES and four to a lower SES. In line with previous findings, mothers with a high SES predominantly showed the best health while mothers with a low SES tended to be at higher health risk with respect to subjective health, mental health (anxiety and depression), obesity and smoking. However, there were important health differences between the different living circumstances within the middle and lower SES. In addition, varying health risks were found among different living circumstances of single mothers, pointing to the significance of family and job-related living conditions in establishing health risks. With this exploratory analysis strategy small-scale living conditions could be detected which were associated with specific health risks. This approach seemed particularly suitable to provide a more precise definition of target groups for health promotion. The findings encourage a more exrensive application of the concept of living conditions in medical sociology research as well as health monitoring. PMID:25355424

Sperlich, Stefanie

2014-12-01

361

Risk of hip fracture according to the World Health Organization criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of hip fracture is commonly expressed as a relative risk. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of relative risks of hip fracture in men and women using World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria for low bone mass and osteoporosis. Reference data for bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, from the third National

J. A Kanis; O Johnell; A Oden; B Jonsson; C De Laet; A Dawson

2000-01-01

362

Communicating with Risk Takers: Information Sources and Health Attitudes, Beliefs, and Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven studies explored the relationships between risk-taking predispositions and health attitudes, beliefs, and involvement. Data were gathered from surveys, and from lab and field experiments on 1,323 subjects. Findings indicated five risk-taking factors: adventurousness, rebelliousness, impulsiveness, physical risk taking, and unconventional…

Ferguson, M. A.; And Others

363

An Exploratory Study of College Health-Risk Behaviors: Implications for Campus Programs and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…

Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.

2000-01-01

364

A comparison of methods used to assess human health and ecological risks from petroleum releases  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum hydrocarbons are usually evaluated for purposes of human health risk assessment in terms of their constitutents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene [BTEX] and polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]). However, when BTEX and PAHs are not detected but petroleum hydrocarbons are present (i.e., TPH mixtures are detected), it may be necessary to evaluate TPH as a chemical of potential concern. Methods and guidance are currently under development for assessing human health risks for exposure to TPH. However, less information is available for evaluating the effects of TPH on ecological receptors. Available information on evaluating ecological risks associated with TPH exposures for representative aquatic and terrestrial receptors was reviewed and compared to methods and guidance used to evaluate human health risks for TPH exposures. A method for integrating ecological risk assessments into ASTM`s Risk-Based Corrective Action guidance is presented. In addition, comparative acceptable risk values for TPH components are presented.

DeShields, B.R.; Book, S.; Wood, R. [Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [MEC Analytical Systems, Tiburon, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

365

A macro environmental risk assessment methodology for establishing priorities among risks to human health and the environment in the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

A macro environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodology was developed for the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) as part of the US Agency for International Development Industrial Environmental Management Project. The DENR allocates its limited resources to mitigate those environmental problems that pose the greatest threat to human health and the environment. The National Regional Industry Prioritization Strategy (NRIPS) methodology was developed as a risk assessment tool to establish a national ranking of industrial facilities. The ranking establishes regional and national priorities, based on risk factors, that DENR can use to determine the most effective allocation of its limited resources. NRIPS is a systematic framework that examines the potential risk to human health and the environment from hazardous substances released from a facility, and, in doing so, generates a relative numerical score that represents that risk. More than 3,300 facilities throughout the Philippines were evaluated successfully with the NRIPS.

Gernhofer, S.; Oliver, T.J. [PRC Environmental Management, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Vasquez, R.

1994-12-31

366

Health risk assessment maps for arsenic groundwater content: application of national geochemical databases.  

PubMed

This investigation assesses the feasibility of calculating and visualizing health risk estimates from exposure to groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) using data from national geochemical databases. The potential health risk associated with As-contaminated groundwater was assessed based on an elaboration of existing geochemical data in accordance with accepted methodological procedures established for human health risk assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology). A screening analysis approach was used for estimating the contribution of As to the total chronic health risk from exposure to groundwater contaminated with potentially toxic elements, including As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn, and the results indicate that As contributes significantly (>50%) to this total health chronic risk in about 10% of Slovak territory. Based on the calculation of the potential risk level by exposure modelling, increased chronic as well as carcinogenic risk levels (medium to high) were documented in approximately 0.2 and 11% of the total Slovak area, respectively. The areas characterized by high health risk levels are mainly those geogenically contaminated. High and very high carcinogenic risk was determined in 34 of 79 districts and in 528 of 2924 municipalities. PMID:17256097

Rapant, Stanislav; Krcmová, Katarína

2007-04-01

367

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

368

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

2002-01-01

369

Socioeconomic disparities in health change in a longitudinal study of US adults: the role of health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans’ Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education

Paula M. Lantz; John W. Lynch; James S. House; James M. Lepkowski; Richard P. Mero; Marc A. Musick; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

370

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

371

[Electronic deficit as a possible health risk factor].  

PubMed

There is presented the analysis of medical-demographic situation in Russia, and the increase in population mortality is shown both to be associated with the degradation of the geosphere and alongside with other factors determined by the change in the electronic state of the environment. On the base of the interrelationship between the electronic saturation of the environment and an increase in population mortality and morbidity there is established a such risk factor for human health and life, which may currently become one out of significant, videlicet, the electronic deficit. In conditions of its appearance there are proposed options solving this problem by means of elaboration of the scientific rationale for the impact of the electronic deficit on the human organism and the creation of technologies providing environmental--medical safety of the population by virtue of the correction of the electronic state of the human habitat, food and drinking water and the implementation of the system for monitoring electronic abundance of the environment. PMID:24749272

Rakhmanin, Y A; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V

2014-01-01

372

Jewelry boxes contaminated by Aspergillus oryzae: an occupational health risk?  

PubMed

In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: (1) decontaminate the boxes, (2) return the boxes to the Chinese manufacturer, or (3) destroy the entire shipment. Based on microscopic identification, the culture analysis was positive for A. oryzae. This could not be confirmed by molecular techniques because of the genetic proximity of A. oryzae and A. flavus. Because A. flavus can produce aflatoxins, we tested for them using mass spectrometry. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 were not detected; however, given the specifics of this situation, we could not discard the possibility of the presence of other aflatoxins, such as P1, B3, GM2, and ethoxyaflatoxin B2. We concluded that the contamination by A. oryzae was probably due to food products. However, because of the possible presence of aflatoxins, occupational health risks could not be entirely ruled out. The decision was therefore taken to destroy all the jewelry boxes by incineration. To avoid a similar situation we propose: (1) to maintain conditions limiting mold contamination during production (not eating on the work site, efficient ventilation systems); (2) to desiccate the products before sending them; and (3) to closely control the levels of dampness during storage and transport. PMID:22702230

Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Roussel, Anaïs; Millon, Laurence; Delaforge, Marcel; Reboux, Gabriel

2012-01-01

373

Another evolvement of the cost and risk shifting model: consumer-driven health plans.  

PubMed

The US health care system has changed dramatically over the past forty years or so. This paper analyzes its potential transformation into a consumer-driven health care system (with the newly enacted HSAs and the increased popularity of employer defined contributions). The emphasis in the first part is the evolution of the role of providers (mostly physicians) into bearers of financial risk and gatekeepers. The second part discusses the new consumer-driven health care proposals and its potential impact on the future of health care as it pertains to putting consumers under financial risk and gives them a perceived sense of control over health care decisions. PMID:16583745

Saleh, Shadi S; Levin, Peter

2006-01-01

374

Comparative assessment of transport risks — how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy- makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as

Tord Kjellstrom; Lorrae van Kerkhoff; Gabriele Bammer; Tony McMichael

2003-01-01

375

Preventive Health Practices and Behavioural Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screening and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We compared

Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; E. Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

2012-01-01

376

Preventive Health Practices and Behavioral Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screenings, and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We

Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; Eisar Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

2012-01-01

377

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

2013-01-01

378

Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

379

Implementing health information exchange for public health reporting: a comparison of decision and risk management of three regional health information organizations in New York state.  

PubMed

Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version. PMID:23975626

Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A

2014-02-01

380

Implementing health information exchange for public health reporting: a comparison of decision and risk management of three regional health information organizations in New York state  

PubMed Central

Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version. PMID:23975626

Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A

2014-01-01

381

Possible roles for quantitative risk assessment (QRA) in the field of health care and health care regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discipline of risk assessment has developed primarily over the last two decades out of two principal public fears -- radiation and cancer. As a discipline, it has become an integral part of regulatory reform and management science. Three different cultures have been the primary practitioners of the risk analysis discipline: (1) engineers as applied to engineered systems, (2) health scientists primarily in relation to environmental impacts, and (3) social scientists with respect to public participation and societal threats. The engineers and physical scientists have been the most active in developing the discipline of probabilistic risk assessment -- or, as it is increasingly referred to, quantitative risk assessment (QRA). It is QRA that has been our field of interest for the past two decades. The purpose of this summary is to define QRA, suggest a possible role in the health care field, and to make some observations about QRA, health care, and government regulations.

Garrick, B. John; Dykes, Andrew A.; Kaplan, Stan

1995-10-01

382

Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

Atilola, Olayinka

2014-01-01

383

Acculturation, Coping Styles, and Health Risk Behaviors Among HIV Positive Latinas  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationships among acculturation, coping styles, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and medication non-adherence among 219 Latinas living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles, CA. Coping styles were hypothesized to mediate the link between acculturation and health risk behaviors for HIV positive Latinas. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater acculturation was related to less positive coping and more negative coping. In turn, negative coping was associated with more health risk behaviors and more non-adherence. Positive coping was associated with less substance use as reflected in use of cigarettes and alcohol and less non-adherence. Coping styles mediated the relationship between acculturation and health risk behaviors. Findings echo previous works examining the Hispanic Health Paradox wherein more acculturated Latinos exhibit increased risk behavior and maladaptive coping styles. HIV/AIDS interventions need to be mindful of cultural differences within Hispanic populations and be tailored to address these differences. PMID:19847637

Sánchez, Mónica; Stein, Judith; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01

384

Risk factors for mental health problems in school-age children from a community sample.  

PubMed

The epidemiological dimension of mental health problems in childhood and its impact warrant new studies. Knowledge about the predictors of mental health in children is scant in developing countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian school-age children based on a community sample from primary health care services, with the aim of verifying the predictive value of biological, social, and familial risk factors in children's mental health. The study was performed with 120 children of both genders identified through their mothers. The children's mental health was evaluated by sociodemographic factors and a diagnostic interview conducted with parents. Biological, social, and familial risk factors were evaluated by the Supplemental Questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Of the 120 children, 45.8 % were diagnosed with at least one mental health disorder. Children with diagnoses of depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presented evidence of greater exposure to risk factors compared with children without these psychiatric diagnoses. Children with more risk factors throughout their lifetime had greater comorbidities compared with children with a lower number of risk factors. The identification of groups exposed to interconnected risk factors represents a priority when planning mental health practices. The strong role of chronic familial risk factors needs to be emphasized because they are a possible target for the prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders. PMID:23212399

Mendes, Ana Vilela; Souza Crippa, José Alexandre de; Souza, Roberto Molina; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

2013-12-01

385

Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

2013-01-01

386

Why income inequality indexes do not apply to health risks.  

PubMed

Several recent papers have sought to apply inequality measures from economics, such as the Atkinson Index (AI) for inequality of income distributions, to compare the risk inequality of different mortality risk distributions in an effort to help promote efficiency and environmental justice in pollution-reducing interventions. Closer analysis suggests that such applications are neither logically coherent nor necessarily ethically desirable. Risk inequality comparisons should be based on axioms that apply to probabilistic risks, and should consider the multidimensional and time-varying nature of individual and community risks in order to increase efficiency and justice over time and generations. In light of the limitations of the AI applied to mortality risk distributions, it has not been demonstrated to have ethical or practical value in helping policymakers to identify air pollution management interventions that reduce (or minimize) risk and risk inequity. PMID:22211377

Cox, Louis Anthony

2012-02-01

387

Relationships between animal health monitoring and the risk assessment process.  

PubMed

Risk assessment is part of the risk analysis process as it is used in veterinary medicine to estimate risks related to international trade and food safety. Data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS) are used throughout the risk assessment process for hazard identification, release assessment, exposure assessment and consequence assessment. As the quality of risk assessments depends to a large extent on the availability and quality of input data, there is a close relationship between MO&SS and risk assessment. In order to improve the quality of risk assessments, MO&SS should be designed according to minimum quality standards. Second, recent scientific developments on state-of-the-art design and analysis of surveys need to be translated into field applications and legislation. Finally, knowledge about the risk assessment process among MO&SS planners and managers should be promoted in order to assure high-quality data. PMID:11875856

Stärk, K D; Salman, M D

2001-01-01

388

School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.  

PubMed Central

Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem. PMID:8982520

Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K.; Friedman, S. B.

1996-01-01

389

Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

1992-01-01

390

Health risk perceptions across time in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk research has tended to focus on the elements of a risk that make it of more concern to the public or characteristics of the individual that change their risk perceptions. While these two lines of research have identified a number of important factors they have, for the most part, been isolated in time. This study begins to introduce time

John T. Brady

2011-01-01

391

Health risk perceptions across time in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk research has tended to focus on the elements of a risk that make it of more concern to the public or characteristics of the individual that change their risk perceptions. While these two lines of research have identified a number of important factors they have, for the most part, been isolated in time. This study begins to introduce time

John T. Brady

2012-01-01

392

Gambling with Your Health: Predictors of Risk for AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in terms of risk-related behaviors, and to investigate the factors that may be involved in putting one at risk, a study conducted telephone interviews with 493 randomly selected adults (18 years or older) in Austin, Texas in the fall of 1987. Respondents answered approximately 40…

Lasorsa, Dominic L.; Shoemaker, Pamela J.

393

The effect of information on health risk valuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effect of familiarity with chronic lung disease on people's willingness to pay to reduce their risk of contracting chronic bronchitis, and on their willingness to increase their risk of auto death to reduce chronic bronchitis risk. We find that persons who have a relative with chronic lung disease are willing to give up more income to

Alan J. Krupnick; Maureen L. Cropper

1992-01-01

394

77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment To Inform...for the external review draft of ``A Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform...below. This draft document describes a framework for conducting human health risk...

2012-07-30

395

77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform...experts to review the draft document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform...panel meeting on the draft document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to...

2012-09-12

396

RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific  

E-print Network

RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

Barker, Jon

397

'He did what? Well, that wasn't handed over!' Communicating risk in mental health.  

PubMed

Mental health inpatient units are dynamic, complex environments that provide care for patients with heterogeneous ages, diagnoses and levels of acuity. These environments commonly expose clinicians and patients to many potential risks. Despite extensive research into risk assessment, prediction and management, no study has investigated how risk information is communicated at handover in acute mental health settings. Given the pivotal role handover plays in informing risk management, this evidence gap is significant. This paper reports on a study that investigated the practices of communicating risk at handover in an Australian acute mental health inpatient unit. The aim of this research was to identify the frequency and type of risk information communicated between nursing shifts, and the methods by which this communication was performed. A secondary aim was to identify effective and ineffective risk communication practices. This study involved an observational design method using a 14-item Clinical Audit Tool derived from handover principles outlined by World Health Organization. Five hundred occasions of patient handover were observed. Few risk information items were observed to be communicated in any method. Risk communication practice was inconsistent, and a key recommendation from the study is the use of standardized handover tools that ensures risk information is adequately reported. PMID:22827401

Millar, R; Sands, N

2013-04-01

398

Occupational stress among staff nurses: Controlling the risk to health  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress. Job stress brought about hazardous impacts not only on nurses’ health but also on their abilities to cope with job demands. Objectives: This study aimed at finding out the degree of work-related stress among the staff nurses and various determinants, which have a impact on it. Materials and Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study conducted on GNM qualified nurses. Predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire covering their sociodemographic variables in part I and professional life stress scale by David Fontana in part II. Analysis used was Chi-square test and logistic regression for various factors. Results: Risk for professional stress due to poor and satisfactory doctor's attitude was found about 3 and 4 times more than with excellent attitude of doctors toward the staff nurses. A statistically significant association (P < 0.024) between department of posting and level of stress. Nurses reported that they had no time for rest, of whom 42% were suffering from moderate-to-severe stress. The nurses who felt that the job was not tiring were found to be less stressed as those who perceived job as tiring (OR = 0.43). Conclusion: The main nurses’ occupational stressors were poor doctor's attitude, posting in busy departments (emergency/ICU), inadequate pay, too much work, and so on. Thus, hospital managers should initiate strategies to reduce the amount of occupational stress and should provide more support to the nurses to deal with the stress. PMID:25568598

Sharma, Parul; Davey, Anuradha; Davey, Sanjeev; Shukla, Arvind; Shrivastava, Kajal; Bansal, Rahul

2014-01-01

399

Carcinogenic chemicals in food: evaluating the health risk.  

PubMed

The presence of a low level of potentially harmful chemicals in food continues to be a concern to many individuals. A major concern is that these chemicals, which can be synthetic or naturally occurring, may be a causative factor in human cancer. Synthetic chemicals in food may be present either as specific additives or as contaminants derived from environmental or agricultural chemicals. Food also contains a variety of naturally occurring chemicals derived from vegetables or other plants. These may in some cases be considered as contaminants, and are occasionally used as specific additives. New chemicals can also be formed during the cooking or preserving processes. The capacity of any of these chemicals to induce cellular damage and mutation is minimized by natural defence systems such as an efficient cellular detoxification system and DNA repair. The factors influencing tumour formation in humans are numerous and interrelated and exposure to minor dietary chemicals needs to be considered in this context. Thus, the results of animal carcinogenicity assays on individual chemicals need to be interpreted with care, taking into account the mechanisms by which mutagenic and other chemicals initiate cancer, as well as the level of human exposure to these chemicals. Further research is necessary to determine the role, if any, of minor dietary components in tumour formation. Meanwhile, there needs to be a more holistic approach to the multitude of factors, including total diet, that may influence human cancer incidence. In this way, the relative risk of dietary chemicals may be given a more meaningful perspective for health professionals and consumers alike. PMID:1628869

Abbott, P J

1992-04-01

400

Socioeconomic differences in health risk behaviour in adolescence: do they exist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Socio?economic,diÄerences in risk behaviors,in adolescence,can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio?economic,health diÄerences in adulthood. We studied whether,or not socio?eco- nomic,diÄerences in health risk behaviors,are present in male and,female adolescents in The Nether- lands. The relation between socio?economic status (SES) and health risk behaviors was examined, by testing both the main,and interaction eÄects of SES and gender

J. Tuinstra; J. W. Groothoff; D. Van; D. Post

1998-01-01

401

Assessment of health risk behaviours and their interrelationships among young people from two counties of Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The first goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of different health risk behaviours among Romanian young people.\\u000a Next, the interrelationship between different health risk behaviours as well as age and gender differences with respect to\\u000a health risk behaviours were examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a sample of 1,598 junior high school students, senior high

Lucia Maria Lotrean; Valeria Laza; Carmen Ionut; Hein de Vries

2010-01-01

402

Perceptions of Personal Risk About Smoking and Health Among Bosnian Refugees Living in The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 60% of Bosnian refugees in the United States may be current smokers. Examining health beliefs can provide insight\\u000a into smoking behaviors in this community. Four hundred ninety-nine Bosnians were interviewed about health beliefs and personal\\u000a health risks related to smoking. ANOVA was used to compare current, former, and never smokers. General health beliefs were\\u000a significantly different by smoking

Jenine K. Harris; Ajlina Karamehic-Muratovic; Stephanie H. Herbers; Sarah Moreland-Russell; Robin Cheskin; Kari A. Lindberg

403

Risk.  

PubMed

The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

2015-02-15

404

78 FR 9701 - Draft Joint Food and Drug Administration/Health Canada Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health Canada Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Listeriosis From Soft-Ripened Cheese...Canada Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Listeriosis From Soft-Ripened Cheese...and Canada.'' This draft Quantitative Risk Assessment (the draft QRA) includes...

2013-02-11

405

Health-risk assessment of chemical contamination in Puget Sound seafood. Final report 1985-1988  

SciTech Connect

This report provides resource management and health agencies with a general indication of the magnitude of potential human health risks associated with consumption of recreationally harvested seafoods from Puget Sound. Data collection and evaluation focused on a variety of metal and organic contaminants in fish, shellfish and edible seaweeds from 22 locations in the Sound. EPA risk assessment techniques were used to characterize risks to average and high consumer groups for both carcinogens and noncarcinogens. Theoretical risks associated with consumption of both average and high quantities of Puget Sound seafood appear to be comparable to or substantially less than those for fish and shellfish from other locations in the United States.

Williams, L.

1988-09-01

406

Instrumentation in Health Education and the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) Instrument  

E-print Network

This journal article format dissertation examined aspects of survey research methodology in health education. In the first study, the author examined articles published in Health Education and Behavior, Health Education Journal, Health Education...

Smith, Matthew L.

2010-01-14

407

Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.  

PubMed

Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction. PMID:25238457

Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

2014-12-01

408

Nurse versus community health worker identification of psychosocial risks in pregnancy through a structured interview.  

PubMed

A structured psychosocial risk screening interview, the Prenatal Risk Overview, was administered to 733 women in prenatal care. Either a community health worker (CHW) or a registered nurse (RN) conducted the interview based on day of the week. A comparison of identified risk factors found no significant differences between study samples for six of 13 domains. For CHW interviews, significantly more participants were classified as Moderate/ High Risk for Depression, Lack of Telephone Access, Food Insecurity, and Housing Instability, and as High Risk for Lack of Social Support, Lack of Transportation Access, and Housing Instability. For RN interviews, significantly more participants were classified as High Risk for Alcohol Use. Community health workers successfully conducted psychosocial screening and elicited more self-reported risk than RNs, especially lack of basic needs. Comparing the hourly salary/ wage, the cost for CHWs was 56% lower than for RNs. Preliminary findings support use of paraprofessionals for structured screening interviews. PMID:24185153

Godecker, Amy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Sidebottom, Abbey C

2013-11-01

409

Young People's Perspectives on Health: Empowerment, or Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research to date has identified young people's perspectives on a number of health-related topics such as smoking, alcohol, sexual health, physical activity and healthy eating. Whilst this body of research draws important attention towards young people's views on topical health concerns, it arguably remains located within a pre-defined…

Spencer, Grace

2013-01-01

410

Parental Income and Risk Behaviour as Determinants of Adolescent Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between health and income among adults is well established. Adolescent health and parental income has not received the same attention. In this study we look at household income both as a direct determinant of adolescent health and as an important factor in relation to behavioural patterns among adolescents. The data used is from two surveys conducted in a

Ivar Pettersen

2009-01-01

411

Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials are recommended to reduce indoor VOCs exposure. PMID:24244522

Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

2013-01-01

412

Climate change and health risks: assessing and responding to them through 'adaptive management'.  

PubMed

Climate change and associated changing weather patterns, including severe weather events, are expected to increase the prevalence of a wide range of health risks. Yet there is uncertainty about the timing, location, and severity of these changes. Adaptive management, a structured process of decision making in the face of imperfect information, is an approach that can help the public health field effectively anticipate, plan for, and respond to the health risks of climate change. In this article I describe adaptive management and how it could increase the effectiveness of local and national strategies, policies, and programs to manage climate-sensitive health outcomes. PMID:21555476

Ebi, Kristie

2011-05-01

413

Automatic Identification of Web-Based Risk Markers for Health Events  

PubMed Central

Background The escalating cost of global health care is driving the development of new technologies to identify early indicators of an individual’s risk of disease. Traditionally, epidemiologists have identified such risk factors using medical databases and lengthy clinical studies but these are often limited in size and cost and can fail to take full account of diseases where there are social stigmas or to identify transient acute risk factors. Objective Here we report that Web search engine queries coupled with information on Wikipedia access patterns can be used to infer health events associated with an individual user and automatically generate Web-based risk markers for some of the common medical conditions worldwide, from cardiovascular disease to sexually transmitted infections and mental health conditions, as well as pregnancy. Methods Using anonymized datasets, we present methods to first distinguish individuals likely to have experienced specific health events, and classify them into distinct categories. We then use the self-controlled case series method to find the incidence of health events in risk periods directly following a user’s search for a query category, and compare to the incidence during other periods for the same individuals. Results Searches for pet stores were risk markers for allergy. We also identified some possible new risk markers; for example: searching for fast food and theme restaurants was associated with a transient increase in risk of myocardial infarction, suggesting this exposure goes beyond a long-term risk factor but may also act as an acute trigger of myocardial infarction. Dating and adult content websites were risk markers for sexually transmitted infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conclusions Web-based methods provide a powerful, low-cost approach to automatically identify risk factors, and support more timely and personalized public health efforts to bring human and economic benefits. PMID:25626480

Borsa, Diana; Hayward, Andrew C; McKendry, Rachel A; Cox, Ingemar J

2015-01-01

414

Post-conflict environmental health risk: the role of risk analysis in foreign pol- icy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the valuable role that risk analysis and disas- ter research can play in redefining national security, particularly for post- conflict construction and development policies. Drawing from environmental risk assessment methodologies, this research highlights how environmental changes before and during conflict can alter risk vulnerabilities, putting par- ticular groups at greater risk and increasing chances for future conflict.

C. M. Briggs

415

Health Risks and Changes in Self-Efficacy Following Community Health Screening of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses  

PubMed Central

Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants’ self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

Cook, Judith A.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Swarbrick, Margaret A.; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J.; Santos, Alberto

2015-01-01

416

Health risk management in the Tasmanian abalone diving industry.  

PubMed

Risk management is a systematic process applied to all aspects of diving operations. The process aims to reduce accidents and adverse outcomes to a minimum. Risk results from a combination of probability and consequence, and where this combination has major or extreme impact, the risk should not be tolerated. Over the four years 2001-2004, the incidence of decompression illness amongst abalone divers in Tasmania was 1.4 cases per 100 divers per year. Risk management in diving encompasses medical fitness, education and training, dive planning, equipment and maintenance, emergency procedures and equipment, and continual vigilance to remedy new risks as they are identified. There is still much to achieve in the Tasmanian abalone diving industry in all areas of risk management. PMID:23111899

Smart, David

2010-06-01

417

Financial Risks From Ill Health in Myanmar: Evidence and Policy Implications.  

PubMed

The government of Myanmar, with support from international donors, plans to address household financial risks from ill health and expand coverage. But evidence to design policy is limited. WHS (World Health Survey) data for 6045 households were used to investigate the association of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, catastrophic expenditures, and household borrowing and asset sales associated with illness with key socioeconomic and demographic correlates in Myanmar. Households with elderly and young children and chronically ill individuals, poor households, and ethnic minorities face higher financial stress from illness. Rural households use less care, suggesting their lower OOP health spending may be at the cost of health. Poorer groups rely more on public sector health services than richer groups. Better targeting, increased budgetary allocations, and more effective use of resources via designing cost-effective benefits packages appear key to sustainably addressing financial risks from ill health in Myanmar. PMID:25424245

Htet, Soe; Fan, Victoria; Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

2014-11-25

418

How do Students Conceptualise Health and its Risk Factors? A Study among Iranian Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the concept of children concerning their health and its risk factors, a group of primary and middle school students were asked to draw a few relevant pictures in order to deeply explore the comprehension of this key group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1165 students, aged 7-15 years old, selected through random stratified sampling, were asked to draw a number of eight paintings, four paintings on health concepts, and the other four on health risk factors. The paintings were then assessed by two independent observers, and their themes and contents were abstracted and analysed. Results: The students drew a total of 2330 paintings, 1165 paintings on the concept of health, and 1165 paintings on health risk factors. The most and least expressed health concepts concerned “mental health” and “healthy diet” (73.3% and 4.8%, respectively). Considering health risk factors, “unhealthy diet” and the two concepts of “environmental hazards” and “neglected personal hygiene” had the most (95%) and least (1.4% each) frequencies. Students in public schools, primary level and girls drew more pictures about health concept or/and its risk factors (P<0.05). The association between parents’ education level and the numbers of pictures were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Although students had a broad view about health and its risk factors, generally little attention had been paid to some of the main aspects such as physical activity, healthy diet, mental and oral health, and environmental hazards. In addition, it seems that parents’ educational level, as one of the main socio-economic factors, did not have any significant impact on their concepts. PMID:24596834

Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Ashrafi Asgar-Abad, Ahad; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Alam, Mahin; Esmaeili, Maryam; Hojabri, Neda

2013-01-01

419

Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

420

What You Should Know about Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits  

MedlinePLUS

WHATYOUSHOULDKNOWABOUT Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits V aginal dryness and hot flashes that result from lower levels of ... lives. Although some women are good candidates for hormone therapy (HT), they are unsure about taking it ...

421

A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN (FINAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children , which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the...

422

Effects of a Multicomponent Intervention Program on Reducing Health Risk in Obese Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summer day camp program featuring supervised physical activity, behavioral management, nutrition education, and family involvement helped obese children (N=13) to modify their physical fitness levels and reduce their health risk. (CB)

Ward, Dianne S.; And Others

1988-01-01

423

EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAM Exercise Risk Assessment Form Division of Kinesiology and Health Science Pilates Mat Class  

E-print Network

activity? Yes No Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs for your blood pressure or heart conditionEMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAM Exercise Risk Assessment Form Division of Kinesiology and Health Science

de Lijser, Peter

424

Investigating the role of human genomewide heterozygosity as a health risk factor   

E-print Network

Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the most commonly used approaches to measure individual genome-wide heterozygosity (IGWH) and to investigate whether IGWH can be considered as a health risk factor or a ...

Polasek, Ozren

2009-01-01

425

Social media and health care professionals: benefits, risks, and best practices.  

PubMed

Health care professionals can use a variety of social media tools to improve or enhance networking, education, and other activities. However, these tools also present some potential risks, such as unreliable information and violations of patients' privacy rights. PMID:25083128

Ventola, C Lee

2014-07-01

426

The Readmission Risk Flag: Using the Electronic Health Record to Automatically Identify Patients at Risk for 30-day Readmission  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of patients at high risk for readmission is a crucial step toward improving care and reducing readmissions. The adoption of electronic health records (EHR) may prove important to strategies designed to risk stratify patients and introduce targeted interventions. Objective To develop and implement an automated prediction model integrated into our health system’s EHR that identifies on admission patients at high risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. Design Retrospective and prospective cohort. Setting Healthcare system consisting of three hospitals. Patients All adult patients admitted from August 2009 to September 2012. Interventions An automated readmission risk flag integrated into the EHR. Measures Thirty-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned healthcare system readmissions. Results Using retrospective data, a single risk factor, ?2 inpatient admissions in the past 12 months, was found to have the best balance of sensitivity (40%), positive predictive value (31%), and proportion of patients flagged (18%), with a c-statistic of 0.62. Sensitivity (39%), positive predictive value (30%), proportion of patients flagged (18%) and c-statistic (0.61) during the 12-month period after implementation of the risk flag were similar. There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. Conclusions An automated prediction model was effectively integrated into an existing EHR and identified patients on admission who were at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. PMID:24227707

Baillie, Charles A.; VanZandbergen, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Hanish, Asaf; Leas, Brian; French, Benjamin; Hanson, C. William; Behta, Maryam; Umscheid, Craig A.

2015-01-01

427

Family Structure, Mother–Daughter Relationship Quality, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Girls' Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 7,114 adolescent girls (4,269 White, 1,707 African American, and 1,138 Hispanic) and biological mothers from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined how family structure, girls' perceptions of mother–daughter relationship quality, and race and ethnicity related to girls' health risks. In general, results indicate heightened risk for both precocious events and

Michael J. Merten; Carolyn S. Henry

2011-01-01

428

The Risk Behaviors and Mental Health of Detained Adolescents: A Controlled, Prospective Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the behavioral risk factors and mental health needs of adolescents in juvenile detention centers (JDC).MethodA total of 238 boys aged 12–17 years was surveyed who had been admitted to a detention center and compared them with boys from the community (n = 238) matched for sex and age. We assessed behavioral risk factors and mental health problems by

Zhenhua Zhou; Hongyan Xiong; Ran Jia; Guoyu Yang; Tianyou Guo; Zhaoyou Meng; Guangyu Huang; Yao Zhang

2012-01-01

429

Socioeconomic status and the risk of major depression: the Canadian National Population Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere are few longitudinal studies investigating the risk of major depression by socioeconomic status (SES). In this study, data from the longitudinal cohort of Canadian National Population Health Survey were used to estimate the risk of major depressive episode (MDE) over 6 years by SES levels.MethodsThe National Population Health Survey used a nationally representative sample of the Canadian general population.

J. L. Wang; N. Schmitz; C. S. Dewa

2010-01-01

430

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher

Scott F. Stoltenberg; Bryan D. Batien; Denis G. Birgenheir

2008-01-01

431

Novel Computerized Health Risk Appraisal May Improve Longitudinal Health and Wellness in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Objectives Health Risk Appraisals (HRAs) have been implemented in a variety of settings, however few studies have examined the impact of computerized HRAs systematically in primary care. The study aimed at the development and pilot testing of a novel, comprehensive HRA tool in primary care practices. Methods We designed, implemented and pilot tested a novel, web-based HRA tool in four pair-matched intervention and control primary care practices (N = 200). Outcomes were measured before and 12 months after the intervention using the HRA, patient surveys, and qualitative feedback. Intervention patients received detailed feedback from the HRA and they were encouraged to discuss the HRA report at their next wellness visit in order to develop a personalized wellness plan. Results Estimated life expectancy and its derivatives, including Real Age and Wellness Score were significantly impacted by the HRA implementation (P<0.001). The overall rate of 10 preventive maneuvers improved by 4.2% in the intervention group vs. control (P = 0.001). The HRA improved the patient-centeredness of care, measured by the CAHPS PCC-10 survey (P = 0.05). HRA use was strongly associated with better self-rated overall health (OR = 4.94; 95% CI, 3.85–6.36) and improved up-to-dateness for preventive services (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12–1.32). A generalized linear model suggested that increase in Wellness Score was associated with improvements in patient-centeredness of care, up-to-dateness for preventive services and being in the intervention group (all P<0.03). Patients were satisfied with their HRA-experience, found the HRA report relevant and motivating and thought that it increased their health awareness. Clinicians emphasized that the HRA tool helped them and their patients converge on high-impact, evidence-based preventive measures. Conclusions Despite study limitations, results suggest that a comprehensive, web-based, and goal-directed HRA tool can improve the receipt of preventive services, patient-centeredness of care, behavioral health outcomes, and various wellness indicators in primary care settings. PMID:23650489

Nagykaldi, Z.J.; Voncken-Brewster, V.; Aspy, C.B.; Mold, J.W.

2013-01-01

432

Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can provide no more than partial answers to the questions of environmental interactions, interindividual variability, and optimal control levels. Future prospective studies should involve assessment of astronaut well being using sophisticated measures during exposures to levels of CO2 in the range from 2 to 8 mmHg.

James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

2010-01-01

433

Divorce and women's risk of health insurance loss.  

PubMed

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J

2012-01-01

434

Assessment and Evaluation of Risks to Health from Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos, thalidomide, and smog in the environment have all given spectacular evidence of the power of man-made chemical substances to harm people. Phenobarbitone, paracetamol, DDT and penicillin are chemicals that have given large benefits for small risk. Epidemiological evidence allows us to consider dose, response and cost for some of these. For new chemicals we try to assess risk before

A. E. M. McLean

1981-01-01

435

Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon  

SciTech Connect

Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes.

Fisher, D.R.

1980-01-01

436

Human health and performance risk management—an approach for exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During long duration exploration missions, maintaining human health and performance will be essential to enabling success. Therefore, NASA has developed standards through the Health and Medical Technical Authority to insure human health and performance during exploration. Human health standards are the first step in defining acceptable risk for human space flight and take into consideration both short-term (mission) and long-term (lifetime) health risk. These standards are based on the best medical evidence from terrestrial standards; analog spaceflight environments; and spaceflight experience. Standards drive the development of focused program requirements to mitigate risks associated with specific missions. Program requirements include vehicle design as well as health care systems including medical, environmental and countermeasures. NASA has also developed the risk mitigation analysis tool (RMAT), a process to evaluate the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies. The RMAT facilitates documentation and analysis of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies, enables NASA to baseline a risk mitigation approach based on the best evidence, and provides the traceability from research and technology development projects to specific mission deliverables.

Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

437

Social capital and risk and protective behaviors: a global health perspective  

PubMed Central

Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes. PMID:23243387

Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang

2011-01-01

438

Psychosocial risks in the workplace: an increasing challenge for german and international health protection.  

PubMed

Occupational health in a changing world has to face up to psychosocial risks to protect the health of employees now and in the future. Faster production, service and communication processes, a service- and knowledge-based society, an increasing proportion of intellectual work, growing complexity of work-related demands, new technologies and constant availability, mobility demands, and job insecurity contribute to the problem of psychosocial risks in the workplace. Psychosocial risks affect both physical and psychosocial health. There is scientific evidence of the link between psychosocial work-related stress and cardiovascular diseases, affective disorders or musculoskeletal disorders, especially chronic back pain.The Framework Directive on Safety and Health makes it very clear that employers are obliged "to ensure the safety and health of workers in every aspect relating to work". In spite of these far reaching obligations, a kind of taboo sometimes makes it hard to focus on topics that have psychosocial implications. A large number of models, instruments and methods are now available to gauge psychosocial risks in the workplace. Given the clear contrast between knowledge and application, there is not a lack of knowledge in this regard, but rather a lack of application.In Germany, statutory accident insurance institutions are guided by two key principles: putting prevention before rehabilitation and rehabilitation before compensation. To prevent work-related health risks the BG RCI has developed several prevention tools to help employers and employees deal with psychosocial risks in the workplace. PMID:22728794

Portuné, Roland

2012-06-01

439

Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

2014-01-01

440

Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

Brust-Renck, Priscila G; Royer, Caisa E; Reyna, Valerie F

2013-10-01

441

The pasteurized state: milk, health and the government of risk.  

PubMed

In the late 1940s, Florence Sabin, a retired professor of medicine, returned to her home in Colorado to launch a massive public health campaign. Seeing "filthy milk" as an important vector of disease, she struggled not just pasteurized milk, but a pasteurized state government that was capable of regulating the milk industry. In the process, she brought managerialism into public health by fighting against the political machines and introducing Robert McNamara's systems analysis into government for the first time. Sabin's innovation, which united business, government and public health in new ways, transformed the way that public health is managed even today. PMID:21840061

Dunn, Elizabeth Cullen

2011-06-01

442

Financial Risk Protection and Universal Health Coverage: Evidence and Measurement Challenges  

PubMed Central

Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC. PMID:25244520

Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B.

2014-01-01

443

Impact of consumers' health beliefs, health involvement and risk perception on fish consumption : A study in five European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, health involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption behaviour in five European countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Cross-sectional data were collected through a pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples representative for age and region in Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Poland. First, the cross-cultural validity

Zuzanna Pieniak; Wim Verbeke; Joachim Scholderer; Karen Brunsø; Svein Ottar Olsen

2008-01-01

444

The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment.Design Health impact assessment study.Setting Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain.Participants 181 982 Bicing subscribers.Main outcomes measures The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity,

David Rojas-Rueda; Audrey de Nazelle; Marko Tainio; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen

2011-01-01

445

Risk management: FIFA's approach for protecting the health of football players  

PubMed Central

Background Sport and exercise have long-term health benefits, but there is also a risk that participants will sustain injuries and/or ill health from these activities. For this reason, international sports governing bodies have a responsibility to identify the risks that exist within their sport and to provide guidance to participants and other stakeholders on how these risks can be controlled within acceptable levels. Purpose To demonstrate how Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), as football's governing body, uses a risk management framework to identify, quantify, mitigate and communicate the risks of injury and ill health in football for men, women and children in all environments. Method All the research papers published by FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) during the period 1994 to 2011 were reviewed and categorised according to an established sport-related risk management framework. Conclusions F-MARC investigated and mitigated 17 areas of risk to footballers' health in a coherent and consistent approach through the process of risk management. PMID:22143999

Fuller, Colin W; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2012-01-01

446

A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

F. Jay Murray

1995-01-01

447

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

448

From Risk to Resilience: Promoting School-Health Partnerships for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the globe, educational and health practitioners wrestle daily with the paradoxes of risk and resilience. Though the causes of risk are generally outside the control of professionals, manifestations of disadvantage directly affect service delivery and the realizing of accountability benchmarks. This article proposes a shift in attention from…

Richardson, Jeanita W.

2008-01-01

449

How Much Do Rural Hispanics Know about the Adverse Health Risks of Smoking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 137 rural Hispanic Americans surveyed in central California--over half having limited English proficiency and less than a 7th-grade education--almost all knew that smoking causes lung cancer and osteoporosis, but less than half knew of smoking's other health risks. Current smokers were most likely to underestimate smoking risks. (Contains 26…

Butkovic, Tania; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Hughes, Susan; Lourie, Andrea; Schafer, Sean

2001-01-01

450

Designing Health Care Risk Management On-Line: Meeting Regulators' Concerns for Fixed-Hour Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experience of creating a continuing professional education on-line risk management program that is designed to meet Florida's educational requirements for licensure as a risk manager in health-care settings and details the challenges faced when the in-class didactic program of 15 eight-hour sessions is reformatted as an…

Hyer, Kathryn; Taylor, Heidi H.; Nanni, Kenneth

2004-01-01

451

Exclusion, ‘risk’, and social control—reflections on community policing and public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

With traditional formalized and authoritarian means of social control—legal punishments, deterrence, compliance—rendering ineffective or insufficient, the effective ‘exclusion’ of people and behaviors on the basis of a calculus of ‘risk’ and ‘risk management’ has emerged as a primary mechanism of social control, under the governing umbrellas of local ‘health’ and ‘safety’. Drawing on examples from the arenas of community policing

Benedikt Fischer; Blake Poland

1998-01-01

452

Reduction in Sexual Risk Behaviors among College Students Following a Comprehensive Health Education Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers studied college students' sexual behavior and the association of a comprehensive health education program with subsequent sexual risk behavior modifications. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated the intervention created short-term reduction in sexual risk behaviors, but the reduction varied according to gender. (SM)

Turner, James C.; And Others

1993-01-01

453

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study  

E-print Network

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study Abstract There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three

Gross, Amit

454

Health risk behaviours among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to review and summarize research on prevalence of health risk behaviours, their outcomes as well as risk and protective factors among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean. METHODS: Searching of online databases and the World Wide Web as well as hand searching of the West Indian Medical Journal were conducted. Papers on research done

Rohan G Maharaj; Paula Nunes; Shamin Renwick

2009-01-01

455

Risk-Based Health Care of Pediatric Cancer Survivors - Office of Cancer Survivorship  

Cancer.gov

Currently, 78 percent of pediatric cancer patients survive more than 5 years; 1 in 640 young adults in the United States is a cancer survivor. Nonetheless, survivors face increased risk of serious health issues and increased risk of early death compared to the general population.

456

EPA'S RESEARCH TO IMPROVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS (RIHRA) PROGRAM: OVERVIEW AND WATER-RELATED RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal law requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess drinking water risks and to set standards to insure a safe drinking water supply. iven limited data, risk assessors rely on high dose experimental data, results from occupational health studies, and other da...