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1

Lorcaserin. In obesity: unacceptable risks.  

PubMed

Treatment of obesity and overweight is based primarily on dietary measures and physical exercise.There are still no drugs with a favourable harm-benefit balance in this setting. Lorcaserin, a "selective" 5HT2C serotonin receptor agonist, has been refused marketing authorisation in the European Union despite approval in the United States. Clinical evaluation of lorcaserin is based on three placebo-controlled trials, each lasting one year, in a total of about 6000 patients. Two trials involved obese patients, and one obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of these trials are undermined by the large proportion (40% to 50%) of patients who were lost to follow-up before the end of the trial. None of the trials examined the impact of lorcaserin on the clinical complications of obesity. From an average initial weight of about 100 kg, patients taking lorcaserin lost only about 3 kg more than those in the placebo groups.The patients put on weight again after lorcaserin was discontinued. Adverse effects observed in clinical trials were mainly gastrointestinal (dry mouth, nausea) and neuropsychiatric (dizziness, fatigue, headache, euphoria). The incidence of cardiac valve disorders was higher with lorcaserin than with placebo. These trials were too short in duration to exclude a risk of cancer (breast cancer and astrocytoma) that was reported in experimental animals. This serotonin agonist is metabolised by the liver, creating a risk of multiple drug interactions. In practice, lorcaserin has not been shown to prevent complications of obesity or even lead to substantial weight loss.There is therefore no justification for exposing patients to the risk of adverse effects. PMID:24926508

2014-05-01

2

Tolcapone: new drug. In Parkinson's disease: unacceptable risk of severe hepatitis.  

PubMed

(1) When patients with Parkinson's disease who are taking levodopa develop motor fluctuations that do not respond to dose adjustments, the standard treatment is the addition of bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist. Evaluation of entacapone fails to show whether the risk-benefit balance of this catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor is at least as favourable as that of bromocriptine. (2) Tolcapone, another COMT inhibitor, is back on the French market after being withdrawn because of serious hepatic effects. The summary of product characteristics (SPC) specifies that tolcapone must only be used when entacapone treatment fails or is poorly tolerated. (3) Renewal of marketing authorisation was based on one clinical trial in which about half the patients were probably not resistant to entacapone. No difference in efficacy was found between tolcapone and entacapone. There is no firm evidence that tolcapone is effective in a significant number of patients in whom entacapone fails. (4) Placebo-controlled trials show that first-line treatment with tolcapone 100 mg to 200 mg 3 times a day reduces the duration of motor freezing ("off") periods, but the global impact of tolcapone on parkinsonism appears to be limited. (5) Unblinded randomised controlled trials have failed to show that tolcapone is more effective than bromocriptine or pergolide. There are no trials assessing the use of tolcapone in combination with dopamine agonists. (6) Adverse effects were frequent during clinical trials. They were mainly neurological and gastrointestinal, and differed from those associated with bromocriptine. In 1988, shortly after worldwide marketing of tolcapone, 3 cases of fatal fulminant hepatitis were reported among about 60 000 patients who had taken this drug. Some countries, including European Union member states, withdrew marketing authorisation. Other countries, including the United States, left tolcapone on the market but required stringent monitoring of liver function. Due to a lack of transparency on the part of both the manufacturer and the health authorities, we do not know if these measures reduced the risk of severe hepatitis. In the trial versus entacapone, one of the 75 patients treated with tolcapone 300 mg/day had an abnormal increase in serum transaminase activity. (7) In practice, tolcapone has a negative risk-benefit balance. PMID:16604736

2006-04-01

3

Ethnocentrism is an unacceptable rationale for health care policy: a critique of transplant tourism position statements.  

PubMed

Medical tourism has emerged as a global health care phenomenon, valued at $60 billion worldwide in 2006. Transplant tourism, unlike other more benign forms of medical tourism, has become a flashpoint within the transplant community, underscoring the uneasy relationships among science, religion, politics, ethics and international health care policies concerning the commercialization of transplantation. Numerous professional associations have drafted or issued position statements condemning transplant tourism. Often the criticism is misdirected. The real issue concerns both the source and circumstances surrounding the procurement of donor organs, including commercialization. Unfortunately, many of the position statements circulated to date represent an ethnocentric and decidedly western view of transplantation. As such, the merits of culturally insensitive policy statements issued by otherwise well-intended transplant professionals, and the organizations they represent, must be evaluated within the broader context of foreign relations and diplomacy, as well as cultural and ethical relativity. Having done so, many persons may find themselves reluctant to endorse statements that have produced a misleading social desirability bias, which, to a great extent, has impeded more thoughtful and inclusive deliberations on the issues. Therefore, instead of taking an official position on policy matters concerning the commercial aspects of transplantation, international professional associations should offer culturally respectful guidance. PMID:18444938

Evans, R W

2008-06-01

4

Radon Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Health Risks (September 2009) The United Nation's World Health Organization ( ... page, 26 K) . For More Information on Radon Health Risks Radon Frequently Asked Questions EPA's 2003 Updated Radon ...

5

An approach for balancing health and ecological risks at hazardous waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health and ecological risks must be balanced at hazardous waste sites in order to ensure that remedial actions prevent unacceptable risks of either type. Actions that are designed to protect humans may fail to protect nonhuman populations and ecosystems or may damage ecosystems. However, there is no common scale of health and ecological risk that would allow comparisons to

Glenn W. Suter II; R. N. Hull; M. Stack; B. W. Cornaby; C. T. Hadden; Fred A. Zafran

1995-01-01

6

Eczema Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Eczema Health Risks HealthDay January 22, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Eczema ... with eczema. But a new study finds the health risks from this disease may go way beyond the ...

7

[Health risks from pest control products].  

PubMed

According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use. PMID:24781915

Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

2014-05-01

8

Monitoring Risk & Health Behaviors  

Cancer.gov

The Applied Research Program supports surveys designed to assess the prevalence of individual and societal risk factors and health behaviors that mediate cancer incidence, morbidity, mortality, and survival.

9

HEALTH RISKS OF OBESITY  

PubMed Central

Obesity is becoming of interest as a non-communicable disease. There is however a dearth of information on obesity in this environment, as literature in developing countries is limited. Review of health risks of obesity is useful in order to increase the pool of available information in Nigeria and to draw attention to obesity and its attendant health risks. PMID:25161465

Ogunbode, A.M.; Fatiregun, A.A.; Ogunbode, O.O.

2009-01-01

10

Health risks of obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is becoming of interest as a non-communicable disease. There is however a dearth of information on obesity in this environment, as literature in developing countries is limited. Review of health risks of obesity is useful in order to increase the pool of available information in Nigeria and to draw attention to obesity and its attendant health risks. PMID:25161465

Ogunbode, A M; Fatiregun, A A; Ogunbode, O O

2009-12-01

11

Using simple imaging markers to predict prognosis in patients with aortic valve stenosis and unacceptable high risk for operation.  

PubMed

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) in patients >75 years of age is a challenge for diagnosis and management of every day clinical routine. Therefore, this clinical follow-up study aims to investigate predictors of death in patients with advanced stages of AS. In a single-center study, all patients (n = 157) with primary conservatively treated severe AS (mean age 78 ± 6 years) were included. All patients had initially refused aortic valve replacement (AVR). During a median follow-up of 2.6 years (quartiles 1.7, 3.8), 62 patients with severe AS switched to AVR and 95 remained conservatively treated (no AVR). Routine clinical data were assessed together with conventional echocardiography including the measurement of longitudinal wall function and deformation (mitral ring displacement and longitudinal strain and strain rate imaging). The end points were all-cause and cardiac death. During follow-up, cardiac death occurred in 49% in no-AVR group. In a Cox regression analysis, New York Heart Association functional class, valvuloarterial impedance, stroke volume, longitudinal strain and strain rate, and mitral annular displacement identified an increased risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] for mitral annular displacement 15.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.24 to 40.86, p <0.001, positive predictive value 91%). In contrast, ejection fraction or EuroSCORE was not predictive (ejection fraction: HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.33, p = 0.25; EuroSCORE: HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.02, p = 0.64). Furthermore, in multivariate regression analysis, only longitudinal mitral annular displacement and longitudinal strain rate was a significant predictor of all-cause and cardiac death risk. These data show that prognosis in elderly patients with AS is determined by symptoms, hemodynamics, and particularly by cardiac long-axis function. Thus, for risk stratification, a comprehensive assessment of cardiac function including the measurement of longitudinal mitral annular displacement should be considered. PMID:24012027

Herrmann, Sebastian; Bijnens, Bart; Störk, Stefan; Niemann, Markus; Hu, Kai; Liu, Dan; Kettner, Robin; Rau, Daniel; Strotmann, Jörg; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank

2013-12-01

12

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to help instructors and students locate and use online databases and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to research environmental risks in their own neighborhoods. Materials include a tutorial that provides a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory, using an example in Bozeman, Montana. The activity page contains an assignment and instructions for completing environmental health risk inventories, and there is also a page of links to mapping tools available on the internet, links to the tutorials for each mapping tool, and a list of online databases with searchable health-related information and data.

Laurie Cantwell

2004-01-01

13

Environmental Health Risk Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To complete this activity, students can follow the instructions and the tutorial in the Environmental Health Risk Inventory website. In doing this, they will gain an understanding of how to use on-line tools and databases as well as the processes of compiling an environmental health risk inventory for a specific locale. In the activity, students will address the question: "how healthy is your neighborhood?" Students will address anthropogenic and naturally-occurring health risks in their hometown or neighborhood by using data collected from online mapping tools and databases. Students will also complete a reflective summary based on the data that they collect.

Laurie Cantwell

14

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's always great to learn about an interesting new resource for teaching college students about environmental health, and this one is quite handy. Created as part of the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College, the Environmental Health Risk Assessment site helps instructors and students "locate and use some of the numerous health-related tools and databases that can be found on the web." Here visitors can look over the Tutorial, which is designed to give interested parties a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory. Also, the site includes an activity that can be used in the classroom, along with a list of vetted mapping tools available across the Web. The site is rounded out by four external links to related resources, including one that looks at the relationship between geology and human health.

2010-02-26

15

Cigarettes Health Risks  

E-print Network

Cigarettes Health Risks Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of disease and death lung disease. New studies have shown that about half of all regular cigarette smokers die percent of these deaths are from cancer, 35 percent from heart disease and stroke, and 25 percent from

Oregon, University of

16

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides  

MedlinePLUS

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides Este Web page está disponible en español Questions on Pesticides? Contact the National Pesticide Information ... Types of Toxicity Tests EPA Requires for Human Health Risk Assessments EPA evaluates studies conducted over different periods ...

17

Plastics and health risks.  

PubMed

By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics. PMID:20070188

Halden, Rolf U

2010-01-01

18

Population health: the risks & reward.  

PubMed

Hospitals' new focus on population health and the transition to risk-based payment requires new technical capabilities and may dramatically transform care systems. Here's how some health systems are stepping up. PMID:24693733

Larkin, Howard

2014-02-01

19

Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

Kundrot, Criag E.

2011-01-01

20

Health Risks of Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

Cohen, Bernard L.

1978-01-01

21

Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

Rowe, M.D.

1992-09-18

22

Health risks of obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... High blood cholesterol or triglycerides High blood glucose (sugar), a sign of type 2 diabetes These other risk factors for heart disease and stroke are not caused by obesity: Having a family member under the age of ...

23

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

de Gispert, Adrià

24

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Recommendations from this Report What CDC Is Doing Health Risks Among Sexual Minority Youth Sexual minority youth—those ... Report , “ Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9–12 in ...

25

"Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Articulos en Espanol “Light” Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... Cigarettes: Questions and Answers [ARCHIVED] FDA Warns of Health Risks Posed by E-Cigarettes [ARCHIVED] - - For More Information ...

26

Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement  

MedlinePLUS

... and Academic Achievement What is the relationship between health-risk behaviors and academic achievement? Data presented below from ... Percentage of high school students who engaged in health-risk behaviors, by type of grades earned (mostly A’s, ...

27

Risk Communication for Public Health Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk com- munication for public health. Literature from four different disci- plines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (a) environmental risk communication, (b) disaster management, (c) health promotion and

Deborah C. Glik

2007-01-01

28

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

29

Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

Borcherding, Donald

1997-01-01

30

Health risks of alcohol use  

MedlinePLUS

Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Publishing. 2013. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder: a comparison between DSM-IV ...

31

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673 Section 90.673 Telecommunication...Procedures and Process-Unacceptable Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...

2011-10-01

32

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

2014-10-01

33

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

2013-10-01

34

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

2012-10-01

35

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

2013-10-01

36

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673 Section 90.673 Telecommunication...Procedures and Process-Unacceptable Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...

2013-10-01

37

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

2012-10-01

38

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

2011-10-01

39

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

2010-10-01

40

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673 Section 90.673 Telecommunication...Procedures and Process-Unacceptable Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...

2010-10-01

41

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

2014-10-01

42

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673 Section 90.673 Telecommunication...Procedures and Process-Unacceptable Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...

2012-10-01

43

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

2010-10-01

44

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

2011-10-01

45

Health Risk Assessments for Alumina Refineries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10?6. Conclusions: The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries. PMID:24806721

Coffey, Patrick S.

2014-01-01

46

The Health Risks of Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report compiles scientific evidence and statistics on the health risks of weight loss interventions and is intended to help both professionals and consumers cope in healthful ways with the complex dilemmas of weight. The publication is organized into six chapters: (1) "Risks of Losing Weight"; (2) "Effectiveness of Treatment"; (3) "Weight…

Berg, Frances M.

47

[Forest health ecological risk assessment in China].  

PubMed

Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655

Xiao, Fengjin; Ouyang, Hua; Cheng, Shulan; Zhang, Qiang

2004-02-01

48

75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance AGENCY: Centers...development of guidance concerning Health Risk Assessment (HRAs). Section 4103...L. 111-148) requires that a health risk assessment be included in the...

2010-11-16

49

Health effects of risk-assessment categories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

1983-10-01

50

Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... 29.9 Obesity 30.0 and Above Waist Circumference Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come ... of Obesity-Associated Diseases by BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your ...

51

GMO: Human Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global level of consumption of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GMOs) is increasing rapidly, since their area of cultivation in the world rose to over 65 million ha in 2003. Environmental and consumer organizations have challenged official risk assessment and risk management on the grounds that long-term effects of GMOs have not been adequately addressed. The imaginary and

G. D'Agnolo; Viale Regina

2005-01-01

52

Health and environmental risks of energy systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

Hamilton, L.D.

1984-01-01

53

4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in grade/pay level or remove an employee for unacceptable performance in accordance with...reduced in grade/pay level or removed, and the employee's performance continues to...

2010-01-01

54

21 CFR 1305.25 - Unaccepted and defective electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. 1305.25 Section 1305...SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.25 Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. (a) No electronic...

2010-04-01

55

Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

2014-01-01

56

Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk  

PubMed Central

A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

Kokkinos, Peter

2012-01-01

57

Social roles, prestige, and health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection pressure from health risk is hypothesized to have shaped adaptations motivating individuals to attempt to become\\u000a valued by other individuals by generously and recurrently providing beneficial goods and\\/or services to them because this\\u000a strategy encouraged beneficiaries to provide costly health care to their benefactors when the latter were sick or injured.\\u000a Additionally, adaptations are hypothesized to have co-evolved that

Lawrence Scott Sugiyama; Michelle Scalise Sugiyama

2003-01-01

58

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known com...

59

Ozone Standards Pose Health Risks, Scientists Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A three-dimensional model of atmospheric chemistry was used to simulate background ozone for the United States. A great variability in ozone was found, depending upon the season, elevation, and geographic area. This indicates that the EPA is overestimating the ozone background level in the United States, and as a result is underestimating the health risk associated with ozone pollution.

AGU

60

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

61

Do You Know the Health Risks of Being Overweight?  

MedlinePLUS

... too much fat around your waist may increase health risks even more than having fat in other parts ... weight after delivery may help women reduce their health risks. For example, if a woman developed gestational diabetes, ...

62

What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity? Being overweight or obese ... and Teens Overweight and obesity also increase the health risks for children and teens. Type 2 diabetes once ...

63

A risk communication taxonomy for environmental health  

SciTech Connect

A classification system for risk communication can serve two major purposes: it provides a practical guide to techniques and establishes a framework for further development. By using traditional models of communication elements and management operations, this taxonomy has the advantage of being more readily adapted to the needs of environmental health professionals. Like all taxonomies, it should be continually revised and expanded by the professionals who use it.

Hatfield, T.H. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

64

Expedition health and safety: a risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Little has been published on the risks of participating in an expedition. A questionnaire survey was conducted to quantify those risks and to determine how expedition organizers plan for medical mishaps. 246 expeditions, taking 2381 participants to more than one hundred countries, were studied retrospectively. 65 expeditions (26%) reported no medical incidents; the remaining 181 reported 835 in 130,000 man-days (6.4 per 1000 man-days). 59% of the medical incidents seen on expeditions were preventable, one-third of these being due to gastrointestinal upsets. 78% of medical incidents were classified as minor and only 5% (40) as serious. There was no excess of serious incidents in any particular organizational group or environment. The findings of this survey suggest that the health risks of participating in a well-planned expedition are similar to those encountered during normal active life. PMID:11198684

Anderson, S R; Johnson, C J

2000-01-01

65

A toolbox for health risk related decisions  

SciTech Connect

Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

1996-10-01

66

Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.  

PubMed

The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development. PMID:21568625

Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

2011-01-01

67

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners  

SciTech Connect

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. 56 refs.

Short, S.R.; Petsonk, E.L. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States))

1993-01-01

68

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.  

PubMed

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

1993-01-01

69

Social disparities, health risk behaviors, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Overall cancer incidence rates decreased in the most recent time period in both men and women, largely due to improvements in surgical therapeutic approaches (tertiary prevention) and screening programs (secondary prevention), but differences in cancer incidence and survival according to socioeconomic status are documented worldwide. Health risk behaviors, defined as habits or practices that increase an individual’s likelihood of harmful health outcomes, are thought to mediate such inequalities. Discussion Obesity has been related with increased cancer incidence and mortality due to imbalance of leptin and adiponectin which are connected to activation of PI3K, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways and decreasing insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and mTOR signaling via activation of 5 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), respectively. Physical activity has been associated to prevent cancer by the aforementioned obesity-related mechanisms, but also increasing level of circulating vitamin D, which has been related to lower risk of several cancers, and increasing prostaglandin F2a and reducing prostaglandin E2, which are both related with cancer prevention and promotion, respectively. A large number of different substances may induce themselves a direct cytotoxicity and mutagenic action on cells by smoking, whereas alcohol promote immune suppression, the delay of DNA repair, inhibition of the detoxification of carcinogens, the production of acetaldehyde, and the contribution to abnormal DNA methylation. The combined smoking and alcohol drinking habits have been shown to increase cancer risk by smoke action of increasing the acetaldehyde burden following alcohol consumption and alcohol action of enhancing the activation of various procarcinogens contained in tobacco smoke. Conclusions Interventions at the social level may be done to increase awareness about cancer risks and promote changing in unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24267900

2013-01-01

70

Understanding Risk Management through an Environmental Health and Safety Template  

E-print Network

URMIA Understanding Risk Management through an Environmental Health and Safety Template 2008 URMIA system in the United States, made the transition from an institution whose risk management functions were chose to model its risk manage- ment function and methods after its environmental health and safety

Rosen, Jay

71

Risk Prediction in Sexual Health Contexts: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background In British Columbia (BC), we are developing Get Checked Online (GCO), an Internet-based testing program that provides Web-based access to sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Much is still unknown about how to implement risk assessment and recommend tests in Web-based settings. Prediction tools have been shown to successfully increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness of STI case finding in the following settings. Objective This project was designed with three main objectives: (1) to derive a risk prediction rule for screening chlamydia and gonorrhea among clients attending two public sexual health clinics between 2000 and 2006 in Vancouver, BC, (2) to assess the temporal generalizability of the prediction rule among more recent visits in the Vancouver clinics (2007-2012), and (3) to assess the geographical generalizability of the rule in seven additional clinics in BC. Methods This study is a population-based, cross-sectional analysis of electronic records of visits collected at nine publicly funded STI clinics in BC between 2000 and 2012. We will derive a risk score from the multivariate logistic regression of clinic visit data between 2000 and 2006 at two clinics in Vancouver using newly diagnosed chlamydia and gonorrhea infections as the outcome. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic will examine the model’s discrimination and calibration, respectively. We will also examine the sensitivity and proportion of patients that would need to be screened at different cutoffs of the risk score. Temporal and geographical validation will be assessed using patient visit data from more recent visits (2007-2012) at the Vancouver clinics and at clinics in the rest of BC, respectively. Statistical analyses will be performed using SAS, version 9.3. Results This is an ongoing research project with initial results expected in 2014. Conclusions The results from this research will have important implications for scaling up of Internet-based testing in BC. If a prediction rule with good calibration, discrimination, and high sensitivity to detect infection is found during this project, the prediction rule could be programmed into GCO so that the program offers individualized testing recommendations to clients. Further, the prediction rule could be adapted into educational materials to inform other Web-based content by creating awareness about STI risk factors, which may stimulate health care seeking behavior among individuals accessing the website. PMID:24300284

Gustafson, Paul; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

2013-01-01

72

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

2005-03-15

73

The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

2012-01-01

74

[Mass gatherings - health risks and preventive strategies].  

PubMed

Experience from mass gatherings - usually attended by at least 25'000 persons - shows that approximately one in a thousand participants will consult with an on-site medical emergency service. Communicable diseases usually play a minor role. Historically outbreaks of meningococcal disease were recorded after the hajj, but this has been well controlled in the past few years subsequent to vaccinations and other measures required by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia health authorities. Major stress of the regional public health system is associated with accidents and non-communicable diseases, the majority being trivial. Host and environmental risk factors can result in a dramatic increase in the rate of consultations: Age and pre-existing illness play a decisive role particularly in pilgrims, be that in Mecca or Lourdes. Emotional factors may influence behavior; aggressions can develop. Alcohol and drugs, also the duration of an event may play a decisive role. Extreme climatic conditions, both heat and cold, also exhaustion result in a dramatic increase of emergency consultations. Infrastructure must be adapted for the crowd size, particularly stampede associated disasters can be avoided. The World Health Organization and other interested expert groups have in the past few years formulated interdisciplinary programs for prevention. PMID:23732452

Steffen, Robert

2013-06-01

75

21 CFR 1305.25 - Unaccepted and defective electronic orders.  

...2014-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. 1305.25 Section 1305.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic...

2014-04-01

76

21 CFR 1305.25 - Unaccepted and defective electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. 1305.25 Section 1305.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic...

2011-04-01

77

21 CFR 1305.25 - Unaccepted and defective electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. 1305.25 Section 1305.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic...

2012-04-01

78

21 CFR 1305.25 - Unaccepted and defective electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. 1305.25 Section 1305.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic...

2013-04-01

79

Accuracy of Parents' Perceptions of Their College Student Children's Health and Health Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared parents' perceptions of their college student children's health and health risk behaviors with the college students' own reports. One hundred sixty-four parent-college student child dyads completed questionnaires regarding the students' health, illness status, and health risk behaviors. Parents tended to be overoptimistic…

Bylund, Carma L.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Baxter, Leslie A.

2005-01-01

80

Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ®) What ... be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for ...

81

Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.  

PubMed

Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed. PMID:24188299

Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

2014-01-01

82

Assessment of Human Health Risk of Dioxin in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the daily exposure to dioxin using comparable approach methods in order to predict the human health risks of dioxin on the general adult population and incinerator workers in Korea. The health risk assessment of dioxin involved four scenarios (General-Direct, General-Breast Milk, General-Blood, and Worker-Blood). The risks were described in terms of the excess cancer risk and the

Youngwook Lim; Jiyeon Yang; Youngsoo Kim; Yoonseok Chang; Dongchun Shin

2004-01-01

83

The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

Bamberg, Richard; And Others

1990-01-01

84

An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species.

Suter, Glenn W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin L. King Drive, MC-A130, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)]. E-mail: suter.glenn@epa.gov; Vermeire, Theo [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (Netherlands); Munns, Wayne R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin L. King Drive, MC-A130, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Sekizawa, Jun [Tokushima University (Japan)

2005-09-01

85

Risk Factors, Health Risks, and Risk Management for Aircraft Personnel and Frequent Flyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such

Jeoum Nam Kim; Byung Mu Lee

2007-01-01

86

Soldier Characteristics, Alcohol Abuse Risk, and Mental Health Risk as Treatment Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat exposure and other factors associated with military service may place soldiers at increased risk of substance use and mental health issues. We examine the importance of soldier characteristics and risk for alcohol abuse and mental health issues in predicting entry into treatment for alcohol abuse and treatment for mental health issues among active duty soldiers (n = 43,342). Results

A. Monique Clinton-Sherrod; Kelle Barrick; Deborah A. Gibbs

2011-01-01

87

Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

NONE

1997-02-01

88

A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia); Goh, Yang Miang [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

2012-01-15

89

Catalogue of Risks: Natural, Technical, Social and Health Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Financial, geophysical, and terrorist-related disasters have been headline news in the past few months. As amply demonstrated on a regular basis, the recognition and evaluation of risks are skills that could be more widespread. As such, Proske's Catalogue of Risks is timely and of potential interest. The book is a revised and expanded version of an earlier German publication that aims to provide an encyclopedic discussion of issues related to risks and disasters, with a goal of facilitating an understanding of the components and assessment of risk. The book includes chapters that discuss the difficulty of coming to a consensus on a definition of risk, a comprehensive range of risks and disasters, objective risk measures, subjective risk judgment, quality of life measures, and legal aspects of risk. The book ends with an example of applying the concepts discussed to ship impacts against bridges.

Ebi, Kristie L.

2009-01-01

90

Health and flood risk: A strategic assessment of adaptation  

E-print Network

Health and flood risk: A strategic assessment of adaptation processes and policies Roger Few, Mike Technical Report 17 #12;Health and flood risk: A strategic assessment of adaptation processes and policies, UEA) Mike Ahern (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, LSHTM) Franziska Matthies (UEA) Sari

Watson, Andrew

91

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes

S. Moses; R. C. Bailey; A. R. Ronald

1998-01-01

92

Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard

J. M. Farber; W. H. Rossb; J. Harwig

1996-01-01

93

TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

94

Nuclear power — is the health risk too great?  

PubMed Central

Apparently objective and value-free `scientific' assessments of health risks are often highly value-laden and incorporate contentious social assumptions. Mr Wynne exposes some of the complexities underlying attempts to compare the health risks of nuclear and other sources of energy. PMID:7108912

Wynne, B E

1982-01-01

95

Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

96

The Measurement of Health Behavior Change: The Health Behavior Risk Factor Prevalence Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses some issues concerning the use of written instruments for measuring health behavior change. A description is given of the Health Behavior Risk Factor Prevalence Survey which was developed to identify group members' risk-taking behaviors. This instrument was used to measure the health behaviors of a group of employees in the…

Sutherland, Mary; And Others

97

The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

2001-01-01

98

Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

2011-01-01

99

Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.?METHODS—The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.?RESULTS—In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.?CONCLUSIONS—Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.???Keywords: self rated health; risk behaviours PMID:11604437

Carlson, P

2001-01-01

100

Rural Latino adolescent health: Preliminary examination of health risks and cultural correlates.  

PubMed

Latino adolescents living in rural settings may be at increased risk of health problems; however, data describing the health status of this population are limited. This study examined 60 rural Latino adolescents and found high rates of health risk, including at-risk/clinical results for hemoglobin A1C (23.3%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55%), systolic blood pressure (21.7%), and overweight/obesity (55%). Time in sedentary behaviors was high and physical activity was limited. Adolescent language use was associated with health risk status, with greater use of English associated with lower risk. Health psychologists could promote improved health by providing health behavior interventions to this underserved population. PMID:23520352

Nelson, Timothy D; Kidwell, Katherine M; Armenta, Brian E; Crockett, Lisa J; Carlo, Gustavo; Whitbeck, Les B

2013-03-21

101

Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers  

PubMed Central

Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

2008-01-01

102

Developing a risk-based air quality health index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

2013-09-01

103

78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualitative environmental and human health risk assessments for ancymidol based...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for both dietary (food...toxicological endpoints for human health risk assessment and because...

2013-03-20

104

78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...has conducted a qualitative human health risk assessment for the dietary (food...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for both dietary (food...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for dietary...

2013-09-27

105

75 FR 82400 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance; Public Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance; Public Forum...assist development of guidance for Health Risk Assessments (HRAs). Section...L. 111-148) requires that a Health Risk Assessment be included in the...

2010-12-30

106

75 FR 76525 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 101 Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease...1. The importance of the health risk addressed by the claim 2...1. The Importance of the Health Risk Addressed by the Claim...

2010-12-08

107

76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends...reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

2011-08-24

108

76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability...availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration...comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all...

2011-07-06

109

78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...There was no need for a human health risk assessment due to acetaminophen's...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for both dietary (food...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for dietary (food...

2013-06-26

110

77 FR 9842 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...formerly 2006P-0316)] Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease...for phytosterols and the risk of CHD health claim that, pending publication...for the phytosterols and risk of CHD health claim. This document...

2012-02-21

111

Measuring Attitudes toward Acceptable and Unacceptable Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high…

Budd, Karen S.; Behling, Steven; Li, Yan; Parikshak, Sangeeta; Gershenson, Rachel A.; Feuer, Rachel; Danko, Christina M.

2012-01-01

112

What environmental and technological risk communication research and health risk research can learn from each other  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of risk perception and communication has emerged in several disciplines and fields, and there has not been strong convergence between them, especially in Europe and specifically in Britain. The lack of connection between, for example, the fields of health risk and environmental and technological risk, and still more with respect to fears of crime or old age poverty

Ragnar E. Löfstedt; Perri

2008-01-01

113

Cancer Risk Reduction in Mexican American Women: The Role of Acculturation, Education, and Health Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-factor schema for the development of culturally appropriate cancer risk reduction interventions for Mexican American women. Regarding this approach, risk factors for two major cancer areas are reviewed: cigarette smoking and obesity\\/diet. We first describe a schema that facilitates the planning of strategies associated with preferred health interventions and preventive approaches for cancer risk reduction with

Hector Balcazar; Felipe G. Castro; Jennifer L. Krull

1995-01-01

114

IMPROVING THE USE OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiolic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. The paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. The approach recognizes that the various designs used to increase...

115

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY Risk Management Services, University of Alberta www investigation Interpret legislation Lab close-out Education and training Maintain reference library of codes Provide technical expertise and service to departments in aspects of hazardous waste management, re

Machel, Hans

116

Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

Breslow, Lester

1978-01-01

117

Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women  

PubMed Central

Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

2013-01-01

118

INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

119

Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

120

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

121

Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

2013-01-01

122

Precautionary Health Risk Assessment: Case Study of Biological Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional risk assessment approaches, experts define the scientific questions that can legitimately be asked and the burden of proof is on the potentially exposed community to show that a proposal is unsafe. Here I propose an alternative approach, precautionary health risk assessment, in which the scientific questions to be addressed are defined by community consultation. I illustrate the approach

Simon Hales

2004-01-01

123

Health Risks Information Reaches Secondary School Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess smoking prevention and cessation education delivered as part of the UK National Curriculum and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of health, social influence and other/non-health components. In all, 1789 students aged 11-15 from 12 secondary schools completed online surveys assessing smoking status,…

Ridout, Fran; Charlton, Anne; Hutchison, Iain

2008-01-01

124

Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multiple insurance funds serving different population groups may compromise equity due to differential revenue raising capacity and an unequal distribution of high risk members among the funds. This occurs when the funds exist without mechanisms in place to promote income and risk cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Methods Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Results There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status to CHF households, but a lower concentration of identified risk factors. Conclusion Mechanisms for broader risk spreading and cross-subsidisation across the funds are necessary for the promotion of equity. These include risk equalisation to adjust for differential risk distribution and revenue raising capacity of the funds. Expansion of CHF coverage is equally important, by addressing non-financial barriers to CHF enrolment to encourage wealthy non-members to join, as well as subsidised membership for the poorest. PMID:25574326

Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis

2014-01-01

125

Department of Environmental Health & Safety Risk Management Services  

E-print Network

receive health & safety training specific to the hazards present in the lab. Where a laboratory or coreDepartment of Environmental Health & Safety Risk Management Services November 2009 Version 1 January 2012 Version 2 Occupational Hygiene & Chemical Safety 780 492 6888 1 LABORATORY SPECIFIC SAFETY

Machel, Hans

126

Essays on health economics and risk preferences  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three essays on hospital response to regulation and risk preferences. Chapter 1 analyzes the Medicare Flex Program which allowed rural hospitals with fewer than 25 beds to convert to ...

Pascu, Iuliana

2013-01-01

127

Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.  

PubMed Central

Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens. PMID:6763817

Scriver, C. R.

1982-01-01

128

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

129

HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

130

HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

131

Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

1992-06-01

132

[The Meninos do Rio Program: lifeworld, adolescence, and health risks].  

PubMed

This study focuses on health risks among teenagers from two towns in the Sao Francisco River Valley (Ibiai and Morada Nova) and slums in Morro das Pedras, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study discusses teaching and extracurricular activities by the Federal University in Minas Gerais in these localities, aimed at promoting health in adolescence. The authors use the Habermas communicative action theory as the main theoretical and methodological approach. The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology, including dynamic observation, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires answered by high school students. Sexuality, work, and violence were the main themes and were associated with numerous health risks. Work in the 10-to-14-year-old group was associated with nearly all types of health risks. The authors analyze the relations between context and adolescent behavior using the Habermasian concept of lifeworld colonization. PMID:15692636

Melo, Elza Machado de; Faria, Horácio Pereira de; Melo, Maria Aparecida Machado de; Chaves, Adriana Braga; Machado, Graziela Paronetto

2005-01-01

133

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

2008-01-01

134

Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose-response models can impact the probability of human health risk exceeding a regulatory threshold.

de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

2013-12-01

135

TBIs: an emerging risk for health systems.  

PubMed

Healthcare providers should take eight steps to ensure their organizations are prepared for the potential risks associated with traumatic brain injuries: Review current procedures. Educate parents and caregivers. Create targeted programs for seniors. Adopt standard written protocols for providers for identification and treatment. Ensure proper and periodic follow-up with all patients at risk. Add a question about recent falls and head injuries to the patient intake discussion sheet. Conduct thorough debriefings and analyses following confirmed TBIs. Evaluate the organization's current insurance policy to ensure it provides the coverage needed. PMID:23875510

Farrell, Molly L

2013-07-01

136

Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

1997-01-01

137

Health risks of residential wood heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

138

Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007  

EPA Science Inventory

This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

139

Schiffert Health Center TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM  

E-print Network

malabsorptive conditions · Diabetes · Chronic renal failure or on dialysis · Solid organ transplant (kidney: ________________________________________ The United States Public Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend, lymphoma · Cancers of the head or neck · Silicosis · Gastrectomy, jejunoileal bypass, or chronic

Virginia Tech

140

Organizational Injustice as an Occupational Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content to conceive of inequity distress as a hypothetical construct instead of an intervening variable, a half century of research inspired by equity theory has paid little attention to measuring inequity distress. At the turn of the twenty?first century, however, European epidemiologists, interested in determinants of ill health, found that injustice is a source of adverse emotional reactions that put

Jerald Greenberg

2010-01-01

141

Reducing the health risks of sport fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the allure of sport fishing has always been the satisfaction of being able to provide a fresh, healthful meal directly from stream, lake, or ocean. Indeed, most fish and shellfish available in the US are wholesome and unlikely to cause illness. But a recently released Institute of Medicine report on seafood safety warns that consumers of sport fish

J. A. Foran; B. S. Glenn

2009-01-01

142

42 CFR 137.142 - What is a “significant danger” or “risk” to the public health?  

...SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE...142 What is a “significant danger” or “risk” to the public health? A significant danger or risk is determined on a case-by-case basis...

2014-10-01

143

Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-01-01

144

Human Health Research Program: Approaches for evaluating public health outcomes of risk management decisions  

EPA Science Inventory

Research to develop tools to link the enactment and implementation of environmental risk mitigation actions such as rules, regulations, or educational outreach to measurable changes in exposure to toxicants and subsequent health effects. Research in this area includes the develo...

145

Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

Smith, W.H. (Yale Univ., New Haven CT (USA))

1990-01-01

146

Identifying students at risk for mental health problems.  

PubMed

Almost one-quarter of school-age children in the United States meet criteria for serious mental illness. School nurses can identify children at risk or suffering from undetected mental illness through observation, consultation with teachers and parents, interview techniques, and simple written tools. Valid and reliable tools that are in the public domain and can be accessed via the Internet are included. Referral to mental health providers within the school system or community is necessary for students at risk. PMID:25417330

Platt, Lois M

2014-11-01

147

Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks. PMID:23525029

Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

2013-01-01

148

Health risks related to crop farming in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The article aims at describing and summarizing specific risk factors and occupational adverse health effects of agriculture\\u000a related to typical European crops.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and conclusion  A systematic literature review applying a standardized electronic literature search strategy (Medline, Toxnet, EMBASE, AGRICOLA,\\u000a Science Citation Index) was conducted until February 2007. Studies on specific work-related health risks were included as\\u000a well as comprehensive reviews

Andreas Fuchs; Dimitris Kouimintzis; Grit Neumann; Wilhelm Kirch

2007-01-01

149

Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Many cancer patients use complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) but may not be aware of the potential risks. There are no studies quantifying such risks, but there is some evidence of patient risk from case reports in the literature. A cross-sectional survey of patients attending the outpatient department at a specialist cancer centre was carried out to establish a pattern of herbal remedy or supplement use and to identify potential adverse side effects or drug interactions with conventional medicines. If potential risks were identified, a health warning was issued by a pharmacist. A total of 318 patients participated in the study. Of these, 164 (51.6%) took CAMs, and 133 different combinations were recorded. Of these, 10.4% only took herbal remedies, 42.1% only supplements and 47.6% a combination of both. In all, 18 (11.0%) reported supplements in higher than recommended doses. Health warnings were issued to 20 (12.2%) patients. Most warnings concerned echinacea in patients with lymphoma. Further warnings were issued for cod liver/fish oil, evening primrose oil, gingko, garlic, ginseng, kava kava and beta-carotene. In conclusion, medical practitioners need to be able to identify the potential risks of CAMs. Equally, patients should be encouraged to disclose their use. Also, more research is needed to quantify the actual health risks. PMID:14735185

Werneke, U; Earl, J; Seydel, C; Horn, O; Crichton, P; Fannon, D

2004-01-26

150

Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water. PMID:23669339

Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

2013-07-01

151

Health risks among Japanese men with moderate body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the westernized lifestyle, most Japanese are not prominently obese. As their obesity may be obscured, we want to further explore central fat distribution and health risks among this population.METHODS: 2668 men (body mass index (BMI) 20–<26.4 kg\\/m2) were identified from 3343 men (BMI 14.0–37.7, median of waist?to?height ratio (W\\/Ht) 0.50) who underwent routine health examinations. They were divided

SD Hsieh; H Yoshinaga; T Muto; Y Sakurai; K Kosaka

2000-01-01

152

Health risk appraisal modifies cigarette smoking behavior among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), a computer-scored lifestyle analysis questionnaire, can result in significant\\u000a changes in health behavior, a controlled clinical trial with one-year follow-up was conducted among entering freshmen at an\\u000a urban state university. Three hundred fifty entering freshmen were each assigned to one of four groups: HRA with feedback,\\u000a HRA without feedback, initial control, and final

Chun-Wai Chan; John M. Witherspoon

1988-01-01

153

Nanoparticles – known and unknown health risks  

PubMed Central

Manmade nanoparticles range from the well-established multi-ton production of carbon black and fumed silica for applications in plastic fillers and car tyres to microgram quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences are experiencing massive investment worldwide, there will be a further rise in consumer products relying on nanotechnology. While benefits of nanotechnology are widely publicised, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use in the consumer and industrial products are just beginning to emerge. This review provides comprehensive analysis of data available on health effects of nanomaterials. PMID:15588280

Hoet, Peter HM; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Salata, Oleg V

2004-01-01

154

Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

2003-01-01

155

Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America?s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

156

Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

Emerson, Eric

2011-01-01

157

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.  

PubMed

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

2013-10-01

158

Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

2008-01-01

159

Environmental health risks and vulnerability in post-conflict regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of environmental factors during and after conflict has often not received adequate attention, and is of particular importance when assessing those groups most vulnerable to changing conditions. Post-war reconstruction and aid policies must take note of which groups are most susceptible to environmental health risks, and how the conflict itself often created new vulnerabilities through deliberate destruction of

Chad M. Briggs; Moneeza Walji; Lucy Anderson

2009-01-01

160

Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

Powell, Anastasia

2007-01-01

161

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-print Network

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED) Date: _______________ ID: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 into contact with a person who has Tuberculosis? ____ No ____ Yes 3. Have you ever used any illegal

Buehrer, R. Michael

162

A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

163

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

164

Childhood Obesity: Do Parents Recognize This Health Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined parents’ understanding of excess weight as a health risk, knowledge of healthy eating habits, and recognition of obesity in their children.Research Methods and Procedures: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed during well-care visits involving children 4 to 8 years of age at a pediatric faculty practice. Parents indicated their level of concern about excess weight and other

Debra Etelson; Donald A. Brand; Patricia A. Patrick; Anushree Shirali

2003-01-01

165

Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk to human health posed by contaminated soil in a residential area depends on the potential extent of exposure to soil and on the toxic properties of the contaminants. A detailed soil exposure analysis is presented for young children, older children, and adults living in a house surrounded by contaminated soil. From this analysis, a lifetime exposure model is

John K. Hawley

1985-01-01

166

Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

167

Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

168

Vertebral fracture status and the World Health Organization risk factors for predicting osteoporotic fracture risk.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture, and patients with prevalent vertebral fractures have a greater risk of future fractures. However, radiographically determined vertebral fractures are not identified as a distinct risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) fracture risk assessment tool. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare potential risk factors including morphometric spine fracture status and the WHO risk factors for predicting 5-yr fracture risk. We hypothesized that spine fracture status provides prognostic information in addition to consideration of the WHO risk factors alone. A randomly selected, population-based community cohort of 2761 noninstitutionalized men and women > or =50 yr of age living within 50 km of one of nine regional centers was enrolled in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMOS), a prospective and longitudinal cohort study following subjects for 5 yr. Prevalent and incident spine fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs. Incident nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by an annual, mailed fracture questionnaire with validation, and nonvertebral fragility fracture was defined by investigators as a fracture with minimal trauma. A model considering the WHO risk factors plus spine fracture status provided greater prognostic information regarding future fracture risk than a model considering the WHO risk factors alone. In univariate analyses, age, BMD, and spine fracture status had the highest gradient of risk. A model considering these three risk factors captured almost all of the predictive information provided by a model considering spine fracture status plus the WHO risk factors and provided greater predictive information than a model considering the WHO risk factors alone. The use of spine fracture status along with age and BMD predicted future fracture risk with greater simplicity and higher prognostic accuracy than consideration of the risk factors included in the WHO tool. PMID:19016585

Chen, Peiqi; Krege, John H; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David

2009-03-01

169

Screening for coronary risk factors in occupational health practice.  

PubMed

Screening for coronary risk factors (blood cholesterol greater than 5.2 mmol/l; body mass index greater than 25; blood pressure greater than 140/90 and positive smoking history) using nurse administered voluntary health assessments was studied in occupational health practice. A high employee participation rate (80.9 per cent) was achieved with few employees declining to attend, confirming the advantages of workplace based screening. Hypercholesterolaemia, overweight and smoking were the most prevalent risk factors. Men had higher rates than women as judged by independent or concomitant risk factor rates; 56.5 per cent of men were over ideal body weight, 40 per cent of men smoked, 35.7 per cent of men had two risk factors and 2 per cent of men had four risk factors. Blood cholesterol and blood pressure were shown to increase with increasing body weight. It is suggested that body weight reduction and smoking cessation are the preferred intervention strategies in occupational health practice. PMID:1921342

Deacon, S P

1991-01-01

170

Multiple health risk behaviors in German first year university students.  

PubMed

Multiple health risk behaviors have been identified as a problem in young adults which includes university students. The goals of this study included assessing the prevalence of major health risk behaviors in a cohort of German first year university students, analyzing the clustering of these behaviors and assessing readiness to change across multiple behaviors. A total of 1262 students from the schools of law, teaching and medicine at a German university participated in a voluntary and anonymous survey in 2005. The study assessed indicators and readiness for change regarding fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, smoking and binge drinking as well as sociodemographic variables. Confirming the hypotheses, prevalences for risk behaviors were high; over 95% ate less than five servings of fruits and vegetables, 60% did not exercise sufficiently, 31% were current smokers and 62% reported binge drinking. Only 2% had none, 10.5% had one, 34.5% had two, 34.8% had three, and 18.2% showed all four risk behaviors. Readiness for behavior change was very low across multiple risk behavior combinations, especially for reducing binge drinking and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Medical students showed slightly more positive patterns than other students. The results indicate the need for addressing health behaviors in the student population of this university. If these findings can be replicated in other universities, programs that promote individual behavior change as well as changes in environmental conditions in the university environment are necessary to address this urgent problem. PMID:18242666

Keller, Stefan; Maddock, Jason E; Hannöver, Wolfgang; Thyrian, J René; Basler, Heinz-Dieter

2008-03-01

171

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013  

E-print Network

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013 General In general health risk assessment to be a good contribution to the discussion about the potential public health for the disagreements between the experts (i.e. the ESR team who undertook the health risk assessment

Sun, Jing

172

Do the Health Benefits of Cycling Outweigh the Risks?  

PubMed Central

Background Although from a societal point of view a modal shift from car to bicycle may have beneficial health effects due to decreased air pollution emissions, decreased greenhouse gas emissions, and increased levels of physical activity, shifts in individual adverse health effects such as higher exposure to air pollution and risk of a traffic accident may prevail. Objective We describe whether the health benefits from the increased physical activity of a modal shift for urban commutes outweigh the health risks. Data sources and extraction We have summarized the literature for air pollution, traffic accidents, and physical activity using systematic reviews supplemented with recent key studies. Data synthesis We quantified the impact on all-cause mortality when 500,000 people would make a transition from car to bicycle for short trips on a daily basis in the Netherlands. We have expressed mortality impacts in life-years gained or lost, using life table calculations. For individuals who shift from car to bicycle, we estimated that beneficial effects of increased physical activity are substantially larger (3–14 months gained) than the potential mortality effect of increased inhaled air pollution doses (0.8–40 days lost) and the increase in traffic accidents (5–9 days lost). Societal benefits are even larger because of a modest reduction in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and traffic accidents. Conclusions On average, the estimated health benefits of cycling were substantially larger than the risks relative to car driving for individuals shifting their mode of transport. PMID:20587380

de Hartog, Jeroen Johan; Boogaard, Hanna; Nijland, Hans; Hoek, Gerard

2010-01-01

173

Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program in Public Health and Health Care Settings  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated whether a program to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) with community health workers (CHWs) would improve CHD risk in public health and health care settings. Methods. The CHWs provided point-of-service screening, education, and care coordination to residents in 34 primarily rural Colorado counties. The CHWs utilized motivational interviewing and navigated those at risk for CHD into medical care and lifestyle resources. A software application generated a real-time 10-year Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and guideline-based health recommendations while supporting longitudinal caseload tracking. We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine factors associated with changes in FRS. Results. From 2010 to 2011, among 4743 participants at risk for CHD, 53.5% received medical or lifestyle referrals and 698 were retested 3 or more months after screening. We observed statistically significant improvements in diet, weight, blood pressure, lipids, and FRS with the greatest effects among those with uncontrolled risk factors. Successful phone interaction by the CHW led to lower FRS at retests (P?=?.04). Conclusions. A CHW-based program within public health and health care settings improved CHD risk. Further exploration of factors related to improved outcomes is needed. PMID:23153152

Coronel, Stephanie M.; Whitley, Elizabeth M.; Dale, Rita; Yost, Jason; Estacio, Raymond O.

2013-01-01

174

Cardiovascular health informatics: risk screening and intervention.  

PubMed

Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

Hartley, Craig J; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2012-09-01

175

A framework for the animal health risk analysis of biotechnology-derived animals: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed

This paper describes the framework used by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to assess the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals and their products. In Canada the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals are one consideration among several other regulatory concerns (e.g. human health, the environment). The risk analysis process begins with hazard identification, includes a risk assessment for each hazard, and concludes with risk management and risk communication. PMID:16110876

Moreau, P I; Jordan, L T

2005-04-01

176

Key scientific issues in the health risk assessment of trichloroethylene.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

Chiu, Weihsueh A; Caldwell, Jane C; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

2006-09-01

177

Occupational health risks of barbers and coiffeurs in Izmir  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine self-reported occupational health risks and health complaints of barbers and hairdressers. A total of 1284 individuals from 300 workplaces in Izmir participated in this study. The workers completed the questionnaires during their training in occupational health. Self-reported symptoms were allergy: 35% and musculoskeletal symptoms: 32%. The frequency of allergy complaints was found to be significantly higher in older individuals and in women. Allergic complaints were more frequent in i) those having history of allergy, ii) in the group where the use of protective clothing and gloves was lower, iii) in smokers and in those who found ventilation in the workplace to be inadequate. Only 41.2% reported that they used gloves and 15.2% reported the use of protective clothing within the last month. It appears that poor occupational factors in barbers' salons and exposure to hairdressing chemicals bring about health problems of the hairdressers. PMID:20386627

Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Kose, Sukran; Gozaydin, Ayhan; Turken, Melda; Kuzucu, Lutfiye

2009-01-01

178

Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences  

SciTech Connect

Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

1986-10-01

179

Loved Ones Caring for Brain-Injured Veterans May Face Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Ones Caring for Brain-Injured Veterans May Face Health Risks Study found high levels of substance linked to ... veterans with brain injuries may be at increased risk for chronic health problems, a new study indicates. "Traumatic brain injuries ...

180

Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners Search the ... including questions about whether these systems pose any health risks. However, FDA Engineer Daniel Kassiday says, "The dose ...

181

[Risk factors and health effects in the land transport sector].  

PubMed

The transport is a particularly complex sector. There are companies of different size that perform public or private transport, by road or rail, goods or passengers. Companies involved in the sector in Italy are 137,394 with 1,121,203 workers. There are also about 150,000 workers of auxiliary services and an unknown number of workers engaged in intra-companies transportation of goods. The main risk factors are those due to the high probability of accidents, the presence of noise and vibration, ergonomic aspects, work-related stress. Health surveillance is carried out by various organizations and individuals identified by the rules. Medical controls for professional driving licence are performed by local authorities and preventive and periodic health surveillance and medical fitness about occupational risk according to the law (Legislative Decree 81/08) depends on the responsibility of the company physician. PMID:23213816

Cristaudo, A

2012-01-01

182

Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies using such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective: This commentary describes a collaborative effort among several federal and state agencies to advance the next generation of risk assessment. The objective of the NexGen program is to begin to incorporate recent progress in molecular and systems biology into risk assessment practice. The ultimate success of this program will be based on the incorporation of new practices that facilitate faster, cheaper, and/or more accurate assessments of public health risks. Methods: We are developing prototype risk assessments that compare the results of traditional, data-rich risk assessments with insights gained from new types of molecular and systems biology data. In this manner, new approaches can be validated, traditional approaches improved, and the value of different types of new scientific information better understood. Discussion and Conclusions: We anticipate that these new approaches will have a variety of applications, such as assessment of new and existing chemicals in commerce and the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Additionally, results of the effort are likely to spur further research and test methods development. Full implementation of new approaches is likely to take 10–20 years. PMID:22875311

Anastas, Paul T.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Clark, Rebecca M.; Dix, David J.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Preuss, Peter W.

2012-01-01

183

Global health risks and cosmopolitisation: from emergence to interference.  

PubMed

According to Beck's 'World at Risk' theory, global risks push nations towards a cosmopolitisation of their health policy and open opportunities for a democratic turn. This article provides an empirical analysis of Beck's theory, based on the experience of Vietnamese authorities from 2003 to 2007 in managing the emerging avian flu virus. It shows how Vietnam's framing of avian flu has shifted, under the pressure from international organisations and the US administration, from an epizootic and zoonotic risk (or a classic risk) to a pandemic threat (or a late modern risk). Vietnam's response was part of its overall strategy to join the World Trade Organization and it was limited by Vietnam's defence of its sovereignty. This strategy has been successful for Vietnam but has limited the possibility of cosmopolitan and democratic transformations. The case study highlights the constructed dimension of risks of late modernity and their possible instrumentalisation: it minimises the role of a community of fear relative to a community of trade. PMID:23517415

Figuié, Muriel

2013-02-01

184

Exposure to airborne amphibole structures and health risks: Libby, Montana.  

PubMed

Libby, Montana is the site of a large vermiculite deposit that was mined between 1920 and 1990 to extract vermiculite for commercial applications such as insulation, gardening products, and construction materials. The Libby vermiculite deposit also contains amphibole minerals including tremolite, actinolite, richterite, and winchite. Historically, Libby mine workers experienced high exposures to amphibole structures, and, as a group, have experienced the health consequences of those occupational exposures. It has been suggested that Libby residents also have been and continue to be exposed to amphibole structures released during the vermiculite mining operations and therefore are at increased risk for disease. The Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted two epidemiological-type studies of residents living in Libby and the surrounding areas to assess these risks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed exposure data in Libby and used those data to project risks of asbestos-associated disease for Libby residents. The EPA has placed the Libby Asbestos Site, which includes the mine and the town of Libby, on its National Priority List of hazardous waste sites in need of clean up. This article presents a review of the exposure studies conducted in Libby and an analysis of health risks based on the data collected in those studies. Libby mine workers have experienced elevated levels of asbestos-associated disease as a consequence of their occupational exposures to amphibole structures. Libby residents' exposures typically are substantially lower than mine workers' historical exposures, and the health risk projections for residents are, accordingly, substantially lower. PMID:18006127

Price, Bertram

2008-10-01

185

76 FR 19311 - Update of the 2003 Interagency Quantitative Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quantitative Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health From Foodborne Listeria Monocytogenes...quantitative assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne L. monocytogenes...based on the associated public health risk and permitted the...

2011-04-07

186

77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision...

2012-09-12

187

76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...considerations for conducting human health risk assessments on potential...

2011-05-26

188

78 FR 9701 - Draft Joint Food and Drug Administration/Health Canada Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration/Health Canada Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Listeriosis From...Administration/Health Canada--Sant...Assessment of the Risk of Listeriosis From...Administration/Health Canada--Sant...Assessment of the Risk of Listeriosis...

2013-02-11

189

77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment To Inform Decision Making...draft of ``A Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are...

2012-07-30

190

76 FR 9525 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2006-P-0033] Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease...concerning the use of the health claim for phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease...for the phytosterols and risk of CHD health claim that, pending...

2011-02-18

191

Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors  

E-print Network

1 Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors Xiping Dai and Mark. The process for developing categories and exploring the relationships between health data and risk factors to the analysis of health data and risk factors. The system employs a range of visual and computational components

Klippel, Alexander

192

Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk Behaviors: A Prospective Analysis of College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…

Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.

2008-01-01

193

Health Risks of Heavy Metals through Consumption of Greenhouse Vegetables Grown in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated heavy metal (HM) concentrations in vegetables may pose serious health risks to humans. There is limited information on health risks associated with HM contaminants in greenhouse vegetables. The objective of this study was to estimate the health risks of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr via consumption of greenhouse cucumbers and bell peppers produced in Iran using the total non-cancer

F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; R. Schulin

2009-01-01

194

Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care  

PubMed Central

High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741

Hudson, P

2003-01-01

195

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

196

Health risks in wastewater irrigation: comparing estimates from quantitative microbial risk analyses and epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

The combination of standard quantitative microbial risk analysis (QMRA) techniques and 10,000-trial Monte Carlo risk simulations was used to estimate the human health risks associated with the use of wastewater for unrestricted and restricted crop irrigation. A risk of rotavirus infection of 10(-2) per person per year (pppy) was used as the reference level of acceptable risk. Using the model scenario of involuntary soil ingestion for restricted irrigation, the risk of rotavirus infection is approximately 10(-2) pppy when the wastewater contains < or =10(6) Escherichia coli per 100ml and when local agricultural practices are highly mechanised. For labour-intensive agriculture the risk of rotavirus infection is approximately 10(-2) pppy when the wastewater contains < or = 10(5) E. coli per 100ml; however, the wastewater quality should be < or = 10(4) E. coli per 100ml when children under 15 are exposed. With the model scenario of lettuce consumption for unrestricted irrigation, the use of wastewaters containing < or =10(4) E. coli per 100ml results in a rotavirus infection risk of approximately 10(-2) pppy; however, again based on epidemiological evidence from Mexico, the current WHO guideline level of < or =1,000 E. coli per 100ml should be retained for root crops eaten raw. PMID:17402278

Mara, D D; Sleigh, P A; Blumenthal, U J; Carr, R M

2007-03-01

197

Intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging (O-arm) for assessment of pedicle screw position: Does it prevent unacceptable screw placement?  

PubMed Central

Background Pedicle screws are biomechanically superior over other spinal fixation devices. When improperly positioned, they lose this advantage and put adjacent structures at risk. Accurate placement is therefore critical. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans are the imaging gold standard and have shown malposition rates ranging from 2% to 41%. The O-arm (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, Colorado) is an intraoperative CT scanner that may allow intervention for malpositioned screws while patients are still in the operating room. However, this has not yet been shown in clinical studies. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the O-arm for evaluating pedicle screw position by answering the following question: What is the rate of intraoperative pedicle screw revision brought about by O-arm imaging information? A secondary question was also addressed: What is the rate of unacceptable thoracic and lumbar pedicle screw placement as assessed by intraoperative O-arm imaging? Methods This is a case series of consecutive patients who have undergone spine surgery for which an intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) CT scan was used to assess pedicle screw position. The study comprised 602 pedicle screws (235 thoracic and 367 lumbar/sacral) placed in 76 patients, and intraoperative 3D (O-arm) imaging was obtained to assess screw position. Action taken at the time of surgery based on imaging information was noted. An independent review of all scans was also conducted, and all screws were graded as either optimal (no breach), acceptable (breach ?2 mm), or unacceptable (breach >2 mm). The rate of pedicle screw revision, as detected by intraoperative 3D CT scan, was determined. Results On the basis of 3D imaging information, 17 of 602 screws (2.8%) in 14 of 76 cases (18.4%) were revised at the time of surgery. On independent review of multiplanar images, 11 screws (1.8%) were found to be unacceptable, 32 (5.3%) were acceptable, and 559 (92.9%) were optimal. All unacceptable screws were revised to an optimal or acceptable position, and an additional 6 acceptable screws were revised to an optimal position. Thus, by the end of the cases, none of the 602 pedicle screws in the 76 surgical procedures was in an unacceptable position. Conclusion The new-generation intraoperative 3D imaging system (O-arm) is a useful tool that allows more accurate assessment of pedicle screw position than plain radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. It prompted intraoperative repositioning of 2.8% of pedicle screws in our series. Most importantly, it allowed identification and revision of all unacceptably placed pedicle screws without the need for reoperation.

Sembrano, Jonathan N.; Polly, David W.; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T.; Santos, Edward Rainier G.

2012-01-01

198

Phthalate risks, phthalate regulation, and public health: a review.  

PubMed

As a result of concerns about the toxicity of phthalates to humans, several expert panels were convened toward the end of the 1990s to evaluate the implications of the scientific evidence for the risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. These panels concluded that the risks were low although they had concerns about specific applications of some phthalates, e.g., in medical devices. These groups identified data gaps and recommended additional studies on exposure and toxicity be conducted. In light of the additional data, reevaluations of the risks of phthalates were conducted. While these assessments were being undertaken, U.S. state governments and European authorities proposed and promulgated regulations to limit the use of certain phthalates, i.e., di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), especially in consumer products to which children are exposed. Very recently, similar regulations were promulgated in the United States under the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008. This article summarizes recent evaluations of the risks of these phthalates, and addresses the public health implications of the regulations that were enacted. The analysis considers biomonitoring studies and epidemiological research in addition to laboratory animal evidence. Analysis of all of the available data leads to the conclusion that the risks are low, even lower than originally thought, and that there is no convincing evidence of adverse effects on humans. Since the scientific evidence strongly suggests that risks to humans are low, phthalate regulations that have been enacted are unlikely to lead to any marked improvement in public health. PMID:19235623

Kamrin, Michael A

2009-02-01

199

[Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards. PMID:11928670

Szubert, Z; Wilczy?ska, U; Sobala, W

2001-01-01

200

Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

2014-01-01

201

Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception  

PubMed Central

Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (P<.001); social factors, including media attention (P<.001); private resources, including life quality (P<.001) and health lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)—have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the contribution of social factors to the public health risk perception levels by state (R2=23.37%). The interaction effects between flu incidence and social factors for our search terms did not add to the explanatory power of our regression models (R2<1%). Conclusions Our study suggests a practical way to measure the public’s health risk perception for certain diseases using online information search volume by state. The social environment influences public risk perception regardless of disease incidence. Thus, monitoring the social variables can be very helpful in being ready to respond to the public’s behavior in dealing with public health threats. PMID:23773974

Scammon, Debra L

2013-01-01

202

Health Risk Surveillance and Health Promotion in a Predominantly Female Border Workforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the feasibility of investigating how health risk behaviors established during youth contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in a young workforce. The population of interest consists of Mexican women living and working on the Mexican side of the United States-Mexico border. Proposed goals would (1) establish…

Villas, Paul

203

Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

1994-05-01

204

Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

2014-07-01

205

Exploring Electronic Health Records as a Population Health Surveillance Tool of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the utility of using electronic health record (EHR) data for periodic community health surveillance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors through 2 research questions. First, how many years of EHR data are needed to produce reliable estimates of key population-level CVD health indicators for a community? Second, how comparable are the EHR estimates relative to those from community screenings? The study takes place in the context of the Heart of New Ulm Project, a 10-year population health initiative designed to reduce myocardial infarctions and CVD risk factor burden in a rural community. The community is served by 1 medical center that includes a clinic and hospital. The project screened adult residents of New Ulm for CVD risk factors in 2009. EHR data for 3 years prior to the heart health screenings were extracted for patients from the community. Single- and multiple-year EHR prevalence estimates were compared for individuals ages 40-79 years (N=5918). EHR estimates also were compared to screening estimates (N=3123). Single-year compared with multiyear EHR data prevalence estimates were sufficiently precise for this rural community. EHR and screening prevalence estimates differed significantly-systolic blood pressure (BP) (124.0 vs. 128.9), diastolic BP (73.3 vs. 79.2), total cholesterol (186.0 vs. 201.0), body mass index (30.2 vs. 29.5), and smoking (16.6% vs. 8.2%)-suggesting some selection bias depending on the method used. Despite differences between data sources, EHR data may be a useful source of population health surveillance to inform and evaluate local population health initiatives. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25290223

Sidebottom, Abbey C; Johnson, Pamela Jo; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Sillah, Arthur; Winden, Tamara J; Boucher, Jackie L

2014-10-01

206

[Cardiovascular risk factors on the Framingham Risk Score among hypertensive patients attended by family health teams].  

PubMed

The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is used to stratify cardiovascular risk. This study sought to identify the prevalence of risk factors used in the FRS and the use of drugs that reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). It is cross-sectional study, which evaluated a random sample of hypertensive patients in the FHS in northern Minas Gerais. Data were collected through interviews and from medical records. 505 hypertensive patients were evaluated in 9 municipalities of the region, with a predominance of women; 325 (64.4%), mean age of 66.4 years. In 90% of hypertensive patients there was at least one associated risk factor. The grouping of three or more factors occurred in 79 (15.7%) patients. Dyslipidemia was found in 188 (37.2%), diabetes in 101 (20%) and smoking in 36 (7.1%). The use of anti-hypertensive drugs was observed in 481 (95.2%) patients. The use of other cardioprotective drugs was higher among patients with 3 or more risk factors: 45.6% used antiplatelet and 27.8% used lipid-lowering drugs. The prevalence of risk factors from the FRS in the population studied was quite high and the use of cardioprotective drugs was seen to be restricted. Strategies to increase the use of FRS may improve the management of hypertension in the FHS. PMID:24897474

Pimenta, Henderson Barbosa; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

2014-06-01

207

Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such as all text. Findings also suggest that factors influencing response to risk communications are impacted by personal risk perception, previous personal experience with risk, sources of information and trust in those sources. Conclusions No single method of message delivery is best. Risk communication strategies that incorporate the needs of the target audience(s) with a multi-faceted delivery method are most effective at reaching the audience. PMID:21040529

2010-01-01

208

Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-01-01

209

Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-09-01

210

Process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders.  

PubMed Central

In most industrialized countries large numbers of workers are exposed to welding fumes. Although the general pattern of welders' health may not significantly differ from that of workers in other dusty industrial occupations which demonstrate elevated incidence of respiratory tract diseases with long latency periods, the extremely wide range of substances at potentially high concentrations produced by various welding technologies may give rise to undetected process-specific high-risk working conditions: ("hot spots"). The origin, prevalence and range of magnitude of such hot spots, especially for cancer of the respiratory tract, is discussed, with emphasis placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) and Ni accompanying the use of various technologies for the welding of stainless and high alloy steels. The wide variation of health effects found within the industry, however, indicates the need for a standard protocol for future epidemiological studies, as well as for the development of suitable methodologies for experimental risk assessment. PMID:7333241

Stern, R M

1981-01-01

211

Covariance among Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Methods Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other). Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. Results The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a ‘substance use risk factor’ and an ‘unhealthy eating and sedentary factor’. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. Conclusions Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds. PMID:24858838

de la Haye, Kayla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.

2014-01-01

212

Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration

Jonathan R Leake; Andrew Adam-Bradford; Janette E Rigby

2009-01-01

213

Health risk behavior among thai youth: national survey 2013.  

PubMed

This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. PMID:25183211

Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

2015-01-01

214

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J. [and others] [and others

2000-03-15

215

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

2000-01-01

216

What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks  

PubMed Central

The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

2012-01-01

217

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2010-11-01

218

Dental Office Waste – Public Health and Ecological Risk  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk. PMID:24133379

Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

2009-01-01

219

Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed

Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. PMID:4076081

Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

1985-11-01

220

Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed Central

Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:4076081

Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

1985-01-01

221

Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.  

PubMed

Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

2013-01-01

222

SUCCESSFUL AFRICAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN ACADEMICALLY UNACCEPTABLE HIGH SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the reasons why successful math- ematics students have been able to thrive in schools labeled academically unacceptable and why they have chosen to stay in these academically unacceptable schools despite having the option to leave. Qualitative methods including group interviews, individual interviews, and open-ended questionnaires were used to address the above issues. The study involved

PETER SHEPPARD

223

Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations  

PubMed Central

Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

2013-01-01

224

Health Risks of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation in Humans: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiobiologists have been struggling to estimate the health risks from low doses of radiation in humans for decades. Health risks involve not only neoplastic diseases but also somatic mutations that may contribute to other illnesses (including birth defects and ocular maladies) and heritable mutations that may increase the risk of diseases in future generations. Low dose radiation-induced cancer in humans

KEDAR N. PRASAD; WILLIAM C. COLE; GERALD M. HASSE

225

Monte Carlo techniques for quantitative uncertainty analysis in public health risk assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most public health risk assessments assume and combine a series of average, conservative, and worst-case values to derive a conservative point estimate of risk. This procedure has major limitations. This paper demonstrates a new methodology for extended uncertainty analyses in public health risk assessments using Monte Carlo techniques. The extended method begins as do some conventional methods--with the preparation of

Kimberly M. Thompson; David E. Burmaster; E. A. Crouch

1992-01-01

226

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2010-07-01

227

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2012-07-01

229

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2013-07-01

230

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2014-07-01

231

Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.  

PubMed

The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

2015-02-11

232

A Comprehensive Profile of Health Risk Behaviors Among Students at a Small Canadian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…

Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.

2009-01-01

233

The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

1998-01-01

234

Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. METHODS: The

Edgar Voltmer; Ulf Kieschke; David LB Schwappach; Michael Wirsching; Claudia Spahn

2008-01-01

235

Health Risks of Limited-Contact Water Recreation  

PubMed Central

Background: Wastewater-impacted waters that do not support swimming are often used for boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing. Little is known about the health risks of these limited-contact water recreation activities. Objectives: We evaluated the incidence of illness, severity of illness, associations between water exposure and illness, and risk of illness attributable to limited-contact water recreation on waters dominated by wastewater effluent and on waters approved for general use recreation (such as swimming). Methods: The Chicago Health, Environmental Exposure, and Recreation Study was a prospective cohort study that evaluated five health outcomes among three groups of people: those who engaged in limited-contact water recreation on effluent-dominated waters, those who engaged in limited-contact recreation on general-use waters, and those who engaged in non–water recreation. Data analysis included survival analysis, logistic regression, and estimates of risk for counterfactual exposure scenarios using G-computation. Results: Telephone follow-up data were available for 11,297 participants. With non–water recreation as the reference group, we found that limited-contact water recreation was associated with the development of acute gastrointestinal illness in the first 3 days after water recreation at both effluent-dominated waters [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.96] and general-use waters (1.50; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.07). For every 1,000 recreators, 13.7 (95% CI: 3.1, 24.9) and 15.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 25.7) cases of gastrointestinal illness were attributable to limited-contact recreation at effluent-dominated waters and general-use waters, respectively. Eye symptoms were associated with use of effluent-dominated waters only (AOR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.06). Among water recreators, our results indicate that illness was associated with the amount of water exposure. Conclusions: Limited-contact recreation, both on effluent-dominated waters and on waters designated for general use, was associated with an elevated risk of gastrointestinal illness. PMID:22030231

Pratap, Preethi; Wroblewski, Meredith; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.; Li, Hong; Liu, Li C.; Scheff, Peter A.

2011-01-01

236

Occupational Risk Factors and Asthma among Health Care Professionals  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Recent U.S. data suggest an increased risk of work-related asthma among health care workers, yet only a few specific determinants have been elucidated. Objectives: To evaluate associations of asthma prevalence with occupational exposures in a cross-sectional survey of health care professionals. Methods: A detailed questionnaire was mailed to a random sample (n = 5,600) of all Texas physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and occupational therapists with active licenses in 2003. Information on asthma symptoms and nonoccupational asthma risk factors obtained from the questionnaire was linked to occupational exposures derived through an industry-specific job-exposure matrix. Measurements: There were two a priori defined outcomes: (1) physician-diagnosed asthma with onset after entry into health care (“reported asthma”) and (2) “bronchial hyperresponsiveness–related symptoms,” defined through an 8-item symptom-based predictor. Main Results: Overall response rate was 66%. The final study population consisted of 862 physicians, 941 nurses, 968 occupational therapists, and 879 respiratory therapists (n = 3,650). Reported asthma was associated with medical instrument cleaning (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–3.67), general cleaning (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.20–3.40), use of powdered latex gloves between 1992 and 2000 (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.27–3.73), and administration of aerosolized medications (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.05–2.83). The risk associated with latex glove use was not apparent after 2000. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness–related symptoms were associated with general cleaning (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.21–2.19), aerosolized medication administration (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.84), use of adhesives on patients (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22–2.24), and exposure to a chemical spill (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.28–3.21). Conclusions: The contribution of occupational exposures to asthma in health care professionals is not trivial, meriting both implementation of appropriate controls and further study. PMID:17185646

Delclos, George L.; Gimeno, David; Arif, Ahmed A.; Burau, Keith D.; Carson, Arch; Lusk, Christine; Stock, Thomas; Symanski, Elaine; Whitehead, Lawrence W.; Zock, Jan-Paul; Benavides, Fernando G.; Antó, Josep M.

2007-01-01

237

Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.  

PubMed

Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

2014-06-01

238

Suicide Risk and Mental Health Co-morbidities in a Probationer Population.  

PubMed

Mental health problems are disproportionately represented in the community corrections system with limited information on the epidemiology of mental health and correlated factors such as suicide among probationers. This study recruited 2,077 probationers who completed screeners for mental health and substance disorders and suicide risk. Results found 13 % of probationers were at high risk of suicide. Those who screened positive for a mental health condition were between 2 and 8 times more likely to screen positive for suicide risk. Allocation of additional resources to mental health in the criminal justice system and to effectively coordinate existing mental health services is needed. PMID:25069419

Cardarelli, Roberto; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Malone, Kendra; Fulda, Kimberly G; Ellison, Michael; Sivernell, Ron; Shabu, Tanjina

2015-02-01

239

Uncertainty in epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment.  

PubMed

Environmental epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment have long grappled with problems of uncertainty in data and their relationships. These uncertainties have become more challenging because of the complex, systemic nature of many of the risks. A clear framework defining and quantifying uncertainty is needed. Three dimensions characterise uncertainty: its nature, its location and its level. In terms of its nature, uncertainty can be both intrinsic and extrinsic. The former reflects the effects of complexity, sparseness and nonlinearity; the latter arises through inadequacies in available observational data, measurement methods, sampling regimes and models. Uncertainty occurs in three locations: conceptualizing the problem, analysis and communicating the results. Most attention has been devoted to characterising and quantifying the analysis--a wide range of statistical methods has been developed to estimate analytical uncertainties and model their propagation through the analysis. In complex systemic risks, larger uncertainties may be associated with conceptualization of the problem and communication of the analytical results, both of which depend on the perspective and viewpoint of the observer. These imply using more participatory approaches to investigation, and more qualitative measures of uncertainty, not only to define uncertainty more inclusively and completely, but also to help those involved better understand the nature of the uncertainties and their practical implications. PMID:18972068

Briggs, David J; Sabel, Clive E; Lee, Kayoung

2009-04-01

240

Concentrations and Potential Health Risks of Metals in Lip Products  

PubMed Central

Background: Metal content in lip products has been an issue of concern. Objectives: We measured lead and eight other metals in a convenience sample of 32 lip products used by young Asian women in Oakland, California, and assessed potential health risks related to estimated intakes of these metals. Methods: We analyzed lip products by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and used previous estimates of lip product usage rates to determine daily oral intakes. We derived acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) based on information used to determine public health goals for exposure, and compared ADIs with estimated intakes to assess potential risks. Results: Most of the tested lip products contained high concentrations of titanium and aluminum. All examined products had detectable manganese. Lead was detected in 24 products (75%), with an average concentration of 0.36 ± 0.39 ppm, including one sample with 1.32 ppm. When used at the estimated average daily rate, estimated intakes were > 20% of ADIs derived for aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese. In addition, average daily use of 10 products tested would result in chromium intake exceeding our estimated ADI for chromium. For high rates of product use (above the 95th percentile), the percentages of samples with estimated metal intakes exceeding ADIs were 3% for aluminum, 68% for chromium, and 22% for manganese. Estimated intakes of lead were < 20% of ADIs for average and high use. Conclusions: Cosmetics safety should be assessed not only by the presence of hazardous contents, but also by comparing estimated exposures with health-based standards. In addition to lead, metals such as aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese require further investigation. PMID:23674482

Liu, Sa; Rojas-Cheatham, Ann

2013-01-01

241

Bioethics and the Framing of Climate Change's Health Risks.  

PubMed

Cheryl Cox MacPherson recently argued, in an article for this journal, that 'Climate Change is a Bioethics Problem'. This article elaborates on that position, particularly highlighting bioethicists' potential ability to help reframe the current climate change discourse to give more attention to its health risks. This reframing process is especially important because of the looming problem of climate change skepticism. Recent empirical evidence from science framing experiments indicates that the public reacts especially positively to climate change messages framed in public health terms, and bioethicists are particularly well positioned to contribute their expertise to the process of carefully developing and communicating such messages. Additionally, as climate framing research and practice continue, it will be important for bioethicists to contribute to the creation of that project's nascent ethical standards. The discourse surrounding antibiotic resistance is posited as an example that can lend insight into how communicating a public health-framed message, including the participation of bioethicists, can help to override public skepticism about the findings of politically contentious scientific fields. PMID:25186465

Valles, Sean A

2014-09-01

242

The influence of outrage and technical detail on the perception of environmental health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in risk perception between a professional assessing a risk\\u000aand a concerned community affected by this risk have been shown to be\\u000aimportant obstacles in the communication of environmental health risks. \\u000aThe study reported here aimed at gaining insight into factors that\\u000ainfluence people's concerns about risk and that may determine their risk\\u000aperception. The study focused specifically on

Jochems D; Bruggen M van

2007-01-01

243

76 FR 49707 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food...FDA-2006-P-0033] Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease...to the phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease health [[Page 49708

2011-08-11

244

Air toxics and health risks in California: the public health implications of outdoor concentrations.  

PubMed

Of the 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in the Clean Air Act, only a handful have information on human health effects, derived primarily from animal and occupational studies. Lack of consistent monitoring data on ambient air toxics makes it difficult to assess the extent of low-level, chronic, ambient exposures to HAPs that could affect human health, and limits attempts to prioritize and evaluate policy initiatives for emissions reduction. Modeled outdoor HAP concentration estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Cumulative Exposure Project were used to characterize the extent of the air toxics problem in California for the base year of 1990. These air toxics concentration estimates were used with chronic toxicity data to estimate cancer and noncancer hazards for individual HAPs and the risks posed by multiple pollutants. Although hazardous air pollutants are ubiquitous in the environment, potential cancer and noncancer health hazards posed by ambient exposures are geographically concentrated in three urbanized areas and in a few rural counties. This analysis estimated a median excess individual cancer risk of 2.7E-4 for all air toxics concentrations and 8600 excess lifetime cancer cases, 70% of which were attributable to four pollutants: polycyclic organic matter, 1,3 butadiene, formaldehyde, and benzene. For noncancer effects, the analysis estimated a total hazard index representing the combined effect of all HAPs considered. Each pollutant contributes to the index a ratio of estimated concentration to reference concentration. The median value of the index across census tracts was 17, due primarily to acrolein and chromium concentration estimates. On average, HAP concentrations and cancer and noncancer health risks originate mostly from area and mobile source emissions, although there are several locations in the state where point sources account for a large portion of estimated concentrations and health risks. Risk estimates from this study can provide guidance for prioritizing research, monitoring, and regulatory intervention activities to reduce potential hazards to the general population. Improved ambient monitoring efforts can help clarify uncertainties inherent in this analysis. PMID:10859786

Morello-Frosch, R A; Woodruff, T J; Axelrad, D A; Caldwell, J C

2000-04-01

245

The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

2010-01-01

246

Adolescent Peer Crowd Affiliation: Linkages With Health-Risk Behaviors and Close Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine adolescents' peer crowd affiliation and its linkages with health-risk behaviors, their friends' health-risk behaviors, the presence of close friends in the same peer crowd, and adolescents' social acceptance. Methods: We interviewed 250 high school students and identified six categories: popular, jocks, brains, burnouts, nonconformists, or average\\/other. Adolescents also reported on their health-risk behaviors (including use of cigarettes,

Annette M. La Greca; Mitchell J. Prinstein; Michael D. Fetter

2001-01-01

247

Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening  

PubMed Central

Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees. PMID:18601718

Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

2008-01-01

248

Human health risk assessment of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in drinking water.  

PubMed

2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used as a vulcanization accelerator in rubber products that come into contact with potable drinking water. When such products are evaluated for contact with potable water and submitted for ANSI/NSF Standard 61 certification, any chemical extracting from these products must be below an appropriate action level of exposure. As defined by Standard 61, a total allowable concentration (TAC) is the maximum concentration of a nonregulated contaminant allowed in a public drinking water supply, and the single product allowable concentration (SPAC) is 10% of the TAC. Currently, MBT has a TAC of 40 microg/L and a SPAC of 4 microg/L. A comprehensive health effects evaluation of MBT was performed to determine whether these action levels should be revised. Epidemiological investigations indicate that workers occupationally exposed to MBT have an increased risk of death from bladder cancer. Genotoxicity investigations in bacterial and mammalian test systems provide some evidence indicating that MBT has the potential to induce mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Toxicity studies in rats and mice chronically exposed to MBT identified increases in various tumours, such as adrenal gland tumours, pituitary gland tumours, liver tumours and renal pelvis tumours. The biological significance of most of these tumours is questionable due to a variety of factors, such as a lack of dose-response between tumour incidence and dose, and the effect of test article vehicle (corn oil) upon tumour rates. Potential human health effects of exposure to MBT can be predicted from an NTP 2-year cancer study in rats, as well as epidemiological investigations in occupationally exposed workers. A comprehensive review of the epidemiological and toxicological dataset for MBT indicates that the induction of renal pelvis transitional cell tumours is the most sensitive and relevant health effects endpoint upon which to base a revised TAC and SPAC. A multistage model was used to extrapolate to low-dose MBT exposures due to the genotoxicity and clastogenicity of MBT. A TAC of 600 microg/L was derived for MBT, and was based upon an LED10 of 157.681 mg/kg per day. A SPAC of 60 microg/L was derived by multiplying the revised TAC by 0.10, and rounding to one significant figure. These revised action levels are based upon the most sensitive health effects endpoint, as well as current cancer risk assessment methodology. PMID:15941012

Whittaker, Margaret H; Gebhart, Ann Marie; Miller, Thea Clipson; Hammer, Frank

2004-09-01

249

Effectiveness of Health Education on Toxoplasma-Related Knowledge, Behavior, and Risk of Seroconversion in Pregnancy  

E-print Network

Appendix Key Words: congenital toxoplasmosis, prenatal care, health education, health promotion Word count counseling for pregnant women about toxoplasmosis. In Poland, a significant increase in knowledge education approaches may help reduce risk of congenital toxoplasmosis but this problem requires further

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT LINKED TO CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE. (R824995)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Disturbances of climatic and ecological systems can present risks to human health, which are becoming more evident from health studies linked to climate variability, landuse change and global climate change. Waterborne disease agents, such as Giardia cy...

251

Web-Based Risk Appraisal Tool Increases Capture of Family History Data in Electronic Health Records  

MedlinePLUS

... Newsroom Publication # 13-RA010 Go to Online Store Web-based risk appraisal tool increases capture of family ... in electronic health records Health Information Technology A Web-based tool successfully collected information on family history ...

252

Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

253

Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality  

E-print Network

(food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects HealthHealth Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L;-Pollutants concentrations [c] ·Average outdoors pollution ·Indoors air quality ·Other sources of intoxication

Menut, Laurent

254

Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

255

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

256

Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in Beijing based on the thermal environment.  

PubMed

Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

257

Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment  

PubMed Central

Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

2014-01-01

258

5 CFR 9901.343 - Pay reduction based on unacceptable performance and/or conduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay reduction based on unacceptable performance and/or conduct. 9901.343 Section...PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9901.343 Pay reduction...

2010-01-01

259

Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.  

PubMed

To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world. PMID:9219645

Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

1997-09-01

260

A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China  

PubMed Central

The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally lower than that of respondents from other areas except for items such as natural disasters, smoking, medical X-rays, and mental stress, which are exceptions. PMID:23712317

Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

2013-01-01

261

[Assessment of the quality of drinking water in the industrial city and risk for public health].  

PubMed

Karabash city sprang up around the copper plant that uses local copper ore, which was composed of zinc, sulfur, barium, beryllium, arsenic, manganese, lead, antimony, chromium, cadmium, gallium, indium, scandium, thallium, germanium, osmium, and others. Centralized water supply for the city is organized from the lake Serebry and the flowage on the river B. Kialim. Part of the population uses water wells, voids and springs. In Serebry Lake and drinking groundwater there were found significant concentrations of nitrates, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead barium, nickel, mercury and zinc. There are most exposed to toxic hazards from drinking water persons using water from Serebry aqueduct (hazard index for--children/ adults 2.75/1.1, respectively) and decentralized water supply sources (hazard index for children/adults--2.35/1.0). Maximal hazard coefficients were calculated for nitrates, arsenic and antimony. Among the systems mostly exposed to toxic effects are digestive, cardiovascular endocrine, nervous system and skin. Carcinogenic risk is caused by arsenic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and dichloroethane. Carcinogenic risk from water sources of decentralized water supply is 9,6 E-05, for water from Kialim reservoir--7,3 E-05. Maximum carcinogenic risk is associated with the water from the Serebry aqueduct, the risk reaches 2,17 E-04 and is characterized as unacceptable. PMID:25306690

Konshina, L G; Lezhnin, V L

2014-01-01

262

Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.?METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time of the incident. The literature on the long term health risks of asbestos was reviewed, and combined with evidence on asbestos exposure to estimate community health risk.?RESULTS—Risk was almost entirely from exposure to fire fallout of chrysotile in asbestos bitumen paper covering the factory roof. Amosite was only detected in a few samples and in trace amounts. The number of people who lived in the area of fallout was 16 000 to 48 000. From a non-threshold model with assumptions likely to overestimate risk, the lung cancer risk is estimated to be undetectably small. Risk of mesothelioma from chrysotile exposure, and risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma from amosite exposure were based on observational studies and were estimated to be even lower than that of lung cancer risk from chrysotile exposure. Academically, there are assumptions that while reasonable cannot be proven, for example, the validity of extrapolating observed risk from much higher exposures to lower exposures, estimates of individual exposure, and that there is no threshold for asbestos to cause cancer.?CONCLUSIONS—The author is unaware of a similar study on long term health risks in a community exposed to asbestos in a fire. It is concluded that, using methods that do not underestimate risk, risk is undetectably small. Practical lessons from this methodology and approach to health risk assessment are discussed.???Keywords: asbestos; environmental pollutants; mesothelioma; health risk assessment; lung cancer PMID:11707487

Bridgman, S

2001-01-01

263

Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that their heterosexual peers, but spoke less about religion. CONCLUSIONS Not only should this issue be studied in more detail, but preventative actions aimed at adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior should be widened. PMID:24789636

de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

2014-01-01

264

47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz... The definition of unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90...

2013-10-01

265

47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz... The definition of unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90...

2012-10-01

266

47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz... The definition of unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90...

2010-10-01

267

47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...  

...2014-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz... The definition of unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90...

2014-10-01

268

47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz... The definition of unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90...

2011-10-01

269

47 CFR 22.970 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone...  

...2014-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...Service § 22.970 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz...47 CFR 90.617(k), unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90...

2014-10-01

270

Reporting risk, producing prejudice: how news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.  

PubMed

News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. PMID:24785268

Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

2014-06-01

271

Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts and Associated Health Risk Factors in New Hampshire Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we examined self-reported suicide attempts and their relationship to other health risk factors in a community sample of 16,644 adolescents. Fifteen percent endorsed suicide attempts (10% single; 5% multiple attempts). We hypothesized that multiple attempters would show higher prevalence of comorbid health risks than single or…

Rosenberg, Harriet J.; Jankowski, Mary K.; Sengupta, Anjana; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Wolford, George L., II; Rosenberg, Stanley D.

2005-01-01

272

New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

273

Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

2012-01-01

274

EXPOSURE DOMAINS: ROLE OF TIMING, PATTERN AND MAGNITUDE OF EXPOSURE ON HEALTH RISKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental health risk assessment may be broadly separated into assessment of risks from exposures to agents affecting health endpoints for which it may be presumed there is no dose threshold, and to agents affecting endpoints that more likely have a dose threshold. For hea...

275

High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

2007-01-01

276

FOCUSING ON CHILDREN'S INHALATION DOSIMETRY AND HEALTH EFFECTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION (Journal Article)  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...

277

FOCUSING ON CHILDREN?S INHALATION DOSIMETRY AND HEALTH EFFECTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...

278

Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

2010-01-01

279

An evaluation of the well at dell health management program: health risk change and financial return on investment.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To investigate the effectiveness of the Well at Dell comprehensive health management program in delivering health care and productivity cost savings relative to program investment (i.e., return on investment). Design . A quasi-experimental design was used to quantify the financial impact of the program and nonexperimental pre-post design to evaluate change in health risks. Setting . Ongoing worksite health management program implemented across multiple U.S. locations. Subjects . Subjects were 24,651 employees with continuous medical enrollment in 2010-2011 who were eligible for 2011 health management programming. Intervention . Incentive-driven, outcomes-based multicomponent corporate health management program including health risk appraisal (HRA)/wellness, lifestyle management, and disease management coaching programs. Measures . Medical, pharmacy, and short-term disability pre/post expenditure trends adjusted for demographics, health status, and baseline costs. Self-reported health risks from repeat HRA completers. Analysis . Propensity score-weighted and multivariate regression-adjusted comparison of baseline to post trends in health care expenditures and productivity costs for program participants and nonparticipants (i.e., difference in difference) relative to programmatic investment. Results . The Well at Dell program achieved an overall return on investment of 2.48 in 2011. Most of the savings were realized from the HRA/wellness component of the program. Cost savings were supported with high participation and significant health risk improvement. Conclusion . An incentive-driven, well-managed comprehensive corporate health management program can continue to achieve significant health improvement while promoting health care and productivity cost savings in an employee population. PMID:25559251

Musich, Shirley; McCalister, Tre'; Wang, Sara; Hawkins, Kevin

2015-01-01

280

Integrating health into disaster risk reduction strategies: key considerations for success.  

PubMed

The human and financial costs of disasters are vast. In 2011, disasters were estimated to have cost $378 billion worldwide; disasters have affected 64% of the world's population since 1992. Consequently, disaster risk reduction strategies have become increasingly prominent on national and international policy agendas. However, the function of health in disaster risk reduction strategies often has been restricted to emergency response. To mitigate the effect of disasters on social and health development goals (such as risk reduction Millennium Development Goals) and increase resilience among at-risk populations, disaster strategies should assign the health sector a more all-encompassing, proactive role. We discuss proposed methods and concepts for mainstreaming health in disaster risk reduction and consider barriers faced by the health sector in this field. PMID:25122022

Dar, Osman; Buckley, Emmeline J; Rokadiya, Sakib; Huda, Qudsia; Abrahams, Jonathan

2014-10-01

281

[Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].  

PubMed

The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). PMID:20221968

Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

2010-03-01

282

Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).  

PubMed

The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. PMID:25454234

Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

2015-01-01

283

Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

1992-01-01

284

HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study described HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons and determined factors associated with HIV. METHODS: We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among male-to-female transgender persons was 35%. African American race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82, 11.96), a history of injection drug use (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.56, 4.62), multiple sex partners (adjusted OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.50, 4.62), and low education (adjusted OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.68) were independently associated with HIV. Among female-to-male transgender persons, HIV prevalence (2%) and risk behaviors were much lower. Most male-to-female (78%) and female-to-male (83%) transgender persons had seen a medical provider in the past 6 months. Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: High HIV prevalence suggests an urgent need for risk reduction interventions for male-to-female transgender persons. Recent contact with medical providers was observed, suggesting that medical providers could provide an important link to needed prevention, health, and social services. PMID:11392934

Clements-Nolle, K; Marx, R; Guzman, R; Katz, M

2001-01-01

285

Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing\\u000a the health and quality of life of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission\\u000a risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational.\\u000a Further, a number of efficacious mental

Kathleen J. Sikkema; Melissa H. Watt; Anya S. Drabkin; Christina S. Meade; Nathan B. Hansen; Brian W. Pence

2010-01-01

286

The impact of school-organized sport activities on the priority youth health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of school-organized sport activities on the priority youth health-risk behaviors.METHODS: Data were taken from The 1997 National School-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Measures of prevalence rates in six categories of priority health-risk behaviors defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were performed between participants and non-participants in school-organized sport activities. Then multiple logistic regression

C Sun; DD Dyck; VJ Guillory

2000-01-01

287

An Exploratory Study of College Health-Risk Behaviors: Implications for Campus Programs and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…

Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.

2000-01-01

288

Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. METHODS: A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women)

Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm

2002-01-01

289

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

290

Socioeconomic disparities in health change in a longitudinal study of US adults: the role of health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans’ Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education

Paula M. Lantz; John W. Lynch; James S. House; James M. Lepkowski; Richard P. Mero; Marc A. Musick; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

291

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

2002-01-01

292

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

293

Can Better Mental Health Services Reduce the Risk of Juvenile Justice System Involvement?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated how improved mental health services affect justice involvement among juveniles treated in the public mental health system. Methods. Our analyses were based on administrative and interview data collected in 2 communities participating in the evaluation of a national initiative designed to improve mental health services for children and youths. Results. Results derived from Cox proportional hazard models suggested that better mental health services reduced the risks of initial and subsequent juvenile justice involvement by 31% and 28%, respectively. Effects were somewhat more pronounced for serious offenses. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that improved mental health services reduce the risk of juvenile justice involvement. PMID:15117712

Foster, E. Michael; Qaseem, Amir; Connor, Tim

2004-01-01

294

Comparative assessment of transport risks — how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy- makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as

Tord Kjellstrom; Lorrae van Kerkhoff; Gabriele Bammer; Tony McMichael

2003-01-01

295

Preventive Health Practices and Behavioural Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screening and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We compared

Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; E. Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

2012-01-01

296

Preventive Health Practices and Behavioral Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screenings, and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We

Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; Eisar Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

2012-01-01

297

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

2013-01-01

298

Implementing health information exchange for public health reporting: a comparison of decision and risk management of three regional health information organizations in New York state.  

PubMed

Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version. PMID:23975626

Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A

2014-02-01

299

Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

Atilola, Olayinka

2014-01-01

300

Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

2013-01-01

301

Why income inequality indexes do not apply to health risks.  

PubMed

Several recent papers have sought to apply inequality measures from economics, such as the Atkinson Index (AI) for inequality of income distributions, to compare the risk inequality of different mortality risk distributions in an effort to help promote efficiency and environmental justice in pollution-reducing interventions. Closer analysis suggests that such applications are neither logically coherent nor necessarily ethically desirable. Risk inequality comparisons should be based on axioms that apply to probabilistic risks, and should consider the multidimensional and time-varying nature of individual and community risks in order to increase efficiency and justice over time and generations. In light of the limitations of the AI applied to mortality risk distributions, it has not been demonstrated to have ethical or practical value in helping policymakers to identify air pollution management interventions that reduce (or minimize) risk and risk inequity. PMID:22211377

Cox, Louis Anthony

2012-02-01

302

Gambling with Your Health: Predictors of Risk for AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in terms of risk-related behaviors, and to investigate the factors that may be involved in putting one at risk, a study conducted telephone interviews with 493 randomly selected adults (18 years or older) in Austin, Texas in the fall of 1987. Respondents answered approximately 40…

Lasorsa, Dominic L.; Shoemaker, Pamela J.

303

The effect of information on health risk valuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effect of familiarity with chronic lung disease on people's willingness to pay to reduce their risk of contracting chronic bronchitis, and on their willingness to increase their risk of auto death to reduce chronic bronchitis risk. We find that persons who have a relative with chronic lung disease are willing to give up more income to

Alan J. Krupnick; Maureen L. Cropper

1992-01-01

304

Vaccines in Travel Health: From Risk Assessment to Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunizations prior to travel contribute to reduc- ing the risk of specific diseases for the traveler as well as the risk of international spread of diseases. Environ- mental and host factors determine the risk of acquiring a disease while traveling. Most relevant in the first group of factors are the location to be visited,1,2 duration of travel, and reason for

Robert Steffen; Bradley A. Connor

305

The development of a health risk appraisal instrument for alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to identify those at risk for alcoholism. Risk indicators and predictors of alcohol abuse were identified based on a review of the literature. Questionnaire items based on empirical data and theory were constructed. The risks were mapped in a time framework recognizing there are early, intermediate and late antecedents of

Joan Marie Efinger

1984-01-01

306

HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Health Insurance Coverage in Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Research on the association between health insurance coverage and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) is sparse. We hypothesized that MSM with health insurance would be less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior based on previous research showing that insured persons increase contact with providers which can improve health knowledge, decrease tendency to engage in unhealthy behaviors, and raise awareness about health risks. As part of a study testing an online HIV prevention intervention, we collected information on health insurance and sexual behavior from MSM (n=650). Overall, men with health insurance had a 28% reduced prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse male partners (UAIMP) in the 90 days prior to the survey. Potential explanations include access to healthcare providers and awareness of sexual health. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanism through which health insurance is protective. PMID:23180980

Brunsberg, Sarah A.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Smolenski, Derek

2012-01-01

307

Iatrogenic risks and maternal health: Issues and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe acute maternal morbidity and mortality due to iatrogenic factors and outcomes. Methods: This observational cross sectional study was conducted at intensive care unit of Liaquat University of Medical and Health sciences Jamshoro from 1-January-2011 to 31-December-2012. In this study all the delivered or undelivered women who needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission due to management related life threatening complication referred from periphery or within this hospital were included, while those women who had pregnancy complicated by medical conditions were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma containing variables like Demographic characteristics, various iatrogenic risk factors, complications and management out comes. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: During these study period 51 women needed ICU care for different complications due to adverse effects of medical treatments. Majority of these women were between 20-40 years of age 41(80.39%), multiparous 29(56.86%), unbooked 38(74.50%), referred from periphery 39(76.47%), common iatrogenic factors were misuse of oxytocin 16(31.37%), fluid overload/cardiac failure 8(15.68%), blood reaction 7(13.72%), anesthesia related problems were delayed recovery 3(5.88%), cardiac arrest 2(3.92%), spinal shock 2(3.92%), surgical problems were bladder injury 5(9.8%), post operative internal haemorrhage 3(5.88%), 37(72.54%) women recovered and 14(27.45%) expired. Conclusion: The maternal morbidity and mortality rate with iatrogenic factors was high and majority of these factors were avoidable. PMID:24639842

Khaskheli, Meharun-nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela

2014-01-01

308

Occupational stress among staff nurses: Controlling the risk to health  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress. Job stress brought about hazardous impacts not only on nurses’ health but also on their abilities to cope with job demands. Objectives: This study aimed at finding out the degree of work-related stress among the staff nurses and various determinants, which have a impact on it. Materials and Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study conducted on GNM qualified nurses. Predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire covering their sociodemographic variables in part I and professional life stress scale by David Fontana in part II. Analysis used was Chi-square test and logistic regression for various factors. Results: Risk for professional stress due to poor and satisfactory doctor's attitude was found about 3 and 4 times more than with excellent attitude of doctors toward the staff nurses. A statistically significant association (P < 0.024) between department of posting and level of stress. Nurses reported that they had no time for rest, of whom 42% were suffering from moderate-to-severe stress. The nurses who felt that the job was not tiring were found to be less stressed as those who perceived job as tiring (OR = 0.43). Conclusion: The main nurses’ occupational stressors were poor doctor's attitude, posting in busy departments (emergency/ICU), inadequate pay, too much work, and so on. Thus, hospital managers should initiate strategies to reduce the amount of occupational stress and should provide more support to the nurses to deal with the stress.

Sharma, Parul; Davey, Anuradha; Davey, Sanjeev; Shukla, Arvind; Shrivastava, Kajal; Bansal, Rahul

2014-01-01

309

Reducing need and demand for medical services in high-risk persons. A health education approach.  

PubMed Central

We undertook this study to identify persons with high medical use to target them for health promotion and self-management interventions specific to their problems. We compared the reductions in cost and health risk of a health education program aimed at high-risk persons with a similar program addressed to all risk levels. We compared health risk and use in 2,586 high-risk persons with those of employee (N = 50,576) and senior (N = 39,076) groups and contrasted results in specific high-risk disease or behavior categories (modules)--arthritis, back pain, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, smoking, and obesity--against each other, using validated self-report measures, over a 6-month period. Interventions were a standard generic health education program and a similar program directed at high risk individuals (Healthtrac). Health risk scores improved by 11% in the overall high-risk group compared with 9% in the employee group and 6% in the senior group. Physician use decreased by 0.8 visits per 6 months in the high-risk group compared with 0.05 and 0.15 visits, respectively, per 6 months in the employee and senior groups. Hospital stays decreased by 0.2 days per 6 months in the high-risk group compared with 0.05 days in the comparison groups. The duration of illness or confinement to home decreased by 0.9 days per 6 months in the high-risk group and 0.15 and 0.25, respectively, in the employee and senior groups. Using imputed costs of $130 per physician visit, $1,000 per hospital day, and $200 per sick day, previous year costs were $1,138 in direct costs for the high-risk groups compared with $352 and $995 in the employee and senior groups, respectively. At 6 months, direct costs were reduced by $304 in the high-risk group compared with $57 and $70 in the comparison groups. Total costs were reduced $484 in the high-risk groups compared with $87 in the employee group and $120 in the senior group. The return on investment was about 6:1 in the high-risk group compared with 4:1 in the comparison groups. Effective health education programs can result in larger changes in use and costs in high-risk persons than in unscreened persons, justifying more intensive educational interventions in high-risk groups. PMID:9795579

Fries, J F; McShane, D

1998-01-01

310

RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific  

E-print Network

RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

Barker, Jon

311

75 FR 1770 - An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl...Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl...environmental chemicals on human health and the environment...incorporating genomic data into risk assessment. This...

2010-01-13

312

Managing oral health related nutrition issues of high risk infants and children.  

PubMed

Dental professionals are in an ideal position to recognize children at high nutritional and oral health risk and provide early intervention. Some of the children at highest risk for nutritional and oral health problems include those born prematurely, children with failure to thrive, those on multiple medications, special needs children with developmental delays, children with gastroesophageal reflux, and those with lactose intolerance. Nutrition and oral health guidelines are provided to aid the dental practitioner in providing preventive nutrition intervention to these high risk children. PMID:10023231

Boyd, L D; Palmer, C; Dwyer, J T

1998-01-01

313

Perceptions of the risks and benefits of fish consumption: Individual choices to reduce risk and increase health benefits  

PubMed Central

Studies of fish consumption often focus on awareness of and adherence to advisories, how much fish people eat, and contaminant levels in those fish. This paper examines knowledge and accuracy of risks and benefits of fish consumption among fishers and other recreationists in the New York Bight, indicative of whether they could make sound dietary decisions. While most respondents knew about health risks (70%) and benefits (94%) of consuming fish, far fewer could name specific risks and benefits. Less than 25% of respondents mentioned mercury and less than 15% mentioned that pregnant women and children were at risk. Far fewer people mentioned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nearly 70% said it was healthy to eat fish, and 45% were aware that fish were rich in healthful oils. Despite the lack of details about what specific risks and benefits of fish, well over a third did not feel they needed more information. Other respondents had basic questions, but did not pose specific questions about the fish they caught or ate that would have clarified their individual risk-balancing decisions. Knowledge of which fish were high in contaminants did not match the mercury or PCB levels in those fish. There was a disconnect between the information base about specific risks and benefits of fish consumption, levels of mercury and PCBs in fish, and the respondent’s desire for more information. These data indicate that respondents did not have enough accurate information about contaminants in fish to make informed risk-balancing decisions. PMID:19193369

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2014-01-01

314

Instrumentation in Health Education and the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) Instrument  

E-print Network

This journal article format dissertation examined aspects of survey research methodology in health education. In the first study, the author examined articles published in Health Education and Behavior, Health Education Journal, Health Education...

Smith, Matthew L.

2010-01-14

315

Risk.  

PubMed

The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

2015-02-15

316

Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials are recommended to reduce indoor VOCs exposure. PMID:24244522

Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

2013-01-01

317

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01

318

Risk adjustment in health insurance and its long-term effectiveness.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to create new insights when judging the impact different risk adjustment schemes may have on the incentive to select risks. It distinguishes risk types with high and low profit potential and estimates long-run profits associated with risk selection in four scenarios (no risk adjustment, demographic only, including prior hospitalization, and including prior hospitalization and Pharmaceutical Cost Groups). The database covers 180,000 Swiss individuals over 8 years, 3 of which are used for model building and 5, to estimate insurers' profits due to risk selection in the four scenarios. While these profits prove to be very high without risk adjustment and still substantial with demographic risk adjustment, they become surprisingly low when the crude morbidity indicator 'prior hospitalization' is included in the formula. These results clearly indicate the need for health status-related risk adjustment in insurance markets with community rating, taking into account insurers' planning horizon. PMID:20434784

Beck, Konstantin; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter

2010-07-01

319

Financial Risks From Ill Health in Myanmar: Evidence and Policy Implications.  

PubMed

The government of Myanmar, with support from international donors, plans to address household financial risks from ill health and expand coverage. But evidence to design policy is limited. WHS (World Health Survey) data for 6045 households were used to investigate the association of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, catastrophic expenditures, and household borrowing and asset sales associated with illness with key socioeconomic and demographic correlates in Myanmar. Households with elderly and young children and chronically ill individuals, poor households, and ethnic minorities face higher financial stress from illness. Rural households use less care, suggesting their lower OOP health spending may be at the cost of health. Poorer groups rely more on public sector health services than richer groups. Better targeting, increased budgetary allocations, and more effective use of resources via designing cost-effective benefits packages appear key to sustainably addressing financial risks from ill health in Myanmar. PMID:25424245

Htet, Soe; Fan, Victoria; Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

2014-11-25

320

Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

321

The relationship between parental labor force participation and adolescents' dietary intake and risks to cardiovascular health  

E-print Network

Data from a pilot study on the dietary intake, health behaviors, and the presence of coronary heart disease risk factors among 14-and 15-year old Texas adolescents was used in the analyses of this thesis. Adolescent participants underwent...

Godwin, Anne Louise

2012-06-07

322

Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can provide no more than partial answers to the questions of environmental interactions, interindividual variability, and optimal control levels. Future prospective studies should involve assessment of astronaut well being using sophisticated measures during exposures to levels of CO2 in the range from 2 to 8 mmHg.

James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

2010-01-01

323

Coming Home: Health Status and Homelessness Risk of Older Prerelease Prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Older adults comprise an increasing proportion of the prison and homeless populations. While older age is associated with\\u000a adverse post-release health events and incarceration is a risk factor for homelessness, the health status and homelessness\\u000a risk of older pre-release prisoners are unknown. Moreover, most post-release services are geared towards veterans; it is unknown\\u000a whether the needs of non-veterans differ from

Brie A. Williams; James McGuire; Rebecca G. Lindsay; Jacques Baillargeon; Irena Stijacic Cenzer; Sei J. Lee; Margot Kushel

2010-01-01

324

Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking.AimTo compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and

Michele R Decker; Heather L McCauley; Dusita Phuengsamran; Surang Janyam; Jay G Silverman

2010-01-01

325

New Hope for Correctional Officers: An Innovative Program for Reducing Stress and Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of a new stress management program on physiological and psychological stress and health\\u000a risk factors among 75 correctional officers. The experimental group received training in emotion self-regulation techniques\\u000a intended to reduce stress and health risk factors. Practice of the techniques was enhanced by heart rate variability feedback,\\u000a which helped participants learn and sustain use of

Rollin McCraty; Mike Atkinson; Lee Lipsenthal; Lourdes Arguelles

2009-01-01

326

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher

Scott F. Stoltenberg; Bryan D. Batien; Denis G. Birgenheir

2008-01-01

327

High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior Among 18- to 25YearOld College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of students accumulating credit card debt—and the amount of debt itself—on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods: They used a retrospective design with existing data from a sample of 45,213

Troy Adams; Monique Moore

2007-01-01

328

Human Health Risk Assessment on Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area of Ya'an  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applied the health risk assessment model recommended by the American Environmental Protection Bureau (EPA) , calculation the health risk and analysis the test index about As, Hg, Cr6+, Pb, Cd, F in Ya'an rural drinking water. The result indicates that the average concentration of the pollutants are respectively as follows: As: 0.004 mg\\/l, Hg: 0.001 mg\\/1, Cr6+: 0.005-0.015

Fu-Quan Ni; Guo-dong Liu; Shang-chuan Yang; Xiu-yuan Lu; Min Yang

2009-01-01

329

DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*  

PubMed Central

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

330

Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

2008-12-01

331

Pharmacokinetics in risk assessment: drinking water and health. Volume 8  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: risk assessment: historical perspectives; tissue dosimetry in risk assessment; modeling: an introduction; physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; allometry: body-size constraints in animal design; prediction of in vivo parameters of drug metabolism and distribution from in-vitro studies; dose, species, and route extrapolation; uncertainty in pharmacokinetic models using SIMUSOLV; interspecies and dose-route extrapolations; carcinogen DNA adducts as a measure of biological dose for risk analysis of carcinogenic data; resources available for simulation in toxicology; route-to-route extrapolation of dichloromethane exposure using a physiological pharmacokinetic model; sensitivity analysis in pharmacokinetic modeling; mutation accumulation: chronic cytotoxicant exposure; model for ethylene chloride and its application in risk assessment; mathematical modeling of ozone absorption in the lower respiratory tract; development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for multiday inhalation of carbon tetrachloride; the delivered/administered dose relationship and its impact on formaldehyde risk estimates; pharmacokinetic simulation in risk assessment; hazard assessment: ozone; role of pharmacokinetic modeling in risk assessment; development of multispecies, multiroute pharmacokinetic models for methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform); methotrexate: pharmacokinetics and assessment of toxicity; prospective predictions and validations in anticancer therapy; the application of pharmacokinetic data in carcinogenic risk assessment.

Not Available

1987-01-01

332

Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon  

SciTech Connect

Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes.

Fisher, D.R.

1980-01-01

333

The pasteurized state: milk, health and the government of risk.  

PubMed

In the late 1940s, Florence Sabin, a retired professor of medicine, returned to her home in Colorado to launch a massive public health campaign. Seeing "filthy milk" as an important vector of disease, she struggled not just pasteurized milk, but a pasteurized state government that was capable of regulating the milk industry. In the process, she brought managerialism into public health by fighting against the political machines and introducing Robert McNamara's systems analysis into government for the first time. Sabin's innovation, which united business, government and public health in new ways, transformed the way that public health is managed even today. PMID:21840061

Dunn, Elizabeth Cullen

2011-06-01

334

Challenges in development and implementation of health-risk-based soil quality guidelines: Turkey's experience.  

PubMed

Management of contaminated sites is a critical environmental issue around the world due to the human health risk involved for many sites and scarcity of funding. Moreover, clean-up costs of all contaminated sites to their background levels with existing engineering technologies may be financially infeasible and demand extended periods of operation time. Given these constraints, to achieve optimal utilization of available funds and prioritization of contaminated sites that need immediate attention, health-risk-based soil quality guidelines should be preferred over the traditional soil quality standards. For these reasons, traditional soil quality standards are being replaced by health-risk-based ones in many countries and in Turkey as well. The need for health-risk-based guidelines is clear, but developing these guidelines and implementation of them in contaminated site management is not a straightforward process. The goal of this study is to highlight the problems that are encountered at various stages of the development process of risk-based soil quality guidelines for Turkey and how they are dealt with. Utilization of different definitions and methodologies at different countries, existence of inconsistent risk assessment tools, difficulties in accessing relevant documents and reports, and lack of specific data required for Turkey are among these problems. We believe that Turkey's experience may help other countries that are planning to develop health-risk-based guidelines achieve their goals in a more efficient manner. PMID:21091750

Kentel, Elçin; Aksoy, Ay?egül; Büyüker, Beril; Dilek, Filiz; Girgin, Serkan; Ipek, Meltem H; Polat, Sener; Yeti?, Ulkü; Unlü, Kahraman

2011-04-01

335

The Perfect Place to Work? Australian Academic Libraries and Unacceptable Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the stereotype of libraries as peaceful retreats, unacceptable behaviour is a reality that desk staff have to deal with. This paper outlines the results of two surveys conducted at Charles Darwin University Library to investigate the extent to which this is a problem in Australian academic libraries. The first survey went to CAUL (Council…

Moorcroft, Heather

2009-01-01

336

Financial Risk Protection and Universal Health Coverage: Evidence and Measurement Challenges  

PubMed Central

Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC. PMID:25244520

Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B.

2014-01-01

337

Problem gambling risk factors and associated behaviours and health status: results from the 2002\\/03 New Zealand Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the extent of current problem gambling in New Zealand, and the risk factors, addictive behaviours, and self-rated health status associated with problem gambling. Methods Analysis of the gambling questions from the 2002\\/03 New Zealand Health Survey, which interviewed 12,529 people aged 15 years and over, and included increased sampling of Mori, Pacific, and Asian people. Results Approximately

Kylie Mason; Richard Arnold

2007-01-01

338

Institutional Risk Among African-American and White Adult Day Health Care Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of elders' and caregivers' characteristics, represented in a model predicting institutional risk, was examined in a sample of 331 Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants in New York State. Results suggested several risk factors for institutional placement: being white; having a daughter as a primary caregiver; being cognitively impaired and behavior disordered; receiving more informal support, and

Mildred Ramírez; Jeanne Teresi; Douglas Holmes; Lucja Orzechowska

2001-01-01

339

After Some Breast Cancer Treatments, Risk for Other Health Conditions May Rise  

MedlinePLUS

After Some Breast Cancer Treatments, Risk for Other Health Conditions May Rise A healthy weight and regular exercise may help older women prevent these ... suggests that while women are living longer after treatment for breast cancer, they may be at greater risk of developing ...

340

Risk-Based Health Care of Pediatric Cancer Survivors - Office of Cancer Survivorship  

Cancer.gov

Currently, 78 percent of pediatric cancer patients survive more than 5 years; 1 in 640 young adults in the United States is a cancer survivor. Nonetheless, survivors face increased risk of serious health issues and increased risk of early death compared to the general population.

341

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

342

EPA'S RESEARCH TO IMPROVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS (RIHRA) PROGRAM: OVERVIEW AND WATER-RELATED RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal law requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess drinking water risks and to set standards to insure a safe drinking water supply. iven limited data, risk assessors rely on high dose experimental data, results from occupational health studies, and other da...

343

Reduction in Sexual Risk Behaviors among College Students Following a Comprehensive Health Education Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers studied college students' sexual behavior and the association of a comprehensive health education program with subsequent sexual risk behavior modifications. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated the intervention created short-term reduction in sexual risk behaviors, but the reduction varied according to gender. (SM)

Turner, James C.; And Others

1993-01-01

344

Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

2011-01-01

345

The mental health Risk Assessment and Management Process (RAMP) for schools: II. Process evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Risk Assessment and Management Process (RAMP) is a whole-school process for the assessment and management of student's mental health and wellbeing in primary and secondary schools. A process evaluation revealed that RAMP was implemented as intended across six primary and three secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Using the RAMP risk and protective factors monitoring form and screening processes, each

Alison L. Shortt; Susan Fealy; John W. Toumbourou

346

Risk management: FIFA's approach for protecting the health of football players  

PubMed Central

Background Sport and exercise have long-term health benefits, but there is also a risk that participants will sustain injuries and/or ill health from these activities. For this reason, international sports governing bodies have a responsibility to identify the risks that exist within their sport and to provide guidance to participants and other stakeholders on how these risks can be controlled within acceptable levels. Purpose To demonstrate how Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), as football's governing body, uses a risk management framework to identify, quantify, mitigate and communicate the risks of injury and ill health in football for men, women and children in all environments. Method All the research papers published by FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) during the period 1994 to 2011 were reviewed and categorised according to an established sport-related risk management framework. Conclusions F-MARC investigated and mitigated 17 areas of risk to footballers' health in a coherent and consistent approach through the process of risk management. PMID:22143999

Fuller, Colin W; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2012-01-01

347

How Much Do Rural Hispanics Know about the Adverse Health Risks of Smoking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 137 rural Hispanic Americans surveyed in central California--over half having limited English proficiency and less than a 7th-grade education--almost all knew that smoking causes lung cancer and osteoporosis, but less than half knew of smoking's other health risks. Current smokers were most likely to underestimate smoking risks. (Contains 26…

Butkovic, Tania; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Hughes, Susan; Lourie, Andrea; Schafer, Sean

2001-01-01

348

Air toxics project studies health risks from wastewater treatment plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

A pioneering air toxics project in Southern California has earned the County Sanitation Districts of Orange County a permit to expand a water treatment plant. It has also created a model for estimating cancer and non-cancer risks from toxic emissions at public works facilities and for evaluating control technologies to protect the public from such health risks.

Wilson, J.W.; Califano, R.J. (Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, NY (USA))

1990-11-01

349

Assessing metals bioaccessibility to Man in human health risk assessment of contaminated sites  

E-print Network

Assessing metals bioaccessibility to Man in human health risk assessment of contaminated sites S ingestion is a significant exposure pathway to Man for sites contaminated with heavy metals. In France, risk and the bioaccessible lead fraction. Impact of bioaccessibility in terms of management of contaminated sites

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Identifying the health risks from very low-dose sparsely ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health risks from low-dose sparsely ionizing (low-LET) radiation have been the subject of continued debate. At present, quantitative estimates of risk are extremely uncertain due to the controversy surrounding both the dosimetry for A-bomb survivor data and the choice of mathematical models for extrapolating risk from high to low doses. Nevertheless, much can be learned about the nature of

N. A. Dreyer; E. Friedlander

1982-01-01

351

Reevaluation of health risk benchmark for sustainable water practice through risk analysis of rooftop-harvested rainwater.  

PubMed

Health risk concerns associated with household use of rooftop-harvested rainwater (HRW) constitute one of the main impediments to exploit the benefits of rainwater harvesting in the United States. However, the benchmark based on the U.S. EPA acceptable annual infection risk level of ?1 case per 10,000 persons per year (?10(-4) pppy) developed to aid drinking water regulations may be unnecessarily stringent for sustainable water practice. In this study, we challenge the current risk benchmark by quantifying the potential microbial risk associated with consumption of HRW-irrigated home produce and comparing it against the current risk benchmark. Microbial pathogen data for HRW and exposure rates reported in literature are applied to assess the potential microbial risk posed to household consumers of their homegrown produce. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) model based on worst-case scenario (e.g. overhead irrigation, no pathogen inactivation) is applied to three crops that are most popular among home gardeners (lettuce, cucumbers, and tomatoes) and commonly consumed raw. The infection risks of household consumers attributed to consumption of these home produce vary with the type of produce. The lettuce presents the highest risk, which is followed by tomato and cucumber, respectively. Results show that the 95th percentile values of infection risk per intake event of home produce are one to three orders of magnitude (10(-7) to 10(-5)) lower than U.S. EPA risk benchmark (?10(-4) pppy). However, annual infection risks under the same scenario (multiple intake events in a year) are very likely to exceed the risk benchmark by one order of magnitude in some cases. Estimated 95th percentile values of the annual risk are in the 10(-4) to 10(-3) pppy range, which are still lower than the 10(-3) to 10(-1) pppy risk range of reclaimed water irrigated produce estimated in comparable studies. We further discuss the desirability of HRW for irrigating home produce based on the relative risk of HRW to reclaimed wastewater for irrigation of food crops. The appropriateness of the ?10(-4) pppy risk benchmark for assessing safety level of HRW-irrigated fresh produce is questioned by considering the assumptions made for the QMRA model. Consequently, the need of an updated approach to assess appropriateness of sustainable water practice for making guidelines and policies is proposed. PMID:24238739

Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

2013-12-15

352

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

353

Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

2014-01-01

354

Health-Risk Behaviors and Suicidal Ideation: A Preliminary Study of Cognitive and Developmental Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various theorists have suggested that unhealthy behaviors such as cigarette smoking and problem drinking may be subtle forms of suicidality. Consistent with this view, prior research has shown an association between health risk behaviors and suicidal ideation. In the present study we examined relationships among suicidal ideation, health-related…

Ellis, Thomas E.; Trumpower, David

2008-01-01

355

Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

2010-01-01

356

Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

2010-01-01

357

Barrios and Burbs: Residential Context and Health-Risk Behaviors among Angeleno Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing size of the Latino immigrant population in the United States underscores the need for a more complete understanding of the role that social context plays in influencing the health of immigrants and their children. This analysis explores the possibility that residential location influences the health-risk behaviors of Latino youth in…

Frank, Reanne; Cerda, Magdalena; Rendon, Maria

2007-01-01

358

The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

2010-01-01

359

Child Maltreatment in the United States: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Adolescent Health Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of child mal- treatment in the United States and examine its relationship to sociodemographic factors and major adolescent health risks. METHODS. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health is a prospective cohort study following a national sample of adolescents into adulthood. The wave III interview, completed by 15 197

Jon M. Hussey; Jonathan B. Kotch

2010-01-01

360

Cyanobacteria: State Monitoring Programs, Beach Closures, and Potential Human Health Risks  

EPA Science Inventory

New England is rich in freshwater lakes and ponds, many of which are subject to cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms that can limit recreational use and cause health problems. This study was conducted to better understand the health risks to human and animal populations that a...

361

The Minimization of Public Health Risks in Newspapers after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

During natural disasters, mass media facilitate the timely provision of accurate information about health risks to the public. This study informs our understanding of such public health discourse, utilizing a content-analysis of 235 newspaper articles in four major metropolitan newspapers published in the five weeks after Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast in August 2005. These data reveal that a

Elisia L. Cohen; Santosh Vijaykumar; Ricardo Wray; Ajlina Karamehic-Muratovic

2008-01-01

362

A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

2009-01-01

363

Associations between diet and health behavior: Results from the 1992 Rhode Island Behavioral Risk Factor Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1992 Rhode Island Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to assess self-reported health behaviors of consumers of finfish and raw shellfish. We hypothesized that consumers of finfish, foods considered to be healthy, were more likely than nonconsumers of finfish to partake in health-promoting behaviors. Similarly, we postulated that consumers of raw molluscan shellfish, foods linked to an elevated

Sean F. Altekruse; Babagaleh B. Timbo; Marcia L. Headrick; Karl C. Klontz

1995-01-01

364

Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication: Effect of an Educational Package for Public Health Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-service for public health nurses (PHNs) and accompanying educational materials could improve vaccine risk/benefit communication. The content and timing of vaccine communication were recorded during 246 pre-and 217 post-intervention visits in two public health immunization clinics.…

Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Kennen, Estela M.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Arnold, Connie L.; Quinlin, Mackey S.; Bocchini, Joseph A., Jr.

2006-01-01

365

Inscribing healthification: governance, risk, surveillance and the subjects and spaces of fitness and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the interface between the hygienic geographies of a fitness and exercise space and the discourses of risk and subjectivity in this era of the new public health. Using an analysis of space, power and the subject, the paper assesses the ways in which subjects govern themselves and others in public health spaces through an intensification of surveillance,

Caroline Fusco

2006-01-01

366

EXTRAPOLATION IN HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

A symposium was conducted in April 1998 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to explore issues of extrapolation in human health and ecological risk assessments. Over the course of three and one half d...

367

Chapter 10 - HEALTH RISKS DURING THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE DEPLOYED SOLDIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the timely management of occupational health risks during the entire life cycle of a soldier, from first selection as a recruit to beyond the end of his or her military career. The goal of military occupational and environmental health (OEH) programs is to contribute to the operational availability and capability of the military personnel as well as

Christian Carton; Karl Friedl; Birgitta Liljedahl; David Lam

368

Discrimination of Health Risk by Combined Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: NIH Clinical Guidelines (1998) recommend the measurement of waist circumference (WC, centimeters) within body mass index (BMI, kilograms per square meter) categories as a screening tool for increased health risk.Research Methods and Procedures: The Canada Heart Health Surveys (1986 through 1992) were used to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Canada and to test the use of

Christopher I. Ardern; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Ian Janssen; Robert Ross

2003-01-01

369

Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model) and the impact\\/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health

Carlos Martín-Cantera; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Lydia Roig; Susana Valiente; Katherine Perez; Luis Garcia-Ortiz; Jordi Bel; Fernando Marques; Xavier Mundet; Xavier Bonafont; Marti Birules; Núria Soldevila; Elena Briones

2010-01-01

370

Safety & Risk Services Environmental Health and Safety Last Revised: 2011/08/30 1  

E-print Network

Safety & Risk Services Environmental Health and Safety Last Revised: 2011/08/30 1 Biosafety, Biology Voting Lab Tech Staff p:778-782-4850 f:778-782-3496 peter_hollmann@sfu.ca Jim Mattsson Associate and Biochemistry EHS= Environmental Health & Safety UBC=University of British Columbia Mailing address for all

371

Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Virginia A. Roberts2, Lorraine C. Backer3, Jonathan S. Yoder2, Timothy J. Wade1, Michele C. Hlavsa2 1Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Researc...

372

Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

2014-01-01

373

DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

if an old site contamination may have harmful effects on human health in view of the planned or current use hot spots as a preliminary site investigation usually is nor to allow the calculation of contaminated2001-88 DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Assessing Potential Health Risks from Microcystin Toxins in Blue-Green Algae Dietary Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of blue-green algae (BGA) toxins in surface waters used for drinking water sources and recreation is receiving increasing attention around the world as a public health concern. However, potential risks from exposure to these toxins in contaminated health food products that contain BGA have been largely ignored. BGA products are commonly consumed in the United States, Canada, and

Duncan J. Gilroy; Kenneth W. Kauffman; Ronald A. Hall; Xuan Huang; Fun S. Chu

375

Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

Teachman, Jay

2010-01-01

376

Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project  

PubMed Central

Background Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model) and the impact/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health care. The objectives of our study are: Main aim: To outline the distribution of risk factors associated with Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) in a driving population assigned to a group of primary health care centres in Barcelona province. Secondly, we aim to study the distribution of diverse risk factors related to the possibility of suffering an RTI according to age, sex and population groups, to assess the relationship between these same risk factors and self risk perception for suffering an RTI, and to outline the association between the number of risk factors and the history of reported collisions. Methods/Design Design: Cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: 25 urban health care centres. Study population: Randomly selected sample of Spanish/Catalan speakers age 16 or above with a medical register in any of the 25 participating primary health care centres. N = 1540. Unit of study: Basic unit of care, consisting of a general practitioner and a nurse, both of whom caring for the same population (1,500 to 2,000 people per unit). Instruments of measurement: Data collection will be performed using a survey carried out by health professionals, who will use the clinical registers and the information reported by the patient during the visit to collect the baseline data: illnesses, medication intake, alcohol and psychoactive consumption, and self perception of risk. Discussion We expect to obtain a risk profile of the subjects in relation to RTI in the primary health care field, and to create a group for a prospective follow-up. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00778440. PMID:20233403

2010-01-01

377

The Minimization of Public Health Risks in Newspapers after Hurricane Katrina  

PubMed Central

During natural disasters, mass media facilitate the timely provision of accurate information about health risks to the public. This study informs our understanding of such public health discourse utilizing content-analysis of 235 newspaper articles in four major metropolitan newspapers published in the five weeks after Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf coast in August 2005. These data reveal a small and diminishing number of articles included public health information over time, detailed the hurricane impact on affected communities, and used reliable health sources. The implications for future research from a public health and media relations perspective are discussed. PMID:20011666

Cohen, Elisia L.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Wray, Ricardo; Karamehic, Ajlina

2009-01-01

378

Who Is at Increased Risk of Health Problems during Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... obese mothers also have an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), stillbirth, and being large for ... Date: 07/15/2013 Related A-Z Topics Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Pregnancy All ...

379

Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies utilizing such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective. This review describes a collaborative effort among several federal and stat...

380

Passive smoking as an environmental health risk factor.  

PubMed

Initially, tobacco was considered as a decorative plant and only later began to be treated as a herb with special therapeutic properties. With time, it was found that tobacco had strong insecticidal and addictive properties. There also occurred reports about the negative influence of tobacco on human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies smoking as a chronic, progressive disease which is also 'contagious'. It is also considered to be a neurobiotic addiction. Nicotine addiction does not cause changes in the behaviour or functioning of a smoker; however, it adversely affects his or her general health status and the health status of people within their environment. Passive smoking (so-called ETS--Environmental Tobacco Smoke), which means accompanying smokers negatively influences the health of passive smokers. Environmental tobacco smoke, on the one hand, is the result of spontaneous cigarette burning and, on the other hand, the result of the side-stream of cigarette smoke, as well as the smoke exhaled by active smokers. Health personnel should clearly and convincingly present the data concerning the adverse results of smoking, as well as the dangers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, thereby making their patients aware that breaking their addiction will not only be beneficial for their own health, but will also protect non-smokers in their environment from the adverse effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:23020054

Sikorska-Jaroszy?ska, Ma?gorzata H J; Mielnik-B?aszczak, Maria; Krawczyk, Dorota; Nasi?owska-Barud, Alicja; B?aszczak, Jerzy

2012-01-01

381

The relationship between health plan advertising and market incentives: evidence of risk-selective behavior.  

PubMed

Medicare beneficiaries are now facing advertising from an unprecedented number of health plans that are offering prescription drug coverage. Previous Medicare managed care efforts have been undermined by risk selection, the practice of enrolling healthier and therefore less costly patients. In this study we explore how the content of health plan advertising is related to the competitiveness of the health plan market. We find that increased competition is associated with greater use of advertising that targets healthier patients. PMID:16684741

Mehrotra, Ateev; Grier, Sonya; Dudley, R Adams

2006-01-01

382

S:\\Shared\\OPP\\Programs\\Student Applications, Handouts & Forms\\Forms\\Medical Forms\\Special_Medical_Health_Risk_and_Release_Form.doc SPECIAL MEDICAL HEALTH RISK AND RELEASE FORM  

E-print Network

of the International Travel Section) http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1765.html Knowing the risksS:\\Shared\\OPP\\Programs\\Student Applications, Handouts & Forms\\Forms\\Medical Forms\\Special_Medical_Health_Risk_and_Release_Form.doc SPECIAL MEDICAL HEALTH RISK AND RELEASE FORM UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE THIS IS A RELEASE OF LEGAL

Saldin, Dilano

383

Association between perceived unmet health care needs and risk of adverse health outcomes among patients with chronic medical conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with chronic medical conditions are more likely to report unmet health care needs. Whether unmet health care needs are associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes is unclear. Methods Adults with at least one self-reported chronic condition (arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, mood disorder, stroke) from the 2001 and 2003 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey were linked to national hospitalization data. Participants were followed from the date of their survey until March 31, 2005, for the primary outcomes of all-cause and cause-specific admission to hospital. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission to hospital, and in-hospital death. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between unmet health care needs, admission to hospital, and length of stay, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, and health status. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between unmet needs, readmission, and in-hospital death. Further analyses were conducted by type of unmet need. Results Of the 51 932 adults with self-reported chronic disease, 15.5% reported an unmet health care need. Participants with unmet health care needs had a risk of all-cause admission to hospital similar to that of patients with no unmet needs (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94–1.15). When stratified by type of need, participants who reported issues of limited resource availability had a slightly higher risk of hospital admission (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09–1.28). There was no association between unmet needs and length of stay, readmission, or in-hospital death. Interpretation Overall, unmet health care needs were not associated with an increased risk of admission to hospital among those with chronic conditions. However, certain types of unmet needs may be associated with higher or lower risk. Whether unmet needs are associated with other measures of resource use remains to be determined. PMID:23687534

Ronksley, Paul E; Sanmartin, Claudia; Quan, Hude; Ravani, Pietro; Tonelli, Marcello; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

2013-01-01

384

Inscribing healthification: governance, risk, surveillance and the subjects and spaces of fitness and health.  

PubMed

This paper considers the interface between the hygienic geographies of a fitness and exercise space and the discourses of risk and subjectivity in this era of the new public health. Using an analysis of space, power and the subject, the paper assesses the ways in which subjects govern themselves and others in public health spaces through an intensification of surveillance, in order to ensure health and safety compliance. In this paper, first, I introduce the locker room as a place of health and hygiene. Second, I set out the wider context of the inscription of health on spaces and subjects. Third, I examine the relationship between discourses of risk and subjectivity and how risk discourses are fundamental to the fabrication of subjects and social life. The paper then examines, more specifically, techniques of self- and other-governance that help to inscribe and prescribe the new public health in locker rooms. Drawing on the findings of a spatial and ethnographic case study of an urban, Canadian university locker room, I conclude that the macro- and micro-politics and economics of policing public health require both the regulation of bodies and the participation of active, health-conscious citizens in order to keep (western) neo-liberal imperatives of health in place. PMID:16243681

Fusco, Caroline

2006-03-01

385

[Health risks in connection with fungi: a contribution to the assessment of fungi in the risk potential of safety provisions].  

PubMed

Fungi have been used for a long time in industrial production. Recent developments in biotechnology have lead to an increased awareness of possible health hazards connected with the use of microorganisms in industries. In order to avoid potential risks by appropriate protective measures it is necessary to assess the microorganisms, including fungi, with respect to their species-related risk potential. For this purpose, fungi were classified into three risk groups of which group I contains non-hazardous fungi and group III fungi with high risk. Most difficulties arise when it is to be decided if a fungus belongs to group I or group II which includes most pathogenic fungi. The present study was designed to provide data which facilitate the assessment of potentially hazardous fungi. It is based on the evaluation of the pertinent mycological literature as represented in the Review of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in the years from 1980 till 1989. PMID:8767270

Meinhof, W; Lüders, A; Finkeldey, E; Balter, A

1996-01-01

386

A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

1996-06-01

387

FRAMEWORK FOR THE INTEGRATION OF HEALTH AND ECOLOIGCAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration; of assessment approa...

388

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Rangeland Health and Sustainability  

E-print Network

favorable condi- tions. Unfortunately, they do not provide dependable, continuous protection to the soil surface, nor do they provide sufficient forage for livestock and wildlife. Rangeland Health and Sustainability Allan McGinty Professor and Extension...

McGinty, Allan

2000-11-01

389

Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

2005-01-01

390

Application of the bioecological model and health belief model to self-reported health risk behaviors of adolescents in the united states  

E-print Network

Health risk behaviors are responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Researchers have identified three sources of risk-taking in adolescents – dispositional, ecological and biological. The Bioecological Model...

Fleary, Sasha A.

2009-05-15

391

Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks  

E-print Network

Capital city 0 250 500 1000 km 10°N 10°E 0° 10°W20°W 20°E0° 20°N N #12;#12;23 1 Health, Sanitation, conflicts, poor sanitation, health and institutions ­ in both urban and rural contexts ­ were the issues of inadequate water supply and sanitation (WSS) are high (WHO 2009; World Bank 2009). About 1.6 million children

Richner, Heinz

392

A risk-based regulatory framework for health IT: recommendations of the FDASIA working group.  

PubMed

The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) acting through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and in collaboration with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) was tasked with delivering a report on an appropriate, risk-based regulatory framework for health information technology (IT). An expert stakeholder group was established under the auspices of the Health IT Policy Committee to help provide input into the development of this framework, including how healthcare IT systems could be stratified in terms of risk and recommendations about how the regulatory requirements currently in place should be adapted. In this paper, we summarize the public deliberations and final public report of the expert stakeholder group, and conclude with key suggestions intended to address the charge to recommend the features of a risk-based regulatory framework that promote innovation, protect patient safety, and avoid regulatory duplication. PMID:24763676

Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W

2014-10-01

393

Predictive risk modelling in health: options for New Zealand and Australia.  

PubMed

Predictive risk models (PRMs) are case-finding tools that enable health care systems to identify patients at risk of expensive and potentially avoidable events such as emergency hospitalisation. Examples include the PARR (Patients-at-Risk-of-Rehospitalisation) tool and Combined Predictive Model used by the National Health Service in England. When such models are coupled with an appropriate preventive intervention designed to avert the adverse event, they represent a useful strategy for improving the cost-effectiveness of preventive health care. This article reviews the current knowledge about PRMs and explores some of the issues surrounding the potential introduction of a PRM to a public health system. We make a particular case for New Zealand, but also consider issues that are relevant to Australia. PMID:21367330

Panattoni, Laura E; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Ashton, Toni; Lewis, Geraint H

2011-02-01

394

Environmental Risks to Public Health in the United Arab Emirates: A Quantitative Assessment and Strategic Plan  

PubMed Central

Background: Environmental risks to health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have shifted rapidly from infectious to noninfectious diseases as the nation has developed at an unprecedented rate. In response to public concerns over newly emerging environmental risks, the Environment Agency–Abu Dhabi commissioned a multidisciplinary environmental health strategic planning project. Objectives: In order to develop the environmental health strategic plan, we sought to quantify the illnesses and premature deaths in the UAE attributable to 14 environmental pollutant categories, prioritize these 14 risk factors, and identify interventions. Methods: We estimated the disease burden imposed by each risk factor using an attributable fraction approach, and we prioritized the risks using an empirically tested stakeholder engagement process. We then engaged government personnel, scientists, and other stakeholders to identify interventions. Results: The UAE’s environmental disease burden is low by global standards. Ambient air pollution is the leading contributor to premature mortality [~ 650 annual deaths; 95% confidence interval (CI): 140, 1,400]. Risk factors leading to > 10,000 annual health care facility visits included occupational exposures, indoor air pollution, drinking water contamination, seafood contamination, and ambient air pollution. Among the 14 risks considered, on average, outdoor air pollution was ranked by the stakeholders as the highest priority (mean rank, 1.4; interquartile range, 1–2) and indoor air pollution as the second-highest priority (mean rank 3.3; interquartile range, 2–4). The resulting strategic plan identified 216 potential interventions for reducing environmental risks to health. Conclusions: The strategic planning exercise described here provides a framework for systematically deciding how to invest public funds to maximize expected returns in environmental health, where returns are measured in terms of reductions in a population’s environmental burden of disease. PMID:22357098

Farah, Zeinab S.

2012-01-01

395

Cost-Effectiveness of Health Risk Reduction After Lifestyle Education in the Small Workplace  

PubMed Central

Introduction Investigations suggest that worksite health promotions in large companies decrease employer health costs and the risk for chronic disease. However, evidence of the success of such programs in small organizations is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a worksite health promotion program improves health risk and is cost-effective for a small employer. Methods Intervention (n = 29) and comparison (n = 31) participants from a 172-employee organization underwent health screening of risk factors for coronary heart disease at baseline (fall 2006) and at 12 months (fall 2007). The intervention group attended lifestyle education videoconferences and reported physical activity. We used the Framingham Risk Score to calculate risk of coronary heart disease. To calculate cost-effectiveness, we used direct employer costs of the program divided by either the relative reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or the absolute change in coronary heart disease risk. Results At 12 months, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and number of metabolic syndrome markers were significantly higher in the comparison group than in the intervention group. Total cholesterol was significantly lower at 12 months than at baseline in the intervention group. Waist circumference and number of metabolic syndrome markers increased significantly from baseline in the comparison group. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention was $10.17 per percentage-point reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and $454.23 per point reduction in coronary heart disease risk. Conclusion This study demonstrated the cost-effectiveness in a small organization of a worksite health promotion that improved low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease risk in participating employees. PMID:22575081

Allen, Jorie C.; Lewis, James B.

2012-01-01

396

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

2005-01-01

397

Health risk assessment: WTE (waste-to-energy) vs. peanut butter  

SciTech Connect

The degree to which society will come to accept potential health risks associated with municipal waste-to-energy plants depends on three factors: the reliability with which exposure and adverse health effects associated with facility emissions can be described, quantified, and gradually reduced; the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of other waste management options, especially landfilling and recycling; and the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of more familiar activities, such as driving, flying, smoking, and eating peanut butter sandwiches. Progress in risk assessment has already improved quantification of human exposure to emissions through the food chain, as well as through other pathways within the general categories of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Where does this progress leave municipal refuse incineration relative to other risks This article explores that issue.

Michaels, R.A. (RAM TRAC Corp., Long Island, NY (USA))

1988-10-01

398

Health risk analysis of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in big cities of China.  

PubMed

A probabilistic carcinogenic risk assessment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four big cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xiamen) of China was carried out. PAHs levels in these cities were collected from published literatures and converted into BaP equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations. The health risk assessment models recommended by US EPA were applied to quantitatively characterize the health risk values of PAHs. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk assessment. The results showed that BaPeq concentrations of four cities were all higher than the newest limited value (1 ng/m(3)) of China. Health risk assessment indicated that atmospheric PAHs in Guangzhou and Xiamen posed no or little carcinogenic risk on local residents. However, the PAHs in Beijing and Shanghai posed potential carcinogenic risk for adults and lifetime exposure. Notwithstanding the uncertainties, this study provides the primary information on the carcinogenic risk of atmospheric PAHs in studied cities of China. PMID:24420621

Wang, Yonghua; Hu, Liangfeng; Lu, Guanghua

2014-05-01

399

Risk factors of tuberculosis among health care workers in Sabah, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main public health problems in Sabah; 30% of the total number of TB cases reported in Malaysia every year occur in Sabah. The average incidence of TB among health care workers over the past 5 years is 280.4 per 100,000 population (1, Annual Report of Sabah State TB Control Programme, 1998). At present, there are no specific measures for the prevention of TB transmission in health care facilities. A case-control study was conducted among health care workers in Sabah in 2000-2001. Cases were health care workers with TB diagnosed between January 1990 and June 2000. Controls were health care workers without TB and working in the same facility as cases during the disease episode. The study attempted to identify risk factors for TB among the study population. Data were collected through structured interviews and review of patients' records. The notification rate of TB among health care workers was significantly higher than that to the general population (Z=4.893, p<0.01). The average notification rate of TB among health care workers over the last 5 years was two times higher than in the general population (280.4/100,000 compared to 153.9/100,000). Regression results showed that ethnicity, designation, family contact and TB related knowledge did not significantly contribute to the risk of contracting TB in this study. However, after controlling for the above factors, age, gender, history of TB contact outside the workplace (other than family contact), duration of service and failure to use respiratory protection when performing high-risk procedures, were the main risk factors of TB among health care workers. This study succeeded in identifying some of the risk factors of TB among health care workers. We managed to include the large ratio of controls to case (3:1) and those cases spanned over a period of 10 years. However, the findings from the study have to be applied with caution due to the limitations of this study, which include recall bias, dropouts, and small sample size. Based on the study findings, we recommend that health care workers in the first 10 years of service should take extra precautions, such as using respiratory protection when performing procedures that are considered to be of high risk with respect to TB infection. They should also undergo TB screening at least once every 2 years and, if symptomatic, offered prophylactic treatment. The Respiratory Protection Programme should be fully implemented to help reduce the risk of TB among health care workers in Sabah. PMID:14670342

Jelip, Jenarun; Mathew, George G; Yusin, Tanrang; Dony, Jiloris F; Singh, Nirmal; Ashaari, Musa; Lajanin, Noitie; Shanmuga Ratnam, C; Yusof Ibrahim, Mohd; Gopinath, Deyer

2004-01-01

400

Impact of microbial count distributions on human health risk estimates.  

PubMed

Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) is influenced by the choice of the probability distribution used to describe pathogen concentrations, as this may eventually have a large effect on the distribution of doses at exposure. When fitting a probability distribution to microbial enumeration data, several factors may have an impact on the accuracy of that fit. Analysis of the best statistical fits of different distributions alone does not provide a clear indication of the impact in terms of risk estimates. Thus, in this study we focus on the impact of fitting microbial distributions on risk estimates, at two different concentration scenarios and at a range of prevalence levels. By using five different parametric distributions, we investigate whether different characteristics of a good fit are crucial for an accurate risk estimate. Among the factors studied are the importance of accounting for the Poisson randomness in counts, the difference between treating "true" zeroes as such or as censored below a limit of quantification (LOQ) and the importance of making the correct assumption about the underlying distribution of concentrations. By running a simulation experiment with zero-inflated Poisson-lognormal distributed data and an existing QMRA model from retail to consumer level, it was possible to assess the difference between expected risk and the risk estimated with using a lognormal, a zero-inflated lognormal, a Poisson-gamma, a zero-inflated Poisson-gamma and a zero-inflated Poisson-lognormal distribution. We show that the impact of the choice of different probability distributions to describe concentrations at retail on risk estimates is dependent both on concentration and prevalence levels. We also show that the use of an LOQ should be done consciously, especially when zero-inflation is not used. In general, zero-inflation does not necessarily improve the absolute risk estimation, but performance of zero-inflated distributions in QMRA tends to be more robust to changes in prevalence and concentration levels, and to the use of an LOQ to interpret zero values, compared to that of their non-zero-inflated counterparts. PMID:25506750

Duarte, A S R; Nauta, M J

2015-02-16

401

Sanitation programmes for living spaces and health risks involved.  

PubMed

The former GDR had adopted a housing programme focusing on developing new residential high-rise building areas with district heating at the outskirts of the cities. Deterioration of residential buildings in the city centres was a result of this policy. Since 1990, energy saving measures have been implemented, including installation of new windows, provision of heat insulation and conversion of the old heating systems to non-polluting energy carriers. At the same time many people began to refurnish their homes. While pollution of the outside world could be reduced, considerable problems in the interior rooms emerged. On request of the Public Health Agencies, the Institute of Hygiene of Saxony-Anhalt renders administrative assistance providing environmental health consultancy services. The health disturbances observed occur in connection with the new tight windows and doors. The occupants participate in the problem by not airing their flats sufficiently in an attempt to save heating costs. PMID:8920762

Sobottka, A; Thriene, B

1996-11-01

402

Heavy Internet use and its associations with health risk and health-promoting behaviours among Thai university students.  

PubMed

The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age=20.1 years, SD=1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD=2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health. PMID:24762639

Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Apidechkul, Tawatchai

2014-01-01

403

The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

2014-01-01

404

EPA'S REASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN RISK: DIRECTED HEALTH RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated a reassessment of the risk of exposure to dioxin in the spring of 1991 because of the evolution of scientific thinking as well as the publication of several key experimental studies. his involves a literature reevaluatio...

405

Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

2002-01-01

406

ANEUPLOIDY AND HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a workshop to discuss (1) the contribution of aneuploidy to human disease and disability, (2) the development of tests for detecting chemicals that induce aneuploidy and the relevance of these tests to human risk, and (3) the cur...

407

Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between patient literacy and hospitalization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Urban public hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: A total of 979 emergency department patients who participated in the Literacy in Health Care study and had completed an intake\\u000a interview and literacy testing with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults were eligible for this study. Of these,

David W. Baker; Ruth M. Parker; Mark V. Williams; W. Scott Clark

1998-01-01

408

EMFs and health risks: Research and reactions in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The health effects of electric and magnetic fields have received attention in Sweden during the past year. Mass media interest has been considerable, but not extreme. Local actions have in some areas demanded that transmission lines must be moved or replaced with cables, but, overall, the debate has been about facts. This increased interest is mainly a result of two Swedish reports in September 1992. This presentation concentrates on the following: results from these Swedish studies concerning health effects and electric and magnetic fields; reactions in the mass media and the public; reactions of Swedish authorities; and attitudes of, and measures taken by, Vattenfall.

Goethe, S. (Vattenfall AB (Sweden))

1993-10-01

409

British weather: conversation topic or serious health risk?  

PubMed

Britain is renowned for low indoor winter temperatures and a high rate of excess winter deaths and a causal association has been drawn between the two. A lack of priority given to energy efficiency here is often justified in terms of the mild climate. However, it can be shown that British climatic features may be related to poor health as long as poor standards of construction and insulation prevail. Legislation should therefore be implemented to improve standards both for new housing and refurbishment of much existing housing stock, not only for reasons of energy conservation but also for community health. PMID:8937269

Rudge, J

1996-09-01

410

British weather: Conversation topic or serious health risk?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Britain is renowned for low indoor winter temperatures and a high rate of excess winter deaths and a causal association has been drawn between the two. A lack of priority given to energy efficiency here is often justified in terms of the mild climate. However, it can be shown that British climatic features may be related to poor health as long as poor standards of construction and insulation prevail. Legislation should therefore be implemented to improve standards both for new housing and refurbishment of much existing housing stock, not only for reasons of energy conservation but also for community health.

Rudge, Janet

1996-09-01

411

Risk-adjusted outcome models for public mental health outpatient programs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To develop and test risk-adjustment outcome models in publicly funded mental health outpatient settings. We developed prospective risk models that used demographic and diagnostic variables; client-reported functioning, satisfaction, and quality of life; and case manager clinical ratings to predict subsequent client functional status, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with services. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data collected from 289 adult clients at five- and ten-month intervals, from six community mental health agencies in Washington state located primarily in suburban and rural areas. Data sources included client self-report, case manager ratings, and management information system data. STUDY DESIGN: Model specifications were tested using prospective linear regression analyses. Models were validated in a separate sample and comparative agency performance examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Presence of severe diagnoses, substance abuse, client age, and baseline functional status and quality of life were predictive of mental health outcomes. Unadjusted versus risk-adjusted scores resulted in differently ranked agency performance. CONCLUSIONS: Risk-adjusted functional status and patient satisfaction outcome models can be developed for public mental health outpatient programs. Research is needed to improve the predictive accuracy of the outcome models developed in this study, and to develop techniques for use in applied settings. The finding that risk adjustment changes comparative agency performance has important consequences for quality monitoring and improvement. Issues in public mental health risk adjustment are discussed, including static versus dynamic risk models, utilization versus outcome models, choice and timing of measures, and access and quality improvement incentives. PMID:10201857

Hendryx, M S; Dyck, D G; Srebnik, D

1999-01-01

412

Estimating the incremental net health benefit of requirements for cardiovascular risk evaluation for diabetes therapies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of pre-approval requirements for safety data to detect cardiovascular (CV) risk contained in the December 2008 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for developing type 2 diabetes drugs compared with the February 2008 FDA draft guidance from the perspective of diabetes population health. Methods We applied the incremental net health benefit (INHB) framework to quantify the benefits and risks of investigational diabetes drugs using a common survival metric (life-years [LYs]). We constructed a decision analytic model for clinical program development consistent with the requirements of each guidance and simulated diabetes drugs, some of which had elevated CV risk. Assuming constant research budgets, we estimate the impact of increased trial size on drugs investigated. We aggregate treatment benefit and CV risks for each approved drug over a 35-year horizon under each guidance. Results The quantitative analysis suggests that the December 2008 guidance adversely impacts diabetes population health. INHB was ?1.80 million LYs, attributable to delayed access to diabetes therapies (?0.18 million LYs) and fewer drugs (?1.64 million LYs), but partially offset by reduced CV risk exposure (0.02 million LYs). Results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion The health outcomes impact of all potential benefits and risks should be evaluated in a common survival measure, including health gain from avoided adverse events, lost health benefits from delayed or forgone efficacious products, and impact of alternative policy approaches. Quantitative analysis of the December 2008 FDA guidance for diabetes therapies indicates that negative impact on patient health will result. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24892175

Chawla, Anita J; Mytelka, Daniel S; McBride, Stephan D; Nellesen, Dave; Elkins, Benjamin R; Ball, Daniel E; Kalsekar, Anupama; Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

2014-01-01

413

Risk behaviors and negative health outcomes for adolescents with late bedtimes.  

PubMed

Late bedtimes in adolescence may be a serious risk factor for later poor health and functional outcomes. The current study sought to extend existing cross sectional data by examining whether late bedtimes in adolescence predicts poor outcomes in young adulthood. Data from wave 2 (1996) and wave 3 (2001-2002) of the nationally representative sample of US youth (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between late bedtime, and several risk behaviors and negative health outcomes following 3,843 adolescents into young adulthood. At wave 2 the mean age was 16 with 52.1 % female. At wave 3 the mean age was 21.8. In cross sectional analyses, late bedtime was associated with 1.5 to over 3 times greater odds of involvement in risk behaviors and negative health outcomes, including emotional distress, suicidality, criminal and violent activity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs. In longitudinal analyses, late bedtime assessed at wave 2 predicted a number of serious health outcomes at wave 3, with late bedtime in adolescence associated with around 1.5 greater odds of involvement in health jeopardizing behaviors such as criminal activity, alcohol abuse, cigarette use, illicit drug use and emotional distress in young adulthood. There was also a dose effect, such that the later the bedtime in adolescence, the greater the risk of involvement in risk behaviors in young adulthood. This research suggests that late bedtime in adolescence predicts multiple serious risk behaviors and health outcomes in young adulthood. PMID:24599733

McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Harvey, Allison G

2015-02-01

414

[Health Risk Railroad Noise - Prognosis of Potential Health Risks Subsequent to Night-time Exposure to Railroad Noise in the German Part of the Transversal Rotterdam Genova].  

PubMed

Based on risk coefficients for cardiovascular and psychiatric disease derived from a case-control study in the vicinity of a major German airport, statistics on persons exposed to night-time railroad noise in the vicinity of the Rotterdam-Genova Transversal, and on health expenditure calculations by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany a prognosis on effects of railroad noise was performed. It resulted for 1 10-year period in nearly 75?000 excess cases of diseases, nearly 30?000 excess deaths and health expenditures of 3.8 billion euros. PMID:25525678

Greiser, E

2014-12-01

415

Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

2012-01-01

416

Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

417

Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

2013-01-01

418

Measuring risk in a children’s unit: developing a local strategy for health, safety and risk management at Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the Queen’s Medical Centre approach to assessing and addressing risk in terms of Health and Safety within a busy children’s unit. This article focuses on compartmentalising a large clinical area on two floors of a busy teaching hospital which become manageable sized subunits; each has a health, safety and risk management link person who attends the regular

Sharon Stower

1998-01-01

419

From Cancer to Diarrhea: The Moving Target of Public Concern about Environmental Health Risks  

PubMed Central

Public concern about the environment can be unpredictable because it is influenced by numerous factors. Environmental health issues often emerge as important because the public is worried about their health especially when it comes to cancer. Public fear of cancer from environmental exposures is reinforced by many of the US regulations that set pollutant limits based on reducing the risk of cancers rather than other health outcomes. While fear of cancer will never dissipate, recent foodborne outbreaks are contributing to raising public awareness of the health effects from microbes. This paper adds to the dialogue about the challenges of enhancing public understanding of environmental health issues. Internal factors, such as worry, that contribute to public outrage are sometimes more important than external factors such as the media. In addition, relying on the media to inform the public about imminent public health risks may be an ineffective approach to enhancing understanding. In the end, scientists and risk communicators are forced to compete with politicians who are often very effective at manipulating public understanding of risk. PMID:22174587

Morrone, Michele

2011-01-01

420

Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in Plague: An Emerging Public Health Risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antimicrobial resistance in Yersinia pestis is rare, yet constitutes a significant international public health and biodefense threat. In 1995, the first multidrug resistant (MDR) isolate of Y. pestis (strain IP275) was identified, and shown to contain a self-transmissible plasmid (pIP1202) that con...

421

Health and Safety Five steps to risk assessment  

E-print Network

closed to ensure people do not trip. For most, that means simple, cheap and effective measures to ensure and ill health can ruin lives and affect your business too if output is lost, machinery is damaged and decide on precautions Step 4 Record your findings and implement them Step 5 Review your assessment

Brierley, Andrew

422

Health risks of gold miners: a synoptic review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Health problems of gold miners who worked underground include decreased life expectancy; increased frequency of cancer of the trachea, bronchus, lung, stomach, and liver; increased frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), silicosis, and pleural diseases; increased frequency of insect-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever; noise-induced hearing loss; increased prevalence of certain bacterial and viral diseases; and diseases of the blood, skin, and musculoskeletal system. These problems are briefly documented in gold miners from Australia, North America, South America, and Africa. In general, HIV infection or excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption tended to exacerbate existing health problems. Miners who used elemental mercury to amalgamate and extract gold were heavily contaminated with mercury. Among individuals exposed occupationally, concentrations of mercury in their air, fish diet, hair, urine, blood, and other tissues significantly exceeded all criteria proposed by various national and international regulatory agencies for protection of human health. However, large-scale epidemiological evidence of severe mercury-associated health problems in this cohort was not demonstrable.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

423

PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

424

Risk Reduction: Recontextualizing Health as a Physical Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is sufficient evidence to suggest that physical activity is inversely related to lifestyle diseases, researchers are far from being certain that this evidence extends to children. Nevertheless, the school physical education curriculum has been targeted as an institutional agency that could have a significant impact on health during…

Johns, David P.; Tinning, Richard

2006-01-01

425

Occupational Health and Safety Program Animal Risk Questionnaire  

E-print Network

. Environmental Allergies, Asthma, Skin Problems, and General Health Status. Yes No Don't Know 1. Are you allergic to any animals? If yes, list the animals: If yes, have you been seen by a physician for animal allergies, describe: 3. Do you have any other known allergies? If yes, list cause(s) of allergies: List symptoms

Farritor, Shane

426

Behavioral Health and Performance, Risk to Mitigation Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster reviews the working of the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) group, which supports the research element which manages an integrated program for future space flight. The BHP operations group supports astronauts and their families in all phases of the International Space Station Mission, and post mission effects.

Leveton, Lauren; Whitemire, Alexandra

2009-01-01

427

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

SciTech Connect

Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2011-10-04

428

Risk and Management of Blood-Borne Infections in Health Care Workers  

PubMed Central

Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. In the health care setting, blood-borne pathogen transmission occurs predominantly by percutaneous or mucosal exposure of workers to the blood or body fluids of infected patients. Prospective studies of HCWs have estimated that the average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure is approximately 0.3%, the risk of HBV transmission is 6 to 30%, and the risk of HCV transmission is approximately 1.8%. To minimize the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission from HCWs to patients, all HCWs should adhere to standard precautions, including the appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments. Employers should have in place a system that includes written protocols for prompt reporting, evaluation, counseling, treatment, and follow-up of occupational exposures that may place a worker at risk of blood-borne pathogen infection. A sustained commitment to the occupational health of all HCWs will ensure maximum protection for HCWs and patients and the availability of optimal medical care for all who need it. PMID:10885983

Beltrami, Elise M.; Williams, Ian T.; Shapiro, Craig N.; Chamberland, Mary E.

2000-01-01

429

An uncertain risk: the World Health Organization's account of H1N1.  

PubMed

Scientific uncertainty is fundamental to the management of contemporary global risks. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the start of the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. This declaration signified the risk posed by the spread of the H1N1 virus, and in turn precipitated a range of actions by global public health actors. This article analyzes the WHO's public representation of risk and examines the centrality of scientific uncertainty in the case of H1N1. It argues that the WHO's risk narrative reflected the context of scientific uncertainty in which it was working. The WHO argued that it was attempting to remain faithful to the scientific evidence, and the uncertain nature of the threat. However, as a result, the WHO's public risk narrative was neither consistent nor socially robust, leading to the eventual contestation of the WHO's position by other global public health actors, most notably the Council of Europe. This illustrates both the significance of scientific uncertainty in the investigation of risk, and the difficulty for risk managing institutions in effectively acting in the face of this uncertainty. PMID:25233744

Abeysinghe, Sudeepa

2014-09-01

430

Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10?5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10?5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

Bui Huy, Tung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

2014-01-01

431

Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.  

PubMed

We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

Huy, Tung Bui; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

2014-08-01

432

Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N?=?52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107

Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2013-01-01

433

Radiological health risks for exploratory class missions in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation risks to crewmembers on missions to the moon and Mars are studied. A graph is presented of the cross section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) for cell inactivation and neoplastic cell transformation. Alternatives to conventional approaches to radiation protection using dose and Q are presented with attention given to a hybrid of the conventional system for particles with LET less than 100 keV/micron.

Nachtwey, D. Stuart; Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu

1991-01-01

434

Stress and Resource Pathways Connecting Early Socioeconomic Adversity to Young Adults' Physical Health Risk.  

PubMed

Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth. PMID:25376472

Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

2014-11-01

435

Coming Home: Health Status and Homelessness Risk of Older Pre-release Prisoners  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND: Older adults comprise an increasing proportion of the prison and homeless populations. While older age is associated with adverse post-release health events and incarceration is a risk factor for homelessness, the health status and homelessness risk of older pre-release prisoners are unknown. Moreover, most post-release services are geared towards veterans; it is unknown whether the needs of non-veterans differ from those of veterans. OBJECTIVE: To assess health status and risk of homelessness of older pre-release prisoners, and to compare veterans with non-veterans. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of 360 prisoners (?55 years of age) within 2 years of release from prison using data from the 2004 Survey of

Brie A. Williams; James Mcguire; Rebecca G. Lindsay; Jacques Baillargeon; Irena Stijacic Cenzer; Sei J. Lee; Margot Kushel

436

A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts,\\u000a but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride\\u000a is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body

F. M. Fordyce; K. Vrana; E. Zhovinsky; V. Povoroznuk; G. Toth; B. C. Hope; U. Iljinsky; J. Baker

2007-01-01

437

The relationship between housing and health: children at risk.  

PubMed

In November 2002, the National Center for Healthy Housing convened a 2-day workshop to review the state of knowledge in the field of healthy housing. The workshop, supported with funds from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and National Center for Environmental Health, was unique in that it focused solely on the effect of housing on children's health and the translation of research findings into practical activities in home construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance. Participants included experts and practitioners representing the health, housing, and environmental arenas. Presentations by subject-matter experts covered four key areas: asthma, neurotoxicants, injury, and translational research. Panel discussions followed the presentations, which generated robust dialogue on potential future research opportunities and overall policy gaps. Lack of consensus on standard measurements, incomplete understanding about the interaction of home hazards, inadequate research on the effectiveness of interventions, and insufficient political support limit current efforts to achieve healthy housing. However, change is forthcoming and achievable. Key words: asthma, childhood exposure, environmental toxicants, healthy housing, lead poisoning. PMID:15531446

Breysse, Patrick; Farr, Nick; Galke, Warren; Lanphear, Bruce; Morley, Rebecca; Bergofsky, Linda

2004-11-01

438

The development and validation of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS): a 13-item screening instrument for alcohol and drug and mental health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) as a screening instrument for determining (i) the presence of alcohol and drug and mental health risk in Indigenous adult Australians and (ii) the cut-off scores that discriminate most effectively between the presence and absence of risk. A cross-sectional survey was used in clinical and

CARLA M. SCHLESINGER; Coralie Ober; MOLLY M. MCCARTHY; JOANNE D. WATSON; Anita Seinen

2007-01-01

439

An Exploratory Study of Meanings of Risk Control for Long Term and Acute Effect Occupational Health and Safety Risks in Small Business Construction Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study of employers' and employees' meanings of occupational health and safety (OHS) risk control was conducted among a sample of small businesses engaged in the Australian construction industry. Two OHS risks relevant to the construction industry were selected for study. One risk (falls from height) represented an immediate consequence, whereas the other (occupational skin disease) represented a long-term

Noni Holmes; Helen Lingard; Zeynep Yesilyurt; Fred De Munk

1999-01-01

440

A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-06-01

441

International note: Association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.  

PubMed

Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

2015-02-01

442

Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

2013-01-01

443

42 CFR 476.72 - Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance organizations and competitive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review...

2010-10-01

444

42 CFR 476.72 - Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance organizations and competitive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review...

2011-10-01

445

Hierarchies of Risk: The Longitudinal Dynamics of Family, Work, Welfare, and Health Insurance in Low-Income Women's Lives  

E-print Network

Lack of access to health insurance for millions of Americans is an important component of the contemporary health care crisis. Low-income women are at particularly high risk of having no or inadequate insurance. Utilizing longitudinal data collected...

Legerski, Elizabeth Miklya

2010-06-09

446

Functional Health Literacy and the Risk of Hospital Admission Among Medicare Managed Care Enrollees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study analyzed whether inadequate functional health literacy is an in- dependent risk factor for hospital admission. Methods. We studied a prospective cohort of 3260 Medicare managed care enrollees. Results. Of the participants, 29.5% were hospitalized. The crude relative risk (RR) of hos- pitalization was higher for individuals with inadequate literacy (n=800; RR=1.43; 95% con- fidence interval (CI)=1.24, 1.65)

David W. Baker; Julie A. Gazmararian; Mark V. Williams; Tracy Scott; Ruth M. Parker; Diane Green; Junling Ren; Jennifer Peel

447

Evaluating Uncertainty to Strengthen Epidemiologic Data for Use in Human Health Risk Assessments  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a recognized need to improve the application of epidemiologic data in human health risk assessment especially for understanding and characterizing risks from environmental and occupational exposures. Although there is uncertainty associated with the results of most epidemiologic studies, techniques exist to characterize uncertainty that can be applied to improve weight-of-evidence evaluations and risk characterization efforts. Methods: This report derives from a Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) workshop held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss the utility of using epidemiologic data in risk assessments, including the use of advanced analytic methods to address sources of uncertainty. Epidemiologists, toxicologists, and risk assessors from academia, government, and industry convened to discuss uncertainty, exposure assessment, and application of analytic methods to address these challenges. Synthesis: Several recommendations emerged to help improve the utility of epidemiologic data in risk assessment. For example, improved characterization of uncertainty is needed to allow risk assessors to quantitatively assess potential sources of bias. Data are needed to facilitate this quantitative analysis, and interdisciplinary approaches will help ensure that sufficient information is collected for a thorough uncertainty evaluation. Advanced analytic methods and tools such as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and Bayesian statistical techniques can provide important insights and support interpretation of epidemiologic data. Conclusions: The discussions and recommendations from this workshop demonstrate that there are practical steps that the scientific community can adopt to strengthen epidemiologic data for decision making. Citation: Burns CJ, Wright JM, Pierson JB, Bateson TF, Burstyn I, Goldstein DA, Klaunig JE, Luben TJ, Mihlan G, Ritter L, Schnatter AR, Symons JM, Yi KD. 2014. Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments. Environ Health Perspect 122:1160–1165;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308062 PMID:25079138

Burns, Carol J.; Wright, J. Michael; Bateson, Thomas F.; Burstyn, Igor; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Klaunig, James E.; Luben, Thomas J.; Mihlan, Gary; Ritter, Leonard; Schnatter, A. Robert; Symons, J. Morel; Don Yi, Kun

2014-01-01

448

Risks of Metabolic Syndrome in Students of the Faculty of Health Sciences  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the adult population worldwide. Education may play an important role in preventing metabolic syndrome in young adults, especially those who are attending university. Such adults are at a critical point in their lives and make their own lifestyle choices that can affect their future health. Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the metabolic syndrome risk levels of students from the Faculty of Health Sciences. Study Design: Survey design study. Methods: In a questionnaire developed by the researchers to collect data in accordance with the relevant literature, the scale of the risk of metabolic syndrome was assessed. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risks. Results: Important risk factors for metabolic syndrome were found to be gender, weight gain, “stress eating” excessive amounts of food, sleeping for more than 8 hours a day, feeling tired after sleep, belonging to a divided family, and eating whilst working on the computer. Conclusion: The students from the Faculty of Health Sciences, particularly because they are trained in the health sector, are expected to have more information about the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, and take necessary precautions to prevent it. PMID:25207123

Ö?ü?, Ersin; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Ceylan, Yelda; Demirel, Merve; Emecio?lu, Ne?e; Ercan, ?lçim; Ero?lu, Deniz; Haner, Sevinç

2013-01-01

449

Health risk assessment of odors emitted from urban wastewater pump stations in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the potential adverse health effects of odor emissions from wastewater pump stations (WWPSs) to human, a health risk assessment was performed to study the odors emitted from an urban WWPS in a residential area, Tianjin (in North China). First, 15 types of volatile organic compounds in the WWPS were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Next, Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling was applied to evaluate the potential health effects of four odors (chlorobenzene, dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide), which had higher concentrations. The results revealed that the 95th percentile of the total non-carcinogenic risk was approximately 1.73, which poses a threat to human health. In addition, hydrogen sulfide had the highest non-carcinogenic risk value of the four; the hazard quotient of hydrogen sulfide was estimated to be 1.60 at the 95th percentile, higher than the upper confidence limit (1.0). The 95th percentile of the carcinogenic risk was approximately 5.47E-08, much lower than the maximum acceptable level (1.0E-06). Finally, the influence of the input variables on the output was evaluated using sensitivity analysis, and contaminant concentration, reference concentration, and inhalation unit risk were the most influential variables. PMID:24817679

Niu, Zhi-Guang; Xu, Shi-Ying; Gong, Qing-Chao

2014-09-01

450

Cancer risks in relation to other health hazards in a modern society  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an attempt to place some of the health risks in a modern society in perspective. Apparently objective assessments of health risks are often highly value-laden, and incorporate many social assumptions. Cancer is often considered by the public to be more dangerous than many other diseases. Cancer research workers may also be emotional in their reactions to new results, and this can easily destroy their credibility. The public often seem to be more concerned with industrial carcinogens, which are probably responsible for less morbidity and mortality than an unhealthy life style. The importance of a critical scientific attitude tempered by concern for individuals is emphasized.

Iversen, O.H.

1987-01-01

451

Association between Obesity and Cardiometabolic Health Risk in Asian-Canadian Sub-Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify and compare the association between the World Health Organizations’ Asian-specific trigger points for public health action [‘increased risk’: body mass index (BMI) ?23 kg/m2, and; ‘high risk’: BMI ?27.5 kg/m2] with self-reported cardiovascular-related conditions in Asian-Canadian sub-groups. Methods Six cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001–2009) were pooled to examine BMI and health in Asian sub-groups (South Asians, Chinese, Filipino, Southeast Asians, Arabs, West Asians, Japanese and Korean; N?=?18 794 participants, ages 18–64 y). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle characteristics and acculturation measures, was used to estimate the odds of cardiovascular-related health (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’) outcomes across all eight Asian sub-groups. Results Compared to South Asians (OR?=?1.00), Filipinos had higher odds of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ (OR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.62), whereas Chinese (0.63, 0.474–0.9) and Arab-Canadians had lower odds (0.38, 0.28–0.51). In ethnic-specific analyses (with ‘acceptable’ risk weight as the referent), ‘increased’ and ‘high’ risk weight categories were the most highly associated with ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ in Chinese (‘increased’: 3.6, 2.34–5.63; ‘high’: 8.9, 3.6–22.01). Compared to normal weight South Asians, being in the ‘high’ risk weight category in all but the Southeast Asian, Arab, and Japanese ethnic groups was associated with approximately 3-times the likelihood of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’. Conclusion Differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risks were seen among Asian sub-groups in Canada. The use of WHO’s lowered Asian-specific BMI cut-offs identified obesity-related risks in South Asian, Filipino and Chinese sub-groups that would have been masked by traditional BMI categories. These findings have implications for public health messaging, especially for ethnic groups at higher odds of obesity-related health risks. PMID:25222283

Nie, Jason X.; Ardern, Chris I.

2014-01-01

452

Simulation of microbial occurrence, exposure and health risks after drinking water treatment processes  

SciTech Connect

For the development of the Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule, EPA wishes to compare human health risks from microbial infection with those from chemical disinfectants and their byproducts. EPA is approaching the problem with the use of computer models that simulate occurrence levels of pathogenic organisms in raw water, then simulate disinfection and production of disinfection byproducts. The microbial and chemical concentrations thus generated are then used to estimate potential health risks. The paper presents the methodology used for these simulations and estimations and discusses the assumptions and uncertainties inherent to the modeling process.

Grubbs, W.D.; Macler, B.A.; Regli, S.

1992-01-01

453

Health Disparity and Structural Violence: How Fear Undermines Health Among Immigrants at Risk for Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a national health problem, and the burden of the disease and its consequences particularly affect Hispanics. While social determinants of health models have improved our conceptualization of how certain contexts and environments influence an individual's ability to make healthy choices, a structural violence framework transcends traditional uni-dimensional analysis. Thus, a structural violence approach is capable of revealing dynamics of social practices that operate across multiple dimensions of people's lives in ways that may not immediately appear related to health. Working with a Hispanic immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we demonstrate how structural forces simultaneously directly inhibit access to appropriate healthcare services and create fear among immigrants, acting to further undermine health and nurture disparity. Although fear is not normally directly associated with diabetes health outcomes, in the community where we conducted this study participant narratives discussed fear and health as interconnected. PMID:24052924

Page-Reeves, Janet; Niforatos, Joshua; Mishra, Shiraz; Regino, Lidia; Gingrich, Andrew; Bulten, Robert

2013-01-01

454

Racial/ethnic residential segregation: Framing the context of health risk and health disparities  

PubMed Central

An increasing body of public health literature links patterns of racial/ethnic residential segregation to health status and health disparities. Despite substantial new empirical work, meaningful understanding of the pathways through which segregation operates to influence health remains elusive. The literature on segregation and health was appraised with an emphasis on select conceptual, methodological and analytical issues. Recommendations for advancing the next generation of racial/ethnic residential segregation and health research will require closer attention to sharpening the methodology of measuring segregation, testing mediating pathways and effect modification, incorporating stronger test of causality, exploring factors of resilience in segregated areas, applying a life-course perspective, broadening the scope of the investigation of segregation to include nativity status in blacks and other racial/ethnic groups, and linkage with biological data. PMID:21236721

White, Kellee; Borrell, Luisa N.

2011-01-01

455

Pollutants emitted by a cement plant: health risks for the population living in the neighborhood.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the health risks due to combustor emissions in the manufacturing of Portland cement for the population living in the neighborhood of a cement kiln in Catalonia, Spain. Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in the course of cement production were modeled. The ISC3-ST model was applied to estimate air dispersion of the contaminants emitted by the cement plant. Air concentrations of NO(2), SO(2), PM(10), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), as well as the potential exposure in the vicinity of the facility, were assessed via models based on US EPA guidance documents. PCDD/F and metal concentrations were also modeled for soil and vegetation. Based on these concentrations, the levels of human exposure were calculated. Individual cancer and noncancer risks for the emissions of the cement kiln were assessed. Health effects due to NO(2), SO(2), and PM(10) emissions were also evaluated. Risk assessment was performed as a deterministic analysis. The main individual risk in the population was evaluated in a central-tendency and a high-end approach. The results show that the incremental individual risk due to emissions of the cement plant is very low not only with regard to health effects, but also in relation to toxicological and cancer risks produced by pollutants such as metals and PCDD/Fs emitted by the cement kiln. PMID:15147925

Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, Jose L; Garreta, Josepa

2004-06-01

456

A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, benzene, and respirable particulate matter. Data defining daily exposures to smoke at prescribed burns and wildfires, potential days of exposure in a year, and career lengths were used to estimate average and reasonable maximum career inhalation exposures to these substances. Of the 15 substances in smoke that were evaluated, only benzene and formaldehyde posed a cancer risk greater than 1 per million, while only acrolein and respirable particulate matter exposures resulted in hazard indices greater than 1.0. The estimated upper-bound cancer risks ranged from 1.4 to 220 excess cancers per million, and noncancer hazard indices ranged from 9 to 360, depending on the exposure group. These values only indicate the likelihood of adverse health effects, not whether they will or will not occur. The risk assessment process narrows the field of substances that deserve further assessment, and the hazards identified by risk assessment generally agree with those identified as a concern in occupational exposure assessments. PMID:15238338

Booze, Thomas F; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Quiring, Sharon J; Ottmar, Roger D

2004-05-01

457

Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.  

PubMed

In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. PMID:25472689

Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

2014-11-12

458

Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices Among High-Risk Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined\\u000a the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers’ use of preventative infant\\u000a health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental Health and Depression Questionnaire\\u000a (PHDQ) to identify women’s depressive symptoms in a prospective longitudinal

Michaela L. Zajicek-Farber

2009-01-01

459

The Effects of Priming on a Public Health Campaign Targeting Cardiovascular Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health interventions are cost-effective methods to reduce heart disease. The present study investigated the impact\\u000a of a low-cost priming technique on a public health campaign targeting cardiovascular risk. Participants were 415 individuals\\u000a (66% female) ages 18 and older recruited through clinics and churches. The study consisted of three phases. In Phase I, participants\\u000a completed a brief survey to assess

Mindy Ma; Katherine M. Dollar; Jeffrey L. Kibler; Daniel Sarpong; Deanne Samuels

2011-01-01

460

Perceptions of personal risk about smoking and health among Bosnian refugees living in the United States.  

PubMed

More than 60% of Bosnian refugees in the United States may be current smokers. Examining health beliefs can provide insight into smoking behaviors in this community. Four hundred ninety-nine Bosnians were interviewed about health beliefs and personal health risks related to smoking. ANOVA was used to compare current, former, and never smokers. General health beliefs were significantly different by smoking status with medium effect sizes (P < .001; ?(2) = 0.04-0.06); current smokers were less likely to agree that smokers live shorter lives and that smokers are more likely to get heart disease. Significant differences with large effect sizes (P < .001; ?(2) = 0.11-0.29) were found in perception of personal risk of lung cancer and heart disease among current, former, and never smokers. Current smokers perceived their own health risks as less severe than those of other smokers. High smoking rates and smokers' optimism related to health indicate that culturally tailored educational and cessation interventions are needed for Bosnian refugee communities. PMID:21811859

Harris, Jenine K; Karamehic-Muratovic, Ajlina; Herbers, Stephanie H; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cheskin, Robin; Lindberg, Kari A

2012-06-01

461

Chronic disease, functional health status, and demographics: a multi-dimensional approach to risk adjustment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The goal of this study was to develop unbiased risk-assessment models to be used for paying health plans on the basis of enrollee health status and use propensity. We explored the risk structure of adult employed HMO members using self-reported morbidities, functional status, perceived health status, and demographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Data were collected on a random sample of members of a large, federally qualified, prepaid group practice, hospital-based HMO located in the Pacific Northwest. STUDY DESIGN. Multivariate linear nonparametric techniques were used to estimate risk weights on demographic, morbidity, and health status factors at the individual level. The dependent variable was annual real total health plan expense for covered services for the year following the survey. Repeated random split-sample validation techniques minimized outlier influences and avoided inappropriate distributional assumptions required by parametric techniques. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. A mail questionnaire containing an abbreviated medical history and the RAND-36 Health Survey was administered to a 5 percent sample of adult subscribers and their spouses in 1990 and 1991, with an overall 44 percent response rate. Utilization data were extracted from HMO automated information systems. Annual expenses were computed by weighting all utilization elements by standard unit costs for the HMO. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Prevalence of such major chronic diseases as heart disease, diabetes, depression, and asthma improve prediction of future medical expense; functional health status and morbidities are each better than simple demographic factors alone; functional and perceived health status as well as demographic characteristics and diagnoses together yield the best prediction performance and reduce opportunities for selection bias. We also found evidence of important interaction effects between functional/perceived health status scales and disease classes. CONCLUSIONS. Self-reported morbidities and functional health status are useful risk measures for adults. Risk-assessment research should focus on combining clinical information with social survey techniques to capitalize on the strengths of both approaches. Disease-specific functional health status scales should be developed and tested to capture the most information for prediction. PMID:8698586

Hornbrook, M C; Goodman, M J

1996-01-01

462

Value of Laboratory Tests in Employer-Sponsored Health Risk Assessments for Newly Identifying Health Conditions: Analysis of 52,270 Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEmployer-sponsored health risk assessments (HRA) may include laboratory tests to provide evidence of disease and disease risks for common medical conditions. We evaluated the ability of HRA-laboratory testing to provide new disease-risk information to participants.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRA-laboratory results for participating adult employees and their eligible spouses or their domestic partners, focusing on three common health

Harvey W. Kaufman; Fred R. Williams; Mouneer A. Odeh

2011-01-01

463

Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk  

SciTech Connect

The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

1982-09-01

464

Developing a comprehensive approach to risk management of musculoskeletal disorders in non-nursing health care sector employees.  

PubMed

This study of selected jobs in the health care sector explored a range of physical and psychosocial factors to identify those that most strongly predicted work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) risk. A self-report survey was used to collect data on physical and psychosocial risk factors from employees in three health care organisations in Victoria, Australia. Multivariate analyses demonstrated the importance of both psychosocial and physical hazards in predicting WMSD risk and provides evidence for risk management of WMSDs to incorporate a more comprehensive and integrated approach. Use of a risk management toolkit is recommended to address WMSD risk in the workplace. PMID:24998863

Oakman, Jodi; Macdonald, Wendy; Wells, Yvonne

2014-11-01

465

Work Stress and Risk Factors For Health Management Trainees in Canakkale, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study aims to investigate the general mental health situation, work-related stress and risk factors of health management trainees. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on Health Management Musters students (N=96) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Health Sciences Institute, May-June 2014. A total of 58 students who voluntarily participated in the study were reached (60.42%). Participants completed a 22-question sociodemographic survey form and a 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20.0. Results: The average age of participants was 36.4±6.2 (Min:24-Max:62) years. Thirty five of the participants were female (60.3%), 23 were male (39.7%). The number of people using cigarettes and alcohol were 23 (39.7%) and 9 (15.8%) respectively. In our study group according to GHQ scale 32 people (55.2%) were in the group at risk of depression. Eighty-six percent of participants reported experiencing work stress. The most frequently reported sources of stress were superiors (56.8%), work itself (41.3%), and work colleagues (25.8%). There was no significant difference between those at risk of depression and those not at risk in terms of gender, marital status, educational level, age, work-related factors (daily work, computer use, duration of sitting at desk), sleep duration, presence of chronic disease, substance use (cigarettes, alcohol), regular exercise, regular meals, fast-food consumption, sufficient family time and vacations (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our study results indicated that majority of participants reported experiencing work stress with more than half at high risk of developing depression. The most reported risk factors were superiors, the work itself and colleagues in the present study. Psychosocial risk factors at work environment should be investigated in terms of psychological, sociological and ergonomics in more detail to reduce the risk of health management trainees experiencing work stress and mental health problems. PMID:25568633

Tan??man, Beyhan; Cevizci, Sibel; Çelik, Merve; Sevim, Sezgin

2014-01-01

466

Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk