Sample records for unacceptable health risks

  1. Health risks.

    PubMed

    Longstreth, J; de Gruijl, F R; Kripke, M L; Abseck, S; Arnold, F; Slaper, H I; Velders, G; Takizawa, Y; van der Leun, J C

    1998-10-01

    The health risks associated with ozone depletion will principally be those due to increased ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation in the environment, i.e., increased damage to the eyes, the immune system, and the skin. Some new risks may also be introduced with the increased use of alternatives to the ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Quantitative risk estimates are available for some of the UV-B-associated effects, e.g., cataract and skin cancer; however, the data are insufficient to develop similar estimates for effects such as immunosuppression and the toxicity of alternatives. Ocular damage from UV exposures includes effects on the cornea, lens, iris, and associated epithelial and conjunctival tissues. The most common acute ocular effect of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is photokeratitis. Also known as snowblindness in skiers, this condition also occurs in other outdoor recreationists. Chronic eye conditions likely to increase with ozone depletion include cataract, squamous cell carcinoma, ocular melanoma, and a variety of corneal/conjunctival effects, e.g., pterygium and pinguecula. Suppression of local (at the site of UV exposure) and systemic (at a distant, unexposed site) immune responses to a variety of antigens has been demonstrated in both humans and animals exposed to UV-B. In experiments with animals these effects have been shown to worsen the course/outcome of some infectious diseases and cancers. There is reasonably good evidence that such immunosuppression plays a role in human carcinogenesis; however, the implications of such immunosuppression for human infectious diseases are still unknown. In light-skinned populations, exposure to solar UVR appears to be the most important environmental risk factor for basal and squamous cell carcinomas and cutaneous melanoma. Originally it was believed that total accumulated exposure to UVR was the most important environmental factor in determining risk for these tumors. Recent information now suggests that only squamous cell carcinoma risk is related to total exposure. In the cases of both basal cell carcinoma and melanoma, new information suggests that increases in risk are tied to early exposures (before about age 15), particularly those leading to severe sunburns. Testing of a number of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) alternatives indicates that most of these chemicals have low acute toxicity, and low to moderate chronic toxicity. Some chemicals that were originally proposed as alternatives have been dropped from consideration because these tests raised concerns about toxicity and/or manufacturing difficulties. In one instance, high accidental occupational exposure was associated with liver damage, underlining the need for care in the use of these substitutes. Recent quantitative risk estimates have been developed for cataract, melanoma, and all skin cancers combined. These estimates indicate that under the Montreal Adjustments, cataract and skin-cancer incidence will peak mid-century at additional incidences of just under 3 per 100,000 and about 7 per 100,000, respectively. PMID:9894351

  2. Health risks of obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is that you will develop the disease or health problem. Your risk of health problems such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney problems increases if you are obese and have these risk factors: High blood pressure (hypertension) High blood cholesterol ...

  3. An effective science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unacceptable students in grades 4 -- 8: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, J. Kathleen

    This study explored science-specific strategies and materials that might be effective components in a Response to Intervention (RTI) science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, a nationwide panel of 63 experts in the field of science education identified and came to consensus on 44 effective strategies and six instructional materials and types of equipment for supplemental instruction in science, resulting in a three tier RTI tutorial model. This model provides an initial guide for science educators in applicable practices for each tier of the RTI framework, and was developed to assist administrators, program managers, and science educators in developing effective, systemic RTI instructional programming for science education in grades 4 -- 8, and may provide an additional planning tool in determining evidence-based practices that may lead to achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Future research on specific intervention strategies within science and their effects on science achievement are needed, as well as a further examination to test the efficacy of the model on rates of science achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students.

  4. Environmental Health Risk Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurie Cantwell

    2004-01-01

    This site is designed to help instructors and students locate and use online databases and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to research environmental risks in their own neighborhoods. Materials include a tutorial that provides a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory, using an example in Bozeman, Montana. The activity page contains an assignment and instructions for completing environmental health risk inventories, and there is also a page of links to mapping tools available on the internet, links to the tutorials for each mapping tool, and a list of online databases with searchable health-related information and data.

  5. Environmental Health Risk Inventory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurie Cantwell

    To complete this activity, students can follow the instructions and the tutorial in the Environmental Health Risk Inventory website. In doing this, they will gain an understanding of how to use on-line tools and databases as well as the processes of compiling an environmental health risk inventory for a specific locale. In the activity, students will address the question: "how healthy is your neighborhood?" Students will address anthropogenic and naturally-occurring health risks in their hometown or neighborhood by using data collected from online mapping tools and databases. Students will also complete a reflective summary based on the data that they collect.

  6. Environmental Health Risk Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-02-26

    It's always great to learn about an interesting new resource for teaching college students about environmental health, and this one is quite handy. Created as part of the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College, the Environmental Health Risk Assessment site helps instructors and students "locate and use some of the numerous health-related tools and databases that can be found on the web." Here visitors can look over the Tutorial, which is designed to give interested parties a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory. Also, the site includes an activity that can be used in the classroom, along with a list of vetted mapping tools available across the Web. The site is rounded out by four external links to related resources, including one that looks at the relationship between geology and human health.

  7. Cigarettes Health Risks

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    lung disease. New studies have shown that about half of all regular cigarette smokers dieCigarettes Health Risks Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of disease and death percent of these deaths are from cancer, 35 percent from heart disease and stroke, and 25 percent from

  8. Estimating risk at a Superfund site using passive sampling devices as biological surrogates in human health risk models

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Sarah E.; Sower, Gregory J.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Passive sampling devices (PSDs) sequester the freely dissolved fraction of lipophilic contaminants, mimicking passive chemical uptake and accumulation by biomembranes and lipid tissues. Public Health Assessments that inform the public about health risks from exposure to contaminants through consumption of resident fish are generally based on tissue data, which can be difficulties to obtain and requires destructive sampling. The purpose of this study is to apply PSD data in a Public Health Assessment to demonstrate that PSDs can be used as a biological surrogate to evaluate potential human health risks and elucidate spatio-temporal variations in risk. PSDs were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Willamette River; upriver, downriver and within the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite for three years during wet and dry seasons. Based on an existing Public Health Assessment for this area, concentrations of PAHs in PSDs were substituted for fish tissue concentrations. PSD measured PAH concentrations captured the magnitude, range and variability of PAH concentrations reported for fish/shellfish from Portland Harbor. Using PSD results in place of fish data revealed an unacceptable risk level for cancer in all seasons but no unacceptable risk for non-cancer endpoints. Estimated cancer risk varied by several orders of magnitude based on season and location. Sites near coal tar contamination demonstrated the highest risk, particularly during the dry season and remediation activities. Incorporating PSD data into Public Health Assessments provides specific spatial and temporal contaminant exposure information that can assist public health professionals in evaluating human health risks. PMID:21741671

  9. Plastics and health risks.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics. PMID:20070188

  10. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  11. Radon Health Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources at www.epa.gov/radon/pubs A Citizen's Guide To Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself ... page Radon Risk If You Smoke from " A Citizen's Guide to Radon : The Guide to Protecting Yourself ...

  12. Simulations in health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Biesiada, M

    2001-01-01

    Health risk assessment procedure provides a clear and systematic form of quantitative (or semi-quantitative) description of environmental health impact. It is well known that this approach is burdened with various types of uncertainties of different origin and nature. Therefore, the results of risk assessment should always contain both the "number" and the "measure of uncertainty". The problem is that even if one does attempt to take account of the uncertainty, one does not know a priori what is the probability of getting a given risk value within the specified range of uncertainty. A promising tool for the assessment of risk which provides a means of describing the sensitivity with respect to different exposure factors and evaluating different intervention scenarios is the technique of Monte Carlo simulation. In this probabilistic approach all variables and parameters used in risk assessment may be regarded as distributions throughout the analysis. A process of repeated simulations is then used, during which the estimated quantity (risk in this case) is calculated many times (usually 10,000 or more) with randomly chosen values of variables and parameters, covering their range of variability and reproducing the assumed distribution density. The final result is given in the form of a probability distribution of risk. The idea of Monte Carlo simulations in health risk assessment concerning the exposure to heavy metals in drinking water is illustrated in the population living in the vicinity of the "Lubna" waste site, taken as an example. PMID:11885924

  13. Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, Adrià

    Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

  14. Health risks of energy systems.

    PubMed

    Krewitt, W; Hurley, F; Trukenmüller, A; Friedrich, R

    1998-08-01

    Health risks from fossil, renewable and nuclear reference energy systems are estimated following a detailed impact pathway approach. Using a set of appropriate air quality models and exposure-effect functions derived from the recent epidemiological literature, a methodological framework for risk assessment has been established and consistently applied across the different energy systems, including the analysis of consequences from a major nuclear accident. A wide range of health impacts resulting from increased air pollution and ionizing radiation is quantified, and the transferability of results derived from specific power plants to a more general context is discussed. PMID:9775447

  15. The health risk of radon

    SciTech Connect

    Conrath, S.M.; Kolb, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

    1995-10-01

    Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA`s risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy.

  16. CHILDREN'S HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1995EPA Administrators policy for Evaluating Health Risks to Children, provisions in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments, and the 1997 Presidential Executive Order 13045 on Protection of Children, all emphasized the need for a focus...

  17. Emerging issues for our nation's health: the intersection of marijuana use and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest they have been in the past decade and are not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus; but, little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context with the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use. This topic has potential important implications for our nation's health as we relax our approach to marijuana but continue to have unacceptable rates of cardiometabolic illnesses. PMID:24471513

  18. Risk Communication for Public Health Emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah C. Glik

    2007-01-01

    This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk com- munication for public health. Literature from four different disci- plines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (a) environmental risk communication, (b) disaster management, (c) health promotion and

  19. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision-Making Framework for Identifying, Assessing and Managing Health Risks (Health Canada, 2000). 4. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Human Health Risk Assessment of Priority Substances(Health Canada, 1994). 5. CSA-Q8550 Risk Management: Guidelines for Decision-Makers (Canada Standards Association, 1997). 6. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (US National Research Council, 1983). 7. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (US National Research Council, 1996). 8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (enHealth Council of Australia, 2002). 9. A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (CCME, 1996). 10. Ecological Risk Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Environment Canada, 1996).11. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1998b). 12. Proposed Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Management (Rampal & Sadhra, 1999). Based on the extensive review of these frameworks, seven key elements that should be included in a comprehensive framework for human health, ecological, and occupational risk assessment and management were identified: 1. Problem formulation stage. 2. Stakeholder involvement. 3. Communication. 4. Quantitative risk assessment components. 5. Iteration and evaluation. 6. Informed decision making. 7. Flexibility. On the basis of this overarching approach to risk management, the following "checklist" to ensure a good risk management decision is proposed: - Make sure you're solving the right problem. - Consider the problem and the risk within the full context of the situation, using a broad perspective. - Acknowledge, incorporate, and balance the multiple dimensions of risk. - Ensure the highest degree of reliability for all components of the risk management process. - Involve interested and effected parties from the outset of the process. - Commit to honest and open communication between all parties. - Employ continuous evaluation throughout the process (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared t

  20. [Health risks of oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph R

    2011-06-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are either composed of a combination of an estrogen derivative (usually ethinly estradiol) and a progestogen, or they contain a progestogen only. OC are characterized by a high effectiveness and have a low failure rate if taken correctly. Most women tolerate OC relatively well, but adverse effects do occur which are driven by the estrogen dose as well as by the type of progestogen. The most frequently reported adverse effects are nausea or vomiting, breast tenderness, headache or inbalanced mood, but these unwanted side effects are often transient. The fear of weight gain of many OC users is not necessarily supported by data from studies which report relatively little differences in body mass index on average during OC use. Nevertheless, substantial weight gain can occur in individual women. The widely discussed fear of breast cancer is also not justified, and the risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer is reduced for women who use OC on a regular basis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the adverse effect with the greatest potential for serious harm if pulmonary embolism develops. This rare, but potentially dangerous adverse effect of OC has been discussed emotionally for many years and keeps attracting a lot of public interest. VTE is rare in young women, but the VTE risk is increased two- to sixfold for OC users as compared to non-users. The VTE risk increases with increasing estrogen dose, is highest in the first year of use, and is higher for OC from the third generation (containing desogestrel, gestodene or norgestimate) than for OC from the second generation (containing levonorgestrel) or than for the progestogen-only pill. According to most studies, OC containing the progestogens drospirenone or cyproterone acetate are similar with regard to VTE risks than OC from the third generation. Individual genetic susceptibility affecting the clotting system plays a major role in the risk of developing VTE in combination with OC, and smoking is also an important contributing factor to an increased VTE risk for women using OC. It is important that doctors and pharmacists inform new users of OC about potential health risks of OC use, and that the personal and family history of previous health risks is assessed thoroughly in order to rule out that important and relevant contraindications are present when a women starts taking OC. PMID:21656494

  1. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  2. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

  3. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  4. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  5. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

  6. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

  7. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  8. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

  9. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict Responsibility...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of...

  10. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication... Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This section applies only...contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  11. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Publishing. 2013. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder: a comparison between DSM-IV ...

  12. Pet Geckos May Pose Health Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152681.html Pet Geckos May Pose Health Risk Researchers detect antibiotic-resistant ... THURSDAY, May 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Your pet gecko might make you sick, a new study suggests. ...

  13. Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larisa J. Bomlitz; Mayer Brezis

    2008-01-01

    Background Mass media are a leading source of health information for general public. We wished to examine the relationship between the intensity of media coverage for selected health topics and their actual risk to public health. Methods Mass media reports in the United States on emerging and chronic health hazards (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bioterrorism, West Nile Fever, AIDS,

  14. Health Risk Assessments for Alumina Refineries

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10?6. Conclusions: The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries. PMID:24806721

  15. Health risk of chrysotile revisited.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David; Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raúl; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20?µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7?d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration. PMID:23346982

  16. Health risk of chrysotile revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raúl; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20?µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7?d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration. PMID:23346982

  17. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  18. Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  19. The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal

    E-print Network

    The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal Blooms and Polluted Beaches Seafood that can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in number, type associated public health costs. Announcing a New Interagency Report on Oceans and Human Health Research

  20. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  1. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol “Light” Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Search the ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  2. Sludge: health risks of land application

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Damron, B.L.; Edds, G.T.; Davidson, J.M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    This book contains articles related to health risks associated with animal feeding and/or land application of municipal sludge. Microbial agents and parasites as well as toxic metals and compounds are evaluated. Their effects on crops, domestic animals and wild animals are considered. Contamination of man's food chain is the prime concern. The risks associated with several elements and organic compounds are discussed. Also included are abstracts of papers which were presented at the Workshop, Evaluation of Health Risks Associated with Animal Feeding and/or Land Application of Municipal Sludge.

  3. WHO's health risk assessment of ELF fields.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, M H

    2003-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), WHO's scientific collaborating centres (including the UK's National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and over 50 participating Member States are participants of WHO's International EMF Project. As part of WHO's health risk assessment process for extremely low frequency fields (ELF), this workshop was convened by NRPB to assist WHO in evaluating the potential health impacts of electrical currents and fields induced by ELF in molecules, cells, tissues and organs of the body. This paper describes the process by which WHO will conduct its health risk assessment. WHO is also trying to provide information on why exposure to ELF magnetic fields seems to be associated with an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia. Are there mechanisms that could lead to this health outcome or does the epidemiological evidence incorporate biases or other factors that need to be further explored? PMID:14690270

  4. Cardiac health: relationships among hostility, spirituality, and health risk.

    PubMed

    Sethness, Renee; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This study examined hostility, spirituality, and indices of health risk among 100 young, primarily males of Hispanic background. Over half of the subjects were prehypertensive or hypertensive; one third had at least 2 objective risk factors for cardiac disease; and younger participants had lower spirituality scores and higher cynical distrust scores. Body mass index, spirituality, and glucose accounted for 29% of variance in systolic blood pressure; body mass index and age accounted for 39% of variance in diastolic blood pressure. The tools to assess cardiac risk (blood pressure, history, capillary blood screening, body mass index) are all "low tech" and low cost but used together are powerful in identifying risk populations. PMID:15686080

  5. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  6. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

  7. Diabetes in pregnancy: health risks and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Ali; Anne Dornhorst

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes in pregnancy is increasing and therefore it is important to raise awareness of the associated health risks to the mother, the growing fetus, and the future child. Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in diabetic pregnancies through increased stillbirths and congenital malformation rates. These are mainly the result of early fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia. In the mother, pregnancy

  8. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known com...

  9. Health risks of photovoltaic energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Hamilton, L. D.; Morris, S. C.; Novak, K. M.; Robinson, C. V.; Rowe, M. D.

    1981-12-01

    Health risks of photovoltaic energy technologies arise from mining, processing and refining of raw materials, and fabrication, installation, operation, and disposal of devices used to convert sunlight into useful energy. Using an accounting approach, public and occupational health risks are examined for four different photovoltaic cell alternatives: silicon single-crystal cells produced by an ingot process; silicon metal/insulator/semiconductor cells produced by ribbon growing; cadmium sulfide backwall cells produced by spray deposition; and gallium arsenide cells produced by modified ingot-growing. These alternatives cover a range of manufacturing options (e.g., ingot versus spray deposition) and materials (silicon versus arsenic) which might be used in future commercialization efforts. Most occupational mortality and morbidity effects probably relate to industrial risks similar to those encountered in the day-to-day operation of any industrial operation. Material supply, installation, and operation appear to contribute substantial portions of the damage.

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  11. Women brothel workers and occupational health risks

    PubMed Central

    Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

  12. Results from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kathy A.; Collins, Janet L.; Warren, Charles; Kann, Laura; Gold, Robert; Clayton, Sonia; Ross, James G.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1997-01-01

    Results from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, which monitored health risk behaviors among U.S. college undergraduates via mailed surveys, indicate that many students' behaviors increase their likelihood of experiencing adverse health outcomes. Particularly high risks for college students include alcohol abuse, tobacco use,…

  13. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gratt

    1983-01-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the

  14. A risk communication taxonomy for environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, T.H. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A classification system for risk communication can serve two major purposes: it provides a practical guide to techniques and establishes a framework for further development. By using traditional models of communication elements and management operations, this taxonomy has the advantage of being more readily adapted to the needs of environmental health professionals. Like all taxonomies, it should be continually revised and expanded by the professionals who use it.

  15. Expert vs. public perception of population health risks in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krewski; Michelle C. Turner; Louise Lemyre; Jennifer E. C. Lee

    2012-01-01

    In the field of risk analysis, there is ongoing tension between expert risk assessment and public risk perception. This paper presents the results of a health risk perception survey administered to Canadian health experts as a follow-up to a previous survey. A total of 125 experts (75 physicians and 50 toxicologists) recruited through professional organizations completed a self-administered questionnaire in

  16. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawe?czyk, Adam; Božek, František

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction. PMID:26070993

  17. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  18. Teaching Health Risk Concepts using Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lynda B. M.; Raines, John R.; Brown, James W.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a series of “Health Awareness” programs in Applesoft BASIC for a 32K APPLE II computer. These include one program emphasizing risk factors for coronary heart disease, two on weight and weight control, and two on more general life habits which influence health. These five programs, an introduction to the APPLE keyboard, and a program menu reside on one APPLE mini-floppy disk. Preliminary evaluation of these programs by non-computer oriented volunteers show user acceptance of a microcomputer in this context. Since the cost of the system is approximately $2245 and maintenance is approximately $200 per year, using microcomputers for health education may be a cost-effective alternative to more traditional methods.

  19. Optimization Online - Robust risk adjustment in health insurance

    E-print Network

    Tengjiao Xiao

    2014-08-08

    Aug 8, 2014 ... Abstract: Risk adjustment is used to calibrate payments to health plans based on the relative health status of insured populations and helps keep the health ... Category 1: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences (Other ).

  20. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    PubMed

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

  1. The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Peeler; A. G. Murray; A. Thebault; E. Brun; A. Giovaninni; M. A. Thrush

    2007-01-01

    Risk analysis has only been regularly used in the management of aquatic animal health in recent years. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) stimulated the application of risk analysis to investigate disease risks associated with international trade (import risk analysis—IRA). A majority (9 of 17) of the risk analyses reviewed were IRA. The other major

  2. Secure e-Health: managing risks to patient health data.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2007-01-01

    e-Health, as an inter-jurisdictional enterprise, presents risks to patient health data that involve not only technology and professional protocols but also laws, regulations and professional security cultures. The USA Patriot Act is one example of how national laws can shape these concerns. Secure e-Health therefore requires not only national standardization of professional education and protocols but also global interoperability of regulations and laws. Some progress in this regard has been made in the European context; however, even here developments are incomplete, and nothing similar has been accomplished on a global scale. Professional health information organizations must take the lead in developing appropriate high-level principles for professional certification and security protocols and in harmonizing these on a global basis, so that they can provide a firm and consistent foundation for international treaties. Such developments should occur in concert with other health professions, so that coordinated requirements are integrated into revisions of the relevant codes of ethics. This presentation identifies and addresses some of the ethical and legal issues and proposes a series of recommendations. PMID:17084665

  3. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary period for unacceptable performance...section need not be based upon a final rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established under subpart C...

  4. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary period for unacceptable performance...section need not be based upon a final rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established under subpart C...

  5. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary period for unacceptable performance...section need not be based upon a final rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established under subpart C...

  6. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary period for unacceptable performance...section need not be based upon a final rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established under subpart C...

  7. 5 CFR 359.402 - Removal: Unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary period for unacceptable performance...section need not be based upon a final rating under the agency's SES performance appraisal system established under subpart C...

  8. Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.

    PubMed

    Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

    1993-01-01

    The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

  9. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  10. An Integrated Framework for Risk Management and Population Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krewski; Victoria Hogan; Michelle C. Turner; Patricia L. Zeman; Ian McDowell; Nancy Edwards; Joseph Losos

    2007-01-01

    The traditional medical model of health and health policy development has focused on individuals and the role of medical care in preventing and treating disease and injury. Recent attention to health inequities and social determinants of health has raised the profile of population heath and evidence-based strategies for improving the health of whole populations. At the same time, risk science

  11. Unacceptable Risk Factors in Child Maltreatment: Formulations from Caseworkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRoma, Virginia; Bingley, Christy; Kessler, Maria Lynn; Merino, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    Approximately one million children are victims of maltreatment are assessed and placed in the child welfare system. The purpose of the current study was to identify caseworker perceptions of (a) reasons for youth removal from a home environment and (b) the parameters of intolerable problem categories that prompt such decisions. Four categories of…

  12. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:459-473. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25641876

  13. Behavioral science perspectives on health hazard/health risk appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M H; Janz, N K

    1987-01-01

    Health-promotion efforts often employ HRA as a device for providing an individual with quantitative information about the consequences of personal health-related behaviors and as an attempt to motivate the client to adopt recommendations directed at establishing a healthier lifestyle. From a behavioral science perspective, the HRA approach and process contain elements that (at least in retrospective analysis) appear to be founded in relevant bodies of theory. First, HRA seems to be a reasonably efficient mechanism for transmitting information relative to associations between personal health behaviors and mortality risks. Moreover, while general knowledge and advice about the untoward consequences of risk factors (such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, etc.) are currently widespread, HRA provides new and specific information: the client's own relative risks. Some individuals who voluntarily participate in HRA bring to the experience an already high level of readiness to take action; for them, the technique may constitute the final necessary stimulus or "cue to action" [12]. Referring to a "borrowing from the future" phenomenon, Green points out that "some educational efforts are really only triggers to behavior that would have changed eventually anyway" [44, p. 159]. Thus, where motivation is sufficiently high, receipt of HRA feedback information may by itself be capable of inducing behavior change. Second, the focus on awareness and personalization of mortality risk fits well with most theoretical formulations concerning attitudes and beliefs involved in health-related decision making. Although the emphasis on mortality and often distant negative outcomes is problematic, increasing the client's perception of personal vulnerability is a psychologically defensible approach, and fear arousal can generate attitude change (although questions of appropriate level, duration of effects obtained, acceptability, etc. still need to be resolved). Third, HRA might be expected to enhance the client's perception of the benefits associated with lifestyle modifications and may even increase personal belief in his or her ability to undertake such changes in behavior. However, in light of the fact that the behaviors to be altered are complex, usually well-established and repetitive, and require different skills to extinguish, the provision of typical HRA feedback should not (on a theoretical basis) ordinarily be expected to accomplish much beyond information transmission, belief or attitude change, and the induction of some level of motivation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3679842

  14. GUIDELINES FOR THE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1986 Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixtures. The emphasis is on dose response and risk characterization. ...

  15. Mental Health and HIV Risk Among African American Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Tolou-Shams; Roberta Paikoff; David J. McKirnan; Grayson N. Holmbeck

    2007-01-01

    The family system is integral to adolescent mental health and HIV risk. However, few studies have addressed family variables and adolescent outcomes among African American families. This study tested a longitudinal model of parenting, adolescent mental health, and adolescent HIV risk, among a community sample of low-income, urban African American families from the Collaborative HIV prevention and AdolescentMental Health Project

  16. Biomarkers: Dynamic "Tools" for Health and Safety Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today informational flow from biomarkers contributes importantly to various types of health effects research, risk assessment and risk management decisions that impact, or have the potential to impact, public health and safety. Therefore, dependent upon the nature of the health r...

  17. The Impact of an Integrated Population Health Enhancement and Disease Management Program on Employee Health Risk, Health Conditions, and Productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Loeppke; Sean Nicholson; Michael Taitel; Matthew Sweeney; Vince Haufle; Ronald C. Kessler

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an integrated population health enhancement program on employee health risks, health conditions, and productivity. Specifically, we analyzed changes in these measures among a cohort of 543 employees who completed a health risk assessment in both 2003 and 2005. We compared these findings with 2 different sets of employees who were not offered health enhancement

  18. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  19. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection.

    PubMed

    Codd, Geoffrey A; Morrison, Louise F; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15737680

  20. [Managing health risks of workers in business trip].

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data of prospective observation over the risk management system concerning health of international oil and gas company workers in business trips. The management system included training and screening of workers under risk, specific prophylaxis and other measures. The authors described problems of the risk management system implementation, suggested recommendations to control risks connected with business trips. PMID:25881395

  1. Public Health Service report on fluoride benefits and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-14

    This report, Public Health Service Report on Fluoride Benefits and Risks is a summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks: Report of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs, published in February 1991. The full report was prepared by an ad hoc subcommittee of the United States Public Health Service's Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs (CCEHRP) at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Health. The full report can be obtained from the Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  3. Risk Factors, Health Risks, and Risk Management for Aircraft Personnel and Frequent Flyers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeoum Nam Kim; Byung Mu Lee

    2007-01-01

    Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such

  4. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  5. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

  6. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  7. Health literacy among university students in Greece: determinants and association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy is widely considered as a key determinant of health and a priority in the public health policy agenda. Low health literacy has been associated with poorer health states, broader inequalities and higher health systems’ costs. In the present study we bring into focus the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, researching and assessing mainly their ability to apply basic knowledge in a health context. Methods The study was carried out during the period 15–30 April 2013, among a random sample of 1,526 students of 14 Higher Tertiary Public universities and Technological Educational Institutes in Greece. The objective of the study was to assess the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, adopting the short four-item comprehension test of Bostock and Steptoe. Summary statistics, correlations and regressions were used to assess the determinants of health literacy and the association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks. Results Economic factors, such as family income, demographic factors, such as gender, and health behaviours and risks, namely consumption of alcohol, smoking and physical workout are associated with the level of health literacy and health status of the participant. While the results of the study are consistent with previous work in this area, several findings worth further research. Conclusions Though, health promotion interventions in Greece include health literacy as one of the basic pillars of the public health policy agenda, it is clear, that health literacy needs to become a key policy issue in Greece, mainly focusing in young ages, where healthy (or unhealthy) behaviours are established affecting the health through the life span. PMID:24987522

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE FOR CONDUCTING HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a supplement to the EPA Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of 1986. The 1986 Guidelines represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixt...

  9. Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Moses; R. C. Bailey; A. R. Ronald

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes

  10. Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Farber; W. H. Rossb; J. Harwig

    1996-01-01

    In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard

  11. Risk sharing between competing health plans and sponsors.

    PubMed

    van Barneveld, E M; van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P

    2001-01-01

    In many countries, competing health plans receive capitation payments from a sponsor, whether government or a private employer. All capitation payment methods are far from perfect and have raised concerns about risk selection. Paying health plans partly on the basis of capitation and partly on the basis of actual costs ("risk sharing") reduces plans' incentives for selection but sacrifices some incentives for efficiency. This paper summarizes our empirical research on Dutch health plans with respect to various forms of risk sharing. All sponsors can improve their payment systems by either implementing or changing their form of risk sharing. PMID:11585175

  12. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    PubMed

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. PMID:21796724

  13. Scripts, animal health and biosecurity: The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Enticott; Frank Vanclay

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are conflated resulting in an overly cognitive and asocial understanding of health behaviour with the potential

  14. Understanding Risk Management through an Environmental Health and Safety Template

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    , CUNY has had an internal audit and control department with risk management responsibilities; a publicURMIA Understanding Risk Management through an Environmental Health and Safety Template 2008 URMIA Journal Reprint Howard N. Apsan, Ph.D. The City University of New York University Risk Management

  15. Health and safety risk analyses: information for better decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lave

    1987-01-01

    Knowing the nature and magnitude of health and safety risks is helpful in setting priorities as well as in making decisions about pursuing recreational activities, foods, jobs, and other aspects of everyday living. Risk-risk situations require a choice among risky alternatives. How safe situations involve a more general choice as to how much of other desired activities to sacrifice for

  16. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Fitzpatrick-Lewis; Jennifer Yost; Donna Ciliska; Shari Krishnaratne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review

  17. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  18. Reduction in health risks and disparities with participation in an employer-sponsored health promotion program.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W

    2013-08-01

    There is an increasing awareness among employers and health care providers that health care needs to be tailored to address the diversity of the workforce. Population-based data have shown significant differences in health behaviors and health risks among different racial/ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine health risks and changes in health risks over time in an employed population at a financial services corporation. This large financial services corporation is naturally concerned about any disparities in health among employees. The study population consists of employees who participated in the organization's medical plan and also the annual health risk appraisal questionnaire in both 2009 and 2010. Significant demographic differences exist among the four ethnic groups studied: whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. At baseline, African American employees had a significantly higher average number of health risks measured by the health risk appraisal, but they also experienced the greatest improvement in health risks by time 2. There were differences in the health risk profiles of the ethnic groups, with certain risk factors being more prevalent among some ethnicities than among others. The health care costs were not significantly different among the groups studied here. It is likely that other large employers may also find health risk differences among employees belonging to various ethnicities. Future research in this field should seek to understand the reasons behind differences in health among ethnic groups and how best to address them so that all employees can achieve a high level of health and wellness. PMID:23924828

  19. [Evaluation of health risks of residents of Novokuibyshevsk].

    PubMed

    Tsunina, N M

    2003-01-01

    The globally accepted procedure for assessing the human health and the special software "MedEcoRISK" programme (Saint Petersburg) were used in Novokuibyshevsk (Samara Region), the center of petroleum-refining and petrochemical industry. The surveys did not yield contradictory results and they were complementary in providing evidence for that the population's health status has become much worse due to high ambient air pollution. The findings were used for basic information in the system of measures to reduce health risks. PMID:12861699

  20. Urban seventh graders and smoking: a health risk behavior assessment.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Elizabeth Burgess

    2002-01-01

    Health risk behaviors undertaken in adolescence, such as smoking, can have a lasting impact on both short-term and long-term health developments. To better describe the health risk behaviors of an adolescent urban population, a study was conducted at two parochial middle schools in the southwest section of Philadelphia. The study purpose was to describe (1) the types of health risk behaviors being undertaken by a seventh grade student population, (2) the frequency of health risk behaviors, and (3) the age of initiation of the health risk behavior, e.g., age when they first began smoking. A descriptive, correlational study was undertaken with 106 urban seventh graders (ages of 11-13 years) from two seventh grade classes. Using the Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System Questionnaire, information was collected about health risk behaviors. Correlational statistics indicated significant correlations between students who smoke and alcohol use, dieting, and not feeling safe in their neighborhood. Interestingly, girls were more likely to use smoking as their primary method of weight control and dieting. Because the long-term impact of smoking is known to be negative, nurses should provide support to this at-risk population and also should be prepared to educate adolescents who come under their care. PMID:12542884

  1. Population, health and risk factors in a transitional economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Petrovici; Christopher Ritson

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the health status of the population in a transition economy. Against a background of falling living standards compounded by the widening income inequality a deterioration of health status has been outlined. Drawing upon a consumer survey carried out in the capital Bucharest, risk factors are highlighted. Respondents’ age, income, and health motivation are the most significant variables

  2. Quantitative Evaluation and Analysis on Human Health Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Duogui; Gao Feipeng

    2007-01-01

    Health condition is related to the economic and social development of a country and the whole world. We concluded that the influencing factors of health risk include environment pollution, food security, disease threat and health care condition, and then an indicators system is put forward in the paper. Based on the foundation of the indicators system, 40 countries were chosen

  3. Hormones in Adolescents: Is Your Child's Health At Risk?

    E-print Network

    Pritchard, Jonathan

    Hormones in Adolescents: Is Your Child's Health At Risk ---- --- ------ -- -------- --- ----- - ---- ------- ---- --- ------ -- -------- --- ----- - ---- ------- --- ----- -- ---- ------ ----- -------- ---- ------ ------- --- ------ -------- the university of Chicago Physicians at matteson invite you to an in-depth look at thyroid disease, obesity and other hormone-linked health issues impacting your child's health. Enjoy a buffet dinner and hear from

  4. Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.?METHODS—The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.?RESULTS—In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.?CONCLUSIONS—Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.???Keywords: self rated health; risk behaviours PMID:11604437

  5. Rural Latino adolescent health: preliminary examination of health risks and cultural correlates.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Kidwell, Katherine M; Armenta, Brian E; Crockett, Lisa J; Carlo, Gustavo; Whitbeck, Les B

    2014-06-01

    Latino adolescents living in rural settings may be at increased risk of health problems; however, data describing the health status of this population are limited. This study examined 60 rural Latino adolescents and found high rates of health risk, including at-risk/clinical results for hemoglobin A1C (23.3%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55%), systolic blood pressure (21.7%), and overweight/obesity (55%). Time in sedentary behaviors was high and physical activity was limited. Adolescent language use was associated with health risk status, with greater use of English associated with lower risk. Health psychologists could promote improved health by providing health behavior interventions to this underserved population. PMID:23520352

  6. Public Perception of Population Health Risks in Canada: Health Hazards and Sources of Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krewski; Louise Lemyre; Michelle C. Turner; Jennifer E. C. Lee; Christine Dallaire; Louise Bouchard; Kevin Brand; Pierre Mercier

    2006-01-01

    A national survey of health risk perception among 1,503 Canadians was conducted in 2004. The current survey follows-up a previous national survey conducted in 1992 and documents changes in risk perception since that time and investigates new risk issues not previously examined. This article presents a description of the ratings of perceived risk of thirty specific hazards to the Canadian

  7. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  8. Developing a risk-based air quality health index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

  9. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  10. Community Health Risk Assessment of Primary Aluminum Smelter Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Larivière, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary aluminum production is an industrial process with high potential health risk for workers. We consider in this article how to assess community health risks associated with primary aluminum smelter emissions. Methods: We reviewed the literature on health effects, community exposure data, and dose–response relationships of the principal hazardous agents emitted. Results: On the basis of representative measured community exposure levels, we were able to make rough estimates on health risks associated with specific agents and categorize these as none, low, medium, or high. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake a rough-estimate community Health Risk Assessment for individual smelters on the basis of information available in the epidemiological literature and local community exposure data. PMID:24806724

  11. 33 CFR 151.77 - Exceptions for emergencies and health risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Exceptions for emergencies and health risks. 151.77 Section...POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES...Exceptions for emergencies and health risks. Sections 151.67...food wastes present an imminent health risk to the people on...

  12. Association Between Health Risk Knowledge and Risk Behavior Among Medical Students and Residents In Yerevan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tereza Khachkalyan; Varduhi Petrosyan; Krikor Soghikian

    2006-01-01

    Background. The relationship between risk knowledge, attitude, and behavior among different population groups is complex and has not been sufficiently explored. It was especially interesting to look at some aspects of this relationship among future health professionals (medical students and medical residents) assuming their detailed exposure to medical knowledge and health risks. The objectives of this study were to investigate

  13. The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Oksoo

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

  14. Cancer Risk Reduction in Mexican American Women: The Role of Acculturation, Education, and Health Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Balcazar; Felipe G. Castro; Jennifer L. Krull

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a two-factor schema for the development of culturally appropriate cancer risk reduction interventions for Mexican American women. Regarding this approach, risk factors for two major cancer areas are reviewed: cigarette smoking and obesity\\/diet. We first describe a schema that facilitates the planning of strategies associated with preferred health interventions and preventive approaches for cancer risk reduction with

  15. Effectiveness of Health Education on Toxoplasma-Related Knowledge, Behavior, and Risk of Seroconversion in Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effectiveness of Health Education on Toxoplasma-Related Knowledge, Behavior, and Risk Appendix Key Words: congenital toxoplasmosis, prenatal care, health education, health promotion Word count the effectiveness of health education on toxoplasma-related knowledge, behavior, and risk of seroconversion

  16. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  17. [Occupational health risk assessment for workers in pipe rolling production].

    PubMed

    Martin, S V; Rosly?, O F

    2014-01-01

    Certification of workplaces, monitoring of work conditions, information on number and occupational morbidity in 42 occupations at 10 occupational areas in pipe rolling workshop helped to evaluate occupational risk for the workers' health. Prior estimate based on integral evaluation of work conditions revealed 5 risk categories--from minor to extremely high. Unbearable occupational risk was determined mostly by the workers' exposure to occupational noise. The occupations of extremely high risk were characterized by prevalent exposure to one of the factors corresponding to class 4, and by combined exposure to several factors with high hazard degree with working conditions classes 3.4-4. Posterior estimate demonstrated occupations with proven risk of neurosensory deafness and registered medium occupational risk of dust diseases. In the course of occupational risk evaluation, the authors revealed the occupations necessitating complex programs and specific measures to lower occupational risk. PMID:25282809

  18. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  19. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  20. Integrating human health and ecological concerns in risk assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A Cirone; P Bruce Duncan

    2000-01-01

    The interconnections between ecosystems, human health and welfare have been increasingly recognized by the US government, academia, and the public. This paper continues this theme by addressing the use of risk assessment to integrate people into a single assessment. In a broad overview of the risk assessment process we stress the need to build a conceptual model of the whole

  1. Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara S. Galloway

    2006-01-01

    Marine pollution is a major threat to human and environmental health. Given the complexity of function of marine and coastal ecosystems, it is unlikely that a balanced view of the nature and extent of risk will easily be achieved if human and environmental risk assessments continue to be conducted in isolation. Here, the integration of assessment protocols is advocated as

  2. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. his article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most co...

  4. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  5. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fact Sheets - Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Excessive Alcohol ... et al. Chlamydial infection and unplanned pregnancy in women with ready access to health care . Obstet Gynecol 2001;98(6):1117–1123. ...

  6. URANIUM ORES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanaa Mahmoud Salem

    This paper analyses the importance of the potential human health risks related to radionuclides and metals released from uranium mining and milling activities as well as the health effects of depleted uranium in the environment. Breathing or ingestion of abnormal levels of the radioactive gas radon, derived from natural sources such as rocks, has been considered as carcinogenic and kidney-related

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment at a Depleted Uranium Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA G. CALLAHAN; PAUL KOSTECKI; KAREN D. REECE

    2004-01-01

    Human health risk assessments for depleted uranium are common for Department of Defense (DOD) sites since the metal has various military uses. At a training and experimental site, DU was evaluated in soil in order to make decisions regarding cleanup and future use of the site. At this site, concentrations were found to be protective of human health; DU is

  8. Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Barton

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard

  9. Educated guesses: Health risk assessment in environmental impact statements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pd Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and

  10. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: Human Exposure and Health Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIHI YANG; MI SEON PARK; HO SUN LEE

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been emphasized due to their threats in fertility, intelligence, and survival. For the last decade, many researchers have investigated EDC-health outcome. However, EDC responses in human were not clearly clarified through experimental and epidemiological data. Therefore, considering particular status of EDC endpoints, we suggest that one of the best ways to prevent unknown health risks

  11. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  12. Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.

    PubMed Central

    Scriver, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens. PMID:6763817

  13. Adolescent Risk Taking, Neighborhood Social Capital, and Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Boyce; Diane Davies; Owen Gallupe; Danielle Shelley

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the roles of a neighborhood measure of social capital, family affluence, and risk taking on adolescent self-rated health. Methods: This study uses data from the 2384 Canadian students in Grades 9-10 (56.5% female) from the World Health Organization's Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey 2001\\/2002, a nationwide representative sample. Results: Using binary logistic regression models, it is

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  15. [The Meninos do Rio Program: lifeworld, adolescence, and health risks].

    PubMed

    Melo, Elza Machado de; Faria, Horácio Pereira de; Melo, Maria Aparecida Machado de; Chaves, Adriana Braga; Machado, Graziela Paronetto

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on health risks among teenagers from two towns in the Sao Francisco River Valley (Ibiai and Morada Nova) and slums in Morro das Pedras, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study discusses teaching and extracurricular activities by the Federal University in Minas Gerais in these localities, aimed at promoting health in adolescence. The authors use the Habermas communicative action theory as the main theoretical and methodological approach. The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology, including dynamic observation, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires answered by high school students. Sexuality, work, and violence were the main themes and were associated with numerous health risks. Work in the 10-to-14-year-old group was associated with nearly all types of health risks. The authors analyze the relations between context and adolescent behavior using the Habermasian concept of lifeworld colonization. PMID:15692636

  16. Draugen HSE-case - occupational health risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Glas, J.J.P.; Kjaer, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Draugen HSE-Case serves as a risk management tool. Originally, risk management included only major safety hazards to personnel, environment and assets. Work Environment risks such as ergonomics, psycho-social factors and exposure to chemicals and noise, was not given the same attention. The Draugen HSE-Case addresses this weakness and extends all work environment risks. In order to promote line responsibility and commitment, relevant personnel is involved in the Case development. {open_quotes}THESIS{degrees}, a software application, is used to systematize input and to generate reports. The Draugen HSE-case encompasses: HSE risk analyses related to specific activities; Control of risk related to work environment; Established tolerability criteria; Risk reducing measures; Emergency contingency measures; and Requirements for Competence and Follow-up. The development of Draugen HSE-Case is a continuous process. It will serve to minimize the potential of occupational illnesses, raise general awareness, and make occupational health management more cost-effective.

  17. Health risk appraisal: review of evidence for effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, V J; Wagner, E H; Beery, W L

    1987-01-01

    Since its introduction some two decades ago, health risk appraisal (HRA) has become a standard offering in the health promotion repertoire. The technique's distinctive feature is its use of epidemiologic data to generate quantitative risk messages for the client. Yet despite the dedication and considerable investments that have gone into HRA's development, dissemination, and use, there is only limited empirical evidence that these quantitative risk messages have any effect on clients. There do not appear to be any formal studies of HRA's effect on participation in health promotion programs, although increasing recruitment is regarded as a major benefit of using HRA. There are few indications of HRA effects on health beliefs. Most positive reports of effects on behavior change come from uncontrolled studies; several randomized controlled trials have yielded ambiguous findings. Virtually no data exist concerning the impact of the quantitative risk messages that distinguish HRA from other assessment techniques and that have motivated the substantial efforts toward developing and refining HRA. HRA has evident appeal and is probably a useful health education device for middle-class, middle-aged, nonminority clients. It may well have desirable effects on health-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors when accompanied by counseling or education, but available evidence has not established its effectiveness. Given the difficulty of obtaining definitive evidence of the effectiveness of HRA and specifically of its use of quantitative risk projections, the need for such evidence is debatable. An adequately funded and reviewed research program to examine whether projections of absolute risk affect knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to change is recommended as the most fruitful next step. Epidemiologically based HRA procedures that provide feedback in terms of qualitative statements or relative risk may be a promising approach to prospective health assessment. PMID:3679843

  18. HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

  19. HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

  20. Comparative quantification of health risks: Conceptual framework and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christopher JL; Ezzati, Majid; Lopez, Alan D; Rodgers, Anthony; Vander Hoorn, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been conducted in the context of methodological traditions of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual and methodological issues for quantifying the population health effects of individual or groups of risk factors in various levels of causality using knowledge from different scientific disciplines. The issues include: comparing the burden of disease due to the observed exposure distribution in a population with the burden from a hypothetical distribution or series of distributions, rather than a single reference level such as non-exposed; considering the multiple stages in the causal network of interactions among risk factor(s) and disease outcome to allow making inferences about some combinations of risk factors for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted, including the joint effects of multiple risk factors; calculating the health loss due to risk factor(s) as a time-indexed "stream" of disease burden due to a time-indexed "stream" of exposure, including consideration of discounting; and the sources of uncertainty. PMID:12780936

  1. Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

  2. In vitro assessment of equivalence of occupational health risk: welders.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, R M

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of using in vitro testing to determine the equivalence of risk for various occupational groups is discussed. In the absence of epidemiological evidence or relevant animal in vivo bioassays on which to determine the health effects of specific occupational exposures, it is proposed to use similarities in the in vitro response to substances with known (or strongly suspected) and unknown risk to demonstrate their risk equivalence. Identification and evaluation of a high risk "hot spot" due to exposure to Cr(VI) for stainless steel welders is discussed in terms of recent developments in collection, analysis and bioassay of welding fumes. PMID:6641655

  3. 30 CFR 250.135 - What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable...Disqualification § 250.135 What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable...your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS may disapprove or revoke your...

  4. 30 CFR 250.135 - What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable...Disqualification § 250.135 What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable...your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS may disapprove or revoke your...

  5. The age of risk: risk perception and determination following the Mental Health Act 2007.

    PubMed

    Glover-Thomas, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Reforms to the mental health law framework for England and Wales, which were introduced by the Mental Health Act 2007, are now having a practical effect on day-to-day mental health decision-making. The 2007 Act amends the Mental Health Act 1983, which governs the compulsory hospitalisation and treatment of people with mental disorder; and represents the culmination of a protracted and controversial reform process which has spanned much of the last 15 years. One of the key foci in the 2007 Act is the question of the risk posed by the patient, primarily to others; a result of both the social and political impetus behind the reform process and mounting public anxiety at the management of the mentally disordered. The new Act seeks, as with past legislation, to find the elusive balance between protecting and facilitating the individual's autonomy while also providing an effective framework for the wider public right to protection. The 2007 Act solidifies the dominance of risk by providing a legitimating framework in which risk can be assessed, monitored, and managed. This attitudinal change is demonstrated by the gradual and almost insidious adoption of risk terminology within the practical decision-making setting and the increasing use of risk assessment and management tools. This article is informed by an empirical study which examined individual professional and institutional responses to the mental health legislation in relation to risk. It examines whether the amended legislative framework amplifies risk as an increasingly dominant concern within decision-making. The paper then goes on to consider how decision-makers use risk to assist with their daily roles. Extrapolated from data obtained through the study, several models of risk determination are then discussed. Finally, some thought is given to whether the extension of the risk concept has the potential to become more fundamental within the organisation and legitimisation of mental health care. PMID:22038745

  6. Health aspects of caffeine: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, C

    This article examines the benefits and risks associated with caffeinated foods and drinks, taking an evidence-based approach to identify appropriate daily caffeine limits. Suggestions are provided on how to structure dietary advice for different patient groups including children, individuals with hypertension, renal patients, athletes and older adults. PMID:19953767

  7. Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

    1997-01-01

    This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

  8. 75 FR 82400 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance; Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance; Public Forum AGENCY...Department of Health and Human Services...ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting...70009) requesting public comment to assist...of guidance for Health Risk...

  9. Review of health risks of low testosterone and testosterone administration.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huanguang; Sullivan, Charles T; McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Morrow, Matthew; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-04-16

    Hypogonadism is prevalent in older men and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older hypogonadal men is a promising therapy. However, a number of important clinical concerns over TRT safety remain unsolved due to a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials directly comparing the health risks of untreated hypogonadism vs long-term use of TRT. Meta-analyses of clinical trials of TRT as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: polycythemia, an increase in prostate-related events, and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There are other purported health risks but their incidence can be neither confirmed nor denied based on the small number of subjects that have been studied to date. Furthermore, subsequent literature is equivocal with regard to the safety and utility of TRT and this topic has been subject to contentious debate. Since January 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration has released two official announcements regarding the safety of TRT and clinical monitoring the risks in TRT users. Additionally, the health risks related to the clinical presentation of low or declining testosterone levels not been resolved in the current literature. Because TRT is prescribed in the context of putative risks resulting from reduced testosterone levels, we reviewed the epidemiology and reported risks of low testosterone levels. We also highlight the current information about TRT utilization, the risks most often claimed to be associated with TRT, and current or emerging alternatives to TRT. PMID:25879005

  10. Health risk assessment for uranium in Korean groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-shin; Park, Hoa-sung; Kim, Jin-yong; Park, Sun-ku; Cho, Byong-wook; Sung, Ig-hwan; Shin, Dong-chun

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the radiological and chemical risks of uranium in groundwater. The total sample number over 4 years was 498. There were several use patterns of groundwater in Korea, but we considered the risk only for drinking water. The geometric mean of uranium concentration in 10 areas in Korea was 0.17 microg x l(-1). The excess cancer risks were in the 10(-7) level in the radiological risk aspect and the hazard quotient was 0.005 in the chemical risk aspect. Therefore, we could conclude that an adverse health risk is unlikely to be posed due to exposure to uranium. However, the concentration of uranium must be monitored periodically and adequate action taken in the few and small areas that contain high uranium levels in groundwater. PMID:15297042

  11. Environmental health: Assessing risks to society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parvesh K. Chopra; Gopal K. Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Natural and built environment systems that sustains lives by providing healthy living surroundings is under a tremendous pressure from various stressors such as rapid population growth, urbanisation, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation, psychosocial factors and the like. Environmental health is now a global issue wherein humans act both as the destroyers and the victims. All types of environmental pollutions (air, water,

  12. Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, L. N.; Reider, E. E.; Robertson, E. B.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic…

  13. Instrumentation in Health Education and the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) Instrument 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Matthew L.

    2010-01-14

    the validity and reliability of data collected from 1,992 Indiana middle and high school students with the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) instrument. The AHRBS instrument was created using the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM) theoretical framework...

  14. Uncertainty in epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Briggs; Clive E. Sabel; Kayoung Lee

    2009-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment have long grappled with problems of uncertainty in data and\\u000a their relationships. These uncertainties have become more challenging because of the complex, systemic nature of many of the\\u000a risks. A clear framework defining and quantifying uncertainty is needed. Three dimensions characterise uncertainty: its nature,\\u000a its location and its level. In terms of

  15. From risk factors to health resources in medical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanne Hollnagel; Kirsti Malterud

    2000-01-01

    The healing and preventive powers of people's health resources and self-assessed knowledge have so far been grossly underestimated\\u000a in medicine. In this article, we call attention to ethical and epistemological dilemmas related to knowledge, values, communication,\\u000a and autonomy embedded in the prevailing risk-oriented epidemiology, and suggest a patient-centred salutogenetic approach to\\u000a promote a better balance between resources and risks in

  16. Male Reproductive Health and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Male infertility impacts a substantial proportion of men and has serious implication for a man’s quality of life. Advances in reproductive technology may allow men to bypass urologic care in order to achieve their family planning goals. Recent data suggests that male reproductive failure may be a harbinger of future urologic diseases, including prostate cancer, thus emphasizing the importance of dedicated urologic evaluation and care for all male infertility patients. Recent findings We will review the epidemiologic data that explores an association between male reproductive health and prostate cancer. We will review the potential biologic mechanisms that may underlie this association, and explore possible reasons for inconsistencies in study findings. Summary Studies of the association between male infertility and prostate cancer are inconsistent. Despite this, the association between reproductive health in a man’s fourth decade (30s) and his development of aggressive prostate cancer in his sixth decade (50s) should not be ignored. These findings, combined with the robustness of the potential common underlying mechanisms, provide a foundation for future studies of male reproductive health that are more specific and directed in their approach to answering questions about the association between male reproductive failure and future systemic disease. PMID:21941182

  17. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Susanne; Albino, Juan Carlos Torrico; Caraveo, Luz María Nieto; Tejeda, Ana Cristina Cubillas

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs) aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed. PMID:26017963

  18. Is light-at-night a health risk factor or a health risk predictor?

    PubMed

    Kantermann, Thomas; Roenneberg, Till

    2009-08-01

    In 2007, the IARC (WHO) has classified "shift-work that involves circadian disruption" as potentially carcinogenic. Ample evidence leaves no doubt that shift-work is detrimental for health, but the mechanisms behind this effect are not well understood. The hormone melatonin is often considered to be a causal link between night shift and tumor development. The underlying "light-at-night" (LAN) hypothesis is based on the following chain of arguments: melatonin is a hormone produced under the control of the circadian clock at night, and its synthesis can be suppressed by light; as an indolamine, it potentially acts as a scavenger of oxygen radicals, which in turn can damage DNA, which in turn can cause cancer. Although there is no experimental evidence that LAN is at the basis of increased cancer rates in shiftworkers, the scenario "light at night can cause cancer" influences research, medicine, the lighting industry and (via the media) also the general public, well beyond shiftwork. It is even suggested that baby-lights, TVs, computers, streetlights, moonlight, emergency lights, or any so-called "light pollution" by urban developments cause cancer via the mechanisms proposed by the LAN hypothesis. Our commentary addresses the growing concern surrounding light pollution. We revisit the arguments of the LAN theory and put them into perspective regarding circadian physiology, physical likelihood (e.g., what intensities reach the retina), and potential risks, specifically in non-shiftworkers. PMID:19731106

  19. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: health risk uncertainties and research directions.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M

    1998-02-01

    With the way cleared for increased use of the fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in the United States, the issue of possible public health impacts associated with this additive has gained greater attention. In assessing potential health risks of particulate Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency not only considered the qualitative types of toxic effects associated with inhaled Mn, but conducted extensive exposure-response analyses using various statistical approaches and also estimated population exposure distributions of particulate Mn based on data from an exposure study conducted in California when MMT was used in leaded gasoline. Because of limitations in available data and the need to make several assumptions and extrapolations, the resulting risk characterization had inherent uncertainties that made it impossible to estimate health risks in a definitive or quantitative manner. To support an improved health risk characterization, further investigation is needed in the areas of health effects, emission characterization, and exposure analysis. PMID:9539013

  20. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part I—Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine whether workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments (HRAs), individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives succeeded in improving employee health and reducing employer health benefit costs. Methods We reviewed the proprietary HRA available to us and conducted a literature review to determine the efficacy of HRRPs using HRAs, individualized employee interventions, and financial incentives for employee participation. Results There is some evidence that HRRPs in employer-sponsored programs improve measures of employee health, but the results of these studies are somewhat equivocal. Conclusion Employer-sponsored HRRPs may have some benefits, but problems in plan design and in the studies assessing their efficacy complicate drawing conclusions. PMID:19625972

  1. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must consider travel time, the duration of rush-hour, congestion-specific emission estimates, and uncertainties. PMID:23500830

  2. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must consider travel time, the duration of rush-hour, congestion-specific emission estimates, and uncertainties. PMID:23500830

  3. Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance. PMID:25298605

  4. Research needs for environmental health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Aitio, Antero

    2008-01-01

    Risk characterization comprises hazard characterization and exposure assessment. Hazard characterization may not be based on human data alone, as these data (1) are seldom available, (2) are quite insensitive in identifying the hazards, and (3) mostly lack reliable exposure-response information. Thus epidemiological information needs to be complemented with information from experimental animals and in vitro systems. These observations suffer from the necessity for species-to-species extrapolation, which is often based on weakly based generic default values. Default values may be replaced by chemical-specific uncertainty factors, but need to be applied cautiously and preferably in a predetermined framework with transparent guidance on what constitutes reliable evidence. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) are useful in setting priorities for hazard characterization and data generation, but seldom alone constitute a sufficient basis for quantitative hazard characterization. Little progress has been made in the assessment of the hazards from multiple simultaneous or successive exposures. Information on the exposure of the population whose risks are to be assessed relies predominantly on models of varying complexity. In the assessment of exposure to elements, speciation and bioavailability are important parameters for which the information often is limited. PMID:18654896

  5. Food safety risks and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-11-30

    The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor. PMID:20621653

  6. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline from 2015 (CAN International 2014), and if policy makers are limited to the IPCC AR5 we recommend RCP2.6, with emissions declining by 2020.

  7. Health risk behaviors among young adults with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Minn M; Swanson, Mark E; Bolen, Julie C; Thibadeau, Judy K; Johnson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    AIM Persons with spina bifida who adopt unhealthy lifestyles could be at increased risk of adverse health outcomes because the presence of spina bifida may magnify this risk. We estimated overall and age-specific prevalence of selected health risk behaviors (HRBs) in young people with spina bifida and examined the association between HRBs and depression. METHOD We performed analyses on data obtained from individuals with spina bifida (n=130; mean age 23y SD 4y 5mo; 64 males, 66 females; 64% lumbosacral lesion; 77% with shunt) who participated in a population-based survey conducted by the Arkansas Spinal Cord Commission in 2005. RESULTS Compared with national estimates, young people with spina bifida tend to eat less healthy diets, do less exercise, and engage inmore sedentary activities. Respondents were less likely to use substances (alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs), which peaked among 25 to 31 year olds. About 90% saw a doctor in the previous year. Nearly one half reported mild or major depressive symptoms. In the logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, ethnic group, education, employment, marital status, living arrangement, level of lesion, presence of shunt, mobility, self-rated health and healthcare utilization), major depressive symptoms were associated with current alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio: 4.74; 95% CI 1.18–19.04). INTERPRETATION Young adults with spina bifida exhibit unhealthy behaviors that continue into their late 20s. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of their health risk profiles in the spina bifida community and show opportunities for mental health and health risk screening and counseling by healthcare providers. PMID:22937873

  8. Mental Health, Are We at Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Tawar, Shabeena; Bhatia, Sanjana Seth; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health is an important component of the total positive health and is interwoven closely with the physical and physiological dynamics of the human body. Worldwide, about 500 million people are believed to be suffering from neurotic, stress related and psychological problems. In India, surveys on mental morbidity in various parts of the country suggest a prevalence rate of 18-20 per 1000. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out amongst married women in the age group 18-45 years in an urban community of South Mumbai. Self-reporting questionnaire of 20 items (SRQ 20) developed by the WHO was administered. Statistical analysis was carried out to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disturbance. Result: The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance was found to be 27.27% for the total sample. The study results indicate that somatic symptoms were reported more commonly which could be a manifestation of underlying/burgeoning mental disorders. Conclusions: The results imply a high prevalence of 27.27% of psychiatric disturbance in our community. However, defining mental disorder from a clinical standpoint necessitates identification of the dividing line between despair and depression. It is recommended that women be encouraged to approach counsellors and thus enable further diagnosis and management of Common Mental Disorders in the community. PMID:24695680

  9. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  10. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America?s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  11. [Urbanization--a factor that increases the risk for health].

    PubMed

    Fridman, K B; Kriukova, T V

    2015-01-01

    The negative impact of urbanization on public health is obvious. However; due to the comprehensiveness and polymorphicity of its manifestations there are not established criteria for them. Health risk methodology allows, in principle, to obtain quantitative indices of the separate results of the impact on the health status of the citizens of metropolis that can be extremely effective in this area. The total cross-media riskfrom traffic pollution, drinking water quality, open ponds, noise, etc. permits to use of hygiene criteria in urban planning, insurance, taxation, etc. PMID:26031033

  12. Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013 General In general health risk assessment to be a good contribution to the discussion about the potential public health for the disagreements between the experts (i.e. the ESR team who undertook the health risk assessment

  13. Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Hawley

    1985-01-01

    The risk to human health posed by contaminated soil in a residential area depends on the potential extent of exposure to soil and on the toxic properties of the contaminants. A detailed soil exposure analysis is presented for young children, older children, and adults living in a house surrounded by contaminated soil. From this analysis, a lifetime exposure model is

  14. Childhood Obesity: Do Parents Recognize This Health Risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Etelson; Donald A. Brand; Patricia A. Patrick; Anushree Shirali

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined parents’ understanding of excess weight as a health risk, knowledge of healthy eating habits, and recognition of obesity in their children.Research Methods and Procedures: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed during well-care visits involving children 4 to 8 years of age at a pediatric faculty practice. Parents indicated their level of concern about excess weight and other

  15. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  16. A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

  17. Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Part I Research for Development in West Africa: Vulnerability, Health Risks and Institution, Autochthony and Integration: Urban and Rural Development Challenges in West Africa Guéladio Cissé1 1 requiring careful con- sideration in West Africa were identified, classified and synthesised during

  18. Health-risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions: Trace metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhong

    1990-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation centers on the development of a method for health risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions within the context of multiple exposure pathways and on its application to a problem of contemporary interest. The emphasis is on toxic metal emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. A comparison of the amount of metal emissions shows

  19. Venous thromboembolism in women: a specific reproductive health risk.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Workshop Group. RESULTS VTE is a multifactorial disease with a baseline annual incidence around 50 per 100 000 at 25 years and 120 per 100 000 at age 50. Its major complication is pulmonary embolism, causing death in 1-2% of patients. Higher VTE risk is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together. In pregnancy, the risk of VTE is increased ~5-fold, while the use of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) doubles the risk and this relative risk is higher with the more recent pills containing desogestrel, gestodene and drospirenone when compared with those with levonorgestrel. Similarly, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians managing pregnancy or treating women for infertility or prescribing CHC and HRT should be aware of the increased risks of VTE and the need to take a careful medical history to identify additional co-existing risks, and should be able to diagnose VTE and know how to approach its prevention. PMID:23825156

  20. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    McDonough, SL, Phillips, JS, and Twilbeck, TJ. Determining best practices to reduce occupational health risks in firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 2041-2044, 2015-The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. PMID:25563676

  1. Health benefits and risks of plant proteins.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Valachovicova, M

    2005-01-01

    Plant proteins have a reduced content of essential amino acids in comparison to animal proteins. A significant reduction of limiting amino acids (methionine, lysine, tryptophan) means lower protein synthesis. In subjects with predominant or exclusive consumption of plant food a higher incidence of hypoproteinemia due to significant reduction of methionine and lysine intakes was observed. On the other hand, lower intake of these amino acids provides a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease via cholesterol regulation by an inhibited hepatic phospholipid metabolism. Vegetarians have a significantly higher intake of non-essential amino acids arginine and pyruvigenic amino acids glycine, alanine, serine. When plant protein is high in non-essential amino acids, down-regulation of insulin and up-regulation of glucagon is a logical consequence. The action of glucagon in the liver is mediated by stimulation of adenyl cyclase that raises cyclic-AMP (adenosine-3,5-monophosphate) concentrations. Cyclic-AMP down-regulates the synthesis of a number of enzymes required for de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, up-regulates key gluconeogenic enzymes and the LDL receptors and decreases the IGF-1 activity (insulin-like growth factor). Cyclic-AMP thus provides a reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors as well as a retardation of cancer development. A sufficient consumption of plant proteins has the protective effects against chronic degenerative diseases (Tab. 2, Ref. 26). PMID:16201743

  2. Inhalation health risks of manganese: an EPA perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denied a petition by Ethyl Corporation to allow the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in unleaded gasoline, because of health concerns related to the inhalation of manganese (Mn) particulate emissions from combusted MMT. Although Ethyl successfully challenged EPA's denial of the petition on legal grounds, issues raised in EPA's health risk assessment have not been resolved to date. This paper summarizes features of the EPA health risk characterization, which included the use of various statistical techniques to derive several estimates of inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for Mn as alternatives to the established value of 0.05 microgram Mn/m3. An exposure assessment projected distributions of personal exposure levels to particulate Mn if MMT were used in all unleaded gasoline. It was estimated that exposure levels of 5-10% of the modeled population might exceed a possible alternative RfC value of 0.1 microgram Mn/m3. However, due to data limitations, the risk characterization for Mn/MMT could raise only qualitative concerns about potential public health impacts and was unable to provide a quantitative estimate of risk. To improve the risk characterization, better information on Mn/MMT population exposures and health effects is needed. Much of this information is expected to be obtained under provisions of Section 211 of the Clean Air Act. Among the specific issues that remain to be resolved are the form or forms of Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline and the potentially different toxic properties of Mn in different forms. PMID:10385909

  3. Cardiovascular health informatics: risk screening and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Craig J; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2012-09-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  4. Cardiovascular Health Informatics: Risk Screening and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Craig J.; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S.; Poon, Carmen C. Y.; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  5. Family history and risk of breast cancer: Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rosner, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Background Family history of cancer remains underused in general clinical practice. We assess age at diagnosis and the role of family history in risk of breast cancer. Methods Prospective follow-up of Nurses’ Health Study participants from 1980 to 2006. Updated assessment of family history in mother and sister including age at diagnosis. We used youngest age at diagnosis for family member when classifying risk. We confirmed 4327 incident invasive breast cancers confirmed. Breast cancer incidence models fitted to women with and without family history to assess variation in the risk for established risk factors. Results Compared to women with no family history those whose mother was diagnosed before age 50 had an adjusted relative risk of 1.69 (95% CI 1.39, 2.05) and those with mother diagnosed at 50 or older had a relative risk of 1.37 (1.22, 1.53). Sister history was associated with increased relative risk; 1.66 (1.38, 1.99) for those with sister history before age 50 and 1.52 (1.29, 1.77) for those with sister diagnosed at age 50 or older. Women with either mother or sister diagnosed before age 50 had a relative risk of 1.70 (1.48, 1.95) significantly higher than those with diagnosis at age 50 or older (RR=1.30; (1.27, 1.54), p=0.016). The magnitude of risk associated with established reproductive and lifestyle risk factors did not differ significantly between women with and those without family history with the exception of risk after bilateral oophorectomy in which setting women with family history had greater reduction in risk of subsequent breast cancer. Conclusion Women with a family member diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 had increased risk of breast cancer compared to women with family members diagnosed at older ages. Consistent findings for risk factors regardless of family history adds to robust evidence for risk identification and risk stratification in clinical settings where prevention strategies will apply equally to women with and without family history. PMID:22350789

  6. Family history and risk of breast cancer: nurses' health study.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Graham A; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    Family history of cancer remains underused in general clinical practice. We assess age at diagnosis and the role of family history in risk of breast cancer. Prospective follow-up of nurses' health study participants from 1980 to 2006. Updated assessment of family history in mother and sister including age at diagnosis. We used youngest age at diagnosis for family member when classifying risk. We confirmed 4327 incident invasive breast cancers confirmed. Breast cancer incidence models fitted to women with and without family history to assess variation in the risk for established risk factors. Compared to women with no family history those whose mother was diagnosed before age 50 had an adjusted relative risk of 1.69 (95% CI 1.39-2.05) and those with mother diagnosed at 50 or older had a relative risk of 1.37 (1.22-1.53). Sister history was associated with increased relative risk; 1.66 (1.38-1.99) for those with sister history before age 50 and 1.52 (1.29-1.77) for those with sister diagnosed at age 50 or older. Women with either mother or sister diagnosed before age 50 had a relative risk of 1.70 (1.48-1.95) significantly higher than those with diagnosis at age 50 or older (RR = 1.30; (1.27-1.54), P = 0.016). The magnitude of risk associated with established reproductive and lifestyle risk factors did not differ significantly between women with and those without family history with the exception of risk after bilateral oophorectomy in which setting women with family history had greater reduction in risk of subsequent breast cancer. Women with a family member diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 had increased risk of breast cancer compared to women with family members diagnosed at older ages. Consistent findings for risk factors regardless of family history adds to robust evidence for risk identification and risk stratification in clinical settings where prevention strategies will apply equally to women with and without family history. PMID:22350789

  7. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  8. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49 % health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  9. Biological risk in nursing care provided in family health units.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana Carla Moreira; De Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2010-01-01

    There is very frequent exposure to potentially contaminated material in procedures performed by nursing professionals. This exploratory and descriptive study characterizes the potential risk of biological exposure in procedures performed by nursing professionals in ten Family Health units in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. We observed 238 procedures involving potential risk of contact with biological material, in which more than 90% involved the use of needles. The average rates of adherence to standard precautions were: 27.9% hand washing prior to procedures; 41.4% use of gloves; and 88.8% adequate disposal of piercing and cutting instruments. These professionals are subject to risks similar to those which hospital workers are also subjected, because they have a high risk of blood exposure and the frequency with which they handle needles is very high. PMID:20721425

  10. Application of the bioecological model and health belief model to self-reported health risk behaviors of adolescents in the united states

    E-print Network

    Fleary, Sasha A.

    2009-05-15

    incorporates these three sources of risk-taking, however it lacks explanatory power. For this reason, this thesis focused on explaining risk perception of health risk behaviors (smoking cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use), and health risk behaviors...

  11. Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

    1986-10-01

    Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

  12. Approaches to characterizing human health risks of exposure to fibers.

    PubMed

    Vu, V T; Lai, D Y

    1997-09-01

    Naturally occurring and man-made (synthetic) fibers of respirable sizes are substances that have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as priority substances for risk reduction and pollution prevention under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The health concern for respirable fibers is based on the link of occupational asbestos exposure and environmental erionite fiber exposure to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including interstitial lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. There is also considerable laboratory evidence indicating that a variety of fibers of varying physical and chemical characteristics can elicit fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects in animals under certain exposure conditions. This paper discusses key scientific issues and major default assumptions and uncertainties pertaining to the risk assessment of inhaled fibers. This is followed by a description of the types of assessment performed by the U.S. EPA to support risk management actions of new fibers and existing fibers under TSCA. The scope and depth of these risk assessments, however, vary greatly depending on whether the substance under review is an existing or a new fiber, the purpose of the assessment, the availability of data, time, and resources, and the intended nature of regulatory action. In general, these risk assessments are of considerable uncertainty because health hazard and human exposure information is often incomplete for most fibers. Furthermore, how fibers cause diseases and what specific determinants are critical to fiber-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity are still not completely understood. Further research to improve our knowledge base in fiber toxicology and additional toxicity and exposure data gathering are needed to more accurately characterize the health risks of inhaled fibers. PMID:9400747

  13. Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners Search the ... including questions about whether these systems pose any health risks. However, FDA Engineer Daniel Kassiday says, "The dose ...

  14. The public health risks associated with wild and feral swine.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P

    1997-08-01

    Wild swine populations (Sus scrofa) are present in many regions of the world. Large feral populations in North America and Australia are principally derived from introduced domestic pigs. In Europe, most wild boar are found in Germany and Poland. While wild swine are certainly a significant reservoir of infection for domestic swine diseases (for example, African swine fever virus in wild boar in Sardinia), these swine generally do not constitute a major public health risk. Brucella suis infections and trichinellosis are the most important zoonotic threats to public health. PMID:9501373

  15. 77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision...

  16. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...considerations for conducting human health risk assessments on potential...

  17. [Occupational risks and health disorders in transport drivers].

    PubMed

    Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of occupational risks and health disorders in professional drivers employed in public and private transport. Epidemiological studies suggest an excess risk for cardiovascular diseases and musculoskeletal disorders in several categories of professional drivers, such as bus drivers, taxi drivers, truck drivers and forklift truck drivers. Although cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders are of multifactorial origin, some characteristics of occupational exposure in transport drivers (stress, workshift, traffic pollutants, awkward postures, exposure to noise and whole body vibration) may exert at least a concausal role for the onset and the development of these disorders. The predominant role of some confounding factors (inappropriate diet, drinking and smoking habits) makes it more difficult to establish causal associations between professional driving and other adverse health effects (respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genito-urinary disorders, and neoplastic diseases). PMID:23213815

  18. Health Risk Assessment of Organic Contaminants in a Typical Wastewater Irrigation Area, Northeastern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayun Li; Ying Zhang; Zhiping Fan; Qun Gao

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment of contaminated sites is crucial for quantifying adverse impacts on human health and the environment. The suitability of wastewater reuse for agricultural irrigation has to be considered for the health risk offered by the contamination of water and soil, as well as the food chain transfer. In this work, health risk assessment of multiple organic contaminants through the

  19. Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors

    E-print Network

    Klippel, Alexander

    1 Visualization Based Approach for Exploration of Health Data and Risk Factors Xiping Dai and Mark. The process for developing categories and exploring the relationships between health data and risk factors to the analysis of health data and risk factors. The system employs a range of visual and computational components

  20. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  1. Student attitudes towards socially acceptable and unacceptable group working practices.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jean D M

    2003-08-01

    While there is much support for co-operative learning among learning theorists, not all learners exhibit the same enthusiasm for groupwork. A number of factors such as sex, group size and ability mix, subject domain, task type and organization have been shown to influence the effectiveness of co-operative and collaborative learning. This study established learners' attitudes to various shared working scenarios. In this mixed design, 140 post-graduate teacher trainees were asked to imagine their responses to seven groupwork scenarios presented as a series of short vignettes. The vignettes varied on the degree of co-operation required; the sex of the prospective co-worker(s) including single and mixed-sex groups; type of assessment, including no assessment at all; and on academically acceptable and unacceptable 'shared' working practices. Anticipated attitudinal and behavioural responses of the students were assessed by questionnaire. On the whole, students were cautiously willing to be involved in groupwork. There were caveats, however. Factors such as the characteristics of the group members, the level and type of assessment procedures in operation, and individual differences, including sex and self-reported social deviance, also governed their responses. There was very limited agreement to be involved in socially undesirable collaborative group activities at a personal level or to condone such activities by others. Those students who showed a tendency towards mild anti-social behaviour were more willing to take direct punitive action against non-contributors than their peers. Female students were more willing to invoke the help of the tutor than their male counterparts, but only if the anti-social behaviour impacted on them personally. PMID:14511546

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Pollution in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the residents in Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, where more than 50% of people extracts groundwater to meet the drinking purpose and monitoring groundwater shows that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration of more than safe drinking water guideline of 10?g/L-1. Exposure and risk assessment are carried out in accordance with the provisional daily intake (PTDI) recommended by the FAO/WHO as well as hazard quotient and cancer risk standards based on the US Environmental Protection Agency. The variability of body weights and drinking water consumption scenarios are considered in exposure and risk assessment. Results shows that daily intake exceeds 2.1?g day-1 kg-1 BW for 2% of population, HQ level above unity for 20% , and can risk greater than 10-6 for 80%. These results implies that drinking water directly from groundwater will place many people at the risk of exposure and any efforts to supply safe drinking water is imperial for governing in order to protect the human health of inhabitants in Pingtung Plain.

  3. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  4. Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents With Chronic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan-Carles Suris; Christina Akre; Susan M. Sawyer

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of risk behaviors and to measure the extent of co-occurrence of these behaviors in chronically ill and healthy adolescents. METHODS.Data were drawn from the 2002 Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health database, a nationally representative survey of 7548 adolescents in postman- datory school aged 16 to 20 years. There were

  5. Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

  6. Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care.

    PubMed

    Hudson, P

    2003-12-01

    High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741

  7. Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

  8. The EPA health risk assessment of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT).

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Jarabek, A M; Mage, D T; Graham, J A

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assessment of potential health risks associated with the possible widespread use of a manganese (Mn)-based fuel additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT). This assessment was significant in several respects and may be instructive in identifying certain methodological issues of general relevance to risk assessment. A major feature of the inhalation health risk assessment was the derivation of Mn inhalation reference concentration (RfC) estimates using various statistical approaches, including benchmark dose and Bayesian analyses. The exposure assessment component used data from the Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study and other sources to estimate personal exposure levels of particulate Mn attributable to the permitted use of MMT in leaded gasoline in Riverside, CA, at the time of the PTEAM study; on this basis it was then possible to predict a distribution of possible future exposure levels associated with the use of MMT in all unleaded gasoline. Qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of the risk characterization are summarized, along with inherent uncertainties due to data limitations. PMID:9523444

  9. Gradients in the Health Status and Developmental Risks of Young Children: The Combined Influences of Multiple Social Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Stevens

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Objectives: To analyze child vulnerability as a profile of multiple risk factors for poorer health based on race\\/ethnicity, social class (maternal education and family poverty status),\\u000a child health insurance coverage, and maternal mental health. Profiles are examined in relation to disparities in the health\\u000a status and developmental risks of young children. Data Sources: Cross-sectional data on 2,068 children ages 4–35

  10. Health risk assessment and the practice of industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, D J

    1990-07-01

    It has been claimed that there may be as many as 2000 airborne chemicals to which persons could be exposed in the workplace and in the community. Of these, occupational exposure limits have been set for approximately 700 chemicals, and only about 30 chemicals have limits for the ambient air. It is likely that some type of health risk assessment methodology will be used to establish limits for the remainder. Although these methods have been used for over 10 yr to set environmental limits, each step of the process (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of traps into which scientists and risk managers can fall. For example, regulatory approaches to the hazard identification step have allowed little discrimination between the various animal carcinogens, even though these chemicals can vary greatly in their potency and mechanisms of action. In general, epidemiology data have been given little weight compared to the results of rodent bioassays. The dose-response extrapolation process, as generally practiced, often does not present the range of equally plausible values. Procedures which acknowledge and quantitatively account for some or all of the different classes of chemical carcinogens have not been widely adopted. For example, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) and biologically based models need to become a part of future risk assessments. The exposure evaluation portion of risk assessments can now be significantly more valid because of better dispersion models, validated exposure parameters, and the use of computers to account for complex environmental factors. Using these procedures, industrial hygienists are now able to quantitatively estimate the risks caused not only by the inhalation of chemicals but also those caused by dermal contact and incidental ingestion. The appropriate use of risk assessment methods should allow scientists and risk managers to set scientifically valid environmental and occupational standards for air contaminants. PMID:2200260

  11. Oral health and mortality risk in the institutionalised elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, José A.; Willumsen, Tiril

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly. PMID:22322487

  12. [Clinical application of nanoparticles, and their possible health risk].

    PubMed

    Pándics, Tamás

    2008-09-21

    Nanomaterials are getting rapidly developing practical applications, beside many others also in the clinical practice. Their beneficial attributes make the use of the nanostructures a large improvement in effective therapy as coating of implants, bone replacement materials, coating of active substances, nano-sized liposomes to achieve better pharmacologic qualities. Beside new beneficial chemical qualities originating from their size, due to the use of nanomaterials also adverse health effects may occur. Only in view of the possible effects on human health is the responsible use acceptable. The difference in qualities from other kinds of material can be explained by the nano-size. Investigations performed in the last decade have shown beside their local effect also systemic effects, like the rise of reactive oxygen species production, increase of platelet aggregation, which raises the cardiovascular risk. Due to the incomplete knowledge available now, it is not possible to assess the exact health risk; accordingly the application of nanomaterials in medical care has to be especially careful because of their possible partly unknown adverse health effects. PMID:18805764

  13. Evidence-based health information and risk competence

    PubMed Central

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Albrecht, Martina; Steckelberg, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Consumers and patients want to be included in decisions regarding their own health and have an ethically justified claim on informed decisions. Therefore, sound information is required, but health information is often misleading and based on different interests. The risks of disease and the benefits of medical interventions tend to be overestimated, whereas harm is often underestimated. Evidence-based health information has to fulfil certain criteria, for instance, it should be evidence-based, independent, complete, true as well as understandable. The aim of a medical intervention has to be explained. The different therapeutic options including the option not to intervene have to be delineated. The probabilities for success, lack of success and unwanted side effects have to be communicated in a numerical and understandable manner. Patients have the right to reject medical interventions without any sanctions. PMID:26195924

  14. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help to reduce later life health inequalities. PMID:24560224

  16. 21 CFR 1305.15 - Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. 1305.15 Section 1305.15...FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.15 Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222 must...

  17. 21 CFR 1305.15 - Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. 1305.15 Section 1305.15...FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.15 Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222 must...

  18. 21 CFR 1305.15 - Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. 1305.15 Section 1305.15...FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.15 Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222 must...

  19. 21 CFR 1305.15 - Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. 1305.15 Section 1305.15...FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.15 Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222 must...

  20. 21 CFR 1305.15 - Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. 1305.15 Section 1305.15...FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.15 Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222 must...

  1. SUCCESSFUL AFRICAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN ACADEMICALLY UNACCEPTABLE HIGH SCHOOLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER SHEPPARD

    This study sought to determine the reasons why successful math- ematics students have been able to thrive in schools labeled academically unacceptable and why they have chosen to stay in these academically unacceptable schools despite having the option to leave. Qualitative methods including group interviews, individual interviews, and open-ended questionnaires were used to address the above issues. The study involved

  2. Health and health risks among sexual minority women: an examination of three subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; VanKim, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to examine insurance status, source of routine care, cigarette and alcohol use, and self-rated health among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexual women who do not have sex with women. We found higher risks of being uninsured among lesbian and bisexual women, worse self-rated health among bisexual women, higher alcohol use among bisexual and heterosexual WSW, and higher smoking across all subgroups. PMID:24825204

  3. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors. PMID:25388324

  4. Risk perception and risk communication for training women apprentice welders: a challenge for public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  5. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  6. Applying an equity lens to child health and mortality: more of the same is not enough

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesar G Victora; Adam Wagstaff; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Davidson Gwatkin; Mariam Claeson

    Gaps in child mortality between rich and poor countries are unacceptably wide and in some areas are becoming wider, as are the gaps between wealthy and poor children within most countries. Poor children are more likely than their better-off peers to be exposed to health risks, and they have less resistance to disease because of undernutrition and other hazards typical

  7. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such as all text. Findings also suggest that factors influencing response to risk communications are impacted by personal risk perception, previous personal experience with risk, sources of information and trust in those sources. Conclusions No single method of message delivery is best. Risk communication strategies that incorporate the needs of the target audience(s) with a multi-faceted delivery method are most effective at reaching the audience. PMID:21040529

  8. A risk assessment software tool for evaluating potential risks to human health and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Drendel, G. [ICF/Kaiser, Lakewood, CO (United States); Jones, M.; Shain, D. [EG & G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Allen, B.; Gentry, R.; Shipp, A.; Van Landingham, C. [ICF Kaiser, Ruston, LA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Ecology and National Environmental Policy Act Division (END), is providing a sitewide evaluation of alternative strategies for the final disposition of the Rocky Flats Plant material inventory. This analysis is known as the Systems Engineering Analysis (SEA) for the Rocky Flats Plant. The primary intent of the SEA is to support the Rocky Flats Plant decision-making. As part of the SEA project, a risk assessment software tool has been developed which will assist in the analysis by providing an evaluation of potential risks to human health and the environment for the purpose of augmenting future decisions at the site.

  9. Cardiovascular Health Score and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Aijun; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Yuntao; Cai, Jun; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the American Heart Association proposed a definition of ideal health behaviors and health factors to measure cardiovascular health, from which Huffman et al. created the Cardiovascular Health Score (CVH score) to estimate these metrics on an individual level. We performed a prospective cohort study among employees of the Kailuan Group Corporation, who underwent a physical examination in 2006–2007 to investigate the relationship between the CVH score and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 91,598 individuals free of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline were included in the final analysis. We calculated baseline CVH score for each metric (poor=0, intermediate=1, ideal=2 points; range=0–14 points for all seven metrics) and categorized them into three groups: inadequate (0–4 points), average (5–9 points), and optimum (10–14 points). Incidence of total number of CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke was analyzed among these three groups and each incremental point on the CVH score. During an average 6.81 years of follow-up, there were 3276 CVD events, 2579 strokes and 747 myocardial infarction occurred. After adjusting for several confounding factors, each better health category of the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 47% for all CVD events, and each point higher on the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 18%. Similar trends were detected in the risks for myocardial infarction and stroke. A higher CVH score is therefore a protective factor for CVD, myocardial infarction, and stroke. PMID:26154254

  10. Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposures in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    High arsenic exposures, prevalent through dietary and non-dietary sources in Bangladesh, present a major health risk to the public. A quantitative human health risk assessment is described as a result of arsenic exposure through food and water intake, tea intake, accidental soil ingestion, and chewing of betel quid, while people meet their desirable dietary intake requirements throughout their lifetime. In evaluating the contribution of each intake pathway to average daily arsenic intake, the results show that food and water intake combined, makes up approximately 98% of the daily arsenic intake with the balance contributed to by intake pathways such as tea consumption, soil ingestion, and quid consumption. Under an exposure scenario where arsenic concentration in water is at the WHO guideline (0.01mg/L), food intake is the major arsenic intake pathway ranging from 67% to 80% of the average daily arsenic intake. However, the contribution from food drops to a range of 29% to 45% for an exposure scenario where arsenic in water is at the Bangladesh standard (0.05mg/L). The lifetime excess risk of cancer occurrence from chronic arsenic exposure, considering a population of 160 million people, based on an exposure scenario with 85 million people at the WHO guideline value and 75 million people at the Bangladesh standard, and assuming that 35 million people are associated with a heavy activity level, is estimated as 1.15 million cases. PMID:26006052

  11. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  12. Process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, R M

    1981-01-01

    In most industrialized countries large numbers of workers are exposed to welding fumes. Although the general pattern of welders' health may not significantly differ from that of workers in other dusty industrial occupations which demonstrate elevated incidence of respiratory tract diseases with long latency periods, the extremely wide range of substances at potentially high concentrations produced by various welding technologies may give rise to undetected process-specific high-risk working conditions: ("hot spots"). The origin, prevalence and range of magnitude of such hot spots, especially for cancer of the respiratory tract, is discussed, with emphasis placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) and Ni accompanying the use of various technologies for the welding of stainless and high alloy steels. The wide variation of health effects found within the industry, however, indicates the need for a standard protocol for future epidemiological studies, as well as for the development of suitable methodologies for experimental risk assessment. PMID:7333241

  13. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  14. Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances: Emerging Insights Into Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Clapp, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances have been in use for over sixty years. These highly stable substances were at first thought to be virtually inert and of low toxicity. Toxicity information slowly emerged on perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate. More than thirty years ago, early studies reported immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity effects. The substances were discovered in blood samples from exposed workers, then in the general population and in community water supplies near U.S. manufacturing plants. Only recently has research publication on perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate intensified. While the toxicology database is still far from complete, carcinogenicity and immunotoxicity now appear to be relevant risks at prevalent exposure levels. Existing drinking water limits are based on less complete evidence that was available before 2008 and may be more than 100-fold too high. As risk evaluations assume that untested effects do not require regulatory attention, the greatly underestimated health risks from perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate illustrate the public health implications of assuming the safety of incompletely tested industrial chemicals. PMID:26084549

  15. Estimating the human health risks from polychlorinated dioxins and furans in stack gas emissions from combustion units: implications of USEPA's dioxin reassessment.

    PubMed

    Bell, John U

    2002-01-01

    Shortly after promulgation of the Hazardous Waste Combustor MACT rule established regulatory limits for polychlorinated dioxins and furans (dioxins/furans) in incinerator stack gas, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced that facilities could still be required to demonstrate that stack emissions do not present an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment. Guidance for conducting this risk assessment activity, which was to be required under RCRA omnibus authority, was developed by the agency and released in 1998. The guidance represented an increase in complexity over previous documents developed by the agency and contains multiple chemical, fate and transport, and toxicological parameters which are to be used as default deterministic parameters in a complex series of algorithms which ultimately lead to numerical estimates of risk. As these changes were occurring, USEPA was also moving towards completion of its reassessment of dioxin. That series of documents has been the subject of considerable controversy and has, in several of its various drafts, proposed a number of changes, including modification of the existing toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach and of the cancer potency factor of 2,3,7,8-tetachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. At this time it is unclear what the impact of these changes will be on facilities progressing through the permitting process, because it is not intuitively obvious how changes in the risk assessment input parameters will impact the magnitude of the dioxinlfuran risk. In this paper, the receptor usually associated with the highest potential risk from dioxins/furans in a combustion risk assessment, the Subsistence Farmer, will be subjected to a sensitivity analysis to determine which of the multiple default input parameters will have the greatest influence on the potential cancer risk. PMID:12099498

  16. Health protection and risks for rescuers in cases of floods.

    PubMed

    Janev Holcer, Nataša; Jeli?i?, Pavle; Grba Bujevi?, Maja; Važani?, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education. PMID:25741935

  17. A Comparison of Health Risk Behaviors among College Students Enrolled in a Required Personal Health Course vs. an Elective Personal Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Theresa M. Enyeart; Skaggs, Gary E.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on whether health education, specifically personal health classes affects behavior change is inconclusive. In this study, a sample of students from two large southeastern universities enrolled in a required personal health course and an elective personal health course were administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…

  18. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  19. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  20. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  1. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

  4. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  5. Health-risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions: Trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinhong.

    1990-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation centers on the development of a method for health risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions within the context of multiple exposure pathways and on its application to a problem of contemporary interest. The emphasis is on toxic metal emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. A comparison of the amount of metal emissions shows that toxic metal emissions from MSW incinerators are generally of the same order of magnitude as those from hazardous waste incinerators. A hazard index for stack emitted metals based on toxicity and quantity are developed in this dissertation to screen metals which are important from a risk view-point. From this hazard index, lead and mercury are added to the known carcinogenic metals, i.e., arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel as candidates for the assessment. The method presented in this dissertation consists of hazard identification and hazard quantification. If a substance is identified as a potential human carcinogen, the carcinogenicity may be related to the chemical form of a substance and the route of exposure. Regarding the carcinogenic potency of a pollutant, the chemical form of a substance and the route of exposure is investigated. This type of information with regard to carcinogenic uncertainty is incorporated into hazard quantification. The appropriate carcinogenic group of a pollutant is also identified. In order to quantify the human health risks for the 7 metals, the following are determined in this dissertation: emission factors; mass particle-size distributions; air dispersion models; exposure assessment models; population data; and unit risks or cancer potency factors.

  6. Wind turbines: is there a human health risk?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Roberts, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    The term "Wind Turbine Syndrome" was coined in a recently self-published book, which hypothesized that a multitude of symptoms such as headache and dizziness resulted from wind turbines generating low frequency sound (LFS). The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the research that has examined the relationship between human health effects and exposure to LFS and sound generated from the operation of wind turbines. At present, a specific health condition has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature that has been classified as a disease caused by exposure to sound levels and frequencies generated by the operation of wind turbines. Communities are experiencing a heightened sense of annoyance and fear from the development and siting of wind turbine farms. High-quality research and effective risk communication can advance this course from one of panic to one of understanding and exemplification for other environmental advancements. PMID:23621051

  7. Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature, the striking similarities between physiological changes related to aging and obesity-related abnormalities are compatible with the concept that obesity causes "premature" vascular aging. This article reviews factors underlying the accelerated vascular disease development due to obesity. It also highlights the importance of recognizing childhood obesity as a disease condition and its permissive role in aggravating the development of other diseases. The importance of childhood obesity for disease susceptibility later in life, and the need for prevention and treatment are also discussed. PMID:22301858

  8. Comparing Changes in Health Risk Factors and Medical Costs over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, George; Dunnagan, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Employed a 6-year retrospective cohort design to examine the relationship between health indicators variables, health insurance costs, and utilization. Data collected from 1,940 employees who belonged to a worksite health plan indicated that employees with problematic health risk factors had a significantly higher probability of submitting health

  9. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J

    1996-07-17

    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace. PMID:8711738

  10. DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT L. Malherbe INERIS and hydrogeology, soil properties, contaminants behaviour ...) to delimit contaminated areas as homogeneous, contaminated sites, risk assessment 1 Introduction - Human health risk assessment : stakes of a relevant soil

  11. Monte Carlo techniques for quantitative uncertainty analysis in public health risk assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Thompson; David E. Burmaster; E. A. Crouch

    1992-01-01

    Most public health risk assessments assume and combine a series of average, conservative, and worst-case values to derive a conservative point estimate of risk. This procedure has major limitations. This paper demonstrates a new methodology for extended uncertainty analyses in public health risk assessments using Monte Carlo techniques. The extended method begins as do some conventional methods--with the preparation of

  12. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Hamilton; S. Holtzman; A. F. Meinhold; S. C. Morris; M. D. Rowe; J. I. Daniels; D. W. Layton; L. R. Anspaugh

    1993-01-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk

  13. Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-06-01

    Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

  14. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  15. DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2001-88 DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT L : stakes of a relevant soil sampling strategy ? Human health risk assessment is a site-based approach which if an old site contamination may have harmful effects on human health in view of the planned or current use

  16. Multiple Threats: The Co-Occurrence of Teen Health Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Boggess, Scott; Williams, Sean

    This document presents a portrait of multiple risk-taking among teens. Using recent data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, the report describes the extent to which teens engage in multiple health risk behaviors and contrast it with the extent to which teens…

  17. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  18. The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

    1998-01-01

    Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

  19. The Power of Perception: Health Risk Attributed to Air Pollution in an Urban Industrial Neighbourhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Elliott; Donald C. Cole; Paul Krueger; Nancy Voorberg; Sarah Wakefield

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-stakeholder process designed to assess the potential health risks associated with adverse air quality in an urban industrial neighborhood. The paper briefly describes the quantitative health risk assessment conducted by scientific experts, with input by a grassroots community group concerned about the impacts of adverse air quality on their health and quality of life. In this

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish from the Sana River (Bosnia and Herzegovina): A preliminary study on the health risk in sport fishermen.

    PubMed

    Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Burnic, Selma; Omeragic, Elma; Dobraca, Amila; Caklovica, Faruk; Sober, Miroslav

    2015-09-01

    Fish is the main single source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure in men. Anecdotal reports suggest high wild fish consumption rates among sport fishermen in Sanski Most area, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Presence of PCBs in the environment in BiH was previously documented. The main objective of this work was to estimate the magnitude of PCBs exposure and assess the potential health risk in sport fishermen in Sanski Most. The fishing pattern and magnitude of fish consumption were estimated in the questionnaire survey conducted during April 2012 among members (n = 60) of the local sport fishermen association in Sanski Most. Calculated median and high-end (90th percentile) fish consumption rates were 31 g d(-1) and 126 g d(-1), respectively. The PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1254 equivalents), determined by ELISA immunoassay in 28 fish fillets ranged from undetectable to 208 ?g kg(-1). Two different exposure scenarios were used: (a) median exposure, calculated from the median fish consumption rate and median PCB concentrations, and (b) "worst case" scenario, calculated from the high-end fish consumption rate and mean PCB concentrations. The results suggest negligible lifelong cancer and non-cancer risks in case of low to moderate fish consumption rate, but possibly unacceptable risk levels in high-end consumers. PMID:26079337

  1. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-02-11

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

  2. Newly Emerging Environmental Health Risks in a Risk Society: A case study of the public perception of food allergies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HarringtonDanielW

    2011-01-01

    Pre-modern societies were subjected to risks attributed to fate, and human-made hazards that were considered manageable. Late-modern society is increasingly exposed to emerging environmental health risks that are products of the modernization process itself (e.g. genetically modified organisms). These risks result from broad changes in the environment and\\/or human activity. Some of these provoke high public perceptions of risk, and

  3. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  4. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  5. Concentrations and Potential Health Risks of Metals in Lip Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sa; Rojas-Cheatham, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metal content in lip products has been an issue of concern. Objectives: We measured lead and eight other metals in a convenience sample of 32 lip products used by young Asian women in Oakland, California, and assessed potential health risks related to estimated intakes of these metals. Methods: We analyzed lip products by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and used previous estimates of lip product usage rates to determine daily oral intakes. We derived acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) based on information used to determine public health goals for exposure, and compared ADIs with estimated intakes to assess potential risks. Results: Most of the tested lip products contained high concentrations of titanium and aluminum. All examined products had detectable manganese. Lead was detected in 24 products (75%), with an average concentration of 0.36 ± 0.39 ppm, including one sample with 1.32 ppm. When used at the estimated average daily rate, estimated intakes were > 20% of ADIs derived for aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese. In addition, average daily use of 10 products tested would result in chromium intake exceeding our estimated ADI for chromium. For high rates of product use (above the 95th percentile), the percentages of samples with estimated metal intakes exceeding ADIs were 3% for aluminum, 68% for chromium, and 22% for manganese. Estimated intakes of lead were < 20% of ADIs for average and high use. Conclusions: Cosmetics safety should be assessed not only by the presence of hazardous contents, but also by comparing estimated exposures with health-based standards. In addition to lead, metals such as aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese require further investigation. PMID:23674482

  6. Accumulation of environmental risks to human health: geographical differences in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. M Pruppers; M. P. M Janssen; B. J. M Ale; R. M. J Pennders; K. D van den Hout; H. M. E Miedema

    1998-01-01

    The project `Accumulation of environmental risks' was aimed at developing methods to illustrate the geographical differences in risks to human health due to several types of environmental pollution. The following risks were considered: possible major accidents, radioactive substances and radiation, several carcinogenic substances in air and environmental noise, with the methods used based on the risk concept implemented in the

  7. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    PubMed Central

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees. PMID:18601718

  8. The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

  9. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT LINKED TO CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE. (R824995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Disturbances of climatic and ecological systems can present risks to human health, which are becoming more evident from health studies linked to climate variability, landuse change and global climate change. Waterborne disease agents, such as Giardia cy...

  11. Preventing Disability Among Working Participants in Kansas’ High-risk Insurance Pool: Implications for Health Reform

    E-print Network

    Hall, Jean P.; Moore, Janice M.; Welch, Greg W.

    2011-01-01

    Health conditions that prevent individuals from working full time can restrict their access to health insurance. For people living in the 35 states that offer high-risk pools, coverage is available but premiums are 125–200% ...

  12. Web-Based Risk Appraisal Tool Increases Capture of Family History Data in Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Newsroom Publication # 13-RA010 Go to Online Store Web-based risk appraisal tool increases capture of family ... in electronic health records Health Information Technology A Web-based tool successfully collected information on family history ...

  13. Characterising the individual health risk in infants exposed to organochlorine pesticides via breast milk by applying appropriate margins of safety derived from estimated daily intakes.

    PubMed

    Hernik, A; Góralczyk, K; Struci?ski, P; Czaja, K; Korcz, W; Minorczyk, M; Lyczewska, M; Ludwicki, J K

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion being an important way of elimination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) poses a concern due to potential risk for breastfed infants. This study aims to provide a tool for assessing such risks to infants exposed to OCPs (through accumulation in the mother's body), using calculated individual margins of safety (MoS). Selected OCPs included; p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, ?-HCH and HCB which were analysed in 28 samples of maternal milk. The highest intakes were recorded for p,p'-DDE (at 2.90 ?g kg(-1)bw d(-1)) whilst the lowest was for ?-HCH, (at 0.019 ?g kg(-1)bwd(-1)). For the risk characterisation purposes MoSs were calculated for the compounds for which toxicological reference values (e.g. ADI, TDI) were adopted. The MoS for average ?DDT concentrations was found to be relatively low (2.82) somewhat similar to that for HCB at 7.08, and for ?-HCH, the MoS was substantially higher at 263.1. This, however does not take into account the extremely high individual concentrations. Thus, it was decided to calculate estimated daily intake (EDI) values based on OCP levels in individual milk samples. MoS levels of <1 (meaning unacceptable risk) were noted both for HCB in one sample as well as for ?DDT in 3 samples indicating likely threats to infant's health. The lowest MoS noted for ?-HCH equalled to 60.6, indicating that this compound was not a threat to the health of any of the breastfed infants from the study group. PMID:24161583

  14. Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

  15. Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields. PMID:24580858

  16. Chances and Risks of Nanomaterials for Health and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riediker, Michael

    Nanomaterials have properties that are often very different from normal materials made of the same substance, which can be used to create novel products with exciting properties. However, the health and environmental impact of these nanomaterials is also changed and their potential risk needs to be studied. There is evidence that some nanomaterials can pass through tissue barriers (including the blood-brain barrier) and cell membranes. This is interesting for medical applications, but it raises concerns about the impact of non-medical nanomaterials. Current research aims at better coordinating research efforts and at better communication between researchers and involved stakeholders. Many research labs and production sites currently follow strategies that were established for dealing with very toxic chemicals and powders, until future research in this field helps identify the appropriate level of protection. All these efforts will ultimately ensure a safe, healthy and environmental friendly production, use and disposal of nanomaterials.

  17. Back Pain – Are Health Care Undergraduates At Risk?

    PubMed Central

    HAFEEZ, Kamran; AHMED MEMON, Ayaz; JAWAID, Masood; USMAN, Sidra; USMAN, Sara; HAROON, Saroona

    2013-01-01

    Background: To study the prevalence of low back pain in medical and nursing undergraduate students in our institutes and its association with physical activity, smoking, depression, use of computer and other variables. Methods: It was a comparative cross sectional study carried out at two institutes of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan during October to December 2011. Two hundred and fifteen undergraduate students representing different semesters were asked to fill out the structured questionnaire. Back pain was assessed in terms of lifetime, one year and point prevalence. Bivariate analysis was done to study the relationship between back pain and different variables; including gender, study program, smoking, computer use, depression and level of physical activity. Both the groups were compared for duration/intensity of pain, seeking medical advice and duration of computer use. Results: There were 183 undergraduate students who completed the questionnaire for back pain. Mean age was 22.84 (SD ± 5.85) years. Gender distribution was nearly equal (females = 51.4%). Life time prevalence was 57.9% (72% in medical students; 41% in nursing students). Medical students were 0.47 times more at risk of having back pain (95% CI 0.15–1.48; P=0.198). Smoking (OD=0.39; 95% CI 0.04–3.6; P=0.001) and use of laptop (OD=4.9; 95% CI 1.2–19.2; P=0.031) were found to be associated with increased prevalence of back pain. Nursing students sought medical opinion more as compared to medical students but it was not significant. However duration of computer use was more in medical students which was significant (P=0.03). Conclusion: High lifetime prevalence of back pain was observed in undergraduate students. Medical students appeared to be more at risk. Preventive measures are required to improve the quality of life in future health care professionals.

  18. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  19. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  20. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  1. Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in Beijing based on the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

  3. Trihalomethanes in marine mammal aquaria: occurrences, sources, and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Chow, Alex T; Sweeney, Joelle M; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-08-01

    Disinfecting water containing the high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) commonly generated during pinniped husbandry may cause the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Little information is available on DBP levels, sources, and health risks in marine mammal aquaria. Using the commonly observed trihalomethanes (THMs) as a DBP indicator, we monitored concentrations for seven months at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, one of the largest pinniped rehabilitation facilities in the world. Concentrations of THMs ranged 1.1-144.2 ?g/L in pool waters and generally increased with number of animals housed (P < 0.05). To identify the sources of THM precursors in marine mammal aquaria, we intensively monitored the mass flows of potential THM precursors (i.e. food and wastes) in an isolated system with nine individual California sea lions to evaluate the sources and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for 2-5 weeks. The common frozen foods used in feeding pinnipeds, including herring, sardine, and squid, produced an average of 22-34 mg-DOC/g-food in water and 836-1066 ?g-THM/g-food after chlorination, whereas the fecal materials, including fresh scat, decomposed scat, and urine, produced 2-16 mg-DOC/g-waste and 116-768 ?g-THM/g-waste. Food not eaten by animals could cause a sharp increase of DOC and DBP production and therefore should be removed rapidly from pools. Marine mammal husbandry staff and trainers are at risk (5.16 × 10(-4) to 1.30 × 10(-3)) through exposure of THMs, exceeding the negligible risk level (10(-6)) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24805374

  4. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities. PMID:23829419

  5. Social Comparison Framing in Health News and Its Effect on Perceptions of Group Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bigman, Cabral A.

    2013-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents’ perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents’ risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and non-comparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities. PMID:23829419

  6. Health risk behavior assessment: nutrition, weight, and tobacco use in one urban seventh-grade class.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Elizabeth Burgess; Santucci, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Health attitudes and behaviors develop in childhood and progress through adolescence into adulthood. To better understand the health risk behaviors being undertaken by a seventh-grade urban population, a study was conducted to identify what health risk behaviors a group of adolescents were participating in. The purpose of this study was to describe (1) the types of health risk behaviors being undertaken, (2) the frequency of their taking health risk behaviors, and (3) the age of initiation of the health risk behavior. The findings from this study indicate that this sample of 54, urban seventh graders suffers from multidimensional health needs. These students participated in a variety of health risk behaviors, as measured by the Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System Questionnaire. These students have begun to smoke regularly, which correlated with the use of alcohol. They rate their health as being good or excellent but rarely met the daily requirements for intake of fruits and vegetables. And, although they rate their weight as being acceptable, most are trying to lose weight. Additionally, differences between the boys and girls were noted in weight perception, with girls more likely than boys to use smoking as the primary method of weight control. Nursing is in an ideal position to provide effective primary care interventions and community health outreach to this adolescent population. PMID:14987212

  7. A study of the perception of health risks among college students in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-06-01

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of "high risk" responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of "high health risk" rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a "high health risk" by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents' degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents' degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally lower than that of respondents from other areas except for items such as natural disasters, smoking, medical X-rays, and mental stress, which are exceptions. PMID:23712317

  8. A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-01-01

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally lower than that of respondents from other areas except for items such as natural disasters, smoking, medical X-rays, and mental stress, which are exceptions. PMID:23712317

  9. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables - the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Anna L M; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E; Hogmalm, K Johan; Filipsson, Monika E M

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. PMID:25723126

  10. Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.A. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch River, from the White Oak Creek Embayment to the city of Kingston, were chosen. The demography of the lower Clinch River supplied information dealing with land use that aided in the determination of sites on which to focus efforts. The locations that proved to be the most significant included Jones Island at Clinch River Mile (CRM) 20.5, Grassy Creek and K-25 (CRM 14), Kingston Steam Plant (CRM 3.5), and the city of Kingston (CRM 0). These areas of interest have historically been and are still primarily agricultural and residential areas. Reference individuals were determined with respect to the pathways involved. The primary radionuclides of interest released from the X-10 facility into the Clinch River via White Oak Creek were identified in the initial screening analysis as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 131}I, {sup 95}Zr, and {sup 95}Nb. Of these radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Zr, and {sup 95}Nb were evaluated for their contribution to the external exposure pathway. This study utilized an object-oriented modeling software package that provides an alternative to the spreadsheet, providing graphical influence diagrams to show qualitative structure of models, hierarchical models to organize complicated models into manageable modules, and intelligent arrays with the power to scale up simple models to handle large problems. The doses and risks estimated in this study are not significant enough to cause a detectable increase in health effects in the population. In most cases, the organ does are well below the limits of epidemiological detection (1 to 30 cSv) for radiation-induced health outcomes. Therefore, it is unlikely that exposure to radionuclides released from the X-10 site is responsible for an increased number of cancers to populations utilizing the Clinch River after 1944.

  11. Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad

    PubMed Central

    Grais, R. F; Dubray, C; Gerstl, S; Guthmann, J. P; Djibo, A; Nargaye, K. D; Coker, J; Alberti, K. P; Cochet, A; Ihekweazu, C; Nathan, N; Payne, L; Porten, K; Sauvageot, D; Schimmer, B; Fermon, F; Burny, M. E; Hersh, B. S; Guerin, P. J

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the comprehensive World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) measles mortality–reduction strategy and the Measles Initiative, a partnership of international organizations supporting measles mortality reduction in Africa, certain high-burden countries continue to face recurrent epidemics. To our knowledge, few recent studies have documented measles mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of our study was to investigate measles mortality in three recent epidemics in Niamey (Niger), N'Djamena (Chad), and Adamawa State (Nigeria). Methods and Findings We conducted three exhaustive household retrospective mortality surveys in one neighbourhood of each of the three affected areas: Boukoki, Niamey, Niger (April 2004, n = 26,795); Moursal, N'Djamena, Chad (June 2005, n = 21,812); and Dong District, Adamawa State, Nigeria (April 2005, n = 16,249), where n is the total surveyed population in each of the respective areas. Study populations included all persons resident for at least 2 wk prior to the study, a duration encompassing the measles incubation period. Heads of households provided information on measles cases, clinical outcomes up to 30 d after rash onset, and health-seeking behaviour during the epidemic. Measles cases and deaths were ascertained using standard WHO surveillance-case definitions. Our main outcome measures were measles attack rates (ARs) and case fatality ratios (CFRs) by age group, and descriptions of measles complications and health-seeking behaviour. Measles ARs were the highest in children under 5 y old (under 5 y): 17.1% in Boukoki, 17.2% in Moursal, and 24.3% in Dong District. CFRs in under 5-y-olds were 4.6%, 4.0%, and 10.8% in Boukoki, Moursal, and Dong District, respectively. In all sites, more than half of measles cases in children aged under 5 y experienced acute respiratory infection and/or diarrhoea in the 30 d following rash onset. Of measles cases, it was reported that 85.7% (979/1,142) of patients visited a health-care facility within 30 d after rash onset in Boukoki, 73.5% (519/706) in Moursal, and 52.8% (603/1,142) in Dong District. Conclusions Children in these countries still face unacceptably high mortality from a completely preventable disease. While the successes of measles mortality–reduction strategies and progress observed in measles control in other countries of the region are laudable and evident, they should not overshadow the need for intensive efforts in countries that have just begun implementation of the WHO/UNICEF comprehensive strategy. PMID:17199407

  12. New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

  13. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  14. Applying the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to Rural Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Yasenka

    2001-01-01

    Determined current health risk behaviors of rural college freshmen using elements of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS). Student surveys indicated that for some behaviors, the incidence among these rural students was higher than the incidence among freshmen from the NCHRBS (e.g., binge drinking, ever smoking marijuana, and…

  15. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  16. Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

  17. Integrating health into disaster risk reduction strategies: key considerations for success.

    PubMed

    Dar, Osman; Buckley, Emmeline J; Rokadiya, Sakib; Huda, Qudsia; Abrahams, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The human and financial costs of disasters are vast. In 2011, disasters were estimated to have cost $378 billion worldwide; disasters have affected 64% of the world's population since 1992. Consequently, disaster risk reduction strategies have become increasingly prominent on national and international policy agendas. However, the function of health in disaster risk reduction strategies often has been restricted to emergency response. To mitigate the effect of disasters on social and health development goals (such as risk reduction Millennium Development Goals) and increase resilience among at-risk populations, disaster strategies should assign the health sector a more all-encompassing, proactive role. We discuss proposed methods and concepts for mainstreaming health in disaster risk reduction and consider barriers faced by the health sector in this field. PMID:25122022

  18. Preferences for Genetic and Behavioral Health Information: The Impact of Risk Factors and Disease Attributions

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Suzanne C.; McBride, Colleen M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased availability of genetic risk information may lead the public to give precedence to genetic causation over behavioral/environmental factors, decreasing behavior change motivation. Few population-based data inform these concerns. Purpose We assess the association of family history, behavioral risks, and causal attributions for diseases and the perceived value of pursuing information emphasizing health habits or genes. Method 1959 healthy adults completed a survey that assessed behavioral risk factors, family history, causal attributions of eight diseases, and health information preferences. Results Participants’ causal beliefs favored health behaviors over genetics. Interest in behavioral information was higher than in genetic information. As behavioral risk factors increased, inclination toward genetic explanations increased; interest in how health habits affect disease risk decreased. Conclusions Those at greatest need for behavior change may hold attributions that diminish interest in behavior change information. Enhancing understanding of gene-environment influences could be explored to increase engagement with health information. PMID:20532842

  19. Preferences for genetic and behavioral health information: the impact of risk factors and disease attributions.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Suzanne C; McBride, Colleen M; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2010-10-01

    Increased availability of genetic risk information may lead the public to give precedence to genetic causation over behavioral/environmental factors, decreasing motivation for behavior change. Few population-based data inform these concerns. We assess the association of family history, behavioral risks, and causal attributions for diseases and the perceived value of pursuing information emphasizing health habits or genes. 1,959 healthy adults completed a survey that assessed behavioral risk factors, family history, causal attributions of eight diseases, and health information preferences. Participants' causal beliefs favored health behaviors over genetics. Interest in behavioral information was higher than in genetic information. As behavioral risk factors increased, inclination toward genetic explanations increased; interest in how health habits affect disease risk decreased. Those at greatest need for behavior change may hold attributions that diminish interest in information for behavior change. Enhancing understanding of gene-environment influences could be explored to increase engagement with health information. PMID:20532842

  20. Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen J. Sikkema; Melissa H. Watt; Anya S. Drabkin; Christina S. Meade; Nathan B. Hansen; Brian W. Pence

    2010-01-01

    Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing\\u000a the health and quality of life of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission\\u000a risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational.\\u000a Further, a number of efficacious mental

  1. Communicating with Risk Takers: Information Sources and Health Attitudes, Beliefs, and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, M. A.; And Others

    Seven studies explored the relationships between risk-taking predispositions and health attitudes, beliefs, and involvement. Data were gathered from surveys, and from lab and field experiments on 1,323 subjects. Findings indicated five risk-taking factors: adventurousness, rebelliousness, impulsiveness, physical risk taking, and unconventional…

  2. USING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISKS TO HEALTH FROM MICROBES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States goal to reduce health risks from environmental exposures of all kinds of hazards has resulted in the need to assess the risks from exposure to microbes in drinking water. The model for a risk-based conceptual framework and strategy is provided by the US Environm...

  3. On the assessment of health risks at superfund sites using Monte Carlo simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Katsumata; William E. Kastenberg

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, state?of?the?art risk assessment models, and the most current and applicable site specific exposure data are employed in the reassessment of baseline risks at three Superfand Sites for which a Record of Decision has been issued since 1990. The results of this reassessment are compared to health risk assessments based on EPA's conservative or default parameters in estimating

  4. Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, Alexia A; Economopoulos, Alexander P

    2002-12-01

    An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results are inputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the number of road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions and ambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOC appear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating and traffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysis show that the levels of all 'classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant health impact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entire population from 1.3 to 1.7 years. PMID:12503898

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in health change in a longitudinal study of US adults: the role of health-risk behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula M. Lantz; John W. Lynch; James S. House; James M. Lepkowski; Richard P. Mero; Marc A. Musick; David R. Williams

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans’ Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education

  6. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

    2002-01-01

    Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

  7. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

    Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

  8. Preventive Health Practices and Behavioural Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; E. Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screening and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We compared

  9. Preventive Health Practices and Behavioral Risk Factors in Women Surviving Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Chase; Graham Ratcliff; Lee Vernich; Eisar Al-Sukhni; Baseer Yasseen; Angela Colantonio

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions globally and is considered a universal public health concern. Our study addresses a considerable knowledge gap about the health of female survivors of TBI. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we examined behavioral risk factors, access to health screenings, and primary care services among women with a history of moderate to severe TBI. We

  10. Comparative assessment of transport risks — how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tord Kjellstrom; Lorrae van Kerkhoff; Gabriele Bammer; Tony McMichael

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy- makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as

  11. Noise exposure in orthopaedic practice: potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ramzan; Bailie, Neil; Crowther, Sean; Cullen, James

    2004-06-01

    Noise exposure is one of the major causes of permanent hearing loss in society. Exposure of health service staff to intense levels of noise in the workplace is a potential risk for the development of temporary and permanent hearing loss. In this prospective study, 18 members of the orthopaedic staff underwent hearing assessment by pure tone audiometry and speech discrimination prior to noise exposure at the workplace and immediately following cessation of work. The number of hours of exposure and noise levels in the workplace was also analysed. Only minimal temporary sensorineural threshold shifts were detected post-noise exposure. There was no change in speech discrimination scores and no individuals complained of tinnitus. The number of hours of exposure ranged from 1.5 to 8.5 hours (mean 5.2 hours). Recorded sound levels for instruments ranged from 119.6 dB at source to 73.1 decibels at 3 metres. Although high sound levels are recorded in the orthopaedic operating theatre, the intermittent nature exposure to the intense noise may protect staff against hearing loss, speech discrimination difficulties and tinnitus. PMID:15285856

  12. Health risks of dietary exposure to perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2012-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) form a diverse group of chemicals with surface-active properties manufactured for over 50 years. In recent years, a number of studies have reported the ubiquitous distribution of PFCs in human tissues and wildlife. Although the relative importance of the routes of human exposure to these compounds is not well established yet, it has been suggested that food intake and packaging, water, house dust, and airborne are all potentially significant sources. However, dietary intake is probably the main route of exposure to these compounds, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFCs. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding the concentrations of PFCs in foodstuffs, human dietary exposure to these compounds and their health risks. The influence of processing, cooking and packaging on the PFCs levels in food is also discussed. Because of the rather limited information about human dietary exposure, studies to determine exposure to PFCs through the diet for the general population of a number of countries are clearly necessary. The correlation of PFCs body burdens and dietary intake of PFCs should be also established. PMID:21864910

  13. Implementing health information exchange for public health reporting: a comparison of decision and risk management of three regional health information organizations in New York state

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version. PMID:23975626

  14. Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health

  15. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

  16. Calculation of health risks from spent-nuclear-fuel transportation accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Chen; Y. C. Yuan

    1987-01-01

    Models developed to analyze potential radiological health risks from various accident scenarios during transportation of spent nuclear fuels are described. The models are designed both for detailed route-specific risk analyses and for use in conducting overall risk analyses for route selection and related decision-making activities. The radiological risks calculated include individual dose commitments, collective dose commitments, and long-term (100-year) environmental

  17. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Crighton, E J; Brown, C; Baxter, J; Lemyre, L; Masuda, J R; Ursitti, F

    2013-06-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  18. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention. PMID:26068647

  19. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  20. The potential of risk adjustment for the Military Health System TRICARE Program.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Manon; Mihara, Thomas; Hill, Michelle; Fristoe, Karrie

    2005-11-01

    Using industry leading methods and software products, this article explores the potential for health risk adjustment in the Department of Defense (DoD) Military Health System. From an epidemiologic perspective, the study assesses whether DoD populations enrolled to and served by different provider groups exhibit sufficient variation in risk to justify changes in resource allocation, such as staffing, services, and facility modification. In addition, the study investigates whether systematic differences in risk exist between TRICARE enrollees and commercially insured enrollees. Given the interest of the DoD in managed care, risk prediction tools are shown to project future risk for individuals with sufficient accuracy to justify development of disease management programs for patients with chronic conditions. Analyses demonstrate that Military Health System data support industry requirements to perform risk grouping among a random sample of 200,000 enrollees selected from 495,941 eligible enrollees. PMID:16450825

  1. RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    1999-01-01

    RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

  2. 30 CFR 250.136 - How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will MMS determine if my operating performance is...Disqualification § 250.136 How will MMS determine if my operating performance is...your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS will consider, individually or...

  3. Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

  4. The effect of information on health risk valuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Krupnick; Maureen L. Cropper

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of familiarity with chronic lung disease on people's willingness to pay to reduce their risk of contracting chronic bronchitis, and on their willingness to increase their risk of auto death to reduce chronic bronchitis risk. We find that persons who have a relative with chronic lung disease are willing to give up more income to

  5. The Representation of Risk in Routine Medical Experience: What Actions for Contemporary Health Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Background The comprehension of appropriate information about illnesses and treatments, can have beneficial effects on patients’ satisfaction and on important health outcomes. However, it is questionable whether people are able to understand risk properly. Aim To describe patients’ representation of risk in common medical experiences by linking such a representation to the concept of trust. A further goal was to test whether the representation of risk in the medical domain is associated to the level of expertise. The third goal was to verify whether socio-demographic differences influence the representation of risk. Methods Eighty voluntary participants from 6 health-centers in northern Italy were enrolled to conduct a semi-structured interview which included demographic questions, term-associations about risk representation, closed and open questions about attitudes and perception of risk in the medical context, as well as about medical expertise and trust. Results The results showed that people do not have in mind a scientific definition of risk in medicine. Risk is seen as a synonym for surgery and disease and it is often confused with fear. However, general knowledge of medical matters helps people to have a better health management through risk identification and risk information, adoption of careful behaviors and tendency to have a critical view about safety and medical news. Finally, trust proved to be an important variable in risk representation and risk and trust were correlated positively. Conclusions People must receive appropriate information about the risks and benefits of treatment, in a form that they can understand and apply to their own circumstances. Moreover, contemporary health policy should empower patients to adopt an active self-care attitude. Methodologies to enhance people’s decision-making outcomes based on better risk communication should be improved in order to enable low literacy population as well elderly people to better understand their treatment and associated risk. PMID:23133628

  6. Occupational stress among staff nurses: Controlling the risk to health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Parul; Davey, Anuradha; Davey, Sanjeev; Shukla, Arvind; Shrivastava, Kajal; Bansal, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress. Job stress brought about hazardous impacts not only on nurses’ health but also on their abilities to cope with job demands. Objectives: This study aimed at finding out the degree of work-related stress among the staff nurses and various determinants, which have a impact on it. Materials and Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study conducted on GNM qualified nurses. Predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire covering their sociodemographic variables in part I and professional life stress scale by David Fontana in part II. Analysis used was Chi-square test and logistic regression for various factors. Results: Risk for professional stress due to poor and satisfactory doctor's attitude was found about 3 and 4 times more than with excellent attitude of doctors toward the staff nurses. A statistically significant association (P < 0.024) between department of posting and level of stress. Nurses reported that they had no time for rest, of whom 42% were suffering from moderate-to-severe stress. The nurses who felt that the job was not tiring were found to be less stressed as those who perceived job as tiring (OR = 0.43). Conclusion: The main nurses’ occupational stressors were poor doctor's attitude, posting in busy departments (emergency/ICU), inadequate pay, too much work, and so on. Thus, hospital managers should initiate strategies to reduce the amount of occupational stress and should provide more support to the nurses to deal with the stress. PMID:25568598

  7. A model for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces.

    PubMed

    Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani

    2003-05-01

    Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments. PMID:12862183

  8. Junk Food, Health and Productivity: Taste, Price, Risk and Rationality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnon Levy

    2006-01-01

    Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analyzed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximizing framework in which the probability of living and productivity rise with health and health deteriorate with the consumption of junkfood. So long that the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, the rational diet deviates from the physiologically optimal and renders the levels of health and productivity lower than

  9. Perspectives of Family Physicians on Computer-assisted Health-risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harvey A; Stewart, Donna E; Levinson, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Background The firsthand experience of physicians using computer-assisted health-risk assessment is salient for designing practical eHealth solutions. Objective The aim of this study was to enhance understanding about computer-assisted health-risk assessments from physicians’ perspectives after completion of a trial at a Canadian, urban, multi-doctor, hospital-affiliated family practice clinic. Methods A qualitative approach of face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews was used. All interviews were audio recorded and field notes taken. Analytic induction and constant comparative techniques were used for coding and analyses. Interpretation was facilitated by peer audit and insights gained from the social exchange theoretical perspective. Results Ten physicians (seven female and three male) participated in the interviews. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to computer-assisted health-risk assessments: (1) perceived benefits, (2) perceived concerns or challenges, and (3) feasibility. Physicians unanimously acknowledged the potential of computer-assisted health-risk assessments to open dialogue on psychosocial health risks. They also appreciated the general facilitative roles of the tool, such as improving time-efficiency by asking questions on health risks prior to the consultation and triggering patients’ self-reflections on the risks. However, in the context of ongoing physician-patient relationships, physicians expressed concerns about the impact of the computer-assisted health-risk assessment tool on visit time, patient readiness to talk about psychosocial issues when the purpose of the visit was different, and the suitability of such risk assessment for all visits to detect new risk information. In terms of feasibility, physicians displayed general acceptance of the risk assessment tool but considered it most feasible for periodic health exams and follow-up visits based on their perceived concerns or challenges and the resources needed to implement such programs. These included clinic level (staff training, space, confidentiality) and organizational level (time, commitment and finances) support. Conclusions Participants perceived computer-assisted health-risk assessment as a useful tool in family practice, particularly for identifying psychosocial issues. Physicians displayed a general acceptance of the computer tool and indicated its greater feasibility for periodic health exams and follow-up visits than all visits. Future physician training on psychosocial issues should address physicians’ concerns by emphasizing the varying forms of “clinical success” for the management of chronic psychosocial issues. Future research is needed to examine the best ways to implement this program in diverse clinical settings and patient populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00385034; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00385034 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5pV8AGRgt) PMID:20457555

  10. [Comment on the perception of risk and its relationship to advancements in health knowledge].

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michelle; Gravel, Sylvie; Monnais, Laurence; Leduc, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Since World War II, industrialized Western societies have been making significant public investments that have yielded spectacular improvements in the health status of their populations. Yet despite such considerable strides, it is nonetheless evident that lay peoples are expressing both more scepticism than in the past and greater mistrust toward medical science and biomedicine, even as they show increasing concern about health risks. In this article we intend to discuss some of the broader opportunities that the analysis of lay risk perceptions offers for appreciating the concerns of lay peoples about health-related issues as well as to provide new insights in population health. PMID:18457291

  11. Health Risk Behaviors in Family Caregivers During Patients’ Stay in Intensive Care Units: A Pilot Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiYeon; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Schulz, Richard; Ren, Dianxu; Donahoe, Michael P.; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of family caregivers of the critically ill have mainly focused on the psychological impact of the patients’ stay in the intensive care unit and related stress. Despite known associations between stress and physical health, limited attention has been paid to the need to promote and maintain physical health in these caregivers. Objective To explore how family caregivers’ health risk behaviors are associated with patients’ preexisting care needs and the caregivers’ depressive symptoms and burden. Methods During the intensive-care-unit stay of critically ill patients (who required mechanical ventilation for ?4 days), 50 family caregivers were surveyed to determine the caregivers’ depressive symptoms, burden, and health risk behaviors. Data were also collected on patients’ care needs before admission to the intensive care unit. Results One or more health risk behaviors were reported by 94% of family caregivers. More than 90% of caregivers reported depressive symptoms above the score indicating risk for clinical depression. A high level of burden was reported by 36% of caregivers. More health risk behaviors were associated with higher scores of depressive symptoms and burden (P<.001 for both). Caregivers’ responses did not differ according to patients’ preexisting care needs. Conclusion Health risk behaviors of family caregivers are associated with greater perceptions of burden and/or depressive symptoms but not with patients’ care needs before admission to the intensive care unit. PMID:23283087

  12. Automatic Identification of Web-Based Risk Markers for Health Events

    PubMed Central

    Borsa, Diana; Hayward, Andrew C; McKendry, Rachel A; Cox, Ingemar J

    2015-01-01

    Background The escalating cost of global health care is driving the development of new technologies to identify early indicators of an individual’s risk of disease. Traditionally, epidemiologists have identified such risk factors using medical databases and lengthy clinical studies but these are often limited in size and cost and can fail to take full account of diseases where there are social stigmas or to identify transient acute risk factors. Objective Here we report that Web search engine queries coupled with information on Wikipedia access patterns can be used to infer health events associated with an individual user and automatically generate Web-based risk markers for some of the common medical conditions worldwide, from cardiovascular disease to sexually transmitted infections and mental health conditions, as well as pregnancy. Methods Using anonymized datasets, we present methods to first distinguish individuals likely to have experienced specific health events, and classify them into distinct categories. We then use the self-controlled case series method to find the incidence of health events in risk periods directly following a user’s search for a query category, and compare to the incidence during other periods for the same individuals. Results Searches for pet stores were risk markers for allergy. We also identified some possible new risk markers; for example: searching for fast food and theme restaurants was associated with a transient increase in risk of myocardial infarction, suggesting this exposure goes beyond a long-term risk factor but may also act as an acute trigger of myocardial infarction. Dating and adult content websites were risk markers for sexually transmitted infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conclusions Web-based methods provide a powerful, low-cost approach to automatically identify risk factors, and support more timely and personalized public health efforts to bring human and economic benefits. PMID:25626480

  13. 76 FR 19311 - Update of the 2003 Interagency Quantitative Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health From Foodborne Listeria Monocytogenes...FSIS: Janell Kause, Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection...developed a strategic plan that set public health goals including, by 2005,...

  14. Financial risks from ill health in myanmar: evidence and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Htet, Soe; Fan, Victoria; Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2015-05-01

    The government of Myanmar, with support from international donors, plans to address household financial risks from ill health and expand coverage. But evidence to design policy is limited. WHS (World Health Survey) data for 6045 households were used to investigate the association of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, catastrophic expenditures, and household borrowing and asset sales associated with illness with key socioeconomic and demographic correlates in Myanmar. Households with elderly and young children and chronically ill individuals, poor households, and ethnic minorities face higher financial stress from illness. Rural households use less care, suggesting their lower OOP health spending may be at the cost of health. Poorer groups rely more on public sector health services than richer groups. Better targeting, increased budgetary allocations, and more effective use of resources via designing cost-effective benefits packages appear key to sustainably addressing financial risks from ill health in Myanmar. PMID:25424245

  15. How do Students Conceptualise Health and its Risk Factors? A Study among Iranian Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Ashrafi Asgar-Abad, Ahad; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Alam, Mahin; Esmaeili, Maryam; Hojabri, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the concept of children concerning their health and its risk factors, a group of primary and middle school students were asked to draw a few relevant pictures in order to deeply explore the comprehension of this key group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1165 students, aged 7-15 years old, selected through random stratified sampling, were asked to draw a number of eight paintings, four paintings on health concepts, and the other four on health risk factors. The paintings were then assessed by two independent observers, and their themes and contents were abstracted and analysed. Results: The students drew a total of 2330 paintings, 1165 paintings on the concept of health, and 1165 paintings on health risk factors. The most and least expressed health concepts concerned “mental health” and “healthy diet” (73.3% and 4.8%, respectively). Considering health risk factors, “unhealthy diet” and the two concepts of “environmental hazards” and “neglected personal hygiene” had the most (95%) and least (1.4% each) frequencies. Students in public schools, primary level and girls drew more pictures about health concept or/and its risk factors (P<0.05). The association between parents’ education level and the numbers of pictures were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Although students had a broad view about health and its risk factors, generally little attention had been paid to some of the main aspects such as physical activity, healthy diet, mental and oral health, and environmental hazards. In addition, it seems that parents’ educational level, as one of the main socio-economic factors, did not have any significant impact on their concepts. PMID:24596834

  16. Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2012-01-01

    Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

  17. EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAM Exercise Risk Assessment Form Division of Kinesiology and Health Science Pilates Mat Class

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAM Exercise Risk Assessment Form Division of Kinesiology and Health Science cardiovascular disease/disorder (aneurysm, etc.) _______________________ Yes No Asthma or chronic obstructive of the following? Yes No Diagnosed back/neck disorder _____________________________________________ Yes

  18. 78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...interior scapes, and Christmas trees/conifers on nurseries and plantations. It is also registered for use as a pre-plant pineapple seed treatment. The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for dietary (food and drinking water),...

  19. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children , which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the...

  20. The Influence of Friendship Networks on Adolescents' Health-Risk Behaviors: A Social Network Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Jeon, Kwon Chan

    2014-12-15

    Friendships among adolescents can exert significant influence on behaviors that pose risk to their health. However, empirical evidence for friendships’ influence is mixed due to various factors. Among these factors, are the complex mechanisms...

  1. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ...made in the preliminary assessment, risks have been preliminarily identified for drinking water, handlers, and residential bystanders. A Reader's Guide accompanied the preliminary human health assessment that detailed some of these exposure...

  2. 5. Full Name and Address of Spouse (If Applicable) (Postal box numbers are unacceptable.) 6. Full Names and Addresses of Children, Parents, and Siblings (Postal box numbers are unacceptable.)

    E-print Network

    Williams, Gary A.

    5. Full Name and Address of Spouse (If Applicable) (Postal box numbers are unacceptable.) 6. Full Names and Addresses of Children, Parents, and Siblings (Postal box numbers are unacceptable.) CONTACT INFORMATION AND WORK HISTORY FOR NONIMMIGRANT VISA APPLICANT 1. Last Name(s) First Name(s) Middle Name Please

  3. Coming Home: Health Status and Homelessness Risk of Older Prerelease Prisoners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brie A. Williams; James McGuire; Rebecca G. Lindsay; Jacques Baillargeon; Irena Stijacic Cenzer; Sei J. Lee; Margot Kushel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND  Older adults comprise an increasing proportion of the prison and homeless populations. While older age is associated with\\u000a adverse post-release health events and incarceration is a risk factor for homelessness, the health status and homelessness\\u000a risk of older pre-release prisoners are unknown. Moreover, most post-release services are geared towards veterans; it is unknown\\u000a whether the needs of non-veterans differ from

  4. Health and social services for pregnant and parenting high risk teens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Sarri; Anna Phillips

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent parenting remains a serious problem despite the decline in teen pregnancy, largely because this at-risk population lacks health and social services. In this paper, we examine how a broad range of health and social services for pregnant and parenting teens meets their needs, access, utilization and satisfaction. We surveyed a sample of at-risk young women in shelters, community-based agencies

  5. Assessment of Human Health Risks of Consumption of Cadmium Contaminated Cultured Oysters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winnie W. L. Cheng; Frank A. P. C. Gobas

    2007-01-01

    With farmed British Columbia (BC) oysters containing higher cadmium concentrations than wild oysters, long-term exposure to cadmium through consumption of oysters has the potential to cause health risks. This study reports on a risk assessment for cadmium intake resulting from the consumption of BC-cultured oyster. The study concludes that Health Canada's current recommended BC-cultured oyster consumption rate for Canadians of

  6. New Hope for Correctional Officers: An Innovative Program for Reducing Stress and Health Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rollin McCraty; Mike Atkinson; Lee Lipsenthal; Lourdes Arguelles

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a new stress management program on physiological and psychological stress and health\\u000a risk factors among 75 correctional officers. The experimental group received training in emotion self-regulation techniques\\u000a intended to reduce stress and health risk factors. Practice of the techniques was enhanced by heart rate variability feedback,\\u000a which helped participants learn and sustain use of

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment on Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area of Ya'an

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Quan Ni; Guo-dong Liu; Shang-chuan Yang; Xiu-yuan Lu; Min Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the health risk assessment model recommended by the American Environmental Protection Bureau (EPA) , calculation the health risk and analysis the test index about As, Hg, Cr6+, Pb, Cd, F in Ya'an rural drinking water. The result indicates that the average concentration of the pollutants are respectively as follows: As: 0.004 mg\\/l, Hg: 0.001 mg\\/1, Cr6+: 0.005-0.015

  8. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  9. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can provide no more than partial answers to the questions of environmental interactions, interindividual variability, and optimal control levels. Future prospective studies should involve assessment of astronaut well being using sophisticated measures during exposures to levels of CO2 in the range from 2 to 8 mmHg.

  10. Assessing the Risks to Human Health in Heterogeneous Aquifers under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Reliable quantification of human health risk from toxic chemicals present in groundwater is a challenging task. The main difficulty relies on the fact that many of the components that constitute human health risk assessment are uncertain and requires interdisciplinary knowledge. Understanding the impact from each of these components in risk estimation can provide guidance for decision makers to manage contaminated sites and best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. This presentation will focus on the impact of aquifer heterogeneity in human health risk. Spatial heterogeneity of the hydrogeological properties can lead to the formation of preferential flow channels which control the plume spreading rates and travel time statistics, both which are critical in assessing the risk level. By making use of an integrated hydrogeological-health stochastic framework, the significance of characteristic length scales (e.g. characterizing flow, transport and sampling devices) in both controlling the uncertainty of health risk and determining data needs is highlighted. Through a series of examples, we show how fundamental knowledge on the main physical mechanisms affecting solute pathways are necessary to understand the human health response to varying drivers.

  11. Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

  12. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Divorce and women's risk of health insurance loss.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

  14. DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

  15. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices. PMID:18353906

  16. Financial Risk Protection and Universal Health Coverage: Evidence and Measurement Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC. PMID:25244520

  17. Exclusion, ‘risk’, and social control—reflections on community policing and public health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Fischer; Blake Poland

    1998-01-01

    With traditional formalized and authoritarian means of social control—legal punishments, deterrence, compliance—rendering ineffective or insufficient, the effective ‘exclusion’ of people and behaviors on the basis of a calculus of ‘risk’ and ‘risk management’ has emerged as a primary mechanism of social control, under the governing umbrellas of local ‘health’ and ‘safety’. Drawing on examples from the arenas of community policing

  18. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study

    E-print Network

    Gross, Amit

    Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study Abstract There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three

  19. Public health safety and transplant with increased-risk organs: striking the balance.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ramesh; Katariya, Nitin; Hewitt, Winston; Mathur, Amit; Reddy, Sudhakar; Moss, Adyr; Segev, Dorry; Singer, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    There is significant variability amongst transplant centers, Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO), members of public, and patients about organs from Public Health Service increased risk donors. This has therefore required regulatory bodies like Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to formulate policies for transplant centers and OPOs to minimize risk of infectious transmission to recipients of solid-organ transplants from such donors. PMID:25894120

  20. A comparison between integrated risk assessment and classical health\\/environmental assessment: Emerging beneficial properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun. Sekizawa; Shinsuke Tanabe

    2005-01-01

    Both humans and wildlife are exposed to various types of halogenated organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), typically old chemicals, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPM) and brominated flame retardants, some new chemicals, simultaneously. Classical risk assessment has evaluated health and ecological risks independently by experts from different disciplines. Taking into considerations the recent concerns about endocrine disrupting

  1. How Much Do Rural Hispanics Know about the Adverse Health Risks of Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovic, Tania; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Hughes, Susan; Lourie, Andrea; Schafer, Sean

    2001-01-01

    Among 137 rural Hispanic Americans surveyed in central California--over half having limited English proficiency and less than a 7th-grade education--almost all knew that smoking causes lung cancer and osteoporosis, but less than half knew of smoking's other health risks. Current smokers were most likely to underestimate smoking risks. (Contains 26…

  2. Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

    2001-06-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

  3. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INDIRECT EXPOSURE TO COMBUSTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This methodology document seeks to provide risk assessors with the guidance necessary to estimate the health risks that result from exposure to toxic pollutants in combustor emissions by pathways other than inhalation. The organization of the document reflects the four-step proce...

  4. Designing Health Care Risk Management On-Line: Meeting Regulators' Concerns for Fixed-Hour Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyer, Kathryn; Taylor, Heidi H.; Nanni, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of creating a continuing professional education on-line risk management program that is designed to meet Florida's educational requirements for licensure as a risk manager in health-care settings and details the challenges faced when the in-class didactic program of 15 eight-hour sessions is reformatted as an…

  5. Risk-Based Health Care of Pediatric Cancer Survivors - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Currently, 78 percent of pediatric cancer patients survive more than 5 years; 1 in 640 young adults in the United States is a cancer survivor. Nonetheless, survivors face increased risk of serious health issues and increased risk of early death compared to the general population.

  6. Health effects classification and its role in the derivation of minimal risk levels: Immunological effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Abadin; C.-H. S. J. Chou; F. T. Llados

    2007-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) derives health-based guidance values known as minimal risk levels (MRLs). By definition, an MRL is a substance-specific estimate of the daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse, noncancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are preferentially derived from human

  7. A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Jay Murray

    1995-01-01

    A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

  8. Health Behaviors Among Pregnant Latina Women at Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common complication of pregnancy, increases the risk of subsequent diabetes and obesity. Latina women have over twice the risk for developing GDM as compared to non-Latina white women. Health-promoting practices during pregnancy may improve metabolic status an...

  9. Health Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation: Prevalence Depends on Measurement Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Robert P.; Browne, Dorothy; Wallander, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (substance use, violence, suicide, and car safety) of 194 African American urban adolescents with mild mental retardation were measured using either a confidential individual interview or an anonymous group survey. The survey methodology resulted in disclosure of more risk behaviors than the interview methodology. Elevated…

  10. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  11. DOCUMENTS DE TRAVAIL -WORKING PAPERS Framing effects of risk communication in health-related

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -related decision making. Learning from a discrete choice experiment Florence Nguyen, Marie-Odile Carrère, Nora of risk communication on stated preferences in a discrete choice experiment (DCE) performed to elicit'article Framing effects of risk communication in health-related decision making. Learning from a discrete choice

  12. Potential human health risks associated with historic ore processing at Berg Aukas, Grootfontein area, Namibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Mapani; Rainer Ellmies; Frederick Kamona; Bohdan Kríbek; Vladimír Majer; Ilja Knésl; Jan Pasava; Maria Mufenda; Filadelphia Mbingeneeko

    2010-01-01

    Health risks to people living at Berg Aukas have been identified through a geochemical study of mine dumps and soils at Berg Aukas. Berg Aukas once served as a mining town, where ores of Pb, V, and Zn were mined and roasted on site until 1979. Roasting of ores produced an unintended hazardous risk in the surrounding area. For this

  13. Knowledge acquisition, semantic text mining, and security risks in health and biomedical informatics

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jingshan

    Knowledge acquisition, semantic text mining, and security risks in health and biomedical contributed to ontological techniques in medical and biological research; Dang J contributed to semantic text mining on clinical and biomedical data section; Pardue JH contributed to security risks to medical data

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Incinerator Air Emissions Incorporating Background Ambient Air Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLAN H. SMITH; HELEN M. GOEDEN

    1990-01-01

    Combustion of hazardous and municipal waste produces a wide variety of emissions which need to be considered when assessing potential human health risks. A major focus in recent years has been excess cancer risks. The main emissions which rodent studies indicate may be carcinogenic to humans include organic chemicals such as dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls, which are highly persistent

  15. Providing Options for At-Risk Youth: The Health and Media Academies in Oakland. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Larry F.; And Others

    The Health Academy and the Media Academy, two innovative high school intervention programs for at-risk youth in Oakland (California), are examined. A collaborative effort of the school district, business, and community, the academies are school-within-a-school programs that engage about 120 at-risk students each in specific academic curricula for…

  16. Sexual Risk Taking Among Young Adults in Cape Town: Effects of Expected Health and Income

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mintewab Bezabih; Andrea Mannberg; Martine Visser

    2010-01-01

    The wide prevalence of HIV in Africa has long been associated with seemingly irrational levels of sexual risk taking. Hence understanding the rationale behind risky sexual behavior is critical for designing effective prevention policies. This paper empirically assesses links between expectations of future health and income on sexual risk taking. An important contribution of the paper lies in combining a

  17. Physical and Mental Health of Transgender Older Adults: An At-Risk and Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Design and Methods: Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560), we assessed direct and indirect effects of gender identity on 4 health outcomes (physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress) based on a resilience conceptual framework. Results: Transgender older adults were at significantly higher risk of poor physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress compared with nontransgender participants. We found significant indirect effects of gender identity on the health outcomes via fear of accessing health services, lack of physical activity, internalized stigma, victimization, and lack of social support; other mediators included obesity for physical health and disability, identity concealment for perceived stress, and community belonging for depressive symptomatology and perceived stress. Further analyses revealed that risk factors (victimization and stigma) explained the highest proportion of the total effect of gender identity on health outcomes. Implications: The study identifies important modifiable factors (stigma, victimization, health-related behaviors, and social support) associated with health among transgender older adults. Reducing stigma and victimization and including gender identity in nondiscrimination and hate crime statutes are important steps to reduce health risks. Attention to bolstering individual and community-level social support must be considered when developing tailored interventions to address transgender older adults’ distinct health and aging needs. PMID:23535500

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in Mental Health Clients: Whose Role is it Anyway?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Wheeler; Jeff Harrison; Priya Mohini; Jeshika Nardan; Amy Tsai; Eve Tsai

    2010-01-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. This study describes\\u000a health practitioners’ views on their role and confidence assessing and managing cardiovascular risk. The key findings were\\u000a of a widespread acknowledgement of the need to undertake systematic risk assessment and offer structured approaches to risk\\u000a factor management. Barriers of client engagement, lack

  19. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

  20. Heavy metals in wheat grain: Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants in Kunshan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingli Huang; Shenglu Zhou; Bo Sun; Qiguo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) may cause deleterious effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in contaminated soils. Concentrations of HMs (Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) in wheat grains were investigated in different areas of a developed industry city in Southeast China (Kunshan city), and their potential risk to health of inhabitants was

  1. Safety & Risk Services Environmental Health and Safety Last Revised: 2011/08/30 1

    E-print Network

    Safety & Risk Services Environmental Health and Safety Last Revised: 2011/08/30 1 Biosafety, Biology Voting Lab Tech Staff p:778-782-4850 f:778-782-3496 peter_hollmann@sfu.ca Jim Mattsson Associate and Biochemistry EHS= Environmental Health & Safety UBC=University of British Columbia Mailing address for all

  2. Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication: Effect of an Educational Package for Public Health Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Kennen, Estela M.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Arnold, Connie L.; Quinlin, Mackey S.; Bocchini, Joseph A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-service for public health nurses (PHNs) and accompanying educational materials could improve vaccine risk/benefit communication. The content and timing of vaccine communication were recorded during 246 pre-and 217 post-intervention visits in two public health immunization clinics.…

  3. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    E-print Network

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy Jennifer J. Roberts1 , Rachel A. Wood sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health development (e.g., Mattoon, USA; Barendrecht, Netherlands). Public acceptance can strongly influ- ence

  4. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  5. Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Virginia A. Roberts2, Lorraine C. Backer3, Jonathan S. Yoder2, Timothy J. Wade1, Michele C. Hlavsa2 1Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Researc...

  6. Biomonitoring using accessible human cells for exposure and health risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salama A. Salama; Milagros Serrana; William W. Au

    1999-01-01

    A major goal for genetic toxicologist is to provide precise information on exposure and health risk assessment for effective prevention of health problems. A frequently used approach for population study has been to utilize readily available blood cells (lymphocytes and red blood cells) as sentinel cell types to detect biological effects from exposure and to provide early warning signals for

  7. Cyanobacteria: State Monitoring Programs, Beach Closures, and Potential Human Health Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    New England is rich in freshwater lakes and ponds, many of which are subject to cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms that can limit recreational use and cause health problems. This study was conducted to better understand the health risks to human and animal populations that a...

  8. Reducing the Risk for Preschool Expulsion: Mental Health Consultation for Young Children with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Deborah F.; Dunne, M. Clare; McFadden, LaTanya; Campbell, Doreen

    2008-01-01

    Increasing numbers of young children are being expelled from child care settings because of their problem behavior. Access to mental health consultation is related to lower rates of expulsion, but additional data are needed to document the pathways through which mental health consultation reduces the risk of expulsion. We report on outcomes from a…

  9. Using tax credits and state high-risk pools to expand health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Abbe, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    There are practical proposals now on the public policy table to reduce the number of Americans without health coverage. While they won't make health care free or eliminate the forty million uninsured persons, they would help millions of Americans acquire or improve their health insurance. Practical strategies can also be taken to address access issues for unhealthy persons in the nongroup market through federal assistance to states to establish and improve state high-risk health insurance pools, as well as to make health insurance more affordable for low-income Americans. PMID:12703589

  10. Health risk assessment of kerosene usage in an informal settlement in Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, E.; Diab, R. D.; Binedell, M.; Hounsome, R.

    In Durban, South Africa studies have shown that more than seven out of ten households in low-income metropolitan areas rely on kerosene for domestic purposes, leading to widespread problems of poor indoor air quality. In light of the known health effects of kerosene usage, this study aimed to quantify the health risk for people living in a densely populated informal settlement known as Cato Crest within the Durban metropolitan area. The pollutants investigated included nitrogen dioxide, benzene and toluene. Nitrogen dioxide is known to affect both respiratory and immune systems, benzene is carcinogenic while toluene has a neurological health end point. All three pollutants are harmful when inhaled. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) health risk assessment (HRA) framework was applied. Information on the exposure patterns of residents in Cato Crest were acquired through questionnaires in which data on fuel use, building structure, cooking habits and time-activity patterns were collected. Air quality monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds was also conducted in the households. The time-activity pattern survey revealed that the exposure periods of individuals in Cato Crest were far greater than the default exposure periods used by the US EPA. The results of the HRA showed that the residents of Cato Crest may experience significant health risks as a result of kerosene usage in their homes. Exposure to 1-h nitrogen dioxide concentration is not likely to produce adverse health effects, whereas exposure over a 24-h period indicates a potential health risk to sensitive individuals in two of the households when US EPA exposure values are used and in all of the households when locally derived exposure values are used. Benzene poses a health risk to sensitive individuals in 50% of the households when local exposure parameters are used, whereas there is no health risk associated with exposure to toluene.

  11. Co-occurrence and coaction of stress management with other health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Jessica M; Paiva, Andrea L; Redding, Colleen A; Butterworth, Susan; Prochaska, James O

    2015-07-01

    This study provides a preliminary investigation of the role of stress management in multiple behavior change. Risk status on stress management and five health behaviors (healthy eating, exercise, alcohol, smoking, and depression management) was assessed before and after a multiple behavior change intervention. Findings suggested a link between stress management and a worse health risk behavior profile at baseline. Results also showed relationships between improved stress management over 6 months and heightened odds of improving on specific behaviors as well as improving one's overall behavioral risk profile. Particularly strong links between stress management and energy balance and other affective behaviors were observed. PMID:24165862

  12. Performance Assessment in Community Mental Health Care and At-Risk Populations

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha

    2004-01-01

    We examine whether community mental health care centers (CMHCs) differ in their ability to serve at-risk populations, including clients with dual diagnoses for substance abuse, comorbid disabilities, and particularly severe functional impairment. Our analysis uses data from Indiana's public mental health system. Although at-risk clients experience, on average, worse outcomes than other clients, we find that some CMHCs achieve statistically significantly better outcomes than others. Although this information is useful to consumers and providers who wish to identify the most effective providers and treatment models for at-risk clients, it is not generated in standard performance assessments. PMID:15776701

  13. [Coordination of health vigilances: for a global management of hospital risks].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, J-F; Canivet, N; Darmon, M-J; Jambou, P; Rocher, F; Staccini, P; Benzaken, S; Paquis, P

    2008-11-01

    The sanitary vigilances represent a permanent sanitary surveillance. They signal, enregister, treat and investigate the adverse events occurring through the use of health products. They assure the traceability of these health products and the management of the sanitary alerts. The sanitary vigilances are part of the sanitary security. They are optimized when coordinated and integrated to the global risk management process of the health care establishments. PMID:18930680

  14. Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies utilizing such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective. This review describes a collaborative effort among several federal and stat...

  15. Hepatitis E in a food handler – a rapid risk assessment to guide the public health response

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Cameron; Davis, Stephanie; Kelly, Paul; Kennedy, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Australian Capital Territory Health Directorate was notified of a food handler with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. To guide the public health response, a rapid risk assessment was undertaken to determine the risk of transmission of HEV from the infected food handler to restaurant patrons. Method The literature on HEV was reviewed and expert advice sought from clinical and public health specialists. This was supplemented by results of a site investigation and a case interview. The risk rating was determined to be the product of the likelihood of transmission and the consequence of the infection. Results The food handler was likely to have been infectious at the time he was working at the restaurant. He had handled high-risk foods, and the site inspection revealed potential opportunities for transmission. HEV is not common in Australia and it was assumed that the population was non-immune and hence susceptible to the disease. Therefore, there was a low but possible likelihood of transmission of HEV. If infected, HEV has the potential for major consequences in vulnerable populations especially among women who are pregnant. The overall level of risk was considered to be very high. Discussion The general public and health practitioners were alerted to enable early identification of symptoms and prompt disease management. There were no secondary cases of HEV associated with this event. In the absence of published guidelines and limited evidence, a risk assessment framework was a useful tool to inform public health decision-making. PMID:25685598

  16. Economics of disaster risk, social vulnerability, and mental health resilience.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Peek, Lori; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Hempel, Lynn

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the relationship between exposure to Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita and mental health resilience by vulnerability status, with particular focus on the mental health outcomes of single mothers versus the general public. We advance a measurable notion of mental health resilience to disaster events. We also calculate the economic costs of poor mental health days added by natural disaster exposure. Negative binomial analyses show that hurricane exposure increases the expected count of poor mental health days for all persons by 18.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.44-31.14%), and by 71.88% (95% CI, 39.48-211.82%) for single females with children. Monthly time-series show that single mothers have lower event resilience, experiencing higher added mental stress. Results also show that the count of poor mental health days is sensitive to hurricane intensity, increasing by a factor of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.10) for every billion (U.S.$) dollars of damage added for all exposed persons, and by a factor of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14) for single mothers. We estimate that single mothers, as a group, suffered over $130 million in productivity loss from added postdisaster stress and disability. Results illustrate the measurability of mental health resilience as a two-dimensional concept of resistance capacity and recovery time. Overall, we show that natural disasters regressively tax disadvantaged population strata. PMID:21303401

  17. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Health Risk Behaviors among Afghanistan & Iraq War Veterans Attending College

    PubMed Central

    Kehle, Shannon M; Carlson, Kathleen F; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Gulden, Ashley; Lust, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with health risk behaviors among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans attending college. Method Using 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey data, we tested associations between self-reported PTSD diagnosis and self-reported risk behaviors (n = 406). Results We found PTSD diagnosis to be significantly associated with reporting involvement in a physical fight in the past year (ARR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2, 4.4) and marginally associated with high risk drinking (ARR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6). However, no association was seen between PTSD and the tobacco use and other safety behaviors that we examined. Conclusion PTSD is likely a factor that contributes to the relationship between military service and certain health risk behaviors. PMID:22040585

  18. Nanotechnology and health safety--toxicity and risk assessments of nanostructured materials on human health.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2007-09-01

    The field of nanotechnology has recently emerged as the most commercially viable technology of this century because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Man-made nanostructured materials such as fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanopowders, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, nanofibers, quantum dots, dendrimers, nanoclusters, nanocrystals, and nanocomposites are globally produced in large quantities due to their wide potential applications, e.g., in skincare and consumer products, healthcare, electronics, photonics, biotechnology, engineering products, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery, and agriculture. Human exposure to these nanostructured materials is inevitable, as they can enter the body through the lungs or other organs via food, drink, and medicine and affect different organs and tissues such as the brain, liver, kidney, heart, colon, spleen, bone, blood, etc., and may cause cytotoxic effects, e.g., deformation and inhibition of cell growth leading to various diseases in humans and animals. Since a very wide variety of nanostructured materials exits, their interactions with biological systems and toxicity largely depend upon their properties, such as size, concentration, solubility, chemical and biological properties, and stability. The toxicity of nanostructured materials could be reduced by chemical approaches such by surface treatment, functionalization, and composite formation. This review summarizes the sources of various nanostructured materials and their human exposure, biocompatibility in relation to potential toxicological effects, risk assessment, and safety evaluation on human and animal health as well as on the environment. PMID:18019130

  19. Application of the bioecological model and health belief model to self-reported health risk behaviors of adolescents in the united states 

    E-print Network

    Fleary, Sasha A.

    2009-05-15

    Health risk behaviors are responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Researchers have identified three sources of risk-taking in adolescents – dispositional, ecological and biological. The Bioecological Model...

  20. A risk-based regulatory framework for health IT: recommendations of the FDASIA working group.

    PubMed

    Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W

    2014-10-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) acting through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and in collaboration with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) was tasked with delivering a report on an appropriate, risk-based regulatory framework for health information technology (IT). An expert stakeholder group was established under the auspices of the Health IT Policy Committee to help provide input into the development of this framework, including how healthcare IT systems could be stratified in terms of risk and recommendations about how the regulatory requirements currently in place should be adapted. In this paper, we summarize the public deliberations and final public report of the expert stakeholder group, and conclude with key suggestions intended to address the charge to recommend the features of a risk-based regulatory framework that promote innovation, protect patient safety, and avoid regulatory duplication. PMID:24763676

  1. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  2. Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch | Developing Risk Factor Items for National Health Surveys

    Cancer.gov

    RFMMB collaborated with colleagues throughout ARP to include diet, physical activity and sun exposure questions in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In the NHIS, RFMMB has also supported tobacco use questions. CHIS and NHIS are discussed in greater detail in the Health Services and Economics Branch section of this issue.

  3. Evaluation of potential health risk of arsenic-affected groundwater using indicator kriging and dose response model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Jing Lee; Cheng-Shin Jang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Chen-Wuing Liu

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain of northeastern Taiwan. Indicator kriging was used to estimate arsenic concentrations in groundwater. Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response functions were adopted to evaluate the potential health risk based on the estimated arsenic concentration distributions. The estimated arsenic concentrations in

  4. What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in May 2012. The film series spotlights the science behind obesity and how it affects the health of the nation. Watch the series to learn how citizens, groups, and policymakers are working to make a ...

  5. Health risks resulting from coal-liquefaction industry atmospheric discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    Potential human health effects from inhalation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) that may be released from a future hypothetical industry producing about 600,000 bbl/day of synthetic fuel by direct liquefaction of coal are estimated. General assumptions are refined in a tiered sequence that considers available environmental, chemical, and epidemiological data. Surrogate health effects data bases considered for use in estimating potential health effects from a coal-liquefaction industry include coke oven, British gas retort, roofing tar and asphalts, and cigarette smoke. The coke-oven data base was selected for this assessment, because the chemical and physical nature of coke-oven emissions is judged to more closely approximate potential coal-liquefaction emissions than those from the other industries. In addition, there is an extensive epidemiological data base for coke-oven workers that can be used to provide the basis for estimating health effects from biological studies from coal-liquefaction NMHC.

  6. REFERENCE DOSE (RFD): DESCRIPTION AND USE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years the concept of the "acceptable daily intake" has served the toxicological and regulatory fields quite well. owever, as approaches to assessing the health significance of exposures to noncarcinogenic substances receive greater scrutiny, some difficulties with this t...

  7. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR THE INTEGRATION OF HEALTH AND ECOLOIGCAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration; of assessment approa...

  9. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  10. A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticides Used in Mosquito Management

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robert K.D.; Macedo, Paula A.; Davis, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they traditionally have not been used or have been used less frequently. This has resulted in concerns by the public about the risks from insecticide use. The objective of this study was to use reasonable worst-case risk assessment methodologies to evaluate human-health risks for WNV and the insecticides most commonly used to control adult mosquitoes. We evaluated documented health effects from WNV infection and determined potential population risks based on reported frequencies. We determined potential acute (1-day) and subchronic (90-day) multiroute residential exposures from each insecticide for several human subgroups during a WNV disease outbreak scenario. We then compared potential insecticide exposures to toxicologic and regulatory effect levels. Risk quotients (RQs, the ratio of exposure to toxicologic effect) were < 1.0 for all subgroups. Acute RQs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.4726, and subchronic RQs ranged from 0.00014 to 0.2074. Results from our risk assessment and the current weight of scientific evidence indicate that human-health risks from residential exposure to mosquito insecticides are low and are not likely to exceed levels of concern. Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. PMID:16507459

  11. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food. PMID:25753750

  12. Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food for Public Health Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeta Mi?ovi?; Mario Gorenjak; Gorazd Meško; Avrelija Cenci?

    \\u000a World climate, environmental and other global changes would have wide-ranging and, mostly, adverse consequences for human\\u000a health. These changes are a significant and emerging threat to public health, including the growing season, variability of\\u000a crop yields and water demands. Above mentioned factors have been influenced in areas of food security and food safety and\\u000a moreover the food industry struggle for

  13. Associations Between Youth Risk Behavior and Exposure to Violence: Implications for the Provision of Mental Health Services in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Kathleen E.; Weist, Mark D.; Perez-Smith, Alina M.

    2004-01-01

    This article assesses the relation between health risk behaviors and varying levels of exposure to violence in an effort to inform assessment and intervention efforts of a school-based mental health program serving inner-city youth. Health risk behaviors such as involvement in violence, risky sexual behavior, and substance use are clearly…

  14. Risk factors of tuberculosis among health care workers in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jelip, Jenarun; Mathew, George G; Yusin, Tanrang; Dony, Jiloris F; Singh, Nirmal; Ashaari, Musa; Lajanin, Noitie; Shanmuga Ratnam, C; Yusof Ibrahim, Mohd; Gopinath, Deyer

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main public health problems in Sabah; 30% of the total number of TB cases reported in Malaysia every year occur in Sabah. The average incidence of TB among health care workers over the past 5 years is 280.4 per 100,000 population (1, Annual Report of Sabah State TB Control Programme, 1998). At present, there are no specific measures for the prevention of TB transmission in health care facilities. A case-control study was conducted among health care workers in Sabah in 2000-2001. Cases were health care workers with TB diagnosed between January 1990 and June 2000. Controls were health care workers without TB and working in the same facility as cases during the disease episode. The study attempted to identify risk factors for TB among the study population. Data were collected through structured interviews and review of patients' records. The notification rate of TB among health care workers was significantly higher than that to the general population (Z=4.893, p<0.01). The average notification rate of TB among health care workers over the last 5 years was two times higher than in the general population (280.4/100,000 compared to 153.9/100,000). Regression results showed that ethnicity, designation, family contact and TB related knowledge did not significantly contribute to the risk of contracting TB in this study. However, after controlling for the above factors, age, gender, history of TB contact outside the workplace (other than family contact), duration of service and failure to use respiratory protection when performing high-risk procedures, were the main risk factors of TB among health care workers. This study succeeded in identifying some of the risk factors of TB among health care workers. We managed to include the large ratio of controls to case (3:1) and those cases spanned over a period of 10 years. However, the findings from the study have to be applied with caution due to the limitations of this study, which include recall bias, dropouts, and small sample size. Based on the study findings, we recommend that health care workers in the first 10 years of service should take extra precautions, such as using respiratory protection when performing procedures that are considered to be of high risk with respect to TB infection. They should also undergo TB screening at least once every 2 years and, if symptomatic, offered prophylactic treatment. The Respiratory Protection Programme should be fully implemented to help reduce the risk of TB among health care workers in Sabah. PMID:14670342

  15. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area

    PubMed Central

    Damase-Michel, Christine; Pichereau, Juliette; Pathak, Atul; Lacroix, Isabelle; Montastruc, Jean Louis

    2007-01-01

    Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) from the Midi-Pyrenees area. Methods 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy. Results 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs. Conclusion These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25170360

  16. Oral hygiene instruction and health risk assessment in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, P; Weinstein, P; Melnick, S; Beach, B; Spadafora, A

    1989-01-01

    We studied oral hygiene instruction given to 109 patients in 19 Washington State dental practices to investigate the extent to which therapists targeted their efforts toward patients with high disease risk. Patients were examined prior to instruction and prophylaxes. Therapists' instructions were tape-recorded and their content analyzed: therapists' expectations were scored. There were no statistically significant associations between patients' initial plaque levels and the process/content of the oral hygiene instructions delivered. On average, therapists spent 9.4 minutes of each prophylaxis session discussing oral hygiene. Therapists were judged more genuine with those patients for whom they had higher expectations of compliance, i.e., those with less plaque and low disease risk. We conclude that dental practitioners were not employing effective risk assessment strategies in selection of patients most in need of intensive instructional efforts. PMID:2911074

  17. Alcohol use and health behavior lifestyles among U.S. women: the behavioral risk factor surveys.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, K; Forman, M R; Binkin, N J; Gentry, E M; Hogelin, G C; Williamson, D F; Trowbridge, F L

    1988-01-01

    Alcohol use is a complex behavior, occurring in the context of an overall health lifestyle. We used data from a nationally representative telephone survey (N = 12,467 women) to examine associations between binge drinking, chronic drinking, and other health behaviors. Certain health-risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunk driving, and seatbelt nonuse) tend to cluster with alcohol misuse. These may act synergistically, thus augmenting the negative health effects of alcohol misuse. Conversely, some health behaviors (e.g., eating or exercising, particularly in response to stress) are negatively associated with alcohol misuse and may serve similar functions for some women. Finally, binge drinking occurs more frequently among women who may have relatively restrictive eating behaviors and higher levels of interpersonal stress. Our findings suggest that alcohol prevention and treatment programs should address sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors that initially predispose an individual to engage in health-risk behaviors and should recognize the interdependent patterns of behaviors associated with alcohol misuse. This approach will help prevent substitutions, recurrence, or induction of detrimental behaviors and will identify potentially negative interactions between existing concurrent health-risk behaviors. PMID:3364225

  18. Lay Interpersonal Sources for Health Information Relate to Beliefs About the Modifiability of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Beth M.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Causal beliefs about cancer may influence preventive behaviors and medical care. We examined the relationship between beliefs about causation for lung, colon, and skin cancer and the use of lay interpersonal sources of health information (community organizations, family, friends). Methods Data from a nationally representative sample of 5,119 adult respondents to the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed. Results About 40% of respondents reported that community organizations provided them with health information, while 15% discussed health information “very frequently” with their family or friends. In multivariate models, individuals who never spoke with family or friends about health were more likely to believe that colon cancer risk is not modifiable; those provided with health information by community organizations were less likely to believe that skin cancer risk is not modifiable. Speaking with family or friends about health was also associated with endorsing the belief that skin cancer is caused by behavior or lifestyle. Conclusion These findings showed that lay interpersonal health information sources are associated with beliefs about the modifiability of colon and skin cancer risk. Future research is needed to investigate whether and how such information sources might influence decisions about engaging in preventive behaviors. PMID:19578935

  19. Review of various approaches for assessing public health risks in regulatory decision making: choosing the right approach for the problem.

    PubMed

    Dearfield, Kerry L; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell R

    2014-08-01

    Stakeholders in the public health risk analysis community can possess differing opinions about what is meant by "conduct a risk assessment." In reality, there is no one-size-fits-all risk assessment that can address all public health issues, problems, and regulatory needs. Although several international and national organizations (e.g., Codex Alimentarius Commission, Office International des Epizooties, Food and Agricultural Organization, World Health Organization, National Research Council, and European Food Safety Authority) have addressed this issue, confusion remains. The type and complexity of a risk assessment must reflect the risk management needs to appropriately inform a regulatory or nonregulatory decision, i.e., a risk assessment is ideally "fit for purpose" and directly applicable to risk management issues of concern. Frequently however, there is a lack of understanding by those not completely familiar with risk assessment regarding the specific utility of different approaches for assessing public health risks. This unfamiliarity can unduly hamper the acceptance of risk assessment results by risk managers and may reduce the usefulness of such results for guiding public health policies, practices, and operations. Differences in interpretation of risk assessment terminology further complicate effective communication among risk assessors, risk managers, and stakeholders. This article provides an overview of the types of risk assessments commonly conducted, with examples primarily from the food and agricultural sectors, and a discussion of the utility and limitations of these specific approaches for assessing public health risks. Clarification of the risk management issues and corresponding risk assessment design needs during the formative stages of the risk analysis process is a key step for ensuring that the most appropriate assessment of risk is developed and used to guide risk management decisions. PMID:25198609

  20. Adolescent health promotion and risk reduction: cementing the social contract between pediatricians and the schools.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. J.; Kress, J. S.; Gager, P. J.; Hancock, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    In this article the implications of a biopsychosocial model of adolescent health promotion for the delivery of relevant services in the schools are examined. Adolescent health status is reviewed and is found, despite existing efforts for health promotion and risk reduction, to be in need of substantial improvement. For this to happen, having an early and sustained positive impact on the health trajectory of children is essential; further school-based and school-linked curricular efforts for health promotion are a necessary feature of a successful strategy for adolescent health promotion. In fact, this approach brings to life the social contract between pediatricians and the public to apply the biopsychosocial model at both clinical and societal levels. Curricula serve as the glue that binds diverse health-related concerns and findings emerging from health research into a coordinated, thorough, and detailed strategy and set of actions for school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts. School-linked health programs are consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, from which the school is best viewed as a health-promoting environment, centered in concepts and practices outlined in and conveyed through the curriculum and associated instructional practices and delivery systems. Many benefits can result from pediatricians and other medical professionals taking a renewed, prominent role in comprehensive school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts, beginning in the early grades, when the trajectory of adolescent health is strongly set into motion. PMID:8069279

  1. Impact of microbial count distributions on human health risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A S R; Nauta, M J

    2015-02-16

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) is influenced by the choice of the probability distribution used to describe pathogen concentrations, as this may eventually have a large effect on the distribution of doses at exposure. When fitting a probability distribution to microbial enumeration data, several factors may have an impact on the accuracy of that fit. Analysis of the best statistical fits of different distributions alone does not provide a clear indication of the impact in terms of risk estimates. Thus, in this study we focus on the impact of fitting microbial distributions on risk estimates, at two different concentration scenarios and at a range of prevalence levels. By using five different parametric distributions, we investigate whether different characteristics of a good fit are crucial for an accurate risk estimate. Among the factors studied are the importance of accounting for the Poisson randomness in counts, the difference between treating "true" zeroes as such or as censored below a limit of quantification (LOQ) and the importance of making the correct assumption about the underlying distribution of concentrations. By running a simulation experiment with zero-inflated Poisson-lognormal distributed data and an existing QMRA model from retail to consumer level, it was possible to assess the difference between expected risk and the risk estimated with using a lognormal, a zero-inflated lognormal, a Poisson-gamma, a zero-inflated Poisson-gamma and a zero-inflated Poisson-lognormal distribution. We show that the impact of the choice of different probability distributions to describe concentrations at retail on risk estimates is dependent both on concentration and prevalence levels. We also show that the use of an LOQ should be done consciously, especially when zero-inflation is not used. In general, zero-inflation does not necessarily improve the absolute risk estimation, but performance of zero-inflated distributions in QMRA tends to be more robust to changes in prevalence and concentration levels, and to the use of an LOQ to interpret zero values, compared to that of their non-zero-inflated counterparts. PMID:25506750

  2. Community perceptions of air pollution and related health risks in Nairobi slums.

    PubMed

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-10-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people's response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people' perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were low among the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  3. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  4. EPA'S REASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN RISK: DIRECTED HEALTH RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated a reassessment of the risk of exposure to dioxin in the spring of 1991 because of the evolution of scientific thinking as well as the publication of several key experimental studies. his involves a literature reevaluatio...

  5. ANEUPLOIDY AND HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a workshop to discuss (1) the contribution of aneuploidy to human disease and disability, (2) the development of tests for detecting chemicals that induce aneuploidy and the relevance of these tests to human risk, and (3) the cur...

  6. Health Risk Assessment of a Modern Municipal Waste Incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Boudet; Denis Zmirou; Mauricette Laffond; Franck Balducci; Jean-Louis Benoit-Guyod

    1999-01-01

    During the modernization of the municipal waste incinerator (MWI, maximum capacity of 180,000 tons per year) of Metropolitan Grenoble (405,000 inhabitants), in France, a risk assessment was conducted, based on four tracer pollutants: two volatile organic compounds (benzene and 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane) and two heavy metals (nickel and cadmium, measured in particles). A Gaussian plume dispersion model, applied to

  7. SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    : ___________________________________________________________________ History Risk: 1. Have you ever had a positive TB skin test? ____ No ____ Yes Date of Positive PPD: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 of facilities? ____ No ____ Yes Homeless Shelter Longterm Care Residential Facilities for patients

  8. Ochratoxin a and human health risk: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Wu, Felicia

    2015-11-10

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species including Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, A. niger, and Penicillium verrucosum. OTA causes nephrotoxicity and renal tumors in a variety of animal species; however, human health effects are less well-characterized. Various studies have linked OTA exposure with the human diseases Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and chronic interstitial nephropathy (CIN), as well as other renal diseases. This study reviews the epidemiological literature on OTA exposure and adverse health effects in different populations worldwide, and assesses the potential human health risks of OTA exposure. Epidemiological studies identified in a systematic review were used to calculate unadjusted odds ratios for OTA associated with various health endpoints. With one exception, there appears to be no statistically significant evidence for human health risks associated with OTA exposure. One Egyptian study showed a significantly higher risk of nephritic syndrome in those with very high urinary OTA levels compared with relatively unexposed individuals; however, other potential risk factors were not controlled for in the study. Larger cohort or case-control studies are needed in the future to better establish potential OTA-related human health effects, and further duplicate-diet studies are needed to validate biomarkers of OTA exposure in humans. PMID:24874522

  9. From Cancer to Diarrhea: The Moving Target of Public Concern about Environmental Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Public concern about the environment can be unpredictable because it is influenced by numerous factors. Environmental health issues often emerge as important because the public is worried about their health especially when it comes to cancer. Public fear of cancer from environmental exposures is reinforced by many of the US regulations that set pollutant limits based on reducing the risk of cancers rather than other health outcomes. While fear of cancer will never dissipate, recent foodborne outbreaks are contributing to raising public awareness of the health effects from microbes. This paper adds to the dialogue about the challenges of enhancing public understanding of environmental health issues. Internal factors, such as worry, that contribute to public outrage are sometimes more important than external factors such as the media. In addition, relying on the media to inform the public about imminent public health risks may be an ineffective approach to enhancing understanding. In the end, scientists and risk communicators are forced to compete with politicians who are often very effective at manipulating public understanding of risk. PMID:22174587

  10. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  11. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  12. Human health risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Hall, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contacts may pose risks to human health. Current approaches may under predict THMs exposure by using THMs in cold water during showering and bathing. Warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase THMs formation through reactions between organics and residual chlorine, which can increase human health risks. In this study, THMs concentrations in shower water were estimated using THMs rate increase model. Using cold water THMs, exposure through ingestion was estimated, while THMs exposure during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Human health cancer risks and additional expenses for 20 most populated Canadian cities from exposure to THMs were estimated. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 30% to 50% of total cancer risks, while risks from inhalation and dermal contacts were comparable for all cities. Overall cancer risks were estimated between 7.2 x 10(-6) and 6.4 x 10(-5) for these cities. Cancer incidents were estimated highest for Montreal (94/year) followed by Toronto (53/year), which may require additional medical expenses of 18.8 and 10.7 million dollars/year for Montreal and Toronto respectively. Cancer risks from exposure to THMs can be controlled by reducing THMs in water supply and varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate in shower stall. PMID:20434775

  13. Risk and Management of Blood-Borne Infections in Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Elise M.; Williams, Ian T.; Shapiro, Craig N.; Chamberland, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. In the health care setting, blood-borne pathogen transmission occurs predominantly by percutaneous or mucosal exposure of workers to the blood or body fluids of infected patients. Prospective studies of HCWs have estimated that the average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure is approximately 0.3%, the risk of HBV transmission is 6 to 30%, and the risk of HCV transmission is approximately 1.8%. To minimize the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission from HCWs to patients, all HCWs should adhere to standard precautions, including the appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments. Employers should have in place a system that includes written protocols for prompt reporting, evaluation, counseling, treatment, and follow-up of occupational exposures that may place a worker at risk of blood-borne pathogen infection. A sustained commitment to the occupational health of all HCWs will ensure maximum protection for HCWs and patients and the availability of optimal medical care for all who need it. PMID:10885983

  14. Analysis of Diesel Particulate Matter Health Risk Disparities in Selected US Harbor Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Seth; Holder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. People near major transportation emissions sources experience higher exposure to hazardous pollutants. We present population size and demographic composition estimates for exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) exhaust from US harbor activities. Methods. We examined 43 US marine harbor areas to determine outdoor, ambient concentrations from port-related DPM emissions and then determined intake fractions of those emissions in each harbor area. We estimated the distribution of health risk by combining ambient concentrations with exposure and carcinogenic risk factors. We assessed demographic differences by stratifying the health risks by race/ethnicity and income. Results. Intake fractions for 42 of the harbor areas ranged from 0.02 × 10?6 to 3.66 × 10?6. A DPM-affected population of more than 4 million has a risk level greater than 100 per million; a population of 41 million, a risk level greater than 10 per million. Most exposures occur in a small number of marine harbor areas. Low-income households and both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks are overrepresented in the affected populations. Conclusions. The most important factor for predicting DPM intake fractions for harbor activities is the proximate population density. The largest uncertainty in predicting DPM carcinogenic health risk is the carcinogenic inhalation unit risk factor. PMID:21836118

  15. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in Plague: An Emerging Public Health Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance in Yersinia pestis is rare, yet constitutes a significant international public health and biodefense threat. In 1995, the first multidrug resistant (MDR) isolate of Y. pestis (strain IP275) was identified, and shown to contain a self-transmissible plasmid (pIP1202) that con...

  16. Depleted uranium: properties, military use and health risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Fairlie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes uranium and depleted uranium (DU), their similar isotopic compositions, how DU arises, its use in munitions and armour-proofing, and its pathways for human exposures. Particular attention is paid to the evidence of DU's health effects from cell and animal experiments and from epidemiology studies. It is concluded that a precautionary approach should be adopted to DU and

  17. Improving the Oral Health of At-Risk Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capilouto, Eli

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent that some children in the United States have not benefited from the improved oral health care available. These children tend to be poor and members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Policy recommendations are made to increase both self-care and access to dental care. (SLD)

  18. British weather: Conversation topic or serious health risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Rudge

    1996-01-01

    Britain is renowned for low indoor winter temperatures and a high rate of excess winter deaths and a causal association has been drawn between the two. A lack of priority given to energy efficiency here is often justified in terms of the mild climate. However, it can be shown that British climatic features may be related to poor health as

  19. Health risks of gold miners: a synoptic review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    Health problems of gold miners who worked underground include decreased life expectancy; increased frequency of cancer of the trachea, bronchus, lung, stomach, and liver; increased frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), silicosis, and pleural diseases; increased frequency of insect-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever; noise-induced hearing loss; increased prevalence of certain bacterial and viral diseases; and diseases of the blood, skin, and musculoskeletal system. These problems are briefly documented in gold miners from Australia, North America, South America, and Africa. In general, HIV infection or excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption tended to exacerbate existing health problems. Miners who used elemental mercury to amalgamate and extract gold were heavily contaminated with mercury. Among individuals exposed occupationally, concentrations of mercury in their air, fish diet, hair, urine, blood, and other tissues significantly exceeded all criteria proposed by various national and international regulatory agencies for protection of human health. However, large-scale epidemiological evidence of severe mercury-associated health problems in this cohort was not demonstrable.

  20. An Assessment of Health Risk for First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, J. Paul

    1997-01-01

    At York University (Ontario), a large, urban commuter university, the self-assessed health of first-year students is lower than that of Canadian undergraduates in general and those in the 18 to 24 age category not enrolled in college. Among first-year students, Chinese females and females who anticipated that family problems would interfere with…

  1. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  2. Binge drinking and associated health risk behaviors among high...

    Science.gov Websites

    Manual NCBI News PubMed PubMed Central (PMC) PubMed Clinical Queries PubMed Health All Literature Resources... Proteins BioSystems BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)...

  3. Behavioral Health and Performance, Risk to Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren; Whitemire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the working of the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) group, which supports the research element which manages an integrated program for future space flight. The BHP operations group supports astronauts and their families in all phases of the International Space Station Mission, and post mission effects.

  4. Health risk assessment of a modern municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Boudet, C; Zmirou, D; Laffond, M; Balducci, F; Benoit-Guyod, J L

    1999-12-01

    During the modernization of the municipal waste incinerator (MWI, maximum capacity of 180,000 tons per year) of Metropolitan Grenoble (405,000 inhabitants), in France, a risk assessment was conducted, based on four tracer pollutants: two volatile organic compounds (benzene and 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane) and two heavy metals (nickel and cadmium, measured in particles). A Gaussian plume dispersion model, applied to maximum emissions measured at the MWI stacks, was used to estimate the distribution of these pollutants in the atmosphere throughout the metropolitan area. A random sample telephone survey (570 subjects) gathered data on time-activity patterns, according to demographic characteristics of the population. Life-long exposure was assessed as a time-weighted average of ambient air concentrations. Inhalation alone was considered because, in the Grenoble urban setting, other routes of exposure are not likely. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to describe probability distributions of exposures and risks. The median of the life-long personal exposures distribution to MWI benzene was 3.2 x 10(-5) micrograms/m3 (20th and 80th percentiles = 1.5 x 10(-5) and 6.5 x 10(-5) micrograms/m3), yielding a 2.6 x 10(-10) carcinogenic risk (1.2 x 10(-10)-5.4 x 10(-10)). For nickel, the corresponding life-time exposure and cancer risk were 1.8 x 10(-4) micrograms/m3 (0.9 x 10(-4)-3.6 x 10(-4) micrograms/m3) and 8.6 x 10(-8) (4.3 x 10(-8)-17.3 x 10(-8)); for cadmium they were respectively 8.3 x 10(-6) micrograms/m3 (4.0 x 10(-6)-17.6 x 10(-6)) and 1.5 x 10(-8) (7.2 x 10(-9)-3.1 x 10(-8)). Inhalation exposure to cadmium emitted by the MWI represented less than 1% of the WHO Air Quality Guideline (5 ng/m3), while there was a margin of exposure of more than 10(9) between the NOAEL (150 ppm) and exposure estimates to trichloroethane. Neither dioxins nor mercury, a volatile metal, were measured. This could lessen the attributable life-long risks estimated. The minute (VOCs and cadmium) to moderate (nickel) exposure and risk estimates are in accord with other studies on modern MWIs meeting recent emission regulations, however. PMID:10765458

  5. Trends in risk factors chronic diseases, according of health insurance, Brazil, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Oliveira, Martha

    2015-04-01

    This article aims to compare the trends for risk and protective factors for NCD in the population with and without health insurance. Analysis of temporal trends of the Vigitel phone survey, collected annually in adult population. Were used analyzed the temporal series of variables referent to risk and protective factors for NCD, from 2008 to 2013. Variables were compared according to the possession or not of health insurance using simple linear regression model. There was a reduction in the prevalence of smoking in the population with and without health insurance, in 0.72% and 0,69% per year respectively. The consumption of fruits and vegetables grew 0,8% and 0.72% per year respectively among the population with and without health insurance. Physical activity in leisure time increased 1.17% and 1.01% per year among population with and without health insurance. Excess weight increased in 1.03% and obesity in 0.74% p.y in the population with health insurance and 1.53% and 0.95% p.y without health insurance. Mammography increased 2.4% in the population without health insurance. Vigitel monitoring showed improvement in the indicators in the population with and without health insurance. PMID:25923613

  6. Theory development for HIV behavioral health: empirical validation of behavior health models specific to HIV risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorian E. Traube; Ian W. Holloway; Lana Smith

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of numerous health behavior theories, it is difficult to determine which of the many theories is most precise in explaining health-related behavior. New models continue to be introduced to the field, despite already existing disparity, overlap, and lack of unification among health promotion theories. This paper will provide an overview of current arguments and frameworks for testing

  7. An Exploratory Study of Meanings of Risk Control for Long Term and Acute Effect Occupational Health and Safety Risks in Small Business Construction Firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noni Holmes; Helen Lingard; Zeynep Yesilyurt; Fred De Munk

    1999-01-01

    A qualitative study of employers' and employees' meanings of occupational health and safety (OHS) risk control was conducted among a sample of small businesses engaged in the Australian construction industry. Two OHS risks relevant to the construction industry were selected for study. One risk (falls from height) represented an immediate consequence, whereas the other (occupational skin disease) represented a long-term

  8. A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

  9. Comorbidities of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Pregnancy Risk Factors and Parent Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Silva, Desiree; Houghton, Stephen; Hagemann, Erika; Bower, Carol

    2015-08-01

    Our study examined the risk of maternal smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy associated with child comorbidity in a community sample of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a cross sectional community retrospective questionnaire of 321 children diagnosed with ADHD. Our results suggest that maternal smoking increased the risk of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) in children with ADHD twofold (OR 2.27; CI 1.29-4.11). Maternal alcohol consumption increased the risk although not significantly for ADHD child comorbid ODB, anxiety disorder and depression. Parent mental health significantly impacted on child comorbidity. Our study suggests that smoking in pregnancy is associated with comorbid ODB, independent of parent mental health, family history of ADHD and socioeconomic factors. Parent mental health is independently associated with comorbid ODB, anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:25179388

  10. Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment 

    E-print Network

    Bruce, Erica Dawn

    2009-05-15

    RAGS Risk Assessment Guidance For Superfund RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SD Sum of Squared Deviation TCDD 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin TEF Toxic Equivalency Factor TEF B Bioassay Based Toxic Equivalency... of PAH containing materials is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (USEPA, 2005). RCRA also designates a code for hazardous wastes based on the hazard they represent. This designation consists of a letter (F, K, D, U...

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  12. International note: association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours. PMID:25575268

  13. Hierarchies of Risk: The Longitudinal Dynamics of Family, Work, Welfare, and Health Insurance in Low-Income Women's Lives

    E-print Network

    Legerski, Elizabeth Miklya

    2010-06-09

    Lack of access to health insurance for millions of Americans is an important component of the contemporary health care crisis. Low-income women are at particularly high risk of having no or inadequate insurance. Utilizing longitudinal data collected...

  14. Evaluating Uncertainty to Strengthen Epidemiologic Data for Use in Human Health Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; Wright, J. Michael; Bateson, Thomas F.; Burstyn, Igor; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Klaunig, James E.; Luben, Thomas J.; Mihlan, Gary; Ritter, Leonard; Schnatter, A. Robert; Symons, J. Morel; Don Yi, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a recognized need to improve the application of epidemiologic data in human health risk assessment especially for understanding and characterizing risks from environmental and occupational exposures. Although there is uncertainty associated with the results of most epidemiologic studies, techniques exist to characterize uncertainty that can be applied to improve weight-of-evidence evaluations and risk characterization efforts. Methods: This report derives from a Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) workshop held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss the utility of using epidemiologic data in risk assessments, including the use of advanced analytic methods to address sources of uncertainty. Epidemiologists, toxicologists, and risk assessors from academia, government, and industry convened to discuss uncertainty, exposure assessment, and application of analytic methods to address these challenges. Synthesis: Several recommendations emerged to help improve the utility of epidemiologic data in risk assessment. For example, improved characterization of uncertainty is needed to allow risk assessors to quantitatively assess potential sources of bias. Data are needed to facilitate this quantitative analysis, and interdisciplinary approaches will help ensure that sufficient information is collected for a thorough uncertainty evaluation. Advanced analytic methods and tools such as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and Bayesian statistical techniques can provide important insights and support interpretation of epidemiologic data. Conclusions: The discussions and recommendations from this workshop demonstrate that there are practical steps that the scientific community can adopt to strengthen epidemiologic data for decision making. Citation: Burns CJ, Wright JM, Pierson JB, Bateson TF, Burstyn I, Goldstein DA, Klaunig JE, Luben TJ, Mihlan G, Ritter L, Schnatter AR, Symons JM, Yi KD. 2014. Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments. Environ Health Perspect 122:1160–1165;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308062 PMID:25079138

  15. Randomised vitamin E supplementation and risk of chronic lung disease in the Women's Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne H Agler; Tobias Kurth; J Michael Gaziano; Julie E Buring; Patricia A Cassano

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe oxidant\\/antioxidant balance in lung tissue is hypothesised to contribute to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Observational studies consistently report higher antioxidant status associated with lower COPD risk, but few randomised studies have been reported.MethodsA post hoc analysis of 38 597 women without chronic lung disease at baseline was conducted in the Women's Health Study (WHS) to

  16. Social influences on health-risk behaviors among minority middle school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne C Beal; John Ausiello; James M Perrin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether parent social influences are associated with health-risk behaviors more than peer social influences among young minority adolescents.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of seventh-grade students in a public urban magnet middle school using a survey instrument adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of all seventh-grade students

  17. Oil shale health and environmental effects research projects and risk analysis requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored an effort to analyze the potential human health and environmental risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day industry as an aid in the formulation and management of a research program. The proper use of risk analysis by decision-makers could provide an analytical framework to guide the acquisition and application of scientific information necessary

  18. Functional Health Literacy and the Risk of Hospital Admission Among Medicare Managed Care Enrollees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Baker; Julie A. Gazmararian; Mark V. Williams; Tracy Scott; Ruth M. Parker; Diane Green; Junling Ren; Jennifer Peel

    Objectives. This study analyzed whether inadequate functional health literacy is an in- dependent risk factor for hospital admission. Methods. We studied a prospective cohort of 3260 Medicare managed care enrollees. Results. Of the participants, 29.5% were hospitalized. The crude relative risk (RR) of hos- pitalization was higher for individuals with inadequate literacy (n=800; RR=1.43; 95% con- fidence interval (CI)=1.24, 1.65)

  19. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in Tula region].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu I; Liapina, N V

    2013-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region has been performed Thepriority contaminants of drinking water have been detected On the basis of risk assessment methodology non-carcinogenic health risks to the child population was calculated. A direct relationship between the incidence of some diseases in childhood population and pollution by chemical contaminants of drinking water has been established. PMID:24340577

  20. Body mass index and smoking-related lung cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W-P Koh; J-M Yuan; R Wang; H-P Lee; M C Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background:Smokers with low body mass index (BMI) may be more susceptible to lung cancer.Methods:We prospectively examined the association between baseline BMI and lung cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a cohort of 63 257 Chinese enrolled between 1993 and 1998.Results:After adjustment for smoking intensity and duration, BMI was inversely associated with risk of lung cancer among current smokers

  1. OSHA's permissible exposure limits: Regulatory compliance versus health risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Spear; Steve Selvin

    1989-01-01

    Workplace exposures to airborne chemicals are regulated in the U.S. by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) via the promulgation of permissible exposure limits (PELs). These limits, usually defined as eight-hour time-weighted average values, are enforced as concentrations never to be exceeded. In the case of chronic or delayed toxicants, the PEL is determined from epidemiological evidence and\\/or quantitative

  2. Snapshot of the AAOHN Membership-Health Risk Appraisal Priority Areas.

    PubMed

    Deangelis, Matthew P; Burgel, Barbara J

    2013-06-01

    A 2012 American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (AAOHN) web-based membership survey of 5,138 members was designed to identify occupational health and safety issues facing members. A total of 2,123 members responded to the survey (41% response rate). Of the AAOHN members who responded to this survey, 61% reported health risk appraisal (HRA) priorities for 2012. HRA priority areas are identified among various subgroups of the AAOHN responders in this article. The top three HRA priority areas identified were weight management/nutrition/healthy eating, physical activity, and mental health/stress management. These priority areas were consistent across three industry sectors, three occupational health nurse job titles, and the smallest and largest employers. These results suggest that occupational health nurses should consider prioritizing their employee wellness efforts in these areas. PMID:23738570

  3. Distribution and health risk assessment of HCHs in urban soils of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingyan; Xia, Xinghui; Hu, Lijuan

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were investigated in urban soil samples collected from business area, classical garden (CL), culture and educational area, large public green space (LA), residential area, and roadside area in Beijing. HCH concentrations ranged from 0.32 to 136.43 ng/g, with a geometric mean of 3.46 ng/g. The HCH concentrations in CL and LA were much higher than that in the other types of land use, which was due to the usage of HCHs to protect vegetation in CL and LA. Source identification showed that contamination source of HCHs was derived from historical HCHs (including technical HCHs and Lindane) as well as the long-range atmospheric transportation of HCHs. HCH concentrations showed a decreasing trend from the city centre to the suburb, and it increased with the age of the urban area. HCHs were negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with total organic carbon and black carbon in soils. Health risk assessment with CalTOX and Monte Carlo analysis showed that health risks mainly came from dermal uptake and inhalation exposure pathways, and the total risk values were lower than the acceptable health risk value (10(-?6)). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the reaction half-life of HCHs in soil, fraction dermal uptake from soil, exposure duration, and organic carbon fraction in soil significantly contributed to the variance of the health risk. PMID:21617966

  4. A self-determination multiple risk intervention trial to improve smokers’ health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey C. Williams; Holly McGregor; Daryl Sharp; Ruth W. Kouides; Chantal S. Lévesque; Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how interventions motivate individuals to change multiple health risk behaviors. Self-determination\\u000a theory (SDT) proposes that patient autonomy is an essential factor for motivating change.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: An SDT-based intervention to enhance autonomous motivation for tobacco abstinence and improving cholesterol was tested.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Smokers’ Health Study is a randomized multiple risk behavior change intervention trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING:

  5. Simulation of microbial occurrence, exposure and health risks after drinking water treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, W.D.; Macler, B.A.; Regli, S.

    1992-01-01

    For the development of the Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule, EPA wishes to compare human health risks from microbial infection with those from chemical disinfectants and their byproducts. EPA is approaching the problem with the use of computer models that simulate occurrence levels of pathogenic organisms in raw water, then simulate disinfection and production of disinfection byproducts. The microbial and chemical concentrations thus generated are then used to estimate potential health risks. The paper presents the methodology used for these simulations and estimations and discusses the assumptions and uncertainties inherent to the modeling process.

  6. Multi-pathway assessment of human health risk posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Qu, Changsheng; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Wang, Shui; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    To assess aggregate exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via several environmental media and pathways, a probabilistic framework for multi-pathway health risk assessment that integrates PAHs potency equivalence factors, risk estimation modeling, and Monte Carlo simulation was applied to a case study in Nanjing, which is an important industrial city in China. Incremental lifetime risk of additional cancers posed by exposure to 16 USEPA priority PAHs in air, water, soil, and fish was assessed. Risks to three age groups, infants, children, and adults, through various exposure pathways, including oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation, were estimated. Results of the analysis of risk indicated that B[a]P, B[b]F, and BA were the predominant PAHs pollutants in Nanjing. Risk of additional cancer for local adults was on average 2.62 × 10(-5). The risks were primarily due to ingestion of fish and inhalation, which contributed 99 % of the total risks. By contrast, risk to infants was essentially negligible. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that the input variables of concentration of PAHs in fish (C f), the body weight (BW), and the ingestion rate of fish (IRf) were the major influences on estimates of risks. PMID:25571860

  7. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors Throughout Adulthood Among Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability, and duration of marriage affect health risk behaviors among a community cohort of urban African Americans followed for 35 years (N = 1,049). For both men and women, we find six marital trajectories. Men and women in consistently married trajectories are less likely to smoke, drink heavily (women only), and use illegal drugs than those in unmarried or previously married trajectories. Late marrying men do not fare worse in midlife than men in earlier marrying trajectories, but late marrying women show increased risk of midlife drug use. Results suggest policies supporting marriage may have an impact on health but only if stable unions are achieved.

  8. Gambling and health risk-taking behavior in a military sample.

    PubMed

    Steenbergh, Timothy A; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Klesges, Robert C; DeBon, Margaret

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the gambling of a cohort of U.S. Air Force recruits (N = 31,104) and the relationship between their gambling and health-risk behaviors. Participants provided self-report data regarding gambling and health-related behaviors. Results suggest that 10.4% of participants gambled weekly or more often, 6.2% reported gambling problems, and 1.9% acknowledged loss of control over gambling. Men were more likely than women to report weekly gambling and possible problematic gambling. Minorities, compared to Caucasians, were more likely to experience gambling problems and report loss of control. Seven health-risk behaviors were significant predictors of frequent gambling; however, considerably fewer health behaviors were uniquely related to problematic gambling. These results suggest that gambling-related problems within the military warrant further attention. PMID:18543566

  9. Canadian federal support for climate change and health research compared with the risks posed.

    PubMed

    Ford, James D; Smith, Tanya R; Berrang-Ford, Lea

    2011-05-01

    For emerging public health risks such as climate change, the Canadian federal government has a mandate to provide information and resources to protect citizens' health. Research is a key component of this mandate and is essential if Canada is to moderate the health effects of a changing climate. We assessed whether federal support for climate change and health research is consistent with the risks posed. We audited projects receiving federal support between 1999 and 2009, representing an investment of Can$16 million in 105 projects. Although funding has increased in recent years, it remains inadequate, with negligible focus on vulnerable populations, limited research on adaptation, and volatility in funding allocations. A federal strategy to guide research support is overdue. PMID:21490335

  10. Role of the social care worker in interventions into unacceptable sexual behaviour in people who have a learning disability 

    E-print Network

    De Santos, Marilyn Webb

    2014-07-01

    This thesis concerns the role of the Social Care Worker in interventions into unacceptable sexual behaviour in people who have a learning disability. It takes as point of departure ways in which support organisations and ...

  11. Fracture Risk Among Breast Cancer Survivors Results From the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Chen; Michael Maricic; Tamsen L. Bassford; Mary Pettinger; Cheryl Ritenbaugh; Ana Maria Lopez; David H. Barad; Margery Gass; Meryl S. LeBoff

    2005-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer and its treatment may com- promise bone health. We tested the hypothesis in the Women'sHealthInitiativeObservationalStudythatpost- menopausal survivors of breast cancer have a higher risk for fractures compared with women who have no can- cer history. Methods: A prospective cohort (5.1 years' follow-up) study design was used. Breast cancer survivors were womenwhoreportedahistoryofbreastcancer(n=5298). A reference group included women who had

  12. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant – A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Cangialosi; Gianluca Intini; Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Paolo Stellacci

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins\\/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health

  13. Health, Chronic Conditions, and Behavioral Risk Disparities Among U.S. Immigrant Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stella M.; Kogan, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined differentials in the prevalence of 23 parent-reported health, chronic condition, and behavioral indicators among 91,532 children of immigrant and U.S.-born parents. Methods We used the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to estimate health differentials among 10 ethnic-nativity groups. Logistic regression yielded adjusted differentials. Results Immigrant children in each racial/ethnic group had a lower prevalence of depression and behavioral problems than native-born children. The prevalence of autism varied from 0.3% among immigrant Asian children to 1.3%–1.4% among native-born non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children. Immigrant children had a lower prevalence of asthma, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; developmental delay; learning disability; speech, hearing, and sleep problems; school absence; and ?1 chronic condition than native-born children, with health risks increasing markedly in relation to mother's duration of residence in the U.S. Immigrant children had a substantially lower exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, with the odds of exposure being 60%–95% lower among immigrant non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic children compared with native non-Hispanic white children. Obesity prevalence ranged from 7.7% for native-born Asian children to 24.9%–25.1% for immigrant Hispanic and native-born non-Hispanic black children. Immigrant children had higher physical inactivity levels than native-born children; however, inactivity rates declined with each successive generation of immigrants. Immigrant Hispanic children were at increased risk of obesity and sedentary behaviors. Ethnic-nativity differentials in health and behavioral indicators remained marked after covariate adjustment. Conclusions Immigrant patterns in child health and health-risk behaviors vary substantially by ethnicity, generational status, and length of time since immigration. Public health programs must target at-risk children of both immigrant and U.S.-born parents. PMID:24179258

  14. Designing a contaminated soil sampling strategy for human health risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Malherbe

    2002-01-01

    Human health risk assessment is a site-based approach used to identify the potential health hazards which are induced by an\\u000a old site contamination. For a proper evaluation of the daily doses of contaminants to which people will be exposed given the\\u000a future occupation of the site, both a characterization and a quantification of soil pollution are needed. Such information\\u000a can

  15. Iran's disaster risk: now is the time for community-based public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Burkle, Frederick M

    2013-10-01

    The Bandar Bushehr, Iran earthquake of April 9, 2013 gravely illustrates how disaster-prone areas of the world are compounding their risk of disaster and major public health emergencies when there is a geographical convergence of natural and technological hazards. Scientists must emphasize to policy makers that ever-increasing regional industrialization and the broader introduction of nuclear facilities, especially in the Middle East, must parallel sound prevention and community-level public health preparedness planning. PMID:23962385

  16. Reducing the Risk for Preschool Expulsion: Mental Health Consultation for Young Children with Challenging Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah F. Perry; M. Clare Dunne; LaTanya McFadden; Doreen Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Increasing numbers of young children are being expelled from child care settings because of their problem behavior. Access\\u000a to mental health consultation is related to lower rates of expulsion, but additional data are needed to document the pathways\\u000a through which mental health consultation reduces the risk of expulsion. We report on outcomes from a 4-year project designed\\u000a to reduce the

  17. The health risks of radon: The BEIR IV report and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1989-06-01

    The National Academy of Sciences' BEIR IV Report deals with the health effects in human populations exposed to internally-deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides and their decay products. Quantitative risk estimates for cancer induction are derived, mainly from analyses of epidemiological data. The Report addresses the health outcomes of exposure to radon and its daughters, primarily lung cancer risks of worker exposure to radon progeny in underground mines and in the general public in indoor domestic environments. An excess relative risk model of lung cancer mortality and exposure to radon progeny is developed; this models the excess risk per Working Level Month in terms of time intervals prior to an attained age, and is dependent on time-since-exposure and age at risk. Risk projections are presented and cover exposure situations of current public health concern. For example, the lifetime risk of lung cancer mortality due to lifetime exposure to radon progeny in terms of WLM and alpha-particle dose to the target cells of the bronchial epithelium is estimated to be 350 excess deaths per million person-WLM. Lifetime exposure to 1 WLM y /sub /minus/1/ is estimated to increase the number of deaths due to lung cancer by a factor of about 1.5 over the current rate for both males and females in a population having the current prevalence of cigarette-smoking. Occupational exposure to 4 WLM y/sub /minus/1/ from ages 20 y to 40 y is projected to increase lung cancer deaths by a factor of 1.6 over the current rate of this age cohort in the general population. In all of these cases, most of the increased risk occurs to smokers for who the risk is up to ten times greater than for nonsmokers. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Racial/ethnic residential segregation: Framing the context of health risk and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    White, Kellee; Borrell, Luisa N.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of public health literature links patterns of racial/ethnic residential segregation to health status and health disparities. Despite substantial new empirical work, meaningful understanding of the pathways through which segregation operates to influence health remains elusive. The literature on segregation and health was appraised with an emphasis on select conceptual, methodological and analytical issues. Recommendations for advancing the next generation of racial/ethnic residential segregation and health research will require closer attention to sharpening the methodology of measuring segregation, testing mediating pathways and effect modification, incorporating stronger test of causality, exploring factors of resilience in segregated areas, applying a life-course perspective, broadening the scope of the investigation of segregation to include nativity status in blacks and other racial/ethnic groups, and linkage with biological data. PMID:21236721

  19. Health risks from light-duty diesel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Because concentrations of particles from diesel vehicles will not exceed about 40 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, even in very congested urban areas, they should not by themselves cause symptoms of respiratory disease. However, combined with particle emissions from other sources, diesel vehicles could contribute substantially to the total particulate pollution levels in urban areas. In consequence, ambient levels in these areas may then exceed air quality standards and cause a concomittant rise in respiratory disorders. Lung cancer risks from inhaling diesel exhaust particles were estimated by comparing their carcinogenic potencies with other substances that have been shown to cause cancer in humans. It was estimated that the expected levels of exposure in congested urban areas could increase a person's lung cancer risk by a few percent, but that the overwhelming cause of lung cancer in a population will continue to be cigarette smoking. Overall, diesel-powered vehicles are expected to cause less than about 200 lung cancers per year in the U.S. population. However, the information currently available is insufficient to exclude the possibility that no lung cancer cases can be attributed to the emission from light-duty diesel vehicles.

  20. Health Expenditures Risk, Purchase of Private Health Insurance, and Precautionary Saving in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evren Ceritoglu

    2012-01-01

    The precautionary saving hypothesis proposes that purchase of private health insurance diminishes household saving, since health insurance coverage decreases the possibility of unexpected out-of-pocket health expenditures. The empirical analysis is realised using the TURKSTAT Household Budget Surveys between 2003 and 2010 for the Turkish economy for this purpose. The econometric results from the Two-Stage Probit Least Squares (2SPLS) regressions indicate

  1. [Distribution of metals in urban dusts of Hefei and health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Zhou, Ai-Jia; Tong, Fang; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Jia

    2011-09-01

    This study focused on the characterization and the health risk assessment of heavy metals in the dust of Hefei City, China. Samples were collected from fifty two sampling points covering six land-use types. Most of the sites were impervious ground such as residential, commercial, industrial, educational and traffic areas, as well as public landscapes and city squares. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Cr were measured to investigate their distribution and evaluate their risk to human health. The US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model was employed to evaluate the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals to child and adult, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Zn were 46 and 37 times higher than soil background values, respectively. The concentrations of Cu and Pb were 3-5 times, and Cr concentration was 1.5 times higher than the soil background values of Anhui Province. The carcinogenic risk indexes of Cr and Cd were 3.22 x 10(-7) and 2.26 x 10(-9), respectively, which were lower than the soil management standard of the US EPA, i.e. 1.0 x 10(-6). The total non-carcinogenic hazard index of the five metals for adults was only 0.212, but for children it reached to 1.259 and exceeded the safety threshold value (1.0), suggesting that the adverse health impact on children exposure to metals in urban dusts were relatively serious in Hefei. The ingestion of dust particles was the major exposure pathway for health risk. The orders of non-carcinogenic hazard indexes of land-use types and heavy metals were industrial area > public landscapes and city squares > commercial area > educational area > residential area > traffic area, and Pb > Cr > Zn > Cd > Cu, respectively. PMID:22165236

  2. Probabilistic Human Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Hydro-Toxicological Interactions and Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Barros, F.

    2014-12-01

    Improper disposals of hazardous wastes in most industrial countries give rise to severe groundwater contamination problems that can lead to adverse health effects in humans. Therefore risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) aiding the decision making process of to better manage our groundwater resources. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvent or nitrate potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. Based on this, monitored natural attenuation has become nowadays an attractive remediation solution. However, in some cases, intermediate degradation products can constitute noxious chemical compounds before reaching a harmless chemical form. In these cases, the joint effect of advection-dispersion transport and the species-dependent kinetic reactions and toxicity will dictate the relative importance of the degradation byproducts to the total risk. This renders the interpretation of risk a non-trivial task. In this presentation, we quantify, through a probabilistic framework, the human health risk posed by a chemical mixture in a heterogeneous aquifer. This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene contamination problem followed by the first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene, Dichloroethylene and Vinyl Chlorine that is known to be highly toxic. Uncertainty on the hydraulic conductivity field is considered through a Monte Carlo scheme. A comparative description of human health risk metrics as a function of aquifer heterogeneity and contaminant injection mode is provided by means of a spatial characterization of the lower-order statistical moments and empirical probability density functions of both individual and total risks. Interestingly, we show that the human health risk of a chemical mixture is mainly controlled by a modified Damköhler number that express the joint effect of contaminant mean travel times, reaction kinetics and chemical toxicity. From this, connectivity is shown to produce a significant and non-trivial impact on risk measures. The impact of connectivity can be potentially beneficial or detrimental on the magnitude of human health risk depending on the modified Damköhler number.

  3. The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment. Design Health impact assessment study. Setting Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain. Participants 181?982 Bicing subscribers. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity, air pollution (exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm), and road traffic incidents. The secondary outcome was change in levels of carbon dioxide emissions. Results Compared with car users the estimated annual change in mortality of the Barcelona residents using Bicing (n=181?982) was 0.03 deaths from road traffic incidents and 0.13 deaths from air pollution. As a result of physical activity, 12.46 deaths were avoided (benefit:risk ratio 77). The annual number of deaths avoided was 12.28. As a result of journeys by Bicing, annual carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by an estimated 9?062?344 kg. Conclusions Public bicycle sharing initiatives such as Bicing in Barcelona have greater benefits than risks to health and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. PMID:21816732

  4. Investigation of residents' health literacy status and its risk factors in Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangsu; Guo, Haijian; Wang, Liang; Li, Xiaoning; Huang, Minghao; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kesheng; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L

    2015-03-01

    Health literacy has become an important public health concern. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select 12 450 individuals. Using the 2009 Chinese Health Literacy questionnaire, participants were divided into groups with poor or not poor health literacy status. The knowledge rates for 6 areas of health literacy were determined with the following results: science concept of health (60.0%), literacy for preventing acute infectious disease (66.8%), literacy for preventing noncommunicable chronic disease (51.9%), safety and first aid (66.8%), obtaining and making use of basic medical care (55.3%), and comprehensive health literacy (52.5%). Multiple logistic regression showed that living in a rural area, fewer individuals in a household, younger age, low education, agricultural or rural migrant occupation workers, and low family income were associated with a poor health literacy status. Our results support the use of health education and promotion interventions to improve health literacy in this high-risk population in China. PMID:23666844

  5. Assessment of risk to public health posed by persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in milk and milk products in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Pandit, G G; Sahu, S K

    2002-02-01

    The risk posed by the presence of organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk products was estimated for the population of Mumbai. To determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk products, a monitoring study was carried out in and around Mumbai City. 520 samples of milk and milk products of different brands were considered in this study. A survey was also conducted to determine the mean daily consumption of milk and milk products by different age groups and this data was used to evaluate the daily exposure to the public. Non-cancer effects were evaluated by comparing the predicted exposure distributions to the published guidance values. For chemicals identified as potential human carcinogens, cancer risk was evaluated using standard methodology. The majority of the chlorinated pesticides identified in the milk and milk product samples studied were found to be at levels which do not pose unacceptable risks to the public, with the exception of alpha-HCH. The cancer risk estimated for this chemical slightly exceeds the US EPA guidance value. PMID:11871703

  6. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are most appropriate. For climate related health effects for which rough risk estimates are available, ‘robust decision-making’ is recommended. For health effects with limited societal and policy relevance, we recommend focusing on no-regret measures. For highly relevant health effects, precautionary measures can be considered. This study indicated that analysing and characterising uncertainty by means of a typology can be a very useful approach for selection and prioritization of preferred adaptation policies to reduce future climate related health risks. PMID:22992311

  7. Risk communication: Health risks associated with environmentally contaminated private wells versus chloroform in a public water supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, K.S.; Chadzynski, L. (Michigan Dept. of Public Health, Lansing, MI (United States))

    1994-06-01

    During March 1988, 16 private wells in Sault St. Marie, Michigan, were found to be contaminated with one or more environmental contaminants. Risk assessments for carcinogens (benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) were formulated. The maximum concentration of chloroform in the city public water supply was 26 [mu]g/L. The relative health risk from the consumption of chlorinated surface water from the public water supply system would be approximately 4.3 times greater compared to that of consuming groundwater from the contaminated private wells. The affected residents were given three options: (a) continue consumption of bottled water; (b) connection to the existing public water supply system; or (c) construction of deep water wells. The citizens voted for the second option of connecting to the public water supply system and voluntarily accepted the relatively higher health risk. The State of Michigan later proposed to further improve the water purity by upgrading the public water supply system by the incorporation of a filtration plant. The project was completed in August 1993.

  8. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or risk highlight the primary importance of reducing emissions of air pollutants at their sources. PMID:25694820

  9. Health effects related to nanoparticle exposures: Environmental, health and safety considerations for assessing hazards and risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Warheit; Christie M. Sayes; Kenneth L. Reed; Keith A. Swain

    2008-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology currently is undergoing a dramatic expansion in material science research and development. Most of the research efforts have been focused on applications; the implications (i.e., health and environmental effects) research has lagged behind. The success of nanotechnology will require assurances that the products being developed are safe from an environmental, health, and safety (EHS) standpoint. In

  10. Health risk factors and health promoting behavior of medical, dental and nursing students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Reza Najem; Marian Rose Catherine Passannante; James D. Foster

    1995-01-01

    The assumption of this study is: the preventive care beliefs and practices of health science students stand-out among the general public. To test this assumption, a survey of beliefs, behaviors and disease prevention practices of medical, dental, undergraduate and graduate nursing students in three health science schools was carried out in New Jersey. All students in these three schools were

  11. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Benzene in Petroleum Refinery Environments

    PubMed Central

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-01

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106. PMID:25588154

  12. Self-rated health and standard risk factors for myocardial infarction: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Robert; Forssén, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between self-rated health, adjusted for standard risk factors, and myocardial infarction. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1990 and 2004 in Västerbotten County, Sweden Participants Every year, persons in the total population, aged 40, 50 or 60 were invited. Participation rate was 60%. The cohort consisted of 75?386 men and women. After exclusion for stroke or myocardial infarction before, or within 12?months after enrolment or death within 12?months after enrolment, 72?530 persons remained for analysis. Mean follow-up time was 13.2?years. Outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate HRs for the end point of first non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction. HR were adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, body mass index, education, physical activity and self-rated health in the categories very good; pretty good; somewhat good; pretty poor or poor. Results In the cohort, 2062 persons were diagnosed with fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Poor self-rated health adjusted for sex and age was associated with the outcome with HR 2.03 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.84). All categories of self-rated health worse than very good were statistically significant and showed a dose–response relationship. In a multivariable analysis with standard risk factors (not including physical activity and education) HR was attenuated to 1.61 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.31) for poor self-rated health. All categories of self-rated health remained statistically significant. We found no interaction between self-rated health and standard risk factors except for poor self-rated health and diabetes. Conclusions This study supports the use of self-rated health as a standard risk factor among others for myocardial infarction. It remains to demonstrate whether self-rated health adds predictive value for myocardial infarction in combined algorithms with standard risk factors. PMID:25681313

  13. Health department collaboration with emergency departments as a model for public health programs among at-risk populations.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michael S.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ledyard, Holly K.; Frame, Peter T.; Trott, Alexander T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Accessing at-risk and underserved populations for intervention remains a major obstacle for public health programs. Emergency departments (EDs) care for patients not otherwise interacting with the health care system, and represent a venue for such programs. A variety of perceived and actual barriers inhibit widespread implementation of ED-based public health programs. Collaboration between local health departments and EDs may overcome such barriers. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a health department-funded, ED-based public health program in comparison with other similar community-based programs through analysis of data reported by health department-funded HIV counseling and testing centers in one Ohio county. METHOD: Data for HIV counseling and testing at publicly funded sites in southwestern Ohio from January 1999 through December 2002 were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. Demographic and risk-factor profiles were compared between the counseling and testing program located in the ED of a large, urban teaching hospital and the other publicly funded centers in the same county. RESULTS: A total of 26,382 patients were counseled and tested; 5,232 were ED patients, and 21,150 were from community sites. HIV positivity was 0.86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64%, 1.15%) in the ED and 0.65% (95% CI 0.55%, 0.77%) elsewhere. The ED program accounted for 19.8% of all tests and 24.7% of all positive results. The ED notified 77.3% of individuals testing positive and 84.4% of individuals testing negative. At community program centers, 88.3% of patients testing positive and 63.8% of patients testing negative were notified of results. All ED patients notified of positive status were successfully referred to infectious disease specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Public health programs can operate effectively in the ED. EDs should have a rapidly expanding role in the national public health system. PMID:16134565

  14. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  15. Health Insurance, Risk, and Responsibility after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Baker

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the new social contract of healthcare solidarity through private ownership, markets, choice, and individual responsibility embodied in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This essay first explains the four main health care risk distribution institutions affected by the Act – Medicare, Medicaid, the individual and small employer market, and the large group market – with an

  16. At Odds with Water: Perceived Health Risks and Water in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Schram; W. L. Adamowicz; Diane P. Dupont

    2009-01-01

    Concern for water quality was raised across Canada in 2000 after an E. coli contamination in the town of Walkerton, ON's water supply led to many hospitalizations, as well as seven deaths. Undoubtedly, it increased awareness on the part of the general public as to the potential for health risks associated with water consumption. This paper examines the relationship between

  17. At Odds with Water: Perceived Health Risks and Water in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Schram; W. L. Adamowicz; Diane P. Dupont

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern for water quality was raised across Canada in 2000 after an E. coli contamination in the town of Walkerton, ON’s water supply led to many hospitalizations, as well as seven deaths. These outcomes increased awareness on the part of the general public as tothe potential for health risks associated with water consumption. Previous survey work had demonstrated increasing

  18. Using Cumulative Risk to Screen for Mental Health Problems in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Barth, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that information typically collected during a maltreatment investigation can be used to screen children for mental health problems. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Cumulative risk scores were created for 3,022 children and compared to reports of clinical-level…

  19. Essays on econometric modeling of subjective perceptions of risks in environment and human health 

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, To Ngoc

    2009-05-15

    A large body of literature studies the issues of the option price and other ex-ante welfare measures under the microeconomic theory to valuate reductions of risks inherent in environment and human health. However, it does not offer a careful...

  20. Comparison Between Radiological and Chemical Health Risks Assessments: The Nord-Cotentin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Mercat-Rommens; Didier Louvat; Céline Duffa; Annie Sugier

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the French Ministries of the Environment and Health commissioned a detailed radioecological analysis of the Nord-Cotentin region in response to public concern about radiological risks associated with local nuclear facilities. This work was entrusted to the Groupe Radioécologie Nord-Cotentin (GRNC), a working group of experts from various origins (industrial facilities operators, public institutions, monitoring agencies, public interest and