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1

Lorcaserin. In obesity: unacceptable risks.  

PubMed

Treatment of obesity and overweight is based primarily on dietary measures and physical exercise.There are still no drugs with a favourable harm-benefit balance in this setting. Lorcaserin, a "selective" 5HT2C serotonin receptor agonist, has been refused marketing authorisation in the European Union despite approval in the United States. Clinical evaluation of lorcaserin is based on three placebo-controlled trials, each lasting one year, in a total of about 6000 patients. Two trials involved obese patients, and one obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of these trials are undermined by the large proportion (40% to 50%) of patients who were lost to follow-up before the end of the trial. None of the trials examined the impact of lorcaserin on the clinical complications of obesity. From an average initial weight of about 100 kg, patients taking lorcaserin lost only about 3 kg more than those in the placebo groups.The patients put on weight again after lorcaserin was discontinued. Adverse effects observed in clinical trials were mainly gastrointestinal (dry mouth, nausea) and neuropsychiatric (dizziness, fatigue, headache, euphoria). The incidence of cardiac valve disorders was higher with lorcaserin than with placebo. These trials were too short in duration to exclude a risk of cancer (breast cancer and astrocytoma) that was reported in experimental animals. This serotonin agonist is metabolised by the liver, creating a risk of multiple drug interactions. In practice, lorcaserin has not been shown to prevent complications of obesity or even lead to substantial weight loss.There is therefore no justification for exposing patients to the risk of adverse effects. PMID:24926508

2014-05-01

2

[Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year].  

PubMed

The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers. PMID:3424127

Bergqvist, L P

1987-10-01

3

Radon Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Health Risks (September 2009) The United Nation's World Health Organization ( ... page, 26 K) . For More Information on Radon Health Risks Radon Frequently Asked Questions EPA's 2003 Updated Radon ...

4

Comparison of assay kits for unconjugated estriol shows that expressing results as multiples of the median causes unacceptable variation in calculated risk factors for Down syndrome.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of two methods for assaying unconjugated estriol in serum: the modified Amerlex third-trimester RIA kit, as used in seminal papers on unconjugated estriol in Down syndrome screening, and the new optimized Amerlex-M second-trimester kit. The significant difference between the results of each assay could cause unacceptable changes in the detection rate and false-positive rate of Down syndrome screening programs, especially if previously published values for estriol are used in the risk calculation. It is not possible to define new calculation parameters for every assay kit because new parameters will need to be defined every time kit changes occur, which would require a large collection of samples from Down syndrome pregnancies for standardization. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed. PMID:1388113

Reynolds, T; John, R

1992-09-01

5

HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE HOUSATONIC RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Human Health risk assessment is being conducted to support the potential for unacceptable risk to humans from exposure to PCBs and other contaminants of concern in the Housatonic River and its floodplain from the GE facility located in Pittsfield, MA....

6

Health risks of obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... is that you will develop the disease or health problem. Your risk of health problems such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney problems increases if you are obese and have these risk factors: High blood pressure (hypertension) High blood cholesterol ...

7

[Health risks from pest control products].  

PubMed

According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use. PMID:24781915

Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

2014-05-01

8

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to help instructors and students locate and use online databases and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to research environmental risks in their own neighborhoods. Materials include a tutorial that provides a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory, using an example in Bozeman, Montana. The activity page contains an assignment and instructions for completing environmental health risk inventories, and there is also a page of links to mapping tools available on the internet, links to the tutorials for each mapping tool, and a list of online databases with searchable health-related information and data.

Cantwell, Laurie

2004-01-01

9

Environmental Health Risk Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To complete this activity, students can follow the instructions and the tutorial in the Environmental Health Risk Inventory website. In doing this, they will gain an understanding of how to use on-line tools and databases as well as the processes of compiling an environmental health risk inventory for a specific locale. In the activity, students will address the question: "how healthy is your neighborhood?" Students will address anthropogenic and naturally-occurring health risks in their hometown or neighborhood by using data collected from online mapping tools and databases. Students will also complete a reflective summary based on the data that they collect.

Cantwell, Laurie

10

Human Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Exposure of humans to contaminated sites may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms\\u000a such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is considered as a major protection\\u000a target, both by decision-makers as well as by the general public. The first step in Human Health Risk Assessment

Frank A. Swartjes; Christa Cornelis

11

Environmental Health Risk Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's always great to learn about an interesting new resource for teaching college students about environmental health, and this one is quite handy. Created as part of the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College, the Environmental Health Risk Assessment site helps instructors and students "locate and use some of the numerous health-related tools and databases that can be found on the web." Here visitors can look over the Tutorial, which is designed to give interested parties a step-by-step example of how to perform an environmental health risk inventory. Also, the site includes an activity that can be used in the classroom, along with a list of vetted mapping tools available across the Web. The site is rounded out by four external links to related resources, including one that looks at the relationship between geology and human health.

2010-02-26

12

Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.  

PubMed

Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

2006-07-01

13

Estimating risk at a Superfund site using passive sampling devices as biological surrogates in human health risk models.  

PubMed

Passive sampling devices (PSDs) sequester the freely dissolved fraction of lipophilic contaminants, mimicking passive chemical uptake and accumulation by biomembranes and lipid tissues. Public Health Assessments that inform the public about health risks from exposure to contaminants through consumption of resident fish are generally based on tissue data, which can be difficult to obtain and requires destructive sampling. The purpose of this study is to apply PSD data in a Public Health Assessment to demonstrate that PSDs can be used as a biological surrogate to evaluate potential human health risks and elucidate spatio-temporal variations in risk. PSDs were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Willamette River; upriver, downriver and within the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite for 3 years during wet and dry seasons. Based on an existing Public Health Assessment for this area, concentrations of PAHs in PSDs were substituted for fish tissue concentrations. PSD measured PAH concentrations captured the magnitude, range and variability of PAH concentrations reported for fish/shellfish from Portland Harbor. Using PSD results in place of fish data revealed an unacceptable risk level for cancer in all seasons but no unacceptable risk for non-cancer endpoints. Estimated cancer risk varied by several orders of magnitude based on season and location. Sites near coal tar contamination demonstrated the highest risk, particularly during the dry season and remediation activities. Incorporating PSD data into Public Health Assessments provides specific spatial and temporal contaminant exposure information that can assist public health professionals in evaluating human health risks. PMID:21741671

Allan, Sarah E; Sower, Gregory J; Anderson, Kim A

2011-10-01

14

Health Risk and Portfolio Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the role of self-perceived risky health in explaining continued reductions in financial risk taking after retirement. If future adverse health shocks threaten to increase the marginal utility of consumption, either by absorbing wealth or by changing the utility function, then health risk should prompt individuals to lower their exposure to financial risk. I examine individual-level data from

Ryan D Edwards

2008-01-01

15

Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

Kundrot, Criag E.

2011-01-01

16

Environmental Health Risks and Tradable Health Risk Permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk permits are suggested as an instrument for the systematic management of all health-relevant pollutants. These permits are denominated in statistical deaths due to pollution and have to be acquired by firms which emit pollutants inimical to health. They have two advantages: First, they guarantee that a clear decision about the acceptable number of statistical deaths due to pollution

Fritz Söllner

1999-01-01

17

Health Risks of Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

Cohen, Bernard L.

1978-01-01

18

Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of conservative and nonconservative assumptions on the probability results. We discuss the methods necessary to assess mission risks once exploration mission scenarios are characterized. Preliminary efforts have produced results that are commensurate with earlier qualitative estimates of risk probabilities in this and other operational contexts, indicating that our approach may be usefully applied in support of the development of human health and performance standards for long-duration space exploration missions. This approach will also enable mission-specific probabilistic risk assessments for space exploration missions.

Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

2006-01-01

19

Possible Risk Considerations for Toxic Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of 'negligible', 'tolerable' and 'unacceptable' risk are considered in the context of 'voluntary' and 'involuntary' risks. Levels of risk for different ill health consequences are examined in relation to the various types of risk associated with standard setting and, in particular, for standards relevant to workplace ill-health.

H. Paul A. Illing

1991-01-01

20

HEALTH RISK ISSUES FOR OXYGENATES  

EPA Science Inventory

A substantial database exists on the inhalation toxicity of MTBE, but exposure information and health effects data for non-inhalation routes of exposure are limited. In addition, several issues complicate the interpretation of the avaialble data in assessing the healt risks of M...

21

21 CFR 1305.25 - Unaccepted and defective electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. 1305.25 Section 1305...SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.25 Unaccepted and defective electronic orders. (a) No electronic...

2013-04-01

22

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878...Air-Ground Systems § 22.878 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This...877, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2009-10-01

23

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673...Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...chapter, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2009-10-01

24

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673...Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...chapter, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2010-10-01

25

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878...Air-Ground Systems § 22.878 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This...877, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2010-10-01

26

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971...Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...970, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2009-10-01

27

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971...Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...970, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2010-10-01

28

Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement  

MedlinePLUS

... and Academic Achievement What is the relationship between health-risk behaviors and academic achievement? Data presented below from ... Percentage of high school students who engaged in health-risk behaviors, by type of grades earned (mostly A’s, ...

29

Global Business, Transportation, Trade, and the Concept of Unacceptable Danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of security is to ward off unacceptable danger. Narrowed in translation to cargo security, it means to keep the goods, merchandise, or passengers transported in domestic and international commerce free of unacceptable dangers. Sounds reasonable, correct? But, there is an issue begged: what constitutes “unacceptable danger” when it comes to commercial goods, merchandise, or passengers? It is a

Lawrence A. Howard

2006-01-01

30

[Health risks of oral contraceptives].  

PubMed

Oral contraceptives (OC) are either composed of a combination of an estrogen derivative (usually ethinly estradiol) and a progestogen, or they contain a progestogen only. OC are characterized by a high effectiveness and have a low failure rate if taken correctly. Most women tolerate OC relatively well, but adverse effects do occur which are driven by the estrogen dose as well as by the type of progestogen. The most frequently reported adverse effects are nausea or vomiting, breast tenderness, headache or inbalanced mood, but these unwanted side effects are often transient. The fear of weight gain of many OC users is not necessarily supported by data from studies which report relatively little differences in body mass index on average during OC use. Nevertheless, substantial weight gain can occur in individual women. The widely discussed fear of breast cancer is also not justified, and the risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer is reduced for women who use OC on a regular basis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the adverse effect with the greatest potential for serious harm if pulmonary embolism develops. This rare, but potentially dangerous adverse effect of OC has been discussed emotionally for many years and keeps attracting a lot of public interest. VTE is rare in young women, but the VTE risk is increased two- to sixfold for OC users as compared to non-users. The VTE risk increases with increasing estrogen dose, is highest in the first year of use, and is higher for OC from the third generation (containing desogestrel, gestodene or norgestimate) than for OC from the second generation (containing levonorgestrel) or than for the progestogen-only pill. According to most studies, OC containing the progestogens drospirenone or cyproterone acetate are similar with regard to VTE risks than OC from the third generation. Individual genetic susceptibility affecting the clotting system plays a major role in the risk of developing VTE in combination with OC, and smoking is also an important contributing factor to an increased VTE risk for women using OC. It is important that doctors and pharmacists inform new users of OC about potential health risks of OC use, and that the personal and family history of previous health risks is assessed thoroughly in order to rule out that important and relevant contraindications are present when a women starts taking OC. PMID:21656494

Meier, Christoph R

2011-06-01

31

Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized the need to develop a framework for human health risk assessment that puts a perspective on the approaches in practice throughout the Agency. In response, the Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has begun the long-term process of developing a framework for human health risk assessment. The framework will be a communication piece that will

Gary Kimmel; Edward Ohanian; Vanessa Vu

1999-01-01

32

Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

Tenkate, Thomas D.

1998-01-01

33

Mycotoxins and child health: The need for health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrences of mycotoxins as food contaminants in different localities particularly in developing countries and the inevitable exposure of populations and children to these toxins with probable adverse outcomes need be scientifically and systematically assessed. Health risk assessment developed in the 1980s is separate from risk management, both with risk communication form the risk analysis framework adopted by the World

Sherif O. Sherif; Emad E. Salama; Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab

2009-01-01

34

Health Education: Risk Reduction Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1979, the Bureau of Health Education awarded $3.6 million in grants for projects in health education-risk reduction to 46 State health departments, 2 local health departments, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands to assist State a...

J. J. Wittie

1979-01-01

35

Profiles of Risk: Maternal Health, Socioeconomic Status, and Child Health  

PubMed Central

Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Interview Surveys in 2007 and 2008 (N = 7,361) to evaluate the joint implications of maternal health and socioeconomic disadvantage for youth. Analyses revealed that maternal health problems were present in a substantial minority of families, clustered meaningfully with other risk factors, and had serious implications for children’s health. These findings support the development of health policies and interventions aimed at families.

Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.

2013-01-01

36

New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

Antle, David

37

Human health risk assessment for contaminated properties.  

PubMed

Contaminated sites, particularly Superfund sites, not only require remediation but also require health risk analysis of the unremediated site. In this chapter, the term risk refers to the probability and the magnitude of adverse human health effects due to the unintended exposure to chemicals at sites that are contaminated or perceived to be contaminated. The quantitative estimation of this risk, the application to define how clean is clean, and the techniques available to mitigate and manage the risk are discussed: Estimation of exposure or dose and the uncertainties inherent in the calculations Quantitative chemical-specific measures of human toxicity of chemicals used in the RA process The metrics used to estimate the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk Risk management and the concepts of acceptable risk Risk assessment and risk management of contaminated sites PMID:22974744

Salhotra, Atul M

2012-01-01

38

[Forest health ecological risk assessment in China].  

PubMed

Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655

Xiao, Fengjin; Ouyang, Hua; Cheng, Shulan; Zhang, Qiang

2004-02-01

39

Risk assessment and risk communication in environmental health in Poland.  

PubMed

Efficient prevention activities can reduce disease, caused by environmental factors as well as costs to the health-care system, but it is impossible without understanding by the society of when, where, how and why exposures occur. Physicians and other health-care professionals may have an important role to play in communication of these potential dangers as the public requires information from knowledgeable and trusted sources about environmental risks and methods to avoid them. Epidemiological study in Poland shows that the health risk awareness in the society is not satisfactory and improvement of communication processes is essential to reduce individual risk factors. PMID:21859749

Marchwi?ska-Wyrwa?, Ewa; Teaf, Christopher M; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Hajok, Ilona

2012-10-01

40

Health effects of risk-assessment categories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

1983-10-01

41

Dynamics of health and labor market risks.  

PubMed

While there is little doubt that the probability of poor health increases with age, and that less healthy people face a more difficult situation on the labor market, the precise relationship between facing the risks of health deterioration and labor market instability is not well understood. Using 12 years of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel we study the nature of the relationship between poor health and non-employment on a sample of German men aged 30-59. We propose a joint model of health and labor market risks which identifies the mechanism through which poor health contributes to the probability of being jobless and vice versa. We find an important role of unobserved heterogeneity and evidence for correlation in the unobservable characteristics determining the two processes. The results also show strong persistence in the dynamics of health and labor market risks. PMID:19818519

Haan, Peter; Myck, Michal

2009-12-01

42

75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance AGENCY: Centers...development of guidance concerning Health Risk Assessment (HRAs). Section 4103...L. 111-148) requires that a health risk assessment be included in the...

2010-11-16

43

The health risks of decommissioning nuclear facilities.  

PubMed

The health risks facing workers involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities are a critical concern as the nuclear weapons complex and nuclear power plants begin to be dismantled. In addition to risks from exposure to radioactive materials, there are risks from other common industrial materials like crystalline silica dust and asbestos. We discuss these issues in the context of recent research on the risk of low-level ionizing radiation, the classification of crystalline silica as a carcinogen, and early experience with decommissioning nuclear facilities in the United States. Health and safety advocates will need to be vigilant to prevent worker exposure. PMID:17208791

Dodic-Fikfak, M; Clapp, R; Kriebel, D

1999-01-01

44

Health-Risk Assessment of Energy Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risk assessment aims at improving the decision-making base for policy makers and public. It provides information directly useful for broad energy policy decisions, for decisions on specific proposed facilities and for guiding health and environmental rese...

S. C. Morris P. D. Moskowitz M. D. Rowe L. D. Hamilton

1981-01-01

45

"Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol “Light” Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Search the ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

46

Predictors of adolescent health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of health risk behaviors of adolescents. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students was recruited from departments and faculties of Atatürk University. The researcher visited university departments 5 working days each week to conduct interviews with the students. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire in their classrooms. The data analysis used multivariate testing to identify predictors of health risk behaviors. The mean score on the health risk behavior scale indicated that the participants sometimes engaged in risky behaviors concerning diet, anger, stress, and disease prevention. The adolescents frequently engaged in risky behavior concerning medical compliance and beliefs about masculinity. Demographically, age, gender, income, and education level of demographic characteristics of the adolescents and, in terms of health status, health behaviors and the experience of a serious disease were significant predictors of adolescent health risk behaviors. In this study, some demographic characteristics were predictors for health risk behaviors, in general, of adolescents. PMID:24722616

Saritas, Seyhan C; Erci, Behice

2014-01-01

47

Health Risks Faced by Turkish Agricultural Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and Methods. This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results. It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ? three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ? three children, and social isolation. Conclusions. In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs.

Cakmur, Hulya

2014-01-01

48

[Theory of health risks: dispute of disciplines].  

PubMed

Since the Age of Enlightenment, risk as a term in philosophy has played an important role in explaining human's actions and decisions. Theoretical foundations deal with two different definitions: risk as a scientific term quantifiable by probability and size of associated damage - or risk as an individual or social construct influencing decisions and actions. Health risks have always been in the focus of both concepts with relevant theoretical and practical consequences. This contribution attempts to give a brief introduction, which will be expanded and deepened by the other articles of this volume. PMID:19876602

Timm, J

2009-12-01

49

Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

Huff, Janice L.

2014-01-01

50

Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version En español Last Modified: 03/15/2013 Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ®) What is prevention? ...

51

Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk  

PubMed Central

A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates

Kokkinos, Peter

2012-01-01

52

Origin and health risks of indoor radon.  

PubMed

Radon has always been a component of ground and air and it has been present in increased concentrations from the moment humans first sought shelter inside dwellings. Recent improvements in the energy efficiency of dwellings have led to increased concentrations of radon and to increased risks of lung cancer. To quantify the magnitude of this risk, well-designed epidemiological studies, including surveys of representative dwellings, are needed, and several are being implemented. In the meantime, the EPA and other agencies have offered guidance on monitoring procedures and remedial measures appropriate for the problem on indoor radon. Recent disclosures of relatively high concentrations of radon and radon decay products in homes in several parts of the country have increased public concern about the problem. More information and education are needed about the health risks of radon, the desirability of implementing monitoring procedures for radon, and about remediation measures when detected levels are above average. Educational resources are needed in communities to address local issues when they arise. These resources should include knowledgeable individuals who can work with state and county health officials to put public concerns into perspective within the local context. Physicians, other health professionals, and medical scientists have the knowledge and credentials to be these individuals. To provide health professionals with knowledge and skills to communicate with the public about the health risks of radon, the American Medical Association has prepared an authoritative report and initiated a series of regional seminars on the origin and health risks of radon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3278384

Hendee, W R; Doege, T C

1988-01-01

53

Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented. PMID:20723144

Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

2010-12-01

54

Evaluating Potential Health Risks in Relocatable Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only limited data exist describing potential exposures to chemical and biological agents when using portable classrooms or outlining how to assess and reduce associated health risks. Evaluating indoor air quality involves examining ventilating rates, volatile organic compounds, and microbiologicals. Open communication among key stakeholders is…

Katchen, Mark; LaPierre, Adrienne; Charlin, Cary; Brucker, Barry; Ferguson, Paul

2001-01-01

55

Procedures for Health Risk Assessment in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and to identify the basis for differences in cancer classifications and OELs between various scientific organizations and countries. Differences in cancer classification

M. R. Seeley; L. E. Tonner-Navarro; B. D. Beck; R. Deskin; V. J. Feron; Gunnar Johanson; Hermann M. Bolt

2001-01-01

56

Ozone Standards Pose Health Risks, Scientists Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A three-dimensional model of atmospheric chemistry was used to simulate background ozone for the United States. A great variability in ozone was found, depending upon the season, elevation, and geographic area. This indicates that the EPA is overestimating the ozone background level in the United States, and as a result is underestimating the health risk associated with ozone pollution.

Agu

57

Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.  

PubMed

The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems. PMID:20543313

Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

2010-01-01

58

Framing personal risk in public health nursing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct a thematic analysis of unanalyzed semistructured interview segments from data that emerged during an earlier exploratory descriptive study on organizational factors and work hazards. The sample consisted of 56 transcribed interviews with staff and managerial public health nurses (PHNs) infive health units of the Province of Alberta before health care restructuring. The frame work that resulted from this secondary analysis describes the ideologies (values, beliefs, concepts, and attitudes) of female PHNs related to their workplace environmental risks. Four categories of the overarching theme, framing personal risk in work environments, emerged: becoming aware, recognizing influences, comparing with others, and knowing rights andfreedoms. Two subthemes also emerged: framing for no action and framing for action. When framing for no action, PHNs were either unconcerned or wanted to avoid trouble. When framing for action, PHNs found humor; took responsibility, used voice, collected support, and struggled for action. PMID:11675794

Skillen, D L; Olson, J K; Gilbert, J A

2001-11-01

59

Waste incineration--how big is the health risk? A quantitative method to allow comparison with other health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the health risk from a medium-sized waste incinerator and develop a single comparable figure to quantify overall risk.` Method We used a prospective health risk assessment utilizing US Environmental Protection Agency Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol (HHRAP) for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities and UK coefficients for the impact of sulphur dioxide and particulates. Calculations were based on

Richard J. Roberts; Mengfang Chen

2006-01-01

60

Measuring Attitudes Toward Acceptable and Unacceptable Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes\\u000a about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse\\u000a psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high endorsement. In Study 2,\\u000a items were administered to 1,398 undergraduate students to examine their

Karen S. BuddSteven; Steven Behling; Yan Li; Sangeeta Parikshak; Rachel A. Gershenson; Rachel Feuer; Christina M. Danko

61

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

62

A risk communication taxonomy for environmental health  

SciTech Connect

A classification system for risk communication can serve two major purposes: it provides a practical guide to techniques and establishes a framework for further development. By using traditional models of communication elements and management operations, this taxonomy has the advantage of being more readily adapted to the needs of environmental health professionals. Like all taxonomies, it should be continually revised and expanded by the professionals who use it.

Hatfield, T.H. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

63

Risk factors, health risks, and risk management for aircraft personnel and frequent flyers.  

PubMed

Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such individuals. This article reviews health risks and risk factors associated with air travel, and discusses risk management strategies. To reduce adverse health risks, risk factors such as radiation, infection, stress, temperature, pressure, and circadian rhythm need to be avoided or reduced to levels that are as low as technologically achievable to protect flight personnel and passengers. PMID:17454553

Kim, Jeoum Nam; Lee, Byung Mu

2007-01-01

64

Expedition health and safety: a risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Little has been published on the risks of participating in an expedition. A questionnaire survey was conducted to quantify those risks and to determine how expedition organizers plan for medical mishaps. 246 expeditions, taking 2381 participants to more than one hundred countries, were studied retrospectively. 65 expeditions (26%) reported no medical incidents; the remaining 181 reported 835 in 130,000 man-days (6.4 per 1000 man-days). 59% of the medical incidents seen on expeditions were preventable, one-third of these being due to gastrointestinal upsets. 78% of medical incidents were classified as minor and only 5% (40) as serious. There was no excess of serious incidents in any particular organizational group or environment. The findings of this survey suggest that the health risks of participating in a well-planned expedition are similar to those encountered during normal active life.

Anderson, S R; Johnson, C J

2000-01-01

65

Comparative health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

Comparative health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been performed in their entire frequency range from static fields until ionizing radiation. Due to considerable change of physical and biologic interaction and the nature of potential adverse health effects comparison was based on the carcinogenic potential of environmental EMF exposure levels. There was a need for sophisticated discrimination of levels of evidence as well as the available database. Conclusions were based on a synoptic view to results of different scientific approaches such as theoretical and biologic interaction modeling, evidence for accumulative effects, in vitro and in vivo investigations and epidemiologic studies. The comparative assessment revealed significant differences of objective results and public risk perception, and puts EMF risks into perspective. It highlights the necessity for individual's responsible behavior in terms of prudent avoidance. The comparison indicates where risk awareness might merit priority. This is not restricted to the UV range but includes also other exposures such as to nocturnal light or within infrared cabins. PMID:21638216

Leitgeb, Norbert

2011-05-01

66

Health risk assessment of the translocation of wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Potential health risks are always associated with the translocation of wild animals. A formal assessment of these health risks should be conducted in advance of each translocation, and the results of the risk assessment should be incorporated into decisions as to whether or not the translocation should occur or whether changes in the translocation protocol could substantially reduce health

F. A. Leighton

2002-01-01

67

Intraoperative radiotherapy for early breast cancer: do health professionals choose convenience or risk?  

PubMed Central

Background The randomized TARGIT trial comparing experimental intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) to up to 7 weeks of daily conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) recruited participants in Western Australia between 2003 and 2012. We aimed to understand preferences for this evolving radiotherapy treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) in health professionals, and how they changed over time and in response to emerging data. Preferences for single dose IORT or EBRT for EBC were elicited in 2004 and 2011, together with factors that may be associated with these preferences. Methods Western Australian health professionals working with breast cancer patients were invited to complete a validated, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire used hypothetical scenarios and trade-off methodology to determine the maximum increase in risk of local recurrence health professionals were willing to accept in order to have a single dose of IORT in the place of EBRT if they were faced with this decision themselves. Results Health professional characteristics were similar across the two time points although 2011 included a higher number of nurse (49% vs. 36%) and allied health (10% vs. 4%) participants and a lower number of radiation therapists (17% vs. 32% ) compared to 2004. Health professional preferences varied, with 7.5% and 3% judging IORT unacceptable at any risk, 18% and 21% judging IORT acceptable only if offering an equivalent risk, 56% and 59% judging IORT acceptable with a low maximum increase in risk (1-3%) and 19% and 17% judging a high maximum increase in risk acceptable (4-5%), in 2004 and 2011 respectively. A significantly greater number of nurses accepted IORT as a treatment option in 2011. Conclusions Most Western Australian health professionals working with breast cancer patients are willing to accept an increase in risk of local recurrence in order to replace EBRT with IORT in a hypothetical setting. This finding was consistent over two time points spanning 7 years despite the duration of clinical experience with IORT and the publication of the early clinical results of IORT in 2010. These results need to be compared with preferences elicited from patient groups, and further investigation into the impact of personal preferences on health professionals’ advice to patients is warranted.

2014-01-01

68

Health Insurance and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Compared to those with health insurance, the uninsured receive less care for chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes and they experience higher mortality. Methods We investigated the relations of health insurance status to prevalence, treatment, and control of major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants in sex-specific age-adjusted analyses. Participants who attended either the seventh Offspring cohort examination cycle (1998–2001) or the first Third Generation cohort examination cycle (2002–2005) were studied. Results Among 6098 participants, 3.8% were uninsured at the time of the FHS clinic examination and participants’ ages ranged from 19 to 64 years. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated LDL cholesterol was similar for the insured and uninsured, however the proportion of those who obtained treatment and achieved control of these risk factors was lower among the uninsured. Uninsured men and women were less likely to be treated for hypertension with odds ratios for treatment of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07–0.56) for men and 0.31 (95% CI 0.12–0.79) for women. Among men, the uninsured were less likely to receive treatment or achieve control of elevated LDL cholesterol than the insured, with odds ratios of 0.12 (95% CI 0.04–0.38) for treatment and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05–0.56) for control. Conclusions The treatment and control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are lower among uninsured adults. Increasing the proportion of insured individuals may be a means to improve the treatment and control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and reduce health disparities.

Brooks, Erica L.; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Murabito, Joanne M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Sorlie, Paul; Levy, Daniel

2010-01-01

69

Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners.  

PubMed

The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. PMID:8456349

Short, S R; Petsonk, E L

1993-01-01

70

Health and safety risks in production agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

1998-01-01

71

GUIDELINES FOR THE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1986 Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixtures. The emphasis is on dose response and risk characterization. ...

72

Multipathway health risk assessment of power plant water discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemicals released with water discharges from a fossil-fueled power plant may present health risks through a variety of exposure pathways including ingestion of drinking water, fish consumption and dermal absorption while swimming. The Total Risk of Utility Emissions (TRUE) model provides a framework that allows one to assess the multipathway health risks associated with water discharges from power plants.

C. Seigneur; E. Constantinou; L. Levin

1996-01-01

73

Biomarkers: Dynamic "Tools" for Health and Safety Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Today informational flow from biomarkers contributes importantly to various types of health effects research, risk assessment and risk management decisions that impact, or have the potential to impact, public health and safety. Therefore, dependent upon the nature of the health r...

74

The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

2012-01-01

75

30 CFR 550.135 - What will BOEM do if my operating performance is unacceptable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What will BOEM do if my operating performance is unacceptable...Disqualification § 550.135 What will BOEM do if my operating performance is unacceptable...operating performance is unacceptable, BOEM may disapprove or revoke your...

2013-07-01

76

30 CFR 550.136 - How will BOEM determine if my performance is unacceptable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How will BOEM determine if my performance is unacceptable...Disqualification § 550.136 How will BOEM determine if my performance is unacceptable...operating performance is unacceptable, BOEM will consider, individually or...

2013-07-01

77

Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.  

PubMed

Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed. PMID:24188299

Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

2014-01-01

78

Accuracy of Parents' Perceptions of Their College Student Children's Health and Health Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared parents' perceptions of their college student children's health and health risk behaviors with the college students' own reports. One hundred sixty-four parent-college student child dyads completed questionnaires regarding the students' health, illness status, and health risk behaviors. Parents tended to be overoptimistic…

Bylund, Carma L.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Baxter, Leslie A.

2005-01-01

79

Overview: Adaptive Management for the Health Risks of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change is expected to increase health risks in all countries. Although public health agencies and organizations have\\u000a impressive records of controlling the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes, current and planned programs and activities\\u000a may need to be modified to address the additional risks of climate change. Programs and activities need to take an iterative\\u000a risk management approach if they

Kristie L. Ebi

80

Menthol cigarettes and health risks in Lung Health Study data.  

PubMed

Whether menthol cigarettes confer a higher risk of death than plain cigarettes is not known. The Lung Health Study (LHS) enrolled 5,887 adult smokers in a clinical trial of smoking cessation and ipratropium in the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. LHS participants have been subjected to surveillance for mortality from all causes for 14 years. We examined these data for differences between self-reported smokers of menthol cigarettes versus plain cigarettes. Using proportional hazards regression methods, we found no differences in hazard ratios for coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, or death from any cause. Contrary to expectations about nicotine dependence, we found that users of menthol cigarettes had smoked fewer pack-years at baseline. We found no difference in success at smoking cessation with or without menthol. We conclude that our data contain no evidence that mentholation of cigarettes increases the hazards of smoking. PMID:17365741

Murray, Robert P; Connett, John E; Skeans, Melissa A; Tashkin, Donald P

2007-01-01

81

Lay views on uncertainty in environmental health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that presenting uncertainty in environmental health risk estimates may increase citizens' risk knowledge and trust in the honesty and competence of the institutions providing such estimates; on the other hand, careless communication could have undesirable results. Reported here is a study of how American laypeople think about uncertainty in risk assessment, and its implications for risk

Branden B Johnson; Paul Slovic

1998-01-01

82

Health literacy among university students in Greece: determinants and association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks  

PubMed Central

Background Health literacy is widely considered as a key determinant of health and a priority in the public health policy agenda. Low health literacy has been associated with poorer health states, broader inequalities and higher health systems’ costs. In the present study we bring into focus the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, researching and assessing mainly their ability to apply basic knowledge in a health context. Methods The study was carried out during the period 15–30 April 2013, among a random sample of 1,526 students of 14 Higher Tertiary Public universities and Technological Educational Institutes in Greece. The objective of the study was to assess the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, adopting the short four-item comprehension test of Bostock and Steptoe. Summary statistics, correlations and regressions were used to assess the determinants of health literacy and the association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks. Results Economic factors, such as family income, demographic factors, such as gender, and health behaviours and risks, namely consumption of alcohol, smoking and physical workout are associated with the level of health literacy and health status of the participant. While the results of the study are consistent with previous work in this area, several findings worth further research. Conclusions Though, health promotion interventions in Greece include health literacy as one of the basic pillars of the public health policy agenda, it is clear, that health literacy needs to become a key policy issue in Greece, mainly focusing in young ages, where healthy (or unhealthy) behaviours are established affecting the health through the life span.

2014-01-01

83

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

84

A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia); Goh, Yang Miang [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

2012-01-15

85

Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Contaminants in Canada: The Applicability of Mixture Risk Assessment Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article are: (i) to review the current approaches of Health Canada to the risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, and (ii) to examine the applicability of mixture risk assessment methods to drinking water contaminants. Health Canada's current approaches to drinking water risk assessment, like those of many regulatory agencies, focus almost solely on the effects of

Kannan Krishnan; Joel Paterson; David T. Williams

1997-01-01

86

The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

Bamberg, Richard; And Others

1990-01-01

87

Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

NONE

1997-02-01

88

Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ  

SciTech Connect

In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

1986-01-23

89

Beliefs About Health, Health Risks and Health Expectations from the Perspective of People with a Psychotic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Aim: To examine beliefs about health, health risks and health expectations from the perspective of people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder Background: People with psychotic disorders have a threefold higher risk of developing physical health problems than the general population, and prevention of these problems is warranted. Examining patients´ health beliefs could help deepen our understanding of how to plan successful health interventions with this group. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted from November 2010 to October 2011 with 17 people with psychotic disorders. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results: An overall positive picture of health was found despite the fact that physical health was found to be hard to verbalize and understand. Health was mainly associated with psychological wellbeing, while health risks were found to be related to uncertain bodily identity, troublesome thoughts and inner voices, and exclusion from society. Interest in learning, and visions and goals of health seemed to increase awareness of health risks and health expectations, while not worrying could be viewed as a hindrance for health expectations. Conclusion: There is a lack of expressed awareness of physical health risks, but such awareness is fundamental to performing life-style changes [14]. Nurses thus have an important task to help patients understand and verbalize potential physical health risks, and to find out what motivates them to adopt health behaviors.

Hultsjo, Sally; Syren, Susanne

2013-01-01

90

Lognormal Model for Health Risk Assessment of Fluctuating Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk assessments of exposures to harmful materials increasingly are required because of legal and economic pressures. An important part of the procedure is the mathematical model for the dose-effects relationship. If a linear no-threshold relationship is assumed, then the mean of fluctuating concentrations may be used for the calculation of health risk. But the widely used PEL and TLV®

BERNARD E. SALTZMAN

1987-01-01

91

SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE FOR CONDUCTING HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is a supplement to the EPA Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of 1986. The 1986 Guidelines represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixt...

92

Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

93

Improving the use of epidemiologic data in health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. This lack of exposure measures creates confusion in interpreting epidemiologic data and therefore has impeded its efficient use in health risk analysis. This paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. It also describes the larger role of epidemiology in reducing uncertainties

L. S. Erdreich; C. Burnett

1985-01-01

94

Risk Management in Mental Health: Applying Lessons From Commercial Aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Risk management in mental health focuses on risks in patients and fails to predict rare but catastrophic events such as suicide. Commercial aviation has a similar task in preventing rare but catastrophic accidents. This article describes the systems in place in commercial aviation that allows that industry to prevent disasters and contrasts this with the situation in mental health.Conclusions:

Simon Hatcher

2010-01-01

95

TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

96

Risk behaviors and health: Contrasting individual and population perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses risk behaviors, seem- ingly voluntary actions of individuals that have adverse health consequences. The central theme is to examine these behaviors from two contrasting perspectives, that of the individual and that of the population as a whole. It is argued that distinguishing between individual and pop- ulation views is important for understanding and inter- preting health risk

Robert W. Jeffery

1989-01-01

97

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes

S. Moses; R. C. Bailey; A. R. Ronald

1998-01-01

98

Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard

J. M. Farber; W. H. Rossb; J. Harwig

1996-01-01

99

The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

2001-01-01

100

Catalogue of Risks: Natural, Technical, Social and Health Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Financial, geophysical, and terrorist-related disasters have been headline news in the past few months. As amply demonstrated on a regular basis, the recognition and evaluation of risks are skills that could be more widespread. As such, Proske's Catalogue of Risks is timely and of potential interest. The book is a revised and expanded version of an earlier German publication that aims to provide an encyclopedic discussion of issues related to risks and disasters, with a goal of facilitating an understanding of the components and assessment of risk. The book includes chapters that discuss the difficulty of coming to a consensus on a definition of risk, a comprehensive range of risks and disasters, objective risk measures, subjective risk judgment, quality of life measures, and legal aspects of risk. The book ends with an example of applying the concepts discussed to ship impacts against bridges.

Ebi, Kristie L.

2009-01-01

101

Assessment of environmental health risk for drinking water sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to drinking water is one of the important ways to influence human health. This study calculated the health risk of adults and children for drinking water sources in the Fuyang city. The results showed that the total health risk of adults and children caused by water quality was 6.75 × 10-5 and 8.15 × 10-5, which exceeded the highest acceptable risk of 5.0 × 10-5 from the International Radiation Committee, but was still lower than the maximum risk level of 1.0 × 10-4 from US EPA. The health risk of children is 20% higher than that of adults, so we should pay more attention to children for drinking water health issues.

Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Wang, Junneng; Zeng, Dong; Han, Qiuping

102

Who comes to a workplace health risk assessment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace health promotion initiatives have proliferated, but there are difficulties in recruiting employees of lower socioeconomic\\u000a status and at higher risk of disease. A survey of health behaviors and attitudes was administered in 20 worksites and the\\u000a opportunity to attend a health risk assessment promoted. Those more likely to attend were women. those of higher occupational\\u000a prestige, and those from

Timothy A. Dobbins; Judy M. Simpson; Brian Oldenburg; Neville Owen; David Harris

1998-01-01

103

Cities without cavities: democracy, risk, and public health.  

PubMed

This essay examines the history of fluoride debates in four Canadian cities. It argues that fluoride's opponents were primarily motivated by what they saw as the health and environmental risks of adding fluoride to the water supply. They also believed that fluoridating the public water supply was a fundamental violation of civil liberties. The fluoride debates have much to teach us about how people evaluate potential health risks and how they respond to state interventions in the field of public health. PMID:21132935

Carstairs, Catherine

2010-01-01

104

Mental Health Risks to Infants and Toddlers in Foster Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mental health risks to the birth-to-three foster care population. The paper describes risks of a relational and contextual nature. Relational risk factors, which have been previously identified by foster care researchers and clinicians, include the following: 1. Poor attachment signaling by foster infants and toddlers; 2. Discomfort with infant and toddler dependency by some foster parents; and

Betty Fish; Bette Chapman

2004-01-01

105

Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

2011-01-01

106

Sexual health, vulnerabilities and risk behaviours among homeless adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that homeless individuals are at risk for a variety of health problems, including sexually transmissible infections. Optimisation of health services for the homeless requires knowledge of their sexual health. The sexual health and sexual vulnerability factors of 500 homeless adults (196 women) were assessed in a cross-sectional survey in three Canadian cities. Our data indicate that a significant proportion of individuals and more women than men reported multiple experiences that compromise their sexual health exponentially. These findings may inform health policies related to sexuality to foster positive sexual health outcomes for all people, including marginalised populations. PMID:24670303

Strehlau, Verena; Torchalla, Iris; Linden, Isabelle; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

2014-03-01

107

Health risk assessment of chloroform in California ground water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to chloroform dissolved in California ground waters used for domestic consumption, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential increased cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to chloroform. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of chloroform exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with chloroform. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to describe scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for chloroform-induced cancer observed experimentally in animal bioassays that are relevant to the estimation of potential cancer risk in humans. This document is intended to provide a scientific basis for regulatory selection of chloroform concentrations in California groundwater predicted to protect the general public from potential health risk, focusing on potential cancer risk in particular. To this end, we also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to chloroform-contaminated groundwater in California. A separate health-risk assessment for potential toxic endpoints other than cancer that may be associated with water-based exposure to chloroform has been prepared by CDHS (1989).

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.

1992-01-20

108

Health risk assessment: Science, economics, and law  

SciTech Connect

Risk - the likely existence of hazards - is a crucial element in energy and environmental decision making. Human activities, such as the production of electricity, create obvious benefits and concomitant risks, thus necessitating attempts to balance the two. This paper provides a comprehensive and necessarily brief survey of the disciplines and methodologies that make up risk assessment. The authors summarize the factors that influence the acceptability of risk, outline the scientific evidence employed to analyze the amount of risk, and describe the economic and legal principles that make up the process of risk assessment. The theme is the interrelatedness of these approaches; no single discipline can adequately address these issues.

Ricci, P.F.; Molton, L.S.

1986-01-01

109

Health risk assessment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of TCE exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibility of treating water supplies contaminated with TCE. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of TCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to TCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to TCE-contaminated groundwater in California. 363 refs., 8 figs., 22 tabs.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Perry, L.; Fish, R.; McKone, T.E.; Dowd, P.; Patton, S.E.; Mallon, B.

1988-01-28

110

Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II--Law and Ethics  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

2011-01-01

111

Do they know what is at risk? Health risk perception among the obese.  

PubMed

The perception of health risks and risky health behaviors are closely associated. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy of health risk perceptions among obese individuals, aged 50-62?years. We compare subjective risk perceptions for various diseases elicited in the American Life Panel to individual's objective risks of the same diseases. We find that obese individuals significantly underestimate their 5-year risks of arthritis or rheumatism and hypertension, whereas they systematically overestimate their 5-year risks of a heart attack and a stroke. Obese individuals are thus aware of some but not all obesity-related health risks. For given diseases, we document substantial heterogeneities in the accuracy of expectations across individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23661580

Winter, Joachim; Wuppermann, Amelie

2014-05-01

112

Adolescent Health: A Generation at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-day conference brought together health and education experts to explore responses to adolescent health problems and to suggest ways to implement the recommendations put forward in "Fateful Choices: Healthy Youth for the 21st Century," by Fred M. Hechinger. Conference participants identified a number of adolescent health problems and the areas…

Hechinger, Fred M.

1994-01-01

113

75 FR 82400 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance; Public Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance; Public Forum...assist development of guidance for Health Risk Assessments (HRAs). Section...L. 111-148) requires that a Health Risk Assessment be included in the...

2010-12-30

114

76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability...availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration...comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all...

2011-07-06

115

78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...has conducted a qualitative human health risk assessment for the dietary (food...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for both dietary (food...The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for dietary...

2013-09-27

116

76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends...reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

2011-08-24

117

Health risk assessment of chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This overview has briefly reviews the complexity of chemical mixtures, their sources, the relevance of exposure, the various interactions of chemical components, and new approaches for measuring exposure. Current quantitative risk assessment by linear extrapolation is inadequate in estimating risks. The new emerging methodology offers a scientific and realistic alternative in assessment of risks from various exposures to both natural and man-made chemical mixtures.

Witz, G.; Mehlman, M.A.

1987-07-01

118

Successful African-American Mathematics Students in Academically Unacceptable High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the reasons why successful mathematics students have been able to thrive in schools labeled "academically unacceptable" and why they have chosen to stay in these "academically unacceptable" schools despite having the option to leave. Qualitative methods including group interviews, individual interviews, and…

Sheppard, Peter

2006-01-01

119

Health Risk Appraisal for Adults and Teens: A Leader's Guide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The text provides guidelines on organizing extension and community resources to conduct the computerized health risk appraisal program for adult and youth extension audiences. Suggestions for raising community awareness and support for the cooperative hea...

L. E. Moody

1980-01-01

120

IMPROVING THE USE OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiolic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. The paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. The approach recognizes that the various designs used to increase...

121

Characterizing public health and microbial risks due to water contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

This research track evaluates risks associated with the occurrence of waterborne disease in the population. A clear understanding of the health burden associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water is critical to developing regulations that are protective of public healt...

122

Airliner Cabin Environment: Contaminant Measurements, Health Risks, and Mitigation Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study, conducted in 1989, was to develop information to be used for determining health risks from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and other pollutants for airliner occupants. Selected ETS contaminants (nicotine, respirable...

M. D. Koontz M. E. Ginevan N. L. Nagda R. C. Fortmann S. R. Baker

1989-01-01

123

Health risk factors and self-rated health among job-seekers  

PubMed Central

Background To determine a) proportions of behavior related health risk factors among job-seekers and b) to what extend these are related to self-rated health. Methods Over 12 months, job-seekers were recruited at three job-agencies in northeastern Germany. Among all individuals eligible for study inclusion, 7,906 (79.8%) provided information on smoking, risky drinking, overweight/obesity (body mass index), fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, illicit drug use, and self-rated health. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals stratified by gender, age and duration of unemployment were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicting self-rated health were conducted. Results The proportions of each health-risk factor were high, and 52.4% of the sample (53.4% male, 33.5 years mean age) had 3 or more health risk factors. Mostly, the proportions were particularly high among men and long-term unemployed individuals; e.g. 84.8% of the 18-24 year old long-term unemployed men were current smokers. Proportions of substance use related health risk factors were highest among the 18-24 year olds (e.g. risky drinking 28.7%), and proportions of health risk factors related to nutrition and physical inactivity were highest among the 40-64 year olds (e.g. overweight/obesity 65.4%). Depending on gender, all health risk factors and having 3 or more health risk factors were associated with lower self-rated health; odd ratios ranged between 1.2 for smoking (95% CI: 1.0-1.3) and 1.7 for overweight and physical inactivity (95% CI: 1.5-1.9). Conclusions Prevention efforts to reduce health risk factors and to increase health among job-seekers are needed, and job agencies appear a feasible setting for their implementation.

2011-01-01

124

Examining public and occupational health risks of photovoltaic energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines potential public and occupational health and safety risks associated with different photovoltaic cell types (silicon n\\/p, silicon metal\\/insulator\\/semiconductor (MIS) and cadmium sulfide\\/copper sulfide) and their use in small rooftop shingle, rooftop panel, and ground-based units. Potential development of this technology has aroused concern about public health risks from use, and release of specific pollutants (e.g. silicon and

P. D. Moskowitz; E. A. Coveney; M. A. Crowther; L. D. Hamilton; S. C. Morris; K. M. Novak; P. Perry; W. A. Sevian; J. E. Smith; P. J. Walker

1981-01-01

125

Cancer Risk Reduction in Mexican American Women: The Role of Acculturation, Education, and Health Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-factor schema for the development of culturally appropriate cancer risk reduction interventions for Mexican American women. Regarding this approach, risk factors for two major cancer areas are reviewed: cigarette smoking and obesity\\/diet. We first describe a schema that facilitates the planning of strategies associated with preferred health interventions and preventive approaches for cancer risk reduction with

Hector Balcazar; Felipe G. Castro; Jennifer L. Krull

1995-01-01

126

Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... involves using three key measures: Body mass index (BMI) Waist circumference Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity Body ... should lose weight. Your doctor will evaluate your BMI, waist measurement, and other risk factors for heart disease. The good news is even ...

127

Health Risks Information Reaches Secondary School Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess smoking prevention and cessation education delivered as part of the UK National Curriculum and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of health, social influence and other/non-health components. In all, 1789 students aged 11-15 from 12 secondary schools completed online surveys assessing smoking status,…

Ridout, Fran; Charlton, Anne; Hutchison, Iain

2008-01-01

128

Environmental Risks and Children's Health: What can PRAMS Tell Us?  

PubMed

Environmental exposures during pregnancy have a lasting impact on children's health. We combined environmental and maternal risk factor survey data to inform efforts to protect children's health. We made recommendations for future use of such data. A modified version of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) mail survey was conducted based on weighted sampling design with low-income and non-low income women in Monroe County, NY (1,022 respondents). A series of environmental questions were included in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi square tests and Poisson loglinear regression model to identify patterns in environmental health risk and sociodemographic characteristics. We identified women who rented their homes, had lower incomes, and lived in inner city zip codes as "high environmental health risk" (HEHR). HEHR respondents were more likely to report that a health care provider talked with them about lead and on average reported more behaviors to protect their children from lead poisoning. Combining environmental and perinatal risk factor data could yield important recommendations for medical practice, health education, and policy development. However, at present PRAMS gathers only limited and inconsistent environmental data. We found that existing PRAMS environmental questions are insufficient. Further work is needed to develop updated and more comprehensive environmental health survey questions and implement them consistently across the country. PMID:23955384

Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Suter, Barbara J; Cai, Xueya; Brownson, Susan A; Dozier, Ann M

2014-07-01

129

Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine pollution is a major threat to human and environmental health. Given the complexity of function of marine and coastal ecosystems, it is unlikely that a balanced view of the nature and extent of risk will easily be achieved if human and environmental risk assessments continue to be conducted in isolation. Here, the integration of assessment protocols is advocated as

Tamara S. Galloway

2006-01-01

130

Incorporating human interindividual biotransformation variance in health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of

John C. Lipscomb; Gregory L. Kedderis

2002-01-01

131

Teens Who Indoor Tan Often Take Other Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Teens Who Indoor Tan Often Take Other Health Risks: Survey CDC study tied practice to binge drinking, ... 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Sun ... teens who indulge in indoor tanning -- long linked to skin cancer risk -- are also more likely to adopt other bad ...

132

INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

133

Integrating human health and ecological concerns in risk assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnections between ecosystems, human health and welfare have been increasingly recognized by the US government, academia, and the public. This paper continues this theme by addressing the use of risk assessment to integrate people into a single assessment. In a broad overview of the risk assessment process we stress the need to build a conceptual model of the whole

Patricia A Cirone; P Bruce Duncan

2000-01-01

134

Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

135

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

136

Human Health Risk Assessment at a Depleted Uranium Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health risk assessments for depleted uranium are common for Department of Defense (DOD) sites since the metal has various military uses. At a training and experimental site, DU was evaluated in soil in order to make decisions regarding cleanup and future use of the site. At this site, concentrations were found to be protective of human health; DU is

BARBARA G. CALLAHAN; PAUL KOSTECKI; KAREN D. REECE

2004-01-01

137

Health-risk assessment of trichlorofluoromethane in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Existing literature is reviewed that is pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of Freon-11 contaminated drinking water, an estimation of the Freon-11 exposure for California residents based on the most recent data on Freon-11 concentrations in California drinking-water supplies, and a delineation of the level of Freon-11 that may cause a noncarcinogenic health effect.

Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.; Weir, K.; Beltran, K.; Babapour, R.

1988-12-22

138

Educated guesses: Health risk assessment in environmental impact statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and

Pd Harvey

1990-01-01

139

Public Health Risk Assessment Linked to Climatic and Ecological Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances of climatic and ecological systems can present risks to human health, which are becoming more evident from health studies linked to climate variability, landuse change and global climate change. Waterborne disease agents, such as Giardia cysts and Cryposporidium oocysts have been positively correlated with rainfall. El Niño-related extreme weather conditions can have a significant impact on vector- and water-borne

Jonathan A. Patz

2001-01-01

140

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: Human Exposure and Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been emphasized due to their threats in fertility, intelligence, and survival. For the last decade, many researchers have investigated EDC-health outcome. However, EDC responses in human were not clearly clarified through experimental and epidemiological data. Therefore, considering particular status of EDC endpoints, we suggest that one of the best ways to prevent unknown health risks

MIHI YANG; MI SEON PARK; HO SUN LEE

2006-01-01

141

POPs in breast milk: breast-fed infants' health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Breast milk is considered the optimum food for infants during infancy. Pesticide residues may get transferred to infants through breast feeding and pose various serious health hazards. This paper aims to enumerate various pesticides that are present in breast milk and pose potential health risk to breast-fed infants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An attempt is been made to highlight various

S. Sarkar

2009-01-01

142

Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

2000-01-01

143

Laypeople's Health Concerns and Health Beliefs in Regard to Risk Perception of Mobile Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consensus scientific view is that there is an absence of convincing scientific evidence for health risks of exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels below those recommended in international guidelines. Nevertheless, some citizens are worried about EMF emitted by mobile communication and its consequences for health. The present study explored, by means of a mail survey, health concerns and

Marie-Eve Cousin; Michael Siegrist

2008-01-01

144

Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.  

PubMed

Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens. PMID:6763817

Scriver, C R

1982-01-01

145

Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.  

PubMed Central

Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens.

Scriver, C. R.

1982-01-01

146

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... City, San Diego, and San Francisco—that collected data on high school students’ sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, ... Risk Behavior Surveillance Overall Results Slides Participation Map - High School Participation Map - ... Files & Methods Requesting Data Files Data Request Form ...

147

HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

148

Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

1992-06-01

149

Approaches to Oral Nutrition Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health plays a significant role in overall and nutritional health. This role becomes increasingly important for patients\\u000a with oral or medical illness, patients with physical limitations that affect chewing ability, and patients who take medications\\u000a that affect immune surveillance, oral ecology, and oral physiology. The primary focus of this chapter is to describe approaches\\u000a to oral nutrition and diet

Riva Touger-Decker; David A. Sirois

150

Health risk assessment of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene or PCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of PCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to PCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to PCE-contaminated ground water in California.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.; Layton, D.W.; Patton, S.E.

1987-04-10

151

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications.  

PubMed

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City's MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

2008-04-01

152

[The Meninos do Rio Program: lifeworld, adolescence, and health risks].  

PubMed

This study focuses on health risks among teenagers from two towns in the Sao Francisco River Valley (Ibiai and Morada Nova) and slums in Morro das Pedras, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study discusses teaching and extracurricular activities by the Federal University in Minas Gerais in these localities, aimed at promoting health in adolescence. The authors use the Habermas communicative action theory as the main theoretical and methodological approach. The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative methodology, including dynamic observation, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires answered by high school students. Sexuality, work, and violence were the main themes and were associated with numerous health risks. Work in the 10-to-14-year-old group was associated with nearly all types of health risks. The authors analyze the relations between context and adolescent behavior using the Habermasian concept of lifeworld colonization. PMID:15692636

Melo, Elza Machado de; Faria, Horácio Pereira de; Melo, Maria Aparecida Machado de; Chaves, Adriana Braga; Machado, Graziela Paronetto

2005-01-01

153

Integrating risk adjustment and enrollee premiums in health plan payment.  

PubMed

In two important health policy contexts - private plans in Medicare and the new state-run "Exchanges" created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) - plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PMID:24308878

McGuire, Thomas G; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D; Zuvekas, Samuel H

2013-12-01

154

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

2011-01-01

155

Infant mental health promotion and the discourse of risk.  

PubMed

The field of infant mental health promotion has rapidly developed in academia, health policy and practice. Although there are roots in earlier childhood health and welfare movements, recent developments in infant mental health promotion are distinct and different. This article examines the development and practice of infant mental health promotion in South Australia. A regional, intersectoral forum with a focus on families and young children was used as a case study. In-depth interviews with forum members were analysed using a governmentality lens. Participants identified a range of risks to the healthy development of the infant. The study suggests that the construction of risk acts as a technique of governing, providing the rationale for intervention for the child, the mother and the public's good. It places responsibility on parents to self-govern. Although the influence of broader social contexts is acknowledged, the problematisation of mothering as risk shifts the focus to individual capacity, rather than encompassing the systems and social conditions that support healthy relationships. This research suggests that the representations of risk are a pervasive and potent influence that can act to undermine health promotion efforts that seek to empower and enable people to have more control over their own health. PMID:24266837

Lawless, Angela; Coveney, John; MacDougall, Colin

2014-03-01

156

Health risk appraisal: review of evidence for effectiveness.  

PubMed Central

Since its introduction some two decades ago, health risk appraisal (HRA) has become a standard offering in the health promotion repertoire. The technique's distinctive feature is its use of epidemiologic data to generate quantitative risk messages for the client. Yet despite the dedication and considerable investments that have gone into HRA's development, dissemination, and use, there is only limited empirical evidence that these quantitative risk messages have any effect on clients. There do not appear to be any formal studies of HRA's effect on participation in health promotion programs, although increasing recruitment is regarded as a major benefit of using HRA. There are few indications of HRA effects on health beliefs. Most positive reports of effects on behavior change come from uncontrolled studies; several randomized controlled trials have yielded ambiguous findings. Virtually no data exist concerning the impact of the quantitative risk messages that distinguish HRA from other assessment techniques and that have motivated the substantial efforts toward developing and refining HRA. HRA has evident appeal and is probably a useful health education device for middle-class, middle-aged, nonminority clients. It may well have desirable effects on health-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors when accompanied by counseling or education, but available evidence has not established its effectiveness. Given the difficulty of obtaining definitive evidence of the effectiveness of HRA and specifically of its use of quantitative risk projections, the need for such evidence is debatable. An adequately funded and reviewed research program to examine whether projections of absolute risk affect knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to change is recommended as the most fruitful next step. Epidemiologically based HRA procedures that provide feedback in terms of qualitative statements or relative risk may be a promising approach to prospective health assessment.

Schoenbach, V J; Wagner, E H; Beery, W L

1987-01-01

157

Maternal Health and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women's health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Most HIV infections in women are in resource-constrained settings where the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality is also unacceptably high, and where most of the 529,000 deaths from complications

James McIntyre

2005-01-01

158

Profile - health risks of residential wood heat  

SciTech Connect

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1985-01-01

159

Health risks of residential wood heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

160

Health risks and educational interests in an HMO.  

PubMed

A health survey was randomly administered to 1000 members of a 250,000 member HMO to help develop education programs and establish baseline risks and interests among HMO members. The sample was found to have lower than average risks related to smoking, average risks for weight, and above average risks related to exercise compared to state and national reference standards. The highest level of interest was reported for exercise, followed by stress reduction, weight loss, and smoking cessation. The older age groups were less likely to report an interest in attending fitness programs. The more educated respondents were less likely to attend weight control and stress programs. Based on these results, strategies for increasing involvement in educational programs to reduce health risks are discussed. PMID:10108918

Terry, P E; Pheley, A M

1991-01-01

161

Comparative quantification of health risks: Conceptual framework and methodological issues  

PubMed Central

Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been conducted in the context of methodological traditions of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual and methodological issues for quantifying the population health effects of individual or groups of risk factors in various levels of causality using knowledge from different scientific disciplines. The issues include: comparing the burden of disease due to the observed exposure distribution in a population with the burden from a hypothetical distribution or series of distributions, rather than a single reference level such as non-exposed; considering the multiple stages in the causal network of interactions among risk factor(s) and disease outcome to allow making inferences about some combinations of risk factors for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted, including the joint effects of multiple risk factors; calculating the health loss due to risk factor(s) as a time-indexed "stream" of disease burden due to a time-indexed "stream" of exposure, including consideration of discounting; and the sources of uncertainty.

Murray, Christopher JL; Ezzati, Majid; Lopez, Alan D; Rodgers, Anthony; Vander Hoorn, Stephen

2003-01-01

162

Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2.

Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

1997-01-01

163

Health aspects of caffeine: benefits and risks.  

PubMed

This article examines the benefits and risks associated with caffeinated foods and drinks, taking an evidence-based approach to identify appropriate daily caffeine limits. Suggestions are provided on how to structure dietary advice for different patient groups including children, individuals with hypertension, renal patients, athletes and older adults. PMID:19953767

Ruxton, C

164

Health risks of residential wood heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of

Curtis C. Travis; Elizabeth L. Etnier; H. Robert Meyer

1985-01-01

165

Profile - health risks of residential wood heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of

C. C. Travis; E. L. Etnier; H. R. Meyer

1985-01-01

166

Violence as a Public Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence is a public health problem that affects people of all ages. In 2007, violence was one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States for people from birth to age 64 years. Violence takes many forms, such as child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, self-directed violence, and youth violence. Violence may be best understood

Tamara M. Haegerich; Linda L. Dahlberg

2011-01-01

167

Health-Risking Social Behaviors: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic…

Price, L. N.; Reider, E. E.; Robertson, E. B.

2006-01-01

168

Compounding conservatisms: EPA's health risk assessment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superfund conjures up images of hazardous waste sites, which EPA is spending billions of dollars to remediate. One of the law's most worrisome effects is that it drains enormous economic resources without returning commensurate benefits. In a Sept. 1, 1991, front page article in The New York Times, experts argued that most health dangers at Superfund sites could be eliminated

K. von Stackelberg; D. E. Burmaster

1993-01-01

169

Organizational Injustice as an Occupational Health Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content to conceive of inequity distress as a hypothetical construct instead of an intervening variable, a half century of research inspired by equity theory has paid little attention to measuring inequity distress. At the turn of the twenty?first century, however, European epidemiologists, interested in determinants of ill health, found that injustice is a source of adverse emotional reactions that put

Jerald Greenberg

2010-01-01

170

Evaluation of Psychological Hardiness and Coping Style as Risk/Resilience Factors for Health Risk Behaviour.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of alcohol and drugs, is a growing problem among military personnel, which brings substantial health risks and potential costs for the organization (Gackstetter et al., 2008; Jacobson et al, 2008; Seal et al., 2007). Unfortunately, current screening a...

J. Eid J. I. Brevik P. T. Bartone S. W. Hystad

2011-01-01

171

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes as "benchmarks", and updated them by searching the Medline database for more recent information. RESULTS: There is substantial evidence that circumcision protects males from HIV infection, penile carcinoma, urinary tract infections, and ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. We could find little scientific evidence of adverse effects on sexual, psychological, or emotional health. Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced with neonatal circumcision, are valid concerns that require appropriate responses. CONCLUSION: Further analyses of the utility and cost effectiveness of male circumcision as a preventive health measure should, in the light of this information, be research and policy priorities. A decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. In order for individuals and their families to make an informed decision, they should be provided with the best available evidence regarding the known benefits and risks. ???

Moses, S.; Bailey, R. C.; Ronald, A. R.

1998-01-01

172

Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1993-01-01

173

[Burnout and mobbing risk for health professionals].  

PubMed

Burnout is one important consequence of worker stress and is associated with lower moral, reduced job performance, low productivity, absenteeism, job turnover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burnout level and all its related aspects among health professionists in the Rimini county. All personnel described their experiences in the Maslach Burnout Inventory test (791 questionnaires) and in the Mobbing Perception test (791 questionnaires). The median age of the workers was 38.5 years, 151 were male and 640 female, about 93% were full time workers. On average health professionists reported to have a good relationship with patients, a good work expectations but to experience a relatively high stress index. This study underlined the importance to improve occupational conditions adopting staff-support interventions for the management of stress and conflicts among heath operators. PMID:16436225

Santullo, Antonietta; Rebecchi, Elisabetta

2005-01-01

174

Compounding conservatisms: EPA's health risk assessment methods  

SciTech Connect

Superfund conjures up images of hazardous waste sites, which EPA is spending billions of dollars to remediate. One of the law's most worrisome effects is that it drains enormous economic resources without returning commensurate benefits. In a Sept. 1, 1991, front page article in The New York Times, experts argued that most health dangers at Superfund sites could be eliminated for a fraction of the billions that will be spent cleaning up the 1,200 high-priority sites across the country. Even EPA has suggested that the Superfund program may receive disproportionate resources, compared with other public health programs, such as radon in houses, the diminishing ozone layer and occupational diseases. Public opinion polls over the last decade consistently have mirrored the public's vast fear of hazardous waste sites, a fear as great as that held for nuclear power plants. Fear notwithstanding, the high cost of chosen remedies at given sites may have less to do with public health goals than with the method EPA uses to translate them into acceptable contaminant concentrations in soil, groundwater and other environmental media.

Stackelberg, K. von; Burmaster, D.E. (Alceon Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

175

WHO health risk assessment process for static fields.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) has a commitment to helping Member States achieve safe, sustainable and health-enhancing human environments, protected from biological, chemical and physical agents. The latter includes advising on the health impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and radiation. The results of the WHO/ICNIRP/NRPB workshop on static magnetic fields, published in this volume, provide a valuable and much needed contribution to the health risk assessment of exposure to static electric and magnetic fields, which is currently being coordinated by the WHO's International EMF Project. This WHO health risk assessment will be published as an environmental health criteria (EHC) monograph in early 2005. This paper briefly gives an overview of the process of developing the WHO static fields EHC monograph, the criteria applied to studies that could contribute to the EHC, along with the 'weight-of-evidence' approach to health risk assessment. In addition, there is an increasing awareness of the need to account for uncertainty in the science database. This is traditionally addressed by further research, and the EMF project addresses these needs through the development of a 'research agenda'. However, research programmes may take several years to complete, and the long latency associated with diseases such as cancer in people may also preclude a rapid outcome in some studies. The issue of current uncertainty is being addressed by the WHO EMF project through the development of a 'precautionary framework' in which precautionary measures will be applied to policy recommendations. PMID:15556671

van Deventer, T E; Saunders, R; Repacholi, M H

2005-01-01

176

Self-Selection in Responding to a Health Risk Appraisal: Are We Preaching to the Choir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the health risk appraisal (HRA) has been widely adopted as a procedure to improve health behaviors, there is only limited empirical evidence that these quantitative risk messages have any effect. The level of participation of high risk individual...

D. S. Nice S. W. Conway

1989-01-01

177

Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007  

EPA Science Inventory

This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

178

Human Health Research Program: Approaches for evaluating public health outcomes of risk management decisions  

EPA Science Inventory

Research to develop tools to link the enactment and implementation of environmental risk mitigation actions such as rules, regulations, or educational outreach to measurable changes in exposure to toxicants and subsequent health effects. Research in this area includes the develo...

179

Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

2013-01-01

180

Health Risk Assessment of Irradiated Topaz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-produced blue topaz, indistinguishable from natural blue topaz, is produced by several different techniques. Published information on radionuclides present, activity levels, equipment necessary to detect activated nuclides and dosimetric assessment is lacking. Using a 60 megawatt nuclear reactor, fifty-one samples of colorless topaz from Nigeria, Sri Lanka, India and Brazil were irradiated with thermal and fast neutron fluences ranging from 1.8 times 10 13 to 9.2 times 1018 neutrons cm^{-2}. Seventeen MeV electrons produced by a linear accelerator were also used to irradiate 36 colorless topaz from the same countries. Gamma ray or positron-emitting nuclides were identified using calibrated well-type NaI or germanium detectors. For germanium detectors having relative efficiencies of approximately 20 percent, an analysis time of one hour or more was needed. Geiger Mueller (G-M) detectors, scintillators (plastic and liquid), gas flow proportional counters, a ZnS detector and autoradiography techniques were used to measure charged particle activity. Isotopes produced from neutron activation included 182Ta, ^ {59}Fe, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 124Sb, ^{32 }P, 77As, ^ {183}Ta, 77Ge, 72Ga, and ^{24 }Na. Possible nuclides produced from 17 MeV electron treatment include ^{68 }Ga, 64Cu, ^ {49}Cr, and 18F. Positive identification of the electron activated nuclides was not possible because of the short half-lives involved (<1 day). Of the possible pure beta emitters activated during neutron bombardment, 32P and 35S are the most likely to be produced. The identification of 32P was made using a three point beta absorption analysis with a G-M detector. Skin and breast cancer risk estimates were calculated for various sized topaz containing NRC exempt concentration levels. When compared to a negligible individual risk level (NIRL) of 10^{-7}, the risk of an irradiated topaz in contact with the skin or three inches from breast tissue was a small fraction of the NIRL. At a risk level of 10^{ -7}, nuclides identified in topaz with a table facet area of greater than approximately 0.5 cm ^2 can be detected at twice background levels using a shielded G-M detector having a window thickness of 1.4 to 2.0 mg cm^{-2}.

Nelson, Kevin Lyle

1991-06-01

181

A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.  

PubMed

Abstract The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources. PMID:25070413

Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

2014-08-01

182

Health Risks Caused by Particulate Emission During Laser Cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air contaminants which emerge during laser ablation often cause health risks if released in the workplace and decrease laser cleaning efficiency if redeposited at the material surface. In addition, ultra-fine particles are generated if short pulses are applied. Consequently, a description of the nano-particle aerosol generation and the influence of laser parameters and material surface on the nano-particle size distribution are given in this paper. The high respirability of such particles can pose health risks, so suitable capture systems near the processing zone or personal protective equipment such as respiratory masks are required.

Ostrowski, Roman; Barcikowski, St.; Marczak, J.; Ostendorf, A.; Strzelec, M.; Walter, J.

183

Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight.

Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2010-01-01

184

The mental health Risk Assessment and Management Process (RAMP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Risk Assessment and Management ,Process (RAMP) is a whole-school process for the assessment,and management ,of student’s mental ,health and ,wellbeing ,in primary ,and secondary schools. A process,evaluation revealed that RAMP was implemented,as intended across six primary and three secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Using the RAMP risk and protective factors monitoring form and screening processes, each school identified

Alison L. Shortt; Susan Fealy; John W. Toumbourou

185

Food safety risks and consumer health.  

PubMed

The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor. PMID:20621653

Chassy, Bruce M

2010-11-30

186

Health risks among Japanese men with moderate body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the westernized lifestyle, most Japanese are not prominently obese. As their obesity may be obscured, we want to further explore central fat distribution and health risks among this population.METHODS: 2668 men (body mass index (BMI) 20–<26.4 kg\\/m2) were identified from 3343 men (BMI 14.0–37.7, median of waist?to?height ratio (W\\/Ht) 0.50) who underwent routine health examinations. They were divided

SD Hsieh; H Yoshinaga; T Muto; Y Sakurai; K Kosaka

2000-01-01

187

Improving the use of epidemiologic data in health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. This lack of exposure measures creates confusion in interpreting epidemiologic data and therefore has impeded its efficient use in health risk analysis. This paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. It also describes the larger role of epidemiology in reducing uncertainties in risk analysis. The approach recognizes that the various designs used to increase statistical power and to control for covariables have different functions in contemporary risk assessment as practiced by regulatory agencies. Each of these study designs is categorized for its role in risk analysis as useful for hazard identification or for dose-response assessment. Studies presenting geographic correlations are construed to be not directly useful in health risk assessment. The numerical level of the exposure data is a deciding factor in using valid epidemiologic studies. However, data measured on an ordinal scale can be used in qualitative assessments and can demonstrate the strength of the relationship. The application of this procedure is illustrated using epidemiologic studies on the carcinogenicity of chemicals contaminated with dioxins.

Erdreich, L.S.; Burnett, C.

1985-12-01

188

A profile of health risks among blue-collar workers.  

PubMed

Despite national objectives for extending health promotion programs to blue-collar workers and to small work sites, baseline behavior information for planning such programs is lacking. This study seeks to describe the health risks and norms specific to a population of male, blue-collar gas pipeline workers in remote sites. These workers (n = 395) completed a health risk appraisal and a "health gauge" survey designed to measure nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, participatory patterns in health-enhancing activities, group norms, and change efforts. Selected behaviors were similar to those of other Texas men (eg, smoking 27% versus 26%) although others were not (eg, smokeless tobacco 18% versus 8%). Multivariate analysis confirmed the relationship of friends' behavior patterns, risk-taking, and interpersonal experience to four lifestyle health behaviors. With 75% or more of workers expressing an interest in various programs, the findings suggest that programming for this population can be successful if tailored to current behaviors and the worksite culture. PMID:1552385

Gottlieb, N H; Weinstein, R P; Baun, W B; Bernacki, E J

1992-01-01

189

Facility siting and health questions: the burden of health risk uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted several evaluations of occupational health problems at or near hazardous waste disposal facilities. Several examples illustrate the variety of public health concerns, including contamination of water supplies, airborne exposure to toxic substances for nearby residential areas, fires affecting nearby residents and local firefighters, and occupational health hazards for workers at these sites. Most of the potential health problems can be prevented with appropriate planning, orientation, and monitoring of the facility. The most difficult part is assuring the community that the design and operation will minimize risks.

Melius, J.M.; Costello, R.J.; Kominsky, J.R.

1984-01-01

190

Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America?s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

191

Discovery of Health Risks and Case-Based Forecasting of Epidemics in a Health Surveillance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the methodology and the architecture of an early warning system which fulfills the following tasks. (1) discovering of health risks, (2) forecasting of the temporal and spatial spread of epidemics and (3) estimating of the consequences of an epidemic w.r.t. the personnel load and costs of the public health service. To cope this three task

Mathias Bull; Günther Kundt; Lothar Gierl

1997-01-01

192

Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

Emerson, Eric

2011-01-01

193

Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.  

PubMed

Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must consider travel time, the duration of rush-hour, congestion-specific emission estimates, and uncertainties. PMID:23500830

Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

2013-04-15

194

Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.  

PubMed

We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

2012-01-01

195

Observations on work force and training needs for assessing environmental health risks  

SciTech Connect

The continuing discoveries of hazardous waste sites have stimulated environmental health risk assessment efforts in State and local environmental health agencies. Elements of risk assessment are defined, showing how risk assessment interfaces with risk management. Environmental health risk assessment involves work components (tasks, activities, and technologies), the worker (position, classification, and occupation), and work organization (purpose, outputs, and objectives). Information from six State agencies was used to describe current State government experiences with environmental health risk assessment. Education and risk assessment are described, particularly as they relate to schools of public health and the role of continuing education for the public health work force.

DeRoos, R.L.; Anderson, P.N.; Berberich, N.J.; Maugans, B.; Omenn, G.S.; Rentos, P.G.

1988-07-01

196

Health and safety risk analyses: information for better decisions  

SciTech Connect

Knowing the nature and magnitude of health and safety risks is helpful in setting priorities as well as in making decisions about pursuing recreational activities, foods, jobs, and other aspects of everyday living. Risk-risk situations require a choice among risky alternatives. How safe situations involve a more general choice as to how much of other desired activities to sacrifice for increased safety. How safe situations are inherently more difficult to manage, because they are subject to fuzzy thinking and rhetoric. The large uncertainties of current estimates must be conveyed explicitly to arrive at sensible decisions.

Lave, L.B.

1987-04-17

197

(Health risk assessment on environmental, occupational, and life style hazards)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler was invited to visit NIHS, Tokyo, Japan, to give a lecture to the NIHS staff; traveler then participated in the Symposium on Health Risk Assessment on Environmental, Occupational, and Life Style Hazards, Taipei, Taiwan. Recommendations of the symposium were summarized as: to establish a research institution for risk assessment on environmental, occupational, and life style hazards; to establish a comprehensive data base for risk assessment associated with the above discipline for further information analysis; to establish public confidence through the risk assessment practice advisory committee to ensure scientific technical expertise; and to communicate the results of risk assessments through mass media and enhance public awareness of environmental contamination and associated social and economic impacts.

Lu, Po-Yung.

1989-01-10

198

Health risk behavior of rural secondary school students in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs. PMID:11575689

Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P

2001-10-01

199

Health benefits and risks of plant proteins.  

PubMed

Plant proteins have a reduced content of essential amino acids in comparison to animal proteins. A significant reduction of limiting amino acids (methionine, lysine, tryptophan) means lower protein synthesis. In subjects with predominant or exclusive consumption of plant food a higher incidence of hypoproteinemia due to significant reduction of methionine and lysine intakes was observed. On the other hand, lower intake of these amino acids provides a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease via cholesterol regulation by an inhibited hepatic phospholipid metabolism. Vegetarians have a significantly higher intake of non-essential amino acids arginine and pyruvigenic amino acids glycine, alanine, serine. When plant protein is high in non-essential amino acids, down-regulation of insulin and up-regulation of glucagon is a logical consequence. The action of glucagon in the liver is mediated by stimulation of adenyl cyclase that raises cyclic-AMP (adenosine-3,5-monophosphate) concentrations. Cyclic-AMP down-regulates the synthesis of a number of enzymes required for de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, up-regulates key gluconeogenic enzymes and the LDL receptors and decreases the IGF-1 activity (insulin-like growth factor). Cyclic-AMP thus provides a reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors as well as a retardation of cancer development. A sufficient consumption of plant proteins has the protective effects against chronic degenerative diseases (Tab. 2, Ref. 26). PMID:16201743

Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Valachovicova, M

2005-01-01

200

Cardiovascular Health Informatics: Risk Screening and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient.

Hartley, Craig J.; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S.; Poon, Carmen C. Y.; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2014-01-01

201

The Aggregate Risk Index: An intuitive tool providing the health risks of air pollution to health care community and public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European project PASODOBLE (FP7), we set up downstream information services by combining environmental and health data with a view to support the health care community and to improve vulnerable people welfare. Indeed there is a profound relationship between human health, well-being and air pollution levels. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air quality, exposure of populations and their reactivity, to develop and validate air quality indexes and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. This index will be implemented on 3 European sites: Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki), the Netherlands and "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (South East of France). The selected region and cities are among the most affected by the atmospheric pollution in Europe and leads to serious sanitary concerns. The service aims to provide up-to-date, detailed information on air quality discomfort. The Aggregate Risk Index is based on the Cairncross's concept, obtained from the Relative Risk associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants and takes into account the possible effects of a mixture of pollutants. This communication tool, easy to use and intuitive, about the levels of air pollution and the associated health risks, will be used to communicate information to the general population, authorities and to the health care community and will provide advanced warning of potentially health-damaging air pollution events.

Sicard, Pierre; Talbot, Charles; Lesne, Olivia; Mangin, Antoine; Alexandre, Nicolas; Collomp, Rémy

2012-01-01

202

Environmental and Human Health Risks of Aerosolized Silver Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are gaining attention from the academic and regulatory communities, not only because of their antimicrobial effects and subsequent product applications, but also because of their potential health and environmental risks. Whereas AgNPs in the aqueous phase are under intensive study, those in the atmosphere have been largely overlooked, although it is well established that inhalation of nanoparticles

Marina E. Quadros; Linsey C. Marr; Krzysztof Pikon´; Krzysztof Gaska; Lingjuan Wang; Edgar Oviedo-Rondon; John Small; Zifei Liu; Brian Sheldon; Gerald Havenstein; C. Williams; Di Tian; Daniel Cohan; Sergey Napelenok; Michelle Bergin; Yongtao Hu; Michael Chang; Armistead Russell; Ye Xu; Guohe Huang; Xiaosheng Qin; Kuo-Pin Yu; Grace Lee; Guo-Hao Huang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; William Vizuete; Leiran Biton; Harvey Jeffries; Evan Couzo; Yi-Chi Chien; Chenju Liang; Shou-Heng Liu; Shu-Hua Yang; Maciej Kryza; Malgorzata Werner; Marek Blas; Anthony Dore; Mieczyslaw Sobik; Daniel Olsen; Morgan Kohls; Gregg Arney; Kaushlendra Singh; L. Risse; K. C. Das; John Worley; Sidney Thompson; Bryan Comer; James Corbett; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Earl Lee; Chris Prokop; James Winebrake

2010-01-01

203

Health Risk Assessment of 1,3-Butadiene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Health Risk Assessment of 1,3-Butadiene has been prepared to serve as a source document for Agencywide use. The exposure information included is an overview of the ambient exposures and exposure to populations adjacent to emission sources, without an...

1998-01-01

204

Health risk assessment of environmental exposure to trichloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

A review of the animal data showed trichloroethylene (TRI) to be of low acute toxicity. Repeated exposure showed that the target organs were the liver, and to a lesser extent, the kidney. TRI is not mutagenic or only marginally mutagenic. There is no evidence of fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. TRI is judged not to exhibit chronic neurotoxicity. Lifetime bioassays resulted in tumors in both the mouse and the rat. However, because of qualitative and quantitative metabolic differences between rodent and human, no one suitable tumor site can be chosen for human health risk assessment. In addition, of the several epidemiology studies, none has demonstrated a positive association for increased tumor incidence. A review of the health effects in humans shows TRI to be of low acute toxicity and, following chronic high doses, to be hepatotoxic. Environmental exposure to TRI is mainly via the atmosphere, while the contribution from exposure to drinking water and foodstuffs is negligible. The total body burden was calculated as 22 micrograms/day. The safety margin approach based on human health effects showed that TRI levels are well within the safety margin for the human no-observable-effect level (10,000 times lower). The total body burden represents a risk of 1.4 X 10(-5) by linearized multistage modeling. Therefore, by either methodological approach to risk assessment, the environmental occurrence of TRI does not represent a significant health risk to the general population or to the population in areas close to industrial activities. 66 references.

Brown, L.P.; Farrar, D.G.; de Rooij, C.G. (Epidemiology Unit, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire (England))

1990-02-01

205

Origins and Credibility of the Health Risk Assessment II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this case study is to document and describe the origins and credibility of the Health Risk Assessment II (HRA II). The unit of analysis was the HRA I, version II. The criterion for success was the establishment of a document stating the cur...

A. Bowman

2006-01-01

206

Characterization and Health Risk Assessment of Postmenopausal Women with Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmenopausal women with epilepsy represent an understudied patient population. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to characterize the impact of menopause on seizure activity and to conduct a health risk assessment. We conducted telephone interviews of 40 postmenopausal women with epilepsy concerning the effect of menopause on seizure frequency. We surveyed use of hormone replacement therapy, postmenopausal bone fractures,

James W. McAuley; Sapna J. Koshy; J. Layne Moore; Carolyn T. Peebles; Andrew L. Reeves

2000-01-01

207

Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

208

Health Risk Assessment and the Practice of Industrial Hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that there may be as many as 2000 airborne chemicals to which persons could be exposed in the workplace and in the community. Of these, occupational exposure limits have been set for approximately 700 chemicals, and only about 30 chemicals have limits for the ambient air. It is likely that some type of health risk assessment

DENNIS J. PAUSTENBACH

1990-01-01

209

Lognormal model for health risk assessment of fluctuating concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Health risk assessments of exposures to harmful materials increasingly are required because of legal and economic pressures. An important part of the procedure is the mathematical model for the dose-effects relationship. If a linear no-threshold relationship is assumed, then the mean of fluctuating concentrations may be used for the calculation of health risk. But the widely used PEL and TLV values assume a threshold relationship. For this and for nonlinear relationships the calculation with the use of the mean concentration is inaccurate, because higher concentrations produce disproportionately higher effects. An appropriate mathematical model based upon lognormal concentrations and probit effects is proposed. Rather than monitoring concentrations for unlikely high values, the method requires estimation of their geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. A health risk assessment than may be calculated simply and conveniently from the charts and tables provided. The method clarifies some issues and the specifics of utilizing and improving the required data. The model should be useful for assessing health risks from fluctuating concentrations of most toxic compounds.

Saltzman, B.E.

1987-02-01

210

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

211

Health Tip: Are You at Risk for an Exercise Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... for an Exercise Injury? Here are common risk factors (*this news item will not be available after 05/19/2014) By Diana Kohnle Tuesday, February 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Exercise and Physical Fitness Sports Safety (HealthDay News) -- You don't have to push ...

212

Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

2008-01-01

213

A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

214

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01

215

Childhood Obesity: Do Parents Recognize This Health Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined parents’ understanding of excess weight as a health risk, knowledge of healthy eating habits, and recognition of obesity in their children.Research Methods and Procedures: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed during well-care visits involving children 4 to 8 years of age at a pediatric faculty practice. Parents indicated their level of concern about excess weight and other

Debra Etelson; Donald A. Brand; Patricia A. Patrick; Anushree Shirali

2003-01-01

216

Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk to human health posed by contaminated soil in a residential area depends on the potential extent of exposure to soil and on the toxic properties of the contaminants. A detailed soil exposure analysis is presented for young children, older children, and adults living in a house surrounded by contaminated soil. From this analysis, a lifetime exposure model is

John K. Hawley

1985-01-01

217

Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to customization to include radioactive waste management or responses to catastrophic releases of radioactive material due to terrorist actions. (authors)

Garrahan, K.G. [EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Collie, S.L. [Tetra Tech, 350 N. St. Paul, Suite 2600, Dallas TX 75201 (United States)

2006-07-01

218

Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada.  

PubMed

In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization, were examined. For hazard characterization, since it is known that no direct human dose response data is available for L.monocytogenes, a flexible dose response model called the Weibull-Gamma model was evaluated. For the exposure assessment, pâté and soft cheese, both high-risk foods in terms of listeriosis infection, were used as prototypes in some of the models that were used. Using disappearance data for cheese and 100 g as a typical serving, the data suggested an average of 102 servings per capita, per year in Canada. As a rough approximation, for L. monocytogenes, reference ID10 and ID90 dose levels of response for both normal and high risk populations were given as 10(7) and 10(9) for normal individuals, and 10(5) and 10(7) for high-risk people. The corresponding dose response models were graphically displayed. These models exhibited a higher degree of susceptibility and less host/pathogen heterogeneity for the higher risk group. The range of doses between the ID10 and ID90 reference values corresponded roughly to levels associated with cases of listeriosis. In the risk characterization stage, dose response data was combined with some predictive growth modeling data of L. monocytogenes on pâté, assuming an initial exposure of a single cell for food stored at 4 degrees and 8 degrees C. Storage of pâté at 4 degrees C for more than 35 days resulted in a rapidly increasing risk for the high risk population, while storage at 8 degrees C produced a similar risk after about 13 days. In addition, an equation, used to calculate the average probability of acquiring human listeriosis in Canada from soft and semi-soft cheese consumption, was formulated. Computations derived from this equation indicated a substantial level consistency between reported data and assumptions of the risk assessment model. An important part of risk characterization or possibly risk management is characterizing the economic and social consequences of estimated risks. The total annual estimated cost of listeriosis illnesses and deaths in Canada was estimated to be between 11.1 and 12.6 million dollars. PMID:8856380

Farber, J M; Ross, W H; Harwig, J

1996-06-01

219

Women's health and the mass media: the reporting of risk.  

PubMed

News about women's health risks is prevalent in the mass media, and how that news is presented is important for the woman who uses it to make decisions about her health. Conferees at a Jacobs Institute symposium reviewed the presentation and discussion of risk factors in scientific articles and the subsequent translation of this information by the media to their consumers. The symposium participants made four major recommendations to improve the reporting of risk: 1) as information sources, the scientific community, institutions, and media organizations should share the responsibility of clearly presenting information on risk factors affecting women's health, 2) institutional public affairs officers, journal public affairs officers, and mass media editors should require that reports on single studies be placed within the context of current scientific knowledge, with limitations prominently described, 3) measures of absolute and relative risk should be interpretable by a general audience, and 4) news makers (the scientific community) and news writers (reporters and editors) should have more training opportunities to achieve a clearer understanding of the constraints on the news media and the limitations of science. PMID:8111235

Lebow, M; Arkin, E B

1993-01-01

220

Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the comprehensive World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) measles mortality–reduction strategy and the Measles Initiative, a partnership of international organizations supporting measles mortality reduction in Africa, certain high-burden countries continue to face recurrent epidemics. To our knowledge, few recent studies have documented measles mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of our study was to investigate measles mortality in three recent epidemics in Niamey (Niger), N'Djamena (Chad), and Adamawa State (Nigeria). Methods and Findings We conducted three exhaustive household retrospective mortality surveys in one neighbourhood of each of the three affected areas: Boukoki, Niamey, Niger (April 2004, n = 26,795); Moursal, N'Djamena, Chad (June 2005, n = 21,812); and Dong District, Adamawa State, Nigeria (April 2005, n = 16,249), where n is the total surveyed population in each of the respective areas. Study populations included all persons resident for at least 2 wk prior to the study, a duration encompassing the measles incubation period. Heads of households provided information on measles cases, clinical outcomes up to 30 d after rash onset, and health-seeking behaviour during the epidemic. Measles cases and deaths were ascertained using standard WHO surveillance-case definitions. Our main outcome measures were measles attack rates (ARs) and case fatality ratios (CFRs) by age group, and descriptions of measles complications and health-seeking behaviour. Measles ARs were the highest in children under 5 y old (under 5 y): 17.1% in Boukoki, 17.2% in Moursal, and 24.3% in Dong District. CFRs in under 5-y-olds were 4.6%, 4.0%, and 10.8% in Boukoki, Moursal, and Dong District, respectively. In all sites, more than half of measles cases in children aged under 5 y experienced acute respiratory infection and/or diarrhoea in the 30 d following rash onset. Of measles cases, it was reported that 85.7% (979/1,142) of patients visited a health-care facility within 30 d after rash onset in Boukoki, 73.5% (519/706) in Moursal, and 52.8% (603/1,142) in Dong District. Conclusions Children in these countries still face unacceptably high mortality from a completely preventable disease. While the successes of measles mortality–reduction strategies and progress observed in measles control in other countries of the region are laudable and evident, they should not overshadow the need for intensive efforts in countries that have just begun implementation of the WHO/UNICEF comprehensive strategy.

Grais, R. F; Dubray, C; Gerstl, S; Guthmann, J. P; Djibo, A; Nargaye, K. D; Coker, J; Alberti, K. P; Cochet, A; Ihekweazu, C; Nathan, N; Payne, L; Porten, K; Sauvageot, D; Schimmer, B; Fermon, F; Burny, M. E; Hersh, B. S; Guerin, P. J

2007-01-01

221

Process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders.  

PubMed Central

In most industrialized countries large numbers of workers are exposed to welding fumes. Although the general pattern of welders' health may not significantly differ from that of workers in other dusty industrial occupations which demonstrate elevated incidence of respiratory tract diseases with long latency periods, the extremely wide range of substances at potentially high concentrations produced by various welding technologies may give rise to undetected process-specific high-risk working conditions: ("hot spots"). The origin, prevalence and range of magnitude of such hot spots, especially for cancer of the respiratory tract, is discussed, with emphasis placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to Cr(VI) and Ni accompanying the use of various technologies for the welding of stainless and high alloy steels. The wide variation of health effects found within the industry, however, indicates the need for a standard protocol for future epidemiological studies, as well as for the development of suitable methodologies for experimental risk assessment.

Stern, R M

1981-01-01

222

Glossary of terms related to health, exposure, and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Many state and local agencies are developing or implementing programs to control emissions of toxic air pollutants. To successfully carry out these programs, agency personnel must be familiar with a wide range of issues and terms related to health, exposure, and risk assessment for toxic air pollutants. Understanding these issues and terms is not always an easy task. This glossary was prepared by the U.S. EPA's Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) as a resource tool for State and local air pollution control agencies and U.S. EPA Regional Offices. The purpose of the glossary is to define terms that are commonly used in health, exposure, and risk assessments for toxic air pollutants.

Not Available

1989-03-01

223

[Health risks of airborne particulate matter in children].  

PubMed

The chemical composition of particulate matter can be very diverse, comprising a range of toxic compounds. Exposure to airborne particulate matter has been considered a substantial health risk for two decades now. There is no scientific evidence for a safe exposure limit. Therefore, current exposure levels across Europe are reason for concern. Exposure to particulate matter in adults may cause severe respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is abundant epidemiological evidence that children, and younger children in particular, are more susceptible to the adverse effects of particular matter on health than adults. Short term exposure of children may already cause respiratory symptoms and allergic reactions. Environmental health policies reducing risks of exposure to particulate matter in children are recommended. PMID:24128602

Kleinjans, Jos C S

2013-01-01

224

Venous thromboembolism in women: a specific reproductive health risk.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Workshop Group. RESULTS VTE is a multifactorial disease with a baseline annual incidence around 50 per 100 000 at 25 years and 120 per 100 000 at age 50. Its major complication is pulmonary embolism, causing death in 1-2% of patients. Higher VTE risk is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together. In pregnancy, the risk of VTE is increased ~5-fold, while the use of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) doubles the risk and this relative risk is higher with the more recent pills containing desogestrel, gestodene and drospirenone when compared with those with levonorgestrel. Similarly, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians managing pregnancy or treating women for infertility or prescribing CHC and HRT should be aware of the increased risks of VTE and the need to take a careful medical history to identify additional co-existing risks, and should be able to diagnose VTE and know how to approach its prevention. PMID:23825156

2013-01-01

225

Visually Unacceptable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art is no more frozen for eternity than science, but public tolerance for artistic innovation is much lower than tolerance for change in other fields. More education about art would make us better able to analyze our existence and identify its nature more accurately. (IS)

Griffith, Peg

1983-01-01

226

Key Scientific Issues in the Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology.

Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

2006-01-01

227

Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences  

SciTech Connect

Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

1986-10-01

228

Health risk assessment for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-03-01

229

Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption.

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-01-01

230

Report Shows Combining Drug Use with Underage Drinking Raises Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... shows combining drug use with underage drinking raises health risks Underage drinkers (ages 12 to 20) who were ... million underage drinkers across America are putting their health and futures at risk – even more so when they combine alcohol with ...

231

Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners Search the ... including questions about whether these systems pose any health risks. However, FDA Engineer Daniel Kassiday says, "The dose ...

232

[Risk factors and health effects in the land transport sector].  

PubMed

The transport is a particularly complex sector. There are companies of different size that perform public or private transport, by road or rail, goods or passengers. Companies involved in the sector in Italy are 137,394 with 1,121,203 workers. There are also about 150,000 workers of auxiliary services and an unknown number of workers engaged in intra-companies transportation of goods. The main risk factors are those due to the high probability of accidents, the presence of noise and vibration, ergonomic aspects, work-related stress. Health surveillance is carried out by various organizations and individuals identified by the rules. Medical controls for professional driving licence are performed by local authorities and preventive and periodic health surveillance and medical fitness about occupational risk according to the law (Legislative Decree 81/08) depends on the responsibility of the company physician. PMID:23213816

Cristaudo, A

2012-01-01

233

Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

2011-01-01

234

Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors Among African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective\\u000a factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural\\u000a equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder,\\u000a and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was

Nikeea Copeland-Linder; Sharon F. Lambert; Yi-Fu Chen; Nicholas S. Ialongo

2011-01-01

235

Exposure to airborne amphibole structures and health risks: Libby, Montana.  

PubMed

Libby, Montana is the site of a large vermiculite deposit that was mined between 1920 and 1990 to extract vermiculite for commercial applications such as insulation, gardening products, and construction materials. The Libby vermiculite deposit also contains amphibole minerals including tremolite, actinolite, richterite, and winchite. Historically, Libby mine workers experienced high exposures to amphibole structures, and, as a group, have experienced the health consequences of those occupational exposures. It has been suggested that Libby residents also have been and continue to be exposed to amphibole structures released during the vermiculite mining operations and therefore are at increased risk for disease. The Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted two epidemiological-type studies of residents living in Libby and the surrounding areas to assess these risks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed exposure data in Libby and used those data to project risks of asbestos-associated disease for Libby residents. The EPA has placed the Libby Asbestos Site, which includes the mine and the town of Libby, on its National Priority List of hazardous waste sites in need of clean up. This article presents a review of the exposure studies conducted in Libby and an analysis of health risks based on the data collected in those studies. Libby mine workers have experienced elevated levels of asbestos-associated disease as a consequence of their occupational exposures to amphibole structures. Libby residents' exposures typically are substantially lower than mine workers' historical exposures, and the health risk projections for residents are, accordingly, substantially lower. PMID:18006127

Price, Bertram

2008-10-01

236

A multiple source approach to acute human health risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has developed in a three-tiered approach to perform an acute noncarcinogenic health risk assessment to comply with requirements contained in USEPA`s Addendum to the Methodology for Assessing health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions`. The addendum document drafted in November 1993 suggests evaluation of short-term emissions and exposures, but it does not provide necessary guidance or methodology. This evaluation becomes extremely complex when several sources contribute to the overall concentration of contaminants in the air. Because each source has a different emission rate, location, and dispersion profile, the compound-specific maximum concentrations are rarely located at the same receptor location, as determined by using the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCT3) dispersion model. Furthermore, evaluation of hazard quotients at various receptor locations from a large number of contaminants from multiple sources is an extremely complex and tedious process. This paper will detail a three-tiered approach which was developed to perform the acute risk assessment, quantify possible advantages and disadvantages associated with each tier, and demonstrate the effects of contributing factors, such as distance, emission rate variability, population/exposure scenarios, and compound speciation. In order to accomplish this task, a sample facility with four different combustion sources was modeled and processed according to the three-tiered approach.

Mower, B. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)] [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1998-12-31

237

Health benefits and possible risks of broccoli - an overview.  

PubMed

Chemopreventive effects of broccoli, a highly valued vegetable, have been known for a long time. Several studies have demonstrated that broccoli might be beneficial by reducing the risk for the development of certain forms of cancer. These effects are generally attributed to glucosinolate-derived degradation products like isothiocyanates and indoles which are formed by the hydrolytic action of plant myrosinase and/or glucosidases deriving from the human microbial flora. However, recent in vitro and experimental animal studies indicate that broccoli, its extracts and the glucosinolate-derived degradation products might also have undesirable effects, especially genotoxic activities. However, the relevance of the genotoxic activities to human health is not known yet. This paper gives an overview on genotoxic, anti-genotoxic/chemopreventive, nutritive and antinutritive properties of broccoli, its ingredients and their degradation products. A qualitative comparison of the benefit and risk of broccoli consumption benefit-risk assessment shows that the benefit from intake in modest quantities and in processed form outweighs potential risks. For other preparations (fortified broccoli-based dietary supplements, diets with extraordinary high daily intake, consumption as a raw vegetable) further studies both for potential risks and beneficial effects are needed in order to assess the benefit and risk in the future. PMID:21906651

Latté, Klaus Peter; Appel, Klaus-Erich; Lampen, Alfonso

2011-12-01

238

Global health risks and cosmopolitisation: from emergence to interference.  

PubMed

According to Beck's 'World at Risk' theory, global risks push nations towards a cosmopolitisation of their health policy and open opportunities for a democratic turn. This article provides an empirical analysis of Beck's theory, based on the experience of Vietnamese authorities from 2003 to 2007 in managing the emerging avian flu virus. It shows how Vietnam's framing of avian flu has shifted, under the pressure from international organisations and the US administration, from an epizootic and zoonotic risk (or a classic risk) to a pandemic threat (or a late modern risk). Vietnam's response was part of its overall strategy to join the World Trade Organization and it was limited by Vietnam's defence of its sovereignty. This strategy has been successful for Vietnam but has limited the possibility of cosmopolitan and democratic transformations. The case study highlights the constructed dimension of risks of late modernity and their possible instrumentalisation: it minimises the role of a community of fear relative to a community of trade. PMID:23517415

Figuié, Muriel

2013-02-01

239

Integrating human health and ecological concerns in risk assessments.  

PubMed

The interconnections between ecosystems, human health and welfare have been increasingly recognized by the US government, academia, and the public. This paper continues this theme by addressing the use of risk assessment to integrate people into a single assessment. In a broad overview of the risk assessment process we stress the need to build a conceptual model of the whole system including multiple species (humans and other ecological entities), stressors, and cumulative effects. We also propose converging landscape ecology and evaluation of ecosystem services with risk assessment to address these cumulative responses. We first look at how this integration can occur within the problem formulation step in risk assessment where the system is defined, a conceptual model created, a subset of components and functions selected, and the analytical framework decided in a context that includes the management decisions. A variety of examples of problem formulations (salmon, wild insects, hyporheic ecosystems, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, nitrogen fertilization, toxic chemicals, and oil spills) are presented to illustrate how treating humans as components of the landscape can add value to risk assessments. We conclude that the risk assessment process should help address the urgent needs of society in proportion to importance, to provide a format to communicate knowledge and understanding, and to inform policy and management decisions. PMID:10978558

Cirone, P A; Bruce Duncan, P

2000-11-01

240

Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies using such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective: This commentary describes a collaborative effort among several federal and state agencies to advance the next generation of risk assessment. The objective of the NexGen program is to begin to incorporate recent progress in molecular and systems biology into risk assessment practice. The ultimate success of this program will be based on the incorporation of new practices that facilitate faster, cheaper, and/or more accurate assessments of public health risks. Methods: We are developing prototype risk assessments that compare the results of traditional, data-rich risk assessments with insights gained from new types of molecular and systems biology data. In this manner, new approaches can be validated, traditional approaches improved, and the value of different types of new scientific information better understood. Discussion and Conclusions: We anticipate that these new approaches will have a variety of applications, such as assessment of new and existing chemicals in commerce and the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Additionally, results of the effort are likely to spur further research and test methods development. Full implementation of new approaches is likely to take 10–20 years.

Anastas, Paul T.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Clark, Rebecca M.; Dix, David J.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Preuss, Peter W.

2012-01-01

241

Health and health risks among sexual minority women: an examination of 3 subgroups.  

PubMed

We used 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to examine insurance status, source of routine care, cigarette and alcohol use, and self-rated health among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women who have sex with women, compared with heterosexual women who do not have sex with women. We found higher risks of being uninsured among lesbian and bisexual women, worse self-rated health among bisexual women, higher alcohol use among bisexual and heterosexual women who have sex with women, and higher smoking across all subgroups. PMID:24825204

Przedworski, Julia M; McAlpine, Donna D; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; VanKim, Nicole A

2014-06-01

242

Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.  

PubMed

Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

2005-01-01

243

Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care  

PubMed Central

High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks.

Hudson, P

2003-01-01

244

The EPA health risk assessment of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT).  

PubMed

This paper describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assessment of potential health risks associated with the possible widespread use of a manganese (Mn)-based fuel additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT). This assessment was significant in several respects and may be instructive in identifying certain methodological issues of general relevance to risk assessment. A major feature of the inhalation health risk assessment was the derivation of Mn inhalation reference concentration (RfC) estimates using various statistical approaches, including benchmark dose and Bayesian analyses. The exposure assessment component used data from the Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study and other sources to estimate personal exposure levels of particulate Mn attributable to the permitted use of MMT in leaded gasoline in Riverside, CA, at the time of the PTEAM study; on this basis it was then possible to predict a distribution of possible future exposure levels associated with the use of MMT in all unleaded gasoline. Qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of the risk characterization are summarized, along with inherent uncertainties due to data limitations. PMID:9523444

Davis, J M; Jarabek, A M; Mage, D T; Graham, J A

1998-02-01

245

Health Risks of Heavy Metals through Consumption of Greenhouse Vegetables Grown in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated heavy metal (HM) concentrations in vegetables may pose serious health risks to humans. There is limited information on health risks associated with HM contaminants in greenhouse vegetables. The objective of this study was to estimate the health risks of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr via consumption of greenhouse cucumbers and bell peppers produced in Iran using the total non-cancer

F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; R. Schulin

2009-01-01

246

Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk Behaviors: A Prospective Analysis of College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…

Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.

2008-01-01

247

Focusing on Children's Inhalation Dosimetry and Health Effects for Risk Assessment: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children's health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children's health assessment is constantly advancing, indicating the need for continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children's inhalation dosimetry and child-specific adverse health effects are of particular concern for risk assessment. When focusing on this topic within

Brenda Foos; Melanie Marty; Joel Schwartz; William Bennett; Jacqueline Moya; Annie M. Jarabek; Andrew G. Salmon

2007-01-01

248

Oral health and mortality risk in the institutionalised elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly.

Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, Jose A.; Willumsen, Tiril

2012-01-01

249

Multiple Health-Risk Behaviour and Psychological Distress in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a school-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Method: Self-reported data of demographics, weight status, physical activity, screen-time, diet, substance use, and psychological distress were derived from a representative sample of 2935 students in grades 9 to 12 (Mage = 15.9 years) from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results: Overall prevalence of psychological distress was 35.1%. Significant associations were shown between psychological distress and the following: being female, tobacco use, not meeting physical activity and screen-time recommendations, and inadequate consumption of breakfast and vegetables. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for targeting greater physical health promotion for adolescents at risk of mental health problems.

Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Faulkner, Guy E.; Irving, Hyacinth M.

2012-01-01

250

5 CFR 9901.343 - Pay reduction based on unacceptable performance and/or conduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay reduction based on unacceptable performance and/or conduct. 9901.343 Section...PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9901.343 Pay reduction...

2010-01-01

251

5 CFR 9901.343 - Pay reduction based on unacceptable performance and/or conduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Pay reduction based on unacceptable performance and/or conduct. 9901.343 Section...PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9901.343 Pay reduction...

2009-01-01

252

Factors Affecting the Unacceptability of Suicide and the Effects of Evaluator Depression and Religiosity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catholic college students (n=282) evaluated scenarios that manipulated precipitating illness and gender of suicide victim. Variables affecting the evaluator, such as gender, mood state, and religiosity, were also considered. Results indicated that the unacceptability of suicide is a function of precipitating illness and gender of victim as well as…

Lo Presto, Charles T.; And Others

1995-01-01

253

The Perfect Place to Work? Australian Academic Libraries and Unacceptable Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the stereotype of libraries as peaceful retreats, unacceptable behaviour is a reality that desk staff have to deal with. This paper outlines the results of two surveys conducted at Charles Darwin University Library to investigate the extent to which this is a problem in Australian academic libraries. The first survey went to CAUL (Council…

Moorcroft, Heather

2009-01-01

254

IMPACT OF FDA DRUG RISK COMMUNICATIONS ON HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION AND HEALTH BEHAVIORS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW  

PubMed Central

Objective To review literature on the impact of FDA drug risk communications on medication utilization, health care services use, and health outcomes. Data Sources The authors searched MEDLINE and the Web of Science for manuscripts published between January 1990 and November 2010 that included terms related to drug utilization, the FDA, and advisories or warnings. We manually searched bibliographies and works citing selected articles and consulted with experts to guide study selection. Study Selection Studies were included if they involved an empirical analysis evaluating the impact of an FDA risk communication. Data Extraction We extracted the drug(s) analyzed, relevant FDA communication(s), data source, analytical method, and main outcome(s) assessed. Results Of the 1432 records screened, 49 studies were included. These studies covered sixteen medicines or therapeutic classes; one-third examined communications regarding antidepressants. Most used medical or pharmacy claims and few rigorously examined patient-provider communication, decision-making or risk perceptions. Advisories recommending increased clinical or laboratory monitoring generally led to decreased drug use, but only transient and modestly increased monitoring. Communications targeting specific subpopulations often spilled over to other groups. Repeated or sequential advisories tended to have larger but delayed effects and decreased incident more than prevalent use. Drug-specific warnings were associated with particularly large decreases in utilization, though the magnitude of substitution within therapeutic classes varied across clinical contexts. Conclusions While some FDA drug risk communications had immediate, strong impacts, many had either delayed or no impact on health care utilization or health behaviors. These data demonstrate the complexity of using risk communication to improve the quality and safety of prescription drug use, and suggest the importance of continued assessments of the effect of future advisories and label changes. Identifying factors that are associated with rapid and sustained responses to risk communications will be important for informing future risk communication efforts.

Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Higashi, Ashley S.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Conti, Rena; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Zhu, Shu; Garfield, Craig F.; Alexander, G. Caleb

2012-01-01

255

76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied...considerations for conducting human health risk assessments on potential...

2011-05-26

256

77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment To Inform Decision Making...draft of ``A Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are...

2012-07-30

257

77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making...document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision...

2012-09-12

258

Applying an equity lens to child health and mortality: more of the same is not enough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaps in child mortality between rich and poor countries are unacceptably wide and in some areas are becoming wider, as are the gaps between wealthy and poor children within most countries. Poor children are more likely than their better-off peers to be exposed to health risks, and they have less resistance to disease because of undernutrition and other hazards typical

Cesar G Victora; Adam Wagstaff; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Davidson Gwatkin; Mariam Claeson

259

Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception  

PubMed Central

Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (P<.001); social factors, including media attention (P<.001); private resources, including life quality (P<.001) and health lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)—have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the contribution of social factors to the public health risk perception levels by state (R2=23.37%). The interaction effects between flu incidence and social factors for our search terms did not add to the explanatory power of our regression models (R2<1%). Conclusions Our study suggests a practical way to measure the public’s health risk perception for certain diseases using online information search volume by state. The social environment influences public risk perception regardless of disease incidence. Thus, monitoring the social variables can be very helpful in being ready to respond to the public’s behavior in dealing with public health threats.

Scammon, Debra L

2013-01-01

260

Health Canada's approach to manage risks to populations at risk during a radiological emergency.  

PubMed

The approach that Health Canada uses to manage risks to individuals and to populations who might be exposed to ionising radiation is based upon the risk management paradigm. The paradigm differs little between an emergency and a non-emergency situations. In both events, technical experts assess the risk by determining the exposure to the source of radiation. They usually calculate the radiation dose and then assess the potential for any health effects. The initial technical assessments often use scoping calculations. The calculations for children recognise that they are smaller and have different metabolic rates and different behaviour from adults. However, most rigorous quantitative models for dosimetry do not differentiate between children and adults. The risk assessments that were conducted to evaluate the contamination of Canadians who were in London during the Litvenenko poisoning are a good example to illustrate this general approach. The scoping risk assessment concluded that the risks to children and adults were low. No Canadian children were exposed to polonium during this event and, to date, there have been no radiation emergencies in Canada where children have been exposed to a significant source of radiation. Therefore, the comparisons between theory and practice are very limited and conclusions are drawn from international experience and other incidents or sources of radiation exposure such as radon and medical exposures. PMID:20935075

Cornett, R Jack; Kramer, Gary H

2010-11-01

261

Patterns of Health-Risk Behavior among Japanese High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed Japanese high school students' health risk behavior patterns, examining clustering and accumulation of health risk behaviors. Physical inactivity and alcohol use were the most common risk behaviors. Prevalence rates for most risk behaviors varied by demographic variables. Smoking, drinking, and sexual intercourse clustered among both…

Takakura, Minoru; Nagayama, Tomoko; Sakihara, Seizo; Willcox, Craig

2001-01-01

262

Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

2014-01-01

263

40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable...that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on...

2013-07-01

264

77 FR 9842 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...discretion to Cargill Health and Food Technologies, until publication of a final rule...the risk of CHD health claim that, pending publication of a final rule...bear the authorized health claim until the publication of the final...

2012-02-21

265

Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

2014-07-01

266

Humour in health-care interactions: a risk worth taking.  

PubMed

Background? Humour is a complex, dynamic phenomenon that mainly occurs in social situations between two or more people. Most humour research reviews rehearsed as opposed to spontaneous humour and rarely review the patients' perspective. Aim? We explore patients' perspectives on the use of humour in health care. We discuss the asymmetrical and divergent humour use between patients and clinical nurse specialists and posit nurses' approaches to risk as a contributing factor. Design? A constructivist grounded theory collated researcher-provoked (interviews, observation, field notes, pre-and post-interaction audio diaries) and non-researcher-provoked data (naturally occurring interactions) over 18?months. This paper is based upon four patient focus groups. A constant comparison approach to data collection and analyses was applied using interpretative and illustrative frameworks that balanced what was 'known' and 'unknown' about humour. Setting and participants? Patients were recruited from four patient-peer groups. Three audio-taped (n?=?20) and one observed focus group interactions (n?=?12) were undertaken at the groups' regular meeting places. Results? Patients hold a broad appreciation of humour and recognize it as being evident in subtle and nuanced forms. Patients wish health-care staff to initiate and reciprocate humour. Conclusion? A chasm exists between what patients apparently want with regard to humour use in health-care interactions and what actually transpires. Initiating humour involves risk, and risk-taking requires a degree of self-esteem and confidence. Nurses are, arguably, risk-averse and have low self-esteem. Future research could review confidence and self-esteem markers with observed humour use in nurses and their interactions across a range of specialities. PMID:22212380

McCreaddie, May; Payne, Sheila

2014-06-01

267

Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

1994-05-01

268

[Risk Society and inequalities in the health of workers].  

PubMed

This is a reflection on the current health situation of workers, as well as a reflection on the characteristics of their care system in the context of a globalized world. In order to present this reflection, the first part is focused on the discussion of the main concepts of globalization and risk society. On the second part, and according to the conceptual framework established on the first part, a statistical perspective of workers' health around the world is suggested, emphasizing on the existing inequity between thought-to-be developed world and the developing or poor countries. On the next part, a discussion related to health insurance systems and their incompetence to tackle efficiently workers' health outcomes is established. On the final part, a reflection on the need to reframe the approach and action strategies for improving health status of workers and their families is suggested; this part of the reflection is focused on the recovery of "good life" and human sense of life. PMID:23258746

Tamez-González, Silvia; Pérez-Domínguez, Josué F

2012-06-01

269

A Comparison of Health Risk Behaviors among College Students Enrolled in a Required Personal Health Course vs. an Elective Personal Health Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on whether health education, specifically personal health classes affects behavior change is inconclusive. In this study, a sample of students from two large southeastern universities enrolled in a required personal health course and an elective personal health course were administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…

Smith, Theresa M. Enyeart; Skaggs, Gary E.; Redican, Kerry J.

2008-01-01

270

Risk perception and risk communication for training women apprentice welders: a challenge for public health nursing.  

PubMed

This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

2013-01-01

271

Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such as all text. Findings also suggest that factors influencing response to risk communications are impacted by personal risk perception, previous personal experience with risk, sources of information and trust in those sources. Conclusions No single method of message delivery is best. Risk communication strategies that incorporate the needs of the target audience(s) with a multi-faceted delivery method are most effective at reaching the audience.

2010-01-01

272

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

273

Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-09-01

274

Covariance among Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Methods Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other). Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. Results The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a ‘substance use risk factor’ and an ‘unhealthy eating and sedentary factor’. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. Conclusions Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.

de la Haye, Kayla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.

2014-01-01

275

[Cardiovascular risk factors on the Framingham Risk Score among hypertensive patients attended by family health teams].  

PubMed

The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is used to stratify cardiovascular risk. This study sought to identify the prevalence of risk factors used in the FRS and the use of drugs that reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). It is cross-sectional study, which evaluated a random sample of hypertensive patients in the FHS in northern Minas Gerais. Data were collected through interviews and from medical records. 505 hypertensive patients were evaluated in 9 municipalities of the region, with a predominance of women; 325 (64.4%), mean age of 66.4 years. In 90% of hypertensive patients there was at least one associated risk factor. The grouping of three or more factors occurred in 79 (15.7%) patients. Dyslipidemia was found in 188 (37.2%), diabetes in 101 (20%) and smoking in 36 (7.1%). The use of anti-hypertensive drugs was observed in 481 (95.2%) patients. The use of other cardioprotective drugs was higher among patients with 3 or more risk factors: 45.6% used antiplatelet and 27.8% used lipid-lowering drugs. The prevalence of risk factors from the FRS in the population studied was quite high and the use of cardioprotective drugs was seen to be restricted. Strategies to increase the use of FRS may improve the management of hypertension in the FHS. PMID:24897474

Pimenta, Henderson Barbosa; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

2014-06-01

276

[Professional biological risk factors of health care workers].  

PubMed

Health care workers are attributed to the group at highest risk of biological factors, as they are daily exposed to fluids of the human body. The risk of sharps injuries and exposure to blood is associated with bloodborne infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and type of professional biological risk factors, to evaluate the use of personal protective devices, application of immunoprophylaxis to health care workers in the surgical departments. METHODS. A retrospective study was carried out from January to June 2006. Data were collected in the surgical departments of Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine. An anonymous questionnaire survey was performed. RESULTS. More than half (51.4%) of the respondents experienced sharps injuries, 62.1% were exposed to biological fluids, and 39.6% of the workers experienced both injury and exposure. In all cases, the hands were injured during sharps injuries. Exposure of healthy skin and eyes to biological fluids occurred in 63% and 20% of the cases, respectively. Majority of exposures were blood splashes (60%). Physicians most frequently experienced sharps injury during the surgery (79.3%), nurses - during the preparation of instruments (35.1%), supporting staff - disposing the waste (75.8%). Commonly physicians were injured by surgical needles (72.4%), nurses - by needlestick (72.4%), and supporting staff - by glass waste (60.6%). Majority of the respondents (86%) were not vaccinated with HB vaccine. No personal protective equipment was used by 14.5% of the respondents during sharps injuries and 5% during exposures. CONCLUSIONS. More than half of the respondents experienced sharps injury or exposure to biological fluids during the study period. Physicians and nurses experience sharps injury and exposure to biological fluids more commonly as compared to supporting staff. Hepatitis B vaccination is insufficient among health care workers. PMID:19667747

Gailiene, Greta; Cenenkiene, Regina

2009-01-01

277

Estimates of health risk from exposure to radioactive pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A dosimetric and health effects analysis has been performed for the Office of Radiation Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential hazards from radioactive pollutants. Contemporary dosimetric methods were used to obtain estimates of dose rates to reference organs from internal exposures due to either inhalation of contaminated air or ingestion of contaminated food, or from external exposures due to either immersion in contaminated air or proximity to contaminated ground surfaces. These dose rates were then used to estimate the number of premature cancer deaths arising from such exposures and the corresponding number of years of life lost in a cohort of 100,000 persons, all simultaneously liveborn and all going through life with the same risks of dying from competing causes. The risk of dying from a competing cause for a given year was taken to be the probability of dying from all causes as given in a recent actuarial life table for the total US population.

Sullivan, R.E.; Nelson, N.S.; Ellett, W.H.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

1981-11-01

278

Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.  

PubMed

The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods. PMID:19146501

Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

2009-01-01

279

Wind turbines: is there a human health risk?  

PubMed

The term "Wind Turbine Syndrome" was coined in a recently self-published book, which hypothesized that a multitude of symptoms such as headache and dizziness resulted from wind turbines generating low frequency sound (LFS). The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the research that has examined the relationship between human health effects and exposure to LFS and sound generated from the operation of wind turbines. At present, a specific health condition has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature that has been classified as a disease caused by exposure to sound levels and frequencies generated by the operation of wind turbines. Communities are experiencing a heightened sense of annoyance and fear from the development and siting of wind turbine farms. High-quality research and effective risk communication can advance this course from one of panic to one of understanding and exemplification for other environmental advancements. PMID:23621051

Roberts, Jennifer D; Roberts, Mark A

2013-04-01

280

Dental Office Waste - Public Health and Ecological Risk  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk.

Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

2009-01-01

281

Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed Central

Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2.

Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

1985-01-01

282

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P. K.; Borak, T. B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J. E.; Eckerman, K. F.; Gundersen, L. C. S.; Harley, N. H.; Hess, C. T.; Kinner, N. E.; Kopecky, K. J.; Mckone, T. E.; Sextro, R. G.; Simon, S. L.

2000-01-01

283

Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.  

PubMed

The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia. PMID:18819679

Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

2008-08-01

284

Health-risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions: Trace metals  

SciTech Connect

The research presented in this dissertation centers on the development of a method for health risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions within the context of multiple exposure pathways and on its application to a problem of contemporary interest. The emphasis is on toxic metal emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. A comparison of the amount of metal emissions shows that toxic metal emissions from MSW incinerators are generally of the same order of magnitude as those from hazardous waste incinerators. A hazard index for stack emitted metals based on toxicity and quantity are developed in this dissertation to screen metals which are important from a risk view-point. From this hazard index, lead and mercury are added to the known carcinogenic metals, i.e., arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel as candidates for the assessment. The method presented in this dissertation consists of hazard identification and hazard quantification. If a substance is identified as a potential human carcinogen, the carcinogenicity may be related to the chemical form of a substance and the route of exposure. Regarding the carcinogenic potency of a pollutant, the chemical form of a substance and the route of exposure is investigated. This type of information with regard to carcinogenic uncertainty is incorporated into hazard quantification. The appropriate carcinogenic group of a pollutant is also identified. In order to quantify the human health risks for the 7 metals, the following are determined in this dissertation: emission factors; mass particle-size distributions; air dispersion models; exposure assessment models; population data; and unit risks or cancer potency factors.

Lee, Jinhong.

1990-01-01

285

Health Risk Assessment for Area 514 RCRA Closure  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a USDOE research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. The specific area that is the subject of this document, Area 514, was the location of active LLNL waste treatment facilities until November 2003, and the operations there were authorized under interim status. The site is being closed pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. The DTSC-approved ''Closure Plan for Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility, LLNL 2004'', states clean closure concentrations for certain organic compounds, metals and metalloids. if all soil samples contained measured concentrations less than these levels, it was agreed that the site would meet the requirements for clean closure. However, if the samples had measured concentrations greater than the clean closure levels, a more detailed risk assessment could be prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the actual measured levels. Soil samples collected from 33 locations in Area 514 were analyzed for 37 constituents of potential concern, as identified by the Closure Plan. Many of these compounds and elements were not detected. However, 10 metals or metalloids were present at levels above the clean closure requirements, and 19 organic compounds were identified as contaminants of potential concern. Following the guidance in the Closure Plan, a health risk assessment is presented in this document to demonstrate the low level of potential health effects from the remaining constituents and to support clean closure of the site. Three types of hypothetical receptors were identified: an intrusive construction worker conducting trenching in the area, a bystander worker in a nearby building, and a future resident. Of the worker receptors, the intrusive construction worker was found to have the greater overall chronic exposure, with a theoretical calculated carcinogenic risk of 4 x 10{sup -8}, a chronic hazard index of 8 x 10{sup -3}, and an acute hazard index of 9 x 10{sup -1}. The estimated incremental cancer risk for the residential receptor, 1 x 10{sup -6}, was calculated by adjusting contaminant concentrations to account for background levels of metals at the Livermore LLNL site. When no adjustments for background concentrations are made, the estimated incremental cancer risk is 3 x 10{sup -6}. The chronic hazard index for the residential receptor, 2 x 10{sup -1}, was developed without accounting for background concentrations of metals. These values are all below levels associated with health concerns, and support the conclusion that further cleanup of the area is not necessary.

Gallegos, G M; Hall, L C

2005-05-26

286

The management of unacceptable bleeding patterns in etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this guidance is to review the management of unacceptable vaginal bleeding patterns in etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing contraceptive implant users concentrating, where possible, on the evidence for pharmacological treatments and identifying a pragmatic approach where this is not possible.This article was developed in accordance with methodology used for producing Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' Green Top Guidelines.The Cochrane

Diana Mansour; Luis Bahamondes; Hilary Critchley; Philip Darney; Ian S. Fraser

2011-01-01

287

Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations  

PubMed Central

Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches.

Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

2013-01-01

288

Health Risks of Limited-Contact Water Recreation  

PubMed Central

Background: Wastewater-impacted waters that do not support swimming are often used for boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing. Little is known about the health risks of these limited-contact water recreation activities. Objectives: We evaluated the incidence of illness, severity of illness, associations between water exposure and illness, and risk of illness attributable to limited-contact water recreation on waters dominated by wastewater effluent and on waters approved for general use recreation (such as swimming). Methods: The Chicago Health, Environmental Exposure, and Recreation Study was a prospective cohort study that evaluated five health outcomes among three groups of people: those who engaged in limited-contact water recreation on effluent-dominated waters, those who engaged in limited-contact recreation on general-use waters, and those who engaged in non–water recreation. Data analysis included survival analysis, logistic regression, and estimates of risk for counterfactual exposure scenarios using G-computation. Results: Telephone follow-up data were available for 11,297 participants. With non–water recreation as the reference group, we found that limited-contact water recreation was associated with the development of acute gastrointestinal illness in the first 3 days after water recreation at both effluent-dominated waters [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.96] and general-use waters (1.50; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.07). For every 1,000 recreators, 13.7 (95% CI: 3.1, 24.9) and 15.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 25.7) cases of gastrointestinal illness were attributable to limited-contact recreation at effluent-dominated waters and general-use waters, respectively. Eye symptoms were associated with use of effluent-dominated waters only (AOR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.06). Among water recreators, our results indicate that illness was associated with the amount of water exposure. Conclusions: Limited-contact recreation, both on effluent-dominated waters and on waters designated for general use, was associated with an elevated risk of gastrointestinal illness.

Pratap, Preethi; Wroblewski, Meredith; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.; Li, Hong; Liu, Li C.; Scheff, Peter A.

2011-01-01

289

Occupational Risk Factors and Asthma among Health Care Professionals  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Recent U.S. data suggest an increased risk of work-related asthma among health care workers, yet only a few specific determinants have been elucidated. Objectives: To evaluate associations of asthma prevalence with occupational exposures in a cross-sectional survey of health care professionals. Methods: A detailed questionnaire was mailed to a random sample (n = 5,600) of all Texas physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and occupational therapists with active licenses in 2003. Information on asthma symptoms and nonoccupational asthma risk factors obtained from the questionnaire was linked to occupational exposures derived through an industry-specific job-exposure matrix. Measurements: There were two a priori defined outcomes: (1) physician-diagnosed asthma with onset after entry into health care (“reported asthma”) and (2) “bronchial hyperresponsiveness–related symptoms,” defined through an 8-item symptom-based predictor. Main Results: Overall response rate was 66%. The final study population consisted of 862 physicians, 941 nurses, 968 occupational therapists, and 879 respiratory therapists (n = 3,650). Reported asthma was associated with medical instrument cleaning (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–3.67), general cleaning (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.20–3.40), use of powdered latex gloves between 1992 and 2000 (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.27–3.73), and administration of aerosolized medications (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.05–2.83). The risk associated with latex glove use was not apparent after 2000. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness–related symptoms were associated with general cleaning (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.21–2.19), aerosolized medication administration (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.84), use of adhesives on patients (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22–2.24), and exposure to a chemical spill (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.28–3.21). Conclusions: The contribution of occupational exposures to asthma in health care professionals is not trivial, meriting both implementation of appropriate controls and further study.

Delclos, George L.; Gimeno, David; Arif, Ahmed A.; Burau, Keith D.; Carson, Arch; Lusk, Christine; Stock, Thomas; Symanski, Elaine; Whitehead, Lawrence W.; Zock, Jan-Paul; Benavides, Fernando G.; Anto, Josep M.

2007-01-01

290

Health effects related to nanoparticle exposures: environmental, health and safety considerations for assessing hazards and risks.  

PubMed

The field of nanotechnology currently is undergoing a dramatic expansion in material science research and development. Most of the research efforts have been focused on applications; the implications (i.e., health and environmental effects) research has lagged behind. The success of nanotechnology will require assurances that the products being developed are safe from an environmental, health, and safety (EHS) standpoint. In this regard, it has been previously reported in pulmonary toxicity studies that lung exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles (defined herein as particle size <100 nm in one dimension) produce enhanced adverse inflammatory responses when compared to larger particles of similar composition. Surface properties (particularly particle surface area) and free radical generation, resulting from the interactions of particles with cells may play important roles in nanoparticle toxicity. This brief review identifies some of the key factors for studying EHS risks and hazard effects related to nanoparticle exposures. Health and environmental risk evaluations are products of hazard and exposure assessments. The key factors for discussion herein include the importance of particle characterization studies; development of a nanomaterial risk framework; as well as corresponding hypothesis-driven, mechanistically-oriented investigations, concomitant with base set hazard studies which clearly demonstrate that particle size is only a single (and perhaps minor) factor in influencing the safety of nanomaterials. PMID:18703086

Warheit, David B; Sayes, Christie M; Reed, Kenneth L; Swain, Keith A

2008-10-01

291

A systemic health risk assessment for the chromium cycle in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk assessment (HRA) has been recognized as a useful tool for identifying health risks of human activities. In particular, this method has been well applied to spatially defined units, such as a production plant, a treatment facility, and a contaminated site. However, the management strategies based on the risk information will be more efficient if the comprehensive picture of

Hwong-wen Ma; Ming-Lung Hung; Pi-Cheng Chen

2007-01-01

292

Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposure to Children (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft document, Framework For Assessing Health Risks of Environmental Exposure to Children , can serve as a resource on children's health risk assessment and it addresses the need to provide a comprehensive and consistent framework for considering children in risk asses...

293

Community violence and health risk factors among adolescents on Chicago's southside: does gender matter?  

PubMed

We assessed community violence, school engagement, negative peer influences, mental health problems, and human immunodeficiency virus risk among 563 black adolescents. Boys reported higher rates of community violence exposures and gang involvement, while girls reported higher mental health distress. In the presence of multiple risk factors, negative peer norms were the strongest correlate of human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviors. PMID:20472218

Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B

2010-06-01

294

Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk

L. D. Hamilton; S. Holtzman; A. F. Meinhold; S. C. Morris; M. D. Rowe; J. I. Daniels; D. W. Layton; L. R. Anspaugh

1993-01-01

295

Monte Carlo techniques for quantitative uncertainty analysis in public health risk assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most public health risk assessments assume and combine a series of average, conservative, and worst-case values to derive a conservative point estimate of risk. This procedure has major limitations. This paper demonstrates a new methodology for extended uncertainty analyses in public health risk assessments using Monte Carlo techniques. The extended method begins as do some conventional methods--with the preparation of

Kimberly M. Thompson; David E. Burmaster; E. A. Crouch

1992-01-01

296

Evaluating the multiple benefits of marine water quality improvements: how important are health risk reductions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine water pollution affects many recreational sites around the world. It has impacts not only on recreational activities but also on health risks for those who come into direct contact with the water. Few economic studies have explicitly considered the health risks of bathing in polluted marine waters and none have attempted to separate health benefits from other benefits of

Fernando S Machado; Susana Mourato

2002-01-01

297

RISK ATTITUDES AND THE DEMAND FOR PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE: THE IMPORTANCE OF ‘CAPTIVE PREFERENCES’  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT **:?Captivity to a mainstream public insurer, is hypothesized to constrain the choice of purchasing private health insurance, by influencing risk attitudes. Namely, risk averse individuals are more likely to stay captive to the National Health System (NHS). To empirically test this hypothesis we use a small scale database from Catalonia to explore the determinants of private health insurance (PHI)

Jaume García-Villar

2009-01-01

298

A Comprehensive Profile of Health Risk Behaviors Among Students at a Small Canadian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…

Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.

2009-01-01

299

The Authoritative Parenting Index: Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample

Christine Jackson; Lisa Henriksen; Vangie A. Foshee

1998-01-01

300

Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts. PMID:22752687

Choi, Sarah E; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna

2013-06-01

301

Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts.

Choi, Sarah E.; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna

2012-01-01

302

A GIS-based approach for the long-term prediction of human health risks at contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Health Index\\/Risk Evaluation Tool (HIRET) has been developed for the integration of risk assessment and spatial planning using GIS capabilities. The method is meant to assist decision makers and site owners in the evaluation of potential human health risk with respect to land use. Human health risk defined as the potential adverse effects on human life or health is

J. D. Bie?; J. ter Meer; W. H. Rulkens; H. H. M. Rijnaarts

2005-01-01

303

A GIS-based approach for the long-term prediction of human health risks at contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Health Index\\/Risk Evaluation Tool (HIRET) has been developed for the integration of risk assessment and spatial planning using GIS capabilities. The method is meant to assist decision makers and site owners in the evaluation of potential human health risk with respect to land use. Human health risk defined as the potential adverse effects on human life or health is

J. D. Bien; J. Meer; W. H. Rulkens; H. H. M. Rijnaarts

2004-01-01

304

The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

2010-01-01

305

Effects of informing workers of their health risks from exposure to toxic materials  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the mental health, attitudes, and smoking behaviors of 133 workers who had been informed of health risks from exposure to toxic materials on the job with 137 workers who worked in similar conditions but who had not been told that their health was at risk because of exposure to toxic materials. The informed workers reported more health problems than controls, but there were no significant differences between the informed and uninformed groups in mental health, attitudes toward health hazards in or outside of the workplace, or in smoking rates. Ninety percent of all respondents felt that exposed workers definitely should be told of their health risks. These findings indicate little psychological risk from informing workers about their risks because of exposure to toxic substances and a strong desire on the part of workers to be informed.

Houts, P.S.; McDougall, V.

1988-01-01

306

Adolescent Peer Crowd Affiliation: Linkages With Health-Risk Behaviors and Close Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine adolescents' peer crowd affiliation and its linkages with health-risk behaviors, their friends' health-risk behaviors, the presence of close friends in the same peer crowd, and adolescents' social acceptance. Methods: We interviewed 250 high school students and identified six categories: popular, jocks, brains, burnouts, nonconformists, or average\\/other. Adolescents also reported on their health-risk behaviors (including use of cigarettes,

Annette M. La Greca; Mitchell J. Prinstein; Michael D. Fetter

2001-01-01

307

Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be ass...

K. T. Bogen L. C. Hall K. Wright T. E. McKone

1992-01-01

308

Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: There is a recognized need to improve the application of epidemiologic data in human health risk assessment especially for understanding and characterizing risks from environmental and occupational exposures. While most epidemiologic studies result in uncertainty, tec...

309

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE HEALTH RISK OF AIR TOXIC CHEMICALS: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology program to provide key health effects data missing from the current data ...

310

Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening  

PubMed Central

Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

2008-01-01

311

Cyanotoxin management and human health risk mitigation in recreational waters.  

PubMed

The occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial or blue-green algal blooms (HABs) have increased in recent decades, posing a serious threat of illness to humans. In some countries, water contaminated with cyanotoxins that is used for drinking or haemodialysis has posed a particularly serious risk. However, it is now recognized that recreational exposure to natural toxins by skin contact, accidental swallowing of water or inhalation can also cause a wide range of acute or chronic illnesses. In this review, we focus on the importance of cyanotoxin management in recreational waters. The symptoms related with HAB poisonings, the recommended safety concentrations limit for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in such waters, as well as early health hazard indicators of their presence and their monitoring are all discussed. We also present in this review an overview of the methods developed in recent decades for eliminating cyanobacteria and the toxic compounds that they produce. PMID:24664523

Koreivien?, Judita; Anne, Olga; Kasperovi?ien?, J?rat?; Burškyt?, Vilma

2014-07-01

312

Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology  

PubMed Central

Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields.

2014-01-01

313

Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology.  

PubMed

Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields. PMID:24580858

Hayes, Daniel F; Markus, Hugh S; Leslie, R David; Topol, Eric J

2014-01-01

314

[Smoking experimentation in adolescents. Is there a risk for health?].  

PubMed

It is clear that even low rate smoking is hazardous for health, the risk being independently increased by the daily number of cigarettes smoked and by the duration of smoking. The question raised is thus: will an adolescent experimenter be a non smoker, an experimenter for ever, a regular smoker, light or heavy? This short review shows that there are numerous factors from genetics, to familial environment not limited to tobacco issues, smoking situation at school as well as school performances of the student, and also individual psychological characteristics. The experimenter is a very good target for smoking cessation actions and should deserve particular attention from preventive medicine and, thus, from school medicine, before he becomes a regular smoker, who will be more resistant to smoking cessation programs. PMID:16910267

Bartsch, P; Laperche, J

2006-01-01

315

Health risk assessment of environmental agents: Incorporation of emerging scientific information. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses several trends occurring in risk assessment in the context of the risk paradigm-hazard, dose-response, and exposure assessments and subsequent risk characterization. Chemical examples are provided to illustrate these emerging directions in health risk assessment.

Dellarco, V.L.; Farland, W.H.; Wiltse, J.A.

1997-09-01

316

Is the Scottish population living dangerously? Prevalence of multiple risk factors: the Scottish Health Survey 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Risk factors are often considered individually, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of combinations of multiple behavioural risk factors and their association with socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the associations between socioeconomic factors and multiple risk factors from data in the Scottish Health Survey 2003. Prevalence of five key risk - smoking, alcohol, diet,

Richard Lawder; Oliver Harding; Diane Stockton; Colin Fischbacher; David H Brewster; Jim Chalmers; Alan Finlayson; David I Conway

2010-01-01

317

Can the school make a difference? A multilevel analysis of adolescent risk and health behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this article is to assess the relationship between the structural and (health) policy variables of the school and characteristics of the individual on the risk and health behaviour of adolescents. Individual and school level effects on seven health-related behaviours are simultaneously estimated, using multilevel modelling. The data are from the Flemish health behaviour in school-aged children

Lea Maes; John Lievens

2003-01-01

318

21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.82 Health...

2014-04-01

319

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

320

Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

321

Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

2000-01-01

322

Managing facility risk: external threats and health care organizations.  

PubMed

Clinicians and clinical administrators should have a basic understanding of physical and financial risk to mental health facilities related to external physical threat, including actions usually viewed as "terrorism" and much more common sources of violence. This article refers to threats from mentally ill persons and those acting out of bizarre or misguided "revenge," extortionists and other outright criminals, and perpetrators usually identified as domestic or international terrorists. The principles apply both to relatively small and contained acts (such as a patient or ex-patient attacking a staff member) and to much larger events (such as bombings and armed attack), and are relevant to facilities both within and outside the U.S. Patient care and accessibility to mental health services rest not only on clinical skills, but also on a place to practice them and an organized system supported by staff, physical facilities, and funding. Clinicians who have some familiarity with the non-clinical requirements for care are in a position to support non-clinical staff in preventing care from being interrupted by external threats or events such as terrorist activity, and/or to serve at the interface of facility operations and direct clinical care. Readers should note that this article is an introduction to the topic and cannot address all local, state and national standards for hospital safety, or insurance providers' individual facility requirements. PMID:24733720

Reid, Daniel J; Reid, William H

2014-01-01

323

Psychosocial determinants of mental health and risk behaviours in adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of emotional problems among children and adolescents in Portugal. Gender, developmental aspects, their psychosocial determinants, and the time trends over 8 years were also explored. The three waves of a cross-sectional survey obtained from the HBSC nationally representative samples of 10-17 year old children and adolescents in 1998, 2002, and 2006, were used. Specific composite indexes included emotional and somatic symptoms, substances' use, demographic and psychosocial factors. Girls reported more emotional symptoms, and boys reported more substances' use. Emotional symptoms and substances' use increased with age, in contrast school commitment and perception of safe neighbourhood decreased with age. With age, the communication with the family tends to become more difficult, while communication with the friends tends to become easier. Along the three waves, substances' use and emotional symptoms have shown a general pattern of decrease. Results were discussed according to literature and their consequences for the understanding of emotional problems and substance use in childhood and adolescence. Mental health promotion includes both the prevention of emotional problems and risk behaviours; determinants include individual factors and a range of psychosocial factors. Mental health problems have a huge impact on adolescents' well-being; however it is often a poorer area of intervention in school based interventions. Gender differences are highlighted. PMID:25001551

Carvalho, Marina; De Matos, Margarida Gaspar

2014-07-01

324

Trihalomethanes in marine mammal aquaria: Occurrences, sources, and health risks.  

PubMed

Disinfecting water containing the high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) commonly generated during pinniped husbandry may cause the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Little information is available on DBP levels, sources, and health risks in marine mammal aquaria. Using the commonly observed trihalomethanes (THMs) as a DBP indicator, we monitored concentrations for seven months at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, one of the largest pinniped rehabilitation facilities in the world. Concentrations of THMs ranged 1.1-144.2 ?g/L in pool waters and generally increased with number of animals housed (P < 0.05). To identify the sources of THM precursors in marine mammal aquaria, we intensively monitored the mass flows of potential THM precursors (i.e. food and wastes) in an isolated system with nine individual California sea lions to evaluate the sources and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for 2-5 weeks. The common frozen foods used in feeding pinnipeds, including herring, sardine, and squid, produced an average of 22-34 mg-DOC/g-food in water and 836-1066 ?g-THM/g-food after chlorination, whereas the fecal materials, including fresh scat, decomposed scat, and urine, produced 2-16 mg-DOC/g-waste and 116-768 ?g-THM/g-waste. Food not eaten by animals could cause a sharp increase of DOC and DBP production and therefore should be removed rapidly from pools. Marine mammal husbandry staff and trainers are at risk (5.16 × 10(-4) to 1.30 × 10(-3)) through exposure of THMs, exceeding the negligible risk level (10(-6)) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24805374

Wang, Jun-Jian; Chow, Alex T; Sweeney, Joelle M; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-08-01

325

Health risk behaviors of Texas students attending dropout prevention/recovery schools in 1997.  

PubMed

This study determined prevalence of health risk behaviors of 9th through 12th grade students attending dropout prevention/recovery alternative schools in Texas in 1997. Participants were 470 youth whose health risk behaviors were assessed using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in an anonymous, self-administered format. Behaviors measured included frequency of weapon-carrying and fighting, suicide-related behaviors, substance use, and sexual behaviors. A substantial percentage of alternative school students reported participating in behaviors that placed them at acute or chronic health risk. Differences in the prevalence of risk behaviors were noted by gender, racial/ethnic, and age subgroups. In addition, alternative school students frequently engaged in multiple risk behaviors. These findings suggest a need for comprehensive school-based health education/intervention programs to reduce the prevalence of risk behaviors in populations of alternative school students. PMID:10098115

Weller, N F; Tortolero, S R; Kelder, S H; Grunbaum, J A; Carvajal, S C; Gingiss, P M

1999-01-01

326

Prevalence of health risk behaviors and their associated factors among university students in Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: With the advancements in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals have been seeking determinants of personal health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of health risk behaviors and its associated factors in a sample of Kyrgyz university students. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, health risk behaviors among a sample of randomly selected university students were assessed. The sample included 837 university students from health sciences undergraduate courses of the State Medical Academy in Kyrgyzstan. The students were 358 (42.8%) males and 479 (57.2%) females in the age range of 18-29 years (Median age=21.3 years, SD=1.5). Results: On average, students engaged in 9.4 (SD=2.3) out of 23 health risk behavior practices (range, 3-18). Generally, there was a high rate of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (86.4%), eating red meat at least once a day (62%), usually adding salt to meals (78.3%), skipping breakfast (50.5%), current tobacco use (49.7%) and two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (46.1%) among men, and never using a condom with a primary partner in the past 3 months (90.9%) among women. Furthermore, 60.8% of the women were physically inactive. In bivariate analysis among men, the lack of perceived benefits was associated with health risk behavior. In multivariate analysis among women, poorer family background, being Russian, high personal constraints or stress, and better subjective health were associated with the health risk behavior index. Conclusions: Students had a high proportion of health risk behavior practices. Several high health risk practices were identified, including poor dietary behavior, physical inactivity, sexual risk behavior, and tobacco use. Gender specific predictors identified included sociodemographic characteristics and social and health variables, which can be utilized in health promotion programs. PMID:23807671

Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M

2014-01-01

327

Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.?METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time of the incident. The literature on the long term health risks of asbestos was reviewed, and combined with evidence on asbestos exposure to estimate community health risk.?RESULTS—Risk was almost entirely from exposure to fire fallout of chrysotile in asbestos bitumen paper covering the factory roof. Amosite was only detected in a few samples and in trace amounts. The number of people who lived in the area of fallout was 16 000 to 48 000. From a non-threshold model with assumptions likely to overestimate risk, the lung cancer risk is estimated to be undetectably small. Risk of mesothelioma from chrysotile exposure, and risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma from amosite exposure were based on observational studies and were estimated to be even lower than that of lung cancer risk from chrysotile exposure. Academically, there are assumptions that while reasonable cannot be proven, for example, the validity of extrapolating observed risk from much higher exposures to lower exposures, estimates of individual exposure, and that there is no threshold for asbestos to cause cancer.?CONCLUSIONS—The author is unaware of a similar study on long term health risks in a community exposed to asbestos in a fire. It is concluded that, using methods that do not underestimate risk, risk is undetectably small. Practical lessons from this methodology and approach to health risk assessment are discussed.???Keywords: asbestos; environmental pollutants; mesothelioma; health risk assessment; lung cancer

Bridgman, S

2001-01-01

328

Clinical risk management in mental health: a qualitative study of main risks and related organizational management practices  

PubMed Central

Background A scientific understanding of clinical risk management (CRM) in mental health care is essential for building safer health systems and for improving patient safety. While evidence on patient safety and CRM in physical health care has increased, there is limited research on these issues in mental health care. This qualitative study provides an overview of the most important clinical risks in mental health and related organizational management practices. Methods We conducted in-depth expert interviews with professionals responsible for CRM in psychiatric hospitals. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed applying qualitative content analysis to thematically sort the identified risks. Results The main concerns for CRM in mental health are a) violence and self-destructive behavior (i.e. protecting patients and staff from other patients, and patients from themselves), b) treatment errors, especially in the process of therapy, and c) risks associated with mental illnesses (e.g. psychosis or depression). This study identified critical differences to CRM in hospitals for physical disorder and challenges specific to CRM in mental health. Firstly, many psychiatric patients do not believe that they are ill and are therefore in hospital against their will. Secondly, staff safety is a much more prominent theme for CRM in mental health care as it is directly related to the specifics of mental illnesses. Conclusions The current study contributes to the understanding of patient safety and raises awareness for CRM in mental health. The mental health specific overview of central risks and related organizational management practices offers a valuable basis for CRM development in mental health and an addition to CRM in general.

2013-01-01

329

CAMPI ELETTROMAGNETICI E SALUTE: RISCHI REALI E RISCHI PERCEPITI (ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND HEALTH EFFECTS REAL RISKS AND PERCEIVED RISKS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

recent controversies about electromagnetic fields clearly indicate divergences between science-based risk assessment and common perception. Scientific findings only suggest possible health effects due to exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. No hazard has been identified for high-frequency fields such as those exploited in telecommunications. Quantitative estimates of possible health effects also differ from what is commonly believed. Such a distorted

Paolo Vecchia

330

Reporting risk, producing prejudice: How news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.  

PubMed

News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. PMID:24785268

Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

2014-06-01

331

Estimating risk at a Superfund site using passive sampling devices as biological surrogates in human health risk models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive sampling devices (PSDs) sequester the freely dissolved fraction of lipophilic contaminants, mimicking passive chemical uptake and accumulation by biomembranes and lipid tissues. Public Health Assessments that inform the public about health risks from exposure to contaminants through consumption of resident fish are generally based on tissue data, which can be difficult to obtain and requires destructive sampling. The purpose

Sarah E. Allan; Gregory J. Sower; Kim A. Anderson

2011-01-01

332

Exercise May Help Counter Health Risks of Sedentary Lifestyle  

MedlinePLUS

... July 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Exercise and Physical Fitness THURSDAY, July 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Being a ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Recent Health News Page last updated on 18 ...

333

FOCUSING ON CHILDREN'S INHALATION DOSIMETRY AND HEALTH EFFECTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION (Journal Article)  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...

334

Quantitative Health Risk Assessment for Particulate Matter, Second External Review Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This second draft quantitative health risk assessment (RA) presents the quantitative assessments of PM-related risks to public health being conducted by staff in EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support the review of the prima...

2010-01-01

335

EXPOSURE DOMAINS: ROLE OF TIMING, PATTERN AND MAGNITUDE OF EXPOSURE ON HEALTH RISKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental health risk assessment may be broadly separated into assessment of risks from exposures to agents affecting health endpoints for which it may be presumed there is no dose threshold, and to agents affecting endpoints that more likely have a dose threshold. For hea...

336

FOCUSING ON CHILDREN?S INHALATION DOSIMETRY AND HEALTH EFFECTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...

337

Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

2010-01-01

338

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-04-01

339

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

2013-12-01

340

A Quantitative Approach for Ranking Human Health Risks from Pesticides in Irish Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to quantitatively assess the risk of pesticides (used in Irish agriculture) and their degradation products to groundwater and human health. This assessment uses a human health Monte-Carlo risk-based approach that includes the leached quantity combined with an exposure estimate and the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) as a toxicity ranking endpoint, resulting in a chemical intake

H. Labite; E. Cummins

2012-01-01

341

The impacts of uncertainty and variability in groundwater-driven health risk assessment. (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential human health risk from contaminated groundwater is becoming an important, quantitative measure used in management decisions in a range of applications from Superfund to CO2 sequestration. Quantitatively assessing the potential human health risks from contaminated groundwater is challenging due to the many coupled processes, uncertainty in transport parameters and the variability in individual physiology and behavior. Perspective on human

R. M. Maxwell

2010-01-01

342

Behavioral and Nonbehavioral Risk Factors for Occupational Injuries and Health Problems Among Belgian Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventive interventions to reduce occupational injuries and diseases among farmers require an appraisal of the relative importance of the various risk factors. This paper describes the results of a cross-sectional study investigating determinants of occupational health and injuries among 510 Belgian farmers, looking at health-related behaviors (machinery use, animal handling, fall prevention, and pesticide use), as well as nonbehavioral risk

Stephan Van den Broucke; Ariane Colémont

2011-01-01

343

Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts and Associated Health Risk Factors in New Hampshire Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we examined self-reported suicide attempts and their relationship to other health risk factors in a community sample of 16,644 adolescents. Fifteen percent endorsed suicide attempts (10% single; 5% multiple attempts). We hypothesized that multiple attempters would show higher prevalence of comorbid health risks than single or…

Rosenberg, Harriet J.; Jankowski, Mary K.; Sengupta, Anjana; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Wolford, George L., II; Rosenberg, Stanley D.

2005-01-01

344

Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

2012-01-01

345

Comparative health risk assessment of coal power and nuclear power in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health risk from human exposure of radioactivities and accidents in coal power and nuclear power energy chain were compared in this paper. We got the results that the health risk of coal-fired energy chain was higher than that of nuclear energy chain.

Li Hong; Fang Dong

2000-01-01

346

Child, Family, School and Community Risk Factors for Poor Mental Health in Brazilian Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify risk factors for poor child mental health in the southeastern Brazilian municipality of Taubate. Method: In 2001 we carried out a representative school-based survey of Brazilian schoolchildren ages 7 to 14 years (response rate, 83%). We collected extensive data on child mental health and on potential risk and protective…

Goodman, Anna; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Patel, Vikram; Goodman, Robert

2007-01-01

347

High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

2007-01-01

348

New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

349

Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

2014-05-01

350

40 CFR Appendix M to Subpart G of... - Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the September 30, 2004 Final Rule, Effective November 29, 2004  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Effective November 29, 2004 Foam BlowingâUnacceptable Substitutes...Substitute Decision Comments All foam end-uses: HCFC-141b Unacceptable...polyurethane slabstock and other foams âPolystyrene extruded insulation boardstock...

2013-07-01

351

Assessment and management of residential radon health risks: a report from the health Canada radon workshop.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and other underground miners have consistently shown miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at increased risk of lung cancer. More recently, concern has arisen about lung cancer risks among people exposed to lower levels of radon in homes. The current Canadian guideline for residential radon exposure was set in 1988 at 800 Bq/m(3). Because of the accumulation of a considerable body of new scientific evidence on radon lung cancer risks since that time, Health Canada sponsored a workshop to review the current state-of-the-science on radon health risks. The specific objectives of the workshop were (1) to collect and assess scientific information relevant to setting national radon policy in Canada, and (2) to gather information on social, political, and operational considerations in setting national policy. The workshop, held on 3-4 March 2004, was attended by 38 invited scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders from Canada and the United States. The presentations on the first day dealt primarily with scientific issues. The combined analysis of North American residential radon and lung cancer studies was reviewed. The analysis confirmed a small but detectable increase in lung cancer risk at residential exposure levels. Current estimates suggest that radon in homes is responsible for approximately 10% of all lung cancer deaths in Canada, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. This was followed by a perspective from an UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) working group on radon. There were two presentations on occupational exposures to radon and two presentations considered the possibility of radon as a causative factor for cardiovascular disease and for cancer in other organs besides the lung. The possible contribution of environmental tobacco smoke to lung cancers in nonsmokers was also considered. Areas for future research were identified. The second day was devoted to policy and operational issues. The presentations began with a perspective from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, followed by a history of radon policy development in Canada. Subsequent presentations dealt with the cost-effectiveness of radon mitigation, Canadian building codes and radon, and a summary of radon standards from around the world. Provincial representatives and a private consultant were given opportunities to present their viewpoints. A number of strategies for reducing residential radon exposure in Canada were recognized, including testing and mitigation of existing homes (on either a widespread or targeted basis) and changing the building code to require that radon mitigation devices be installed at the time a new home is constructed. The various elements of a comprehensive national radon policy were set forth. PMID:16608836

Tracy, Bliss L; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Jing; Zielinski, Jan M; Brand, Kevin P; Meyerhof, Dorothy

2006-04-01

352

How Temporary Insurance for High-Risk Individuals May Play Out Under Health Reform. Health Affairs, vol. 29, no. 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies continuing issues and barriers for many consumers seeking health coverage in high-risk insurance pools under the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The article notes how the new federal program is intended to serve only the currently uninsured—leaving in place until 2014 the states’ existing high-risk pools for many denied private coverage.

Deborah J. Chollet

2010-01-01

353

Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

1992-01-01

354

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

2002-01-01

355

Socioeconomic disparities in health change in a longitudinal study of US adults: the role of health-risk behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans’ Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education

Paula M. Lantz; John W. Lynch; James S. House; James M. Lepkowski; Richard P. Mero; Marc A. Musick; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

356

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

357

Health risk assessment for toxic emissions from a manufacturing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the risk associated with the release of toxic chemicals from a manufacturing facility, following the State of California's approach to risk assessment. The facility emits five toxic substances from eight stacks. The building downwash is considered during dispersion calculations. The zone of impact, identified using a risk criteria (i.e. excess cancer risk of 10 in a million),

Ashok Kumar; Ravindranath Madasu; Ajay Manocha

1996-01-01

358

[Electronic deficit as a possible health risk factor].  

PubMed

There is presented the analysis of medical-demographic situation in Russia, and the increase in population mortality is shown both to be associated with the degradation of the geosphere and alongside with other factors determined by the change in the electronic state of the environment. On the base of the interrelationship between the electronic saturation of the environment and an increase in population mortality and morbidity there is established a such risk factor for human health and life, which may currently become one out of significant, videlicet, the electronic deficit. In conditions of its appearance there are proposed options solving this problem by means of elaboration of the scientific rationale for the impact of the electronic deficit on the human organism and the creation of technologies providing environmental--medical safety of the population by virtue of the correction of the electronic state of the human habitat, food and drinking water and the implementation of the system for monitoring electronic abundance of the environment. PMID:24749272

Rakhmanin, Y A; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V

2014-01-01

359

Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.  

PubMed

A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations. PMID:24964573

Pilis, Wies?aw; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Micha?; Pilis, Anna

2014-01-01

360

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

361

Distributions Selected for Use in Probabilistic Human Health Risk Assessments in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, Oregon enacted amendments to its state Cleanup Law that emphasize risk-based remedial action decisions and allow a responsible party to conduct probabilistic human health risk assessments. This change required selection and\\/or development of probability density functions for exposure factors frequently used in human health risk assessments. Methods used to obtain distributions for body weight, soil, water, vegetable\\/fruit, fish,

Bruce K. Hope

1999-01-01

362

Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing\\u000a the health and quality of life of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission\\u000a risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational.\\u000a Further, a number of efficacious mental

Kathleen J. Sikkema; Melissa H. Watt; Anya S. Drabkin; Christina S. Meade; Nathan B. Hansen; Brian W. Pence

2010-01-01

363

Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

364

Algorithms for the determination of unacceptable HLA antigen mismatches in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

One of the major tasks of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) laboratories is the pretransplant determination of unacceptable HLA antigen mismatches (UAM) in organ transplant recipients. HLA antigen specificities are determined against which the patient has circulating alloantibodies that are expected to harm the transplanted organ. Using the information on UAM, negative crossmatch (XM) prediction or 'virtual XM' is possible when a potential donor's complete HLA typing is available. Before the introduction of solid-phase antibody detection assays, UAM were determined using the complement-dependent cytotoxicity methodology. After the introduction of the single antigen bead technique, however, various UAM determination algorithms have emerged. In this report, six different laboratories worldwide present how they determine UAM in their collective of kidney transplant recipients in the pretransplant phase and proceed thereafter to transplantation. PMID:23718733

Süsal, C; Roelen, D L; Fischer, G; Campos, E F; Gerbase-DeLima, M; Hönger, G; Schaub, S; Lachmann, N; Martorell, J; Claas, F

2013-08-01

365

Unacceptable side-effects associated with a hyperosmolar vaginal microbicide in a phase 1 trial.  

PubMed

We carried out a phase 1 trial of a candidate vaginal microbicide gel against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, which contained cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate (also known as cellulose acetate phthalate) in a glycerol-based vehicle. We had to terminate the study after five women had completed dosing, due to all women experiencing unacceptable vulvo-vaginal side-effects. Further investigations showed that the gel had a very high osmolality, which we believe led to excessive fluid transudation across the vaginal mucosa and acute mucosal dysfunction. We also showed that the rheology of the gel changed dramatically on fluid dilution. The osmolality and rheology of candidate microbicides and other genital mucosal products should therefore be analysed and considered at an early stage of product development. PMID:21139151

Lacey, C J; Woodhall, S; Qi, Z; Sawant, S; Cowen, M; McCormack, S; Jiang, S

2010-10-01

366

Application of human health risk assessment to petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil: A case study  

SciTech Connect

A human health risk assessment of motor oil- and diesel impacted soil was conducted for a site located in Oakland, California that will be a portion of a future freeway. Currently, there is no single risk assessment approach for evaluating human health risks resulting from exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. To facilitate regulatory acceptance of the risk assessment, three different methods were used to evaluate human health risks posed by petroleum constituents in soil. The results of applying the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Petroleum Institute's (API) Risk/Exposure Assessment Decision Support System (DSS), and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP) approaches to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils and their impacts on soil remediation will be presented. The similarities and differences among these three risk assessment approaches will also be reviewed.

Nye, A.C.; Millner, G.C.; Goad, P.T. (and others)

1996-01-01

367

Implementing health information exchange for public health reporting: a comparison of decision and risk management of three regional health information organizations in New York state.  

PubMed

Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version. PMID:23975626

Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A

2014-02-01

368

Human health risk assessment case study: an abandoned metal smelter site in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States Environmental Protection Agency methodologies for human health risk assessment (HRA) were applied in a Brownfields Demonstration Project on the Warynski smelter site (WSS), an abandoned industrial site at Piekary Slaskie town, Upper Silesia, Poland. The HRA included the baseline risk assessment (BRA) and the development of risk-based preliminary remedial goals (RBPRGs). The HRA focused on surface area covered

Eleonora Wcis?o; Dawn Ioven; Rafa? Kucharski; Jerzy Szdzuj

2002-01-01

369

Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis of Public Health Risk Assessment from Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a growing trend toward using stochastic (probabilistic) methods in ecological and public health risk assessment. These methods are favored because they overcome the problem of compounded conservatism and allow the systematic consideration of uncertainty and variability typically encountered in risk assessment. This article demonstrates a new methodology for the analysis of uncertainty in risk assessment using

Maged M. Hamed

1999-01-01

370

Issues on health risk assessment at hazardous waste sites and resource recovery facilities in Region II  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the issues involved in health risk assessments at hazardous waste sites and resource recovery facilities in Region II and emphasizes the programmatic aspects of the problem and the integration of risk assessment into the permitting process for these facilities. Suggestions for the RandD agenda and policy needs to support a risk assessment strategy in this area are also discussed.

Cam, V.

1985-12-01

371

On the assessment of health risks at superfund sites using Monte Carlo simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, state?of?the?art risk assessment models, and the most current and applicable site specific exposure data are employed in the reassessment of baseline risks at three Superfand Sites for which a Record of Decision has been issued since 1990. The results of this reassessment are compared to health risk assessments based on EPA's conservative or default parameters in estimating

Peter T. Katsumata; William E. Kastenberg

1997-01-01

372

Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1999 and Alaska School Health Education Profile, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the methods and results of the 1999 Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1998 School Health Education Profile (SHEP). Each survey is intended to provide a better understanding of health and related programs within school settings. The YRBS asks students to report their behaviors in the six major areas of health

Green, Tammy; Schumacher, Catherine; Middaugh, John; Asay, Elvin; Campbell, Terri; Shober, Beth

373

Reaching at risk groupsThe importance of health storytelling in Los Angeles Latino media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latinos are at high risk for many health problems, but are often missed by traditional health communication campaigns aired through general audience channels. This article explores Latinos’ connections to communication channels for health goals - both mediated and interpersonal and media that is general audience and geo-ethnic (targeted toward a specific ethnicity and\\/or community). Data from a random digit dial

Holley A. Wilkin; Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach

2006-01-01

374

75 FR 1770 - An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study'' (EPA/600/R-09...assessment and a case study for dibutyl phthalate (DBP). A multidisciplinary team...

2010-01-13

375

Personality Pathology as a Risk Factor for Negative Health Perception  

PubMed Central

Previous findings suggest that self-perception of health relates to many physical health outcomes, including mortality. Many factors appear to shape health perceptions, like personality. Little research, however, has focused on whether personality pathology may affect perceived health. This preliminary study examined the unique effects of personality pathology on health perceptions beyond those of objective health and normal personality factors. We studied an epidemiologically-based, representative sample (N=697) of Saint Louis residents (ages 55–64). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Health Status Inventory were used to collect reports of health perceptions, chronic illnesses, and physical functioning. Personality traits were measured with the revised NEO Personality Inventory and personality disorders were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Number of physical illnesses, physical functioning, normal personality, and personality disorders all predicted self-perception of health separately. Personality disorders also predicted health perception above and beyond objective health and personality variables. These findings elucidate the importance of personality pathology in understanding perceived health and suggest that certain patterns of pathology may be particularly detrimental to subjective health.

Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

376

Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study reports an efficacy trial of four work-site health promotion programs. It was predicted that strategies making use of behavioral counseling would produce a greater reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors than screening and educational strategies. METHODS. Twenty-eight work sites were randomly allocated to a health risk assessment, risk factor education, behavioral counseling, or behavioral counseling plus incentives intervention. Participants were assessed before the intervention and at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS. Compared with the average of the health risk assessment and risk factor education conditions, there were significantly higher validated continuous smoking cessation rates and smaller increases in body mass index and estimated percentage of body fat in the two behavioral counseling conditions. The behavioral counseling condition was associated with a greater reduction in mean blood pressure than was the behavioral counseling plus incentives condition. On average among all groups, there was a short-term increase in aerobic capacity followed by a return to baseline levels. CONCLUSIONS. Work-site interventions that use behavioral approaches can produce lasting changes in some cardiovascular risk factors and, if implemented routinely, can have a significant public health impact.

Gomel, M; Oldenburg, B; Simpson, J M; Owen, N

1993-01-01

377

Where lies the risk? An ecological approach to understanding child mental health risk and vulnerabilities in sub-saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

Atilola, Olayinka

2014-01-01

378

Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood.

Atilola, Olayinka

2014-01-01

379

HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Health Insurance Coverage in Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Research on the association between health insurance coverage and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) is sparse. We hypothesized that MSM with health insurance would be less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior based on previous research showing that insured persons increase contact with providers which can improve health knowledge, decrease tendency to engage in unhealthy behaviors, and raise awareness about health risks. As part of a study testing an online HIV prevention intervention, we collected information on health insurance and sexual behavior from MSM (n=650). Overall, men with health insurance had a 28% reduced prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse male partners (UAIMP) in the 90 days prior to the survey. Potential explanations include access to healthcare providers and awareness of sexual health. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanism through which health insurance is protective.

Brunsberg, Sarah A.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Smolenski, Derek

2012-01-01

380

Pharmacokinetics in Risk Assessment: Drinking Water and Health. Volume 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Risk assessment: historical perspectives; Tissue dosimetry in risk assessment; Modeling: an introduction; Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; Allometry: body size constraints in animal design; Prediction of in vivo parameters of drug...

1987-01-01

381

Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours.

Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

2013-01-01

382

Iatrogenic risks and maternal health: Issues and outcomes.  

PubMed

Objective: To observe acute maternal morbidity and mortality due to iatrogenic factors and outcomes. Methods: This observational cross sectional study was conducted at intensive care unit of Liaquat University of Medical and Health sciences Jamshoro from 1-January-2011 to 31-December-2012. In this study all the delivered or undelivered women who needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission due to management related life threatening complication referred from periphery or within this hospital were included, while those women who had pregnancy complicated by medical conditions were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma containing variables like Demographic characteristics, various iatrogenic risk factors, complications and management out comes. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: During these study period 51 women needed ICU care for different complications due to adverse effects of medical treatments. Majority of these women were between 20-40 years of age 41(80.39%), multiparous 29(56.86%), unbooked 38(74.50%), referred from periphery 39(76.47%), common iatrogenic factors were misuse of oxytocin 16(31.37%), fluid overload/cardiac failure 8(15.68%), blood reaction 7(13.72%), anesthesia related problems were delayed recovery 3(5.88%), cardiac arrest 2(3.92%), spinal shock 2(3.92%), surgical problems were bladder injury 5(9.8%), post operative internal haemorrhage 3(5.88%), 37(72.54%) women recovered and 14(27.45%) expired. Conclusion: The maternal morbidity and mortality rate with iatrogenic factors was high and majority of these factors were avoidable. PMID:24639842

Khaskheli, Meharun-Nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela

2014-01-01

383

Human health risk assessment: selected internet and world wide web resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world wide web (WWW) has become a valuable source of 24 hour-a-day access to information needed by human health risk assessors. Various web sites and other Internet resources provide information needed for human hazard identification, dose–response evaluation, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and risk management. Information on risk communication is also available. Substantial collections of information on multiple aspects of

Jacqueline Patterson; Andrea E. Wullenweber

2002-01-01

384

Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

1992-01-01

385

The effect of information on health risk valuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effect of familiarity with chronic lung disease on people's willingness to pay to reduce their risk of contracting chronic bronchitis, and on their willingness to increase their risk of auto death to reduce chronic bronchitis risk. We find that persons who have a relative with chronic lung disease are willing to give up more income to

Alan J. Krupnick; Maureen L. Cropper

1992-01-01

386

Junk Food, Health and Productivity: Taste, Price, Risk and Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analyzed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximizing framework in which the probability of living and productivity rise with health and health deteriorate with the consumption of junkfood. So long that the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, the rational diet deviates from the physiologically optimal and renders the levels of health and productivity lower than

Amnon Levy

2006-01-01

387

Application of a Web-Based Tailored Health Risk Assessment in a WorkSite Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an examination of the feasibility of implementing a Web-based tailored health risk assessment (HRA) as part of a University-based work-site health promotion program. Although the effectiveness of tailoring has been well established in the research literature, tailoring health messages for the purposes of health promotion and behavior change is only now starting to be used and evaluated

Joan E. Cowdery; L. Suzanne Suggs; Shandowyn Parker

2007-01-01

388

[Evaluation of public health risk. A new instrument for environmental management in Chile].  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in environmental management is to prevent the public health impact of projects that can cause pollution. To tackle this problem, the new Chilean bill on environmental management has defined the need to determine the potential health risks of a given Project. This paper gives a summary of the method used for risk evaluation and its evolution. Its incorporation in the Environmental Impact Evaluation System is proposed, to guarantee an effective prevention of the potential risks on health of new projects. PMID:22215340

Matus C, Patricia

2011-08-01

389

Assessment of cardiovascular risk in primary health care  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed at investigating whether cardiovascular risk factors and their impact on total risk estimation differ between men and women. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Subjects Finnish cardiovascular risk subjects (n =?904) without established cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or known diabetes. Main outcome measures Ankle-brachial index (ABI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), oral glucose tolerance test, and total cardiovascular risk using SCORE risk charts. Results According to the SCORE risk charts, 27.0% (95% CI 23.1–31.2) of the women and 63.1% (95% CI 58.3–67.7) of the men (p risk subjects. Of the women classified as low-risk subjects according to SCORE, 25% had either subclinical peripheral arterial disease or renal insufficiency. Conclusions The SCORE system does not take into account cardiovascular risk factors typical in women, and thus underestimates their total cardiovascular risk. Measurement of ABI and eGFR in primary care might improve cardiovascular risk assessment. especially in women.

Korhonen, Paivi; Vesalainen, Risto; Aarnio, Pertti; Kautiainen, Hannu; Jarvenpaa, Salme; Kantola, Ilkka

2012-01-01

390

Climate change and health risks: assessing and responding to them through 'adaptive management'.  

PubMed

Climate change and associated changing weather patterns, including severe weather events, are expected to increase the prevalence of a wide range of health risks. Yet there is uncertainty about the timing, location, and severity of these changes. Adaptive management, a structured process of decision making in the face of imperfect information, is an approach that can help the public health field effectively anticipate, plan for, and respond to the health risks of climate change. In this article I describe adaptive management and how it could increase the effectiveness of local and national strategies, policies, and programs to manage climate-sensitive health outcomes. PMID:21555476

Ebi, Kristie

2011-05-01

391

A model for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces.  

PubMed

Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments. PMID:12862183

Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani

2003-05-01

392

The potential role of risk-equalization mechanisms in health insurance: the case of South Africa.  

PubMed

International agencies such as the World Bank have widely advocated the use of health insurance as a way of improving health sector efficiency and equity in developing countries. However, in developing countries with well-established, multiple-player health insurance markets, such as South Africa, extension of insurance coverage is now inhibited by problems of moral hazard, and associated cost escalation and fragmentation of insurer risk-pools. Virtually no research has been done on the problem of risk selection in health insurance outside developed countries. This paper provides a brief overview of the problem of risk fragmentation as it has been studied in developed countries, and attempts to apply this to middle-income country settings, particularly that of South Africa. A number of possible remedial measures are discussed, with risk-equalization funds being given the most attention. An overview is given of the risk-equalization approach, common misconceptions regarding its working and the processes that might be required to assess its suitability in different national settings. Where there is widespread public support for social risk pooling in health care, and government is willing and able to assume a regulatory role to achieve this, risk-equalization approaches may achieve significant efficiency and equity gains without destroying the positive features of private health care financing, such as revenue generation, competition and free choice of insurer. PMID:10176269

Söderlund, N; Khosa, S

1997-12-01

393

Health Risk Behaviors in Family Caregivers During Patients' Stay in Intensive Care Units: A Pilot Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of family caregivers of the critically ill have mainly focused on the psychological impact of the patients’ stay in the intensive care unit and related stress. Despite known associations between stress and physical health, limited attention has been paid to the need to promote and maintain physical health in these caregivers. Objective To explore how family caregivers’ health risk behaviors are associated with patients’ preexisting care needs and the caregivers’ depressive symptoms and burden. Methods During the intensive-care-unit stay of critically ill patients (who required mechanical ventilation for ?4 days), 50 family caregivers were surveyed to determine the caregivers’ depressive symptoms, burden, and health risk behaviors. Data were also collected on patients’ care needs before admission to the intensive care unit. Results One or more health risk behaviors were reported by 94% of family caregivers. More than 90% of caregivers reported depressive symptoms above the score indicating risk for clinical depression. A high level of burden was reported by 36% of caregivers. More health risk behaviors were associated with higher scores of depressive symptoms and burden (P<.001 for both). Caregivers’ responses did not differ according to patients’ preexisting care needs. Conclusion Health risk behaviors of family caregivers are associated with greater perceptions of burden and/or depressive symptoms but not with patients’ care needs before admission to the intensive care unit.

Choi, JiYeon; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Schulz, Richard; Ren, Dianxu; Donahoe, Michael P.; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.

2014-01-01

394

Risk selection in a regulated health insurance market: a review of the concept, possibilities and effects.  

PubMed

The Dutch basic health insurance is based on the principles of regulated competition. This implies that insurers and providers compete on price and quality while the regulator sets certain rules to achieve public objectives such as solidarity. Two regulatory aspects of this scheme are that insurers are not allowed to risk rate their premiums and are compensated for predictable variation in individual medical expenses (i.e., risk equalization). Research, however, indicates that the current risk equalization is imperfect, which confronts insurers and consumers with incentives for risk selection. The goal of this paper is to review the concept, possibilities and potential effects of risk selection in the Dutch basic health insurance. We conclude that the possibilities for risk selection are numerous and a potential threat to solidarity, efficiency and quality of care. Regulators should be aware that measurement of risk selection is a methodological and data-demanding challenge. PMID:24219050

van Kleef, Richard C; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A

2013-12-01

395

Gas pisces project screening health risk assessment. Topical report, January-June 1994  

SciTech Connect

A screening level health risk assessment was prepared to facilitate the interpretation of air toxic measurements performed at four natural gas-fired combustion sources. These sources were comprised two utility boilers and two combustion turbines. In order to place the air toxic emissions in the context of other fossil fuels, results from an oil-fired and coal-fired boiler were also analyzed and compared from a risk perspective. The risk assessment was conducted in accordance with requirements set forth by the California Air Pollution Control Officer Association`s AB2588 Risk Assessment Guidelines (CAPCOA, 1993). The assessment involved the use of the SCREEN2 dispersion model and the ACE 2588 risk assessment model to predict potential health risks. Natural gas sources were one to two orders of magnitude below the one in a million risk threshold, as well as being significantly below oil- and coal-fired sources.

Stein, D.; Razavi, A.; Fangmeier, B.; McDannel, M.; Himes, R.

1995-04-01

396

Nurse versus community health worker identification of psychosocial risks in pregnancy through a structured interview.  

PubMed

A structured psychosocial risk screening interview, the Prenatal Risk Overview, was administered to 733 women in prenatal care. Either a community health worker (CHW) or a registered nurse (RN) conducted the interview based on day of the week. A comparison of identified risk factors found no significant differences between study samples for six of 13 domains. For CHW interviews, significantly more participants were classified as Moderate/ High Risk for Depression, Lack of Telephone Access, Food Insecurity, and Housing Instability, and as High Risk for Lack of Social Support, Lack of Transportation Access, and Housing Instability. For RN interviews, significantly more participants were classified as High Risk for Alcohol Use. Community health workers successfully conducted psychosocial screening and elicited more self-reported risk than RNs, especially lack of basic needs. Comparing the hourly salary/ wage, the cost for CHWs was 56% lower than for RNs. Preliminary findings support use of paraprofessionals for structured screening interviews. PMID:24185153

Godecker, Amy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Sidebottom, Abbey C

2013-11-01

397

Engaging in Health Behaviors to Lower Risk for Breast Cancer Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Purpose While post-treatment breast cancer survivors face up to twice the cancer risk of the general population, modifiable health behaviors may somewhat reduce this risk. We sought to better understand health behaviors that early stage breast cancer survivors engage in to reduce recurrence risk. Methods Data came from a cross-sectional multi-site survey of 186 early-stage breast cancer survivors who received genomic testing for breast cancer recurrence risk (Oncotype DX) during their clinical care. Study outcomes were meeting health behavior recommendations (daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and having a healthy body mass index (BMI)). Results Approximately three-quarters of survivors we surveyed believed the 3 behaviors might reduce their cancer risk but many did not engage in these behaviors for this purpose: 62% for BMI, 36% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 37% for physical activity. Survivors with higher recurrence risk, as indicated by their genomic test results, were no more likely to meet any of the three health behavior recommendations. Adherence to health behavior recommendations was higher for women who were white, college-educated, and had higher incomes. Conclusions Many nonadherent breast cancer survivors wish to use these behavioral strategies to reduce their risk for recurrence, suggesting an important opportunity for intervention. Improving BMI, which has the largest association with cancer risk, is an especially promising target.

O'Neill, Suzanne C.; DeFrank, Jessica T.; Vegella, Patti; Richman, Alice R.; Henry, Leonard R.; Carey, Lisa A.; Brewer, Noel T.

2013-01-01

398

Promoting Teen Health and Reducing Risks: A Look at Adolescent Health Services in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined data from focus groups with New York City adolescents and interviews with health care providers serving New York City adolescents (hospital based clinics, school based health centers, child health clinics, community health centers, and a multi-service adolescent center) in order to determine how to promote health and reduce…

Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

399

76 FR 19311 - Update of the 2003 Interagency Quantitative Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health From Foodborne Listeria Monocytogenes...FSIS: Janell Kause, Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection...developed a strategic plan that set public health goals including, by 2005,...

2011-04-07

400

How do Students Conceptualise Health and its Risk Factors? A Study among Iranian Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the concept of children concerning their health and its risk factors, a group of primary and middle school students were asked to draw a few relevant pictures in order to deeply explore the comprehension of this key group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1165 students, aged 7-15 years old, selected through random stratified sampling, were asked to draw a number of eight paintings, four paintings on health concepts, and the other four on health risk factors. The paintings were then assessed by two independent observers, and their themes and contents were abstracted and analysed. Results: The students drew a total of 2330 paintings, 1165 paintings on the concept of health, and 1165 paintings on health risk factors. The most and least expressed health concepts concerned “mental health” and “healthy diet” (73.3% and 4.8%, respectively). Considering health risk factors, “unhealthy diet” and the two concepts of “environmental hazards” and “neglected personal hygiene” had the most (95%) and least (1.4% each) frequencies. Students in public schools, primary level and girls drew more pictures about health concept or/and its risk factors (P<0.05). The association between parents’ education level and the numbers of pictures were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Although students had a broad view about health and its risk factors, generally little attention had been paid to some of the main aspects such as physical activity, healthy diet, mental and oral health, and environmental hazards. In addition, it seems that parents’ educational level, as one of the main socio-economic factors, did not have any significant impact on their concepts.

Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Ashrafi Asgar-Abad, Ahad; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Alam, Mahin; Esmaeili, Maryam; Hojabri, Neda

2013-01-01

401

[Assessment of health risks upon exposure to methylated mercury].  

PubMed

Accumulation of a toxic agent (2-4-fold maximum allowable concentrations) was found in the fish caught in the polluted area of the water storage basin of the Angara river. The authors quantified a risk for major pathological syndromes in individuals exposed to mercury on fish ingestion and assayed biosubstrates for the substance. The integral risk of major pathological syndromes in the potentially mercury loaded persons increased by 62.1% with age and only by 17.1% in the control group. In the risk pattern there were risks for neurological diseases, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, borderline mental disorders, and endocrine diseases. PMID:11494492

D'iakovich, M P; Efimova, N V

2001-01-01

402

Association of Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Retinal Microvascular Findings: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular (CV) health in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and determined its relationship with prevalent retinopathy, wider retinal venular diameters, and narrower arteriolar diameters, which are risk markers for subclinical cerebrovascular disease and are associated with increased stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. Methods and Results We used gradings of fundus photography measurements from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study to examine the association of retinopathy and retinal arteriolar and venular calibers to the number of ideal CV health metrics. Prevalent retinopathy showed a graded relationship with the CV health categories and number of ideal CV health metrics present: retinopathy prevalence was 2.1% among those with ?5 ideal CV health metrics compared with 13.1% among those with zero ideal CV health metrics (odds ratio [CI]), 4.8 [2.5 to 8.9]). Central retinal venule equivalent and central retinal arteriolar equivalent diameters also showed graded relationships with CV health categories and number of ideal CV health metrics: after adjustment for age, race, sex, and education, mean central retinal venular equivalent was 187.8 ?m (95% CI, 186.9 to 188.6 ?m) among those with ?5 ideal CV health metrics compared with 201.1 ?m (95% CI, 199.1 to 203.1 ?m) among those with zero ideal CV health metrics. Mean central retinal arteriolar equivalent was 163.8 ?m (95% CI, 163.0 to 164.5 ?m) among those with ?5 ideal CV health metrics compared with 157.9 ?m (95% CI, 156.1 to 159.7 ?m) among those with zero ideal CV health metrics. Conclusions Few adults had ideal cardiovascular health. Those with the best level of health were less likely to have retinopathy signs, wide retinal venules, and narrow retinal arterioles, which are associated with increased stroke and coronary heart disease risk.

Ogagarue, Ejovwoke R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Folsom, Aaron R.

2013-01-01

403

Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?  

PubMed Central

There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17?-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In some places at which heavy anthropogenic contamination of drinking water sources occurs, advanced drinking water treatment is increasingly being implemented. This treatment employs particle removal, ozone oxidation of organic material and activated charcoal adsorption of the oxidation products. Such processes will remove industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, pharmaceutical products and hormones. Populations for which only basic wastewater and drinking water treatment are available remain vulnerable.

Falconer, Ian R.

2006-01-01

404

Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can provide no more than partial answers to the questions of environmental interactions, interindividual variability, and optimal control levels. Future prospective studies should involve assessment of astronaut well being using sophisticated measures during exposures to levels of CO2 in the range from 2 to 8 mmHg.

James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

2010-01-01

405

Risk adjustment in health insurance and its long-term effectiveness.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to create new insights when judging the impact different risk adjustment schemes may have on the incentive to select risks. It distinguishes risk types with high and low profit potential and estimates long-run profits associated with risk selection in four scenarios (no risk adjustment, demographic only, including prior hospitalization, and including prior hospitalization and Pharmaceutical Cost Groups). The database covers 180,000 Swiss individuals over 8 years, 3 of which are used for model building and 5, to estimate insurers' profits due to risk selection in the four scenarios. While these profits prove to be very high without risk adjustment and still substantial with demographic risk adjustment, they become surprisingly low when the crude morbidity indicator 'prior hospitalization' is included in the formula. These results clearly indicate the need for health status-related risk adjustment in insurance markets with community rating, taking into account insurers' planning horizon. PMID:20434784

Beck, Konstantin; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter

2010-07-01

406

Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback  

PubMed Central

Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28%) employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45). Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54) and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60). Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44), increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39), and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17). Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In general employees reported to be satisfied with the HRA, which was also positively associated with initiation of health-behaviour change. These findings indicate that among voluntary participating employees a web-based HRA with tailored feedback may motivate those in greatest need of health-behaviour change and may be a valuable component of workplace health promotion programs.

2011-01-01

407

Use of Environmental Health-Risk Analysis for Managing Toxic Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a set of simple models used to assess health risks based on toxicity, environmental mobility, and persistence. These models use a representative landscape in order to describe the steady-state distribution of arsenic, tritiated water, ...

T. E. McKone

1985-01-01

408

SUDAN Environmental and Health Risks to Personnel to be Deployed to Sudan Pre-Deployment Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the Swedish Armed Forces (MUST), the Swedish Defense Research Agency, Division of NBC Defense, has conducted a preliminary overview of the existence of NBC or environmental health risks, to which military and civilian personnel deployed ...

A. Walelij C. Edlund M. Holmberg B. Lesko B. Liljedahl

2004-01-01

409

78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interior scapes, and Christmas trees/conifers on nurseries and plantations. It is also registered for use as a pre-plant pineapple seed treatment. The Agency has conducted a human health risk assessment for dietary (food and drinking water),...

2013-06-26

410

Performance and Health Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project assessed the performance and health risks of commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) individual water purifiers (IWP) for use by individual warfighters to provide emergency treatment of field drinking water. This project had three discrete objective...

A. Lundquist S. Clarke S. Richards W. Bettin

2006-01-01

411

Pharmacists as Health Educators and Risk Communicators in the Prevention of Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research study, 'Pharmacists as Health Educators and Risk Communicators in the Prevention of Prostate Cancer' is a prostate cancer education for prevention project. The principle investigator is Cynthia Warrick, formerly at Howard University; she is n...

C. Warrick

2004-01-01

412

National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) 1995 Data (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), an epidemiologic surveillance system, was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the prevalence of youth behaviors that most influence health. The 1995 National C...

1997-01-01

413

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01

414

The power of perception: Health risk attributed to air pollution in an urban industrial neighborhood  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a multi-stakeholder process designed to assess the potential health risks associated with adverse air quality in an urban industrial neighborhood. The paper briefly describes the quantitative health risk assessment conducted by scientific experts, with input by a grassroots community group concerned about the impacts of adverse air quality on their health and quality of life. In this case, rather than accept the views of the scientific experts, the community used their powers of perception to advantage by successfully advocating for a professionally conducted community health survey. This survey was designed to document, systematically and rigorously, the health risk perceptions community members associated with exposure to adverse air quality in their neighborhood. This paper describes the instructional and community contexts within which the research is situated as well as the design, administration, analysis, and results of the community health survey administered to 402 households living in an urban industrial neighborhood in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. These survey results served to legitimate the community's concerns about air quality and to help broaden operational definitions of health. In addition, the results of both health risk assessment exercises served to keep issues of air quality on the local political agenda. Implications of these findings for their understanding of the environmental justice process as well as the ability of communities to influence environmental health policy are discussed.

Elliott, S.J.; Cole, D.C.; Krueger, P.; Voorberg, N.; Wakefield, S.

1999-08-01

415

Reporting Risk: Perceptions of Fear and Risk from Health News Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using actual news coverage of an environmental risk, this experimental study examined whether providing unrelated risk comparisons and information about other sources of the same risk influenced readers' reactions to the coverage. The study suggests stories that provide information on other sources of a contaminant may do little to reduce risk perceptions; however, providing information about the magnitude of the

Barbara M. Miller; Alissa A. Packer; Brooke Barnett

2011-01-01

416

Post-conflict environmental health risk: the role of risk analysis in foreign pol- icy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the valuable role that risk analysis and disas- ter research can play in redefining national security, particularly for post- conflict construction and development policies. Drawing from environmental risk assessment methodologies, this research highlights how environmental changes before and during conflict can alter risk vulnerabilities, putting par- ticular groups at greater risk and increasing chances for future conflict.

C. M. Briggs

417

Oral-to-inhalation route extrapolation in occupational health risk assessment: a critical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, the health risks resulting from occupational exposure are frequently assessed by route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation based on oral toxicity data. Insight into the conditions for and the uncertainties connected with the application of RtR extrapolation has not been clearly described in a systematic manner. In our opinion, for a reliable occupational health risk

Monique A. J Rennen; Tialda Bouwman; Annette Wilschut; Jos G. M Bessems; Cees De Heer

2004-01-01

418

The Risk Behaviors and Mental Health of Detained Adolescents: A Controlled, Prospective Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the behavioral risk factors and mental health needs of adolescents in juvenile detention centers (JDC).MethodA total of 238 boys aged 12–17 years was surveyed who had been admitted to a detention center and compared them with boys from the community (n = 238) matched for sex and age. We assessed behavioral risk factors and mental health problems by

Zhenhua Zhou; Hongyan Xiong; Ran Jia; Guoyu Yang; Tianyou Guo; Zhaoyou Meng; Guangyu Huang; Yao Zhang

2012-01-01

419

Coming Home: Health Status and Homelessness Risk of Older Prerelease Prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Older adults comprise an increasing proportion of the prison and homeless populations. While older age is associated with\\u000a adverse post-release health events and incarceration is a risk factor for homelessness, the health status and homelessness\\u000a risk of older pre-release prisoners are unknown. Moreover, most post-release services are geared towards veterans; it is unknown\\u000a whether the needs of non-veterans differ from

Brie A. Williams; James McGuire; Rebecca G. Lindsay; Jacques Baillargeon; Irena Stijacic Cenzer; Sei J. Lee; Margot Kushel

2010-01-01

420

An integrated fuzzy-stochastic modeling approach for assessing health-impact risk from air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of air pollutants in the ambient environment can result in breathing problems with human communities.\\u000a Effective assessment of health-impact risk from air pollution is important for supporting decisions of the related detection,\\u000a prevention, and correction efforts. However, the quality of information available for environmental\\/health risk assessment\\u000a is often not satisfactory enough to be presented as deterministic numbers. Stochastic

Heng L. Li; Guo H. Huang; Yun Zou

2008-01-01

421

Particulate Matter Health Risk Assessment for Selected Urban Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its last review, EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) sponsored a risk assessment for two urban areas, Philadelphia County and Los Angeles County, to assess the risks associated with then-current PM levels and the effects ...

E. Al-Hussainy E. Neubig E. Post K. Watts

2005-01-01

422

Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon  

SciTech Connect

Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes.

Fisher, D.R.

1980-01-01

423

Phthalate Risks, Phthalate Regulation, and Public Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of concerns about the toxicity of phthalates to humans, several expert panels were convened toward the end of the 1990s to evaluate the implications of the scientific evidence for the risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. These panels concluded that the risks were low although they had concerns about specific applications of some phthalates, e.g.,

Michael A. Kamrin

2009-01-01

424

Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.  

PubMed

The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings. PMID:24099822

Hardoff, D

2013-09-01

425

Women Prisoners' Mental Health: Vulnerabilities, Risks and Resilience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies 49 incarcerated women to examine the complex relationship among women's criminal history, victimization, relational supports, personal strengths and their mental health. A cluster analysis produced four typologies shaping recommendations for assessment and treatment. Findings suggest that women with the greatest mental health needs have…

Martin, Margaret E.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

2001-01-01

426

Optimism and Life Satisfaction as Determinants for Dental and General Health Behavior—Oral Health Habits Linked to Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral infections and cardiovascular diseases share common biological and behavioral risk factors. Psychosocial determinants could act as a link between general health behavior and dental health behavior. Our objective was to study optimism and life satisfaction as determinants of general and dental health behavior and to evaluate whether these are connected with cardiovascular risk factors and dental diseases. The 1966

P. V. Ylöstalo; E. Ek; J. Laitinen; M. L. Knuuttila

2003-01-01

427

Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

1996-06-01

428

Social capital and risk and protective behaviors: a global health perspective  

PubMed Central

Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes.

Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang

2011-01-01

429

Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care.

Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

2014-01-01

430

Phase 1 Data Summary Report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health Risk and Ecological Risk Screening Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address The transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds.

Cook

1992-01-01

431

Taking responsibility or averting risk? A socio-cultural approach to risk and trust in private health insurance decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing political significance of private health insurance can be located in an altered understanding of the role of individuals and the State in protecting citizens' welfare. In common with other Western societies, contemporary Australia is marked by an expectation that people will fund their own needs and identify and manage their own risks throughout their life course. However, we

Kristin Natalier; Karen Willis

2008-01-01

432

Travel health risk perceptions and preparations among travelers at Hong Kong international airport.  

PubMed

Four levels of pre-travel health preparations were defined to allow the measurement of general travel health preparations by the traveling public. A cross-sectional survey of 770 travelers using Hong Kong International Airport was conducted. Important gaps were found in the self-preparation domain. Length of travel was the only factor associated with higher levels of health preparations after adjusting for potential confounders. Targeted health education should be considered to improve health risk perceptions among travelers in Hong Kong and other similar metropolitan cities that are critical hubs for commercial air transport. PMID:24620927

Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

2014-07-01

433

Health risk assessment for toxic emissions from a manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

This paper presents the risk associated with the release of toxic chemicals from a manufacturing facility, following the State of California's approach to risk assessment. The facility emits five toxic substances from eight stacks. The building downwash is considered during dispersion calculations. The zone of impact, identified using a risk criteria (i.e. excess cancer risk of 10 in a million), is located in the southeast quandrant from the plant. The size of the impact area is 3.3 km(2). The cancer and non-cancer effects are considered for chromium (VI), benzene, formaldehyde, gasoline vapors, methylene chloride, and selenium using the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association Guidelines. No significant non-cancer effects are found due to the emissions. The maximum calculated risk is 1.197×10(-5) and is an extremely conservative value. Analysis shows that the use of realistic assumptions for exposure duration and unit risk factors during the risk calculations could reduce the zone of impact to 0 km(2). PMID:24193579

Kumar, A; Madasu, R; Manocha, A

1996-09-01

434

Designing Health Care Risk Management On-Line: Meeting Regulators' Concerns for Fixed-Hour Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experience of creating a continuing professional education on-line risk management program that is designed to meet Florida's educational requirements for licensure as a risk manager in health-care settings and details the challenges faced when the in-class didactic program of 15 eight-hour sessions is reformatted as an…

Hyer, Kathryn; Taylor, Heidi H.; Nanni, Kenneth

2004-01-01

435

Health risk assessment of exposure to organic matter from the use of reclaimed water in toilets.  

PubMed

To estimate the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of six volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in reclaimed water used for flushing toilets, a probabilistic health risk assessment based on Monte Carlo simulations was used. Before Monte Carlo simulations, the contaminant volatilization model was applied to estimate the concentration of the pollutants in air. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to acquire daily exposure time and the Batch Fit tool of Crystal Ball software was applied to find the best-fitting distribution of a part of the input parameters. The risk analysis indicated that the health risks from six VOCs were lower than the negligible risk level (1?×?10(-8)) in all cases, and the health risk for females was slightly higher than that for males. Overall, exposure to organic pollutants in reclaimed water during toilet flushing does not currently pose a significant carcinogenic risk to humans. In this study, we want to provide some information on the health risk from reclaimed water used for toilet flushing in China and hope that it will be useful to promote the application of reclaimed water in water-deficient areas. PMID:24510531

Niu, Zhi-Guang; Zang, Xue; Zhang, Jian-Guo

2014-05-01

436

GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF METALS IN SOILS FOR USE IN HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is intended to provide guidance to Regional risk assessors for evaluating the bioavailability of metals in soils for use in human health risk assessments. It specifically addresses three issues: (1) criteria to decide when to collect site-specific information on bi...

437

Uncertainty\\/Safety Factors in Health Risk Assessment: Opportunities for Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of deliberations from participants who met on the second day of the Fourth Annual Workshop on the Evaluation of Uncertainty\\/Safety Factors in Health Risk Assessment. The group reviewed the previous day's presentations and implications for improvement in risk assessment. After much discussion, the group concluded that, in the short term, significant improvements could be made

Barbara D. Beck; Harvey J. Clewell III

2001-01-01

438

Health-risk comparison between groundwater transport models and field data  

SciTech Connect

The potential of ground-water contamination is one of the major concerns over land disposal of hazardous waste. Risk assessment requires information on ground-water concentrations of contaminants at the exposure location. Results are presented of case studies comparing health risk assessment and plume delineation based on state-of-the-modeling and monitoring data.

Hwang, S.T.

1986-01-01

439

Health Risk Assessment of Incinerator Air Emissions Incorporating Background Ambient Air Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of hazardous and municipal waste produces a wide variety of emissions which need to be considered when assessing potential human health risks. A major focus in recent years has been excess cancer risks. The main emissions which rodent studies indicate may be carcinogenic to humans include organic chemicals such as dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls, which are highly persistent

ALLAN H. SMITH; HELEN M. GOEDEN

1990-01-01

440

EPA'S RESEARCH TO IMPROVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS (RIHRA) PROGRAM: OVERVIEW AND WATER-RELATED RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal law requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess drinking water risks and to set standards to insure a safe drinking water supply. iven limited data, risk assessors rely on high dose experimental data, results from occupational health studies, and other da...

441

Specific issues in health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and international activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific issues in health risk assessment of EDCs and correlated international activities thereof are discussed. Risk characterization is a synthesis of all information including hazard assessment, dose-response relationship, and exposure information to identify clearly the strengths and weaknesses of the database, the criteria applied to evaluation and validation of all aspects of methodology, and the conclusions reached from the review

M. Younes

1999-01-01

442

The application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in human health risk assessment of hazardous substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is an important tool for improving the accuracy of human health risk assessments for hazardous substances in the environment. The proper use of PBPK modeling can reduce uncertainties that currently exist in risk assessment procedures by providing more scientifically credible extrapolations across species and routes of exposure, and from high experimental doses to potential environmental

H. J. Clewell

1995-01-01

443

Important recent advances in the practice of health risk assessment: Implications for the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risk assessments have been so widely adopted in the United States that their conclusions are a major factor in many environmental decisions. The procedure by which these assessments are conducted is one which has evolved over the past 10-15 years and a number of short-comings have been widely recognized. Recent significant advances for more accurately estimating the risks posed

D PAUSTENBACH

1989-01-01

444

Tolerance for environmental health risks: the influence of knowledge, benefits, voluntariness, and environmental attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors affecting risk estimates and tolerance among persons directly exposed to environmental health risks. Data were gathered from questionnaires distributed at public hearings regarding proposed air pollution standards for an arsenic emitting copper smelter located in Tacoma, Washington. Approximately 80% of the area residents who attended the hearings completed the questionnaires, and the responses of 347 subjects

Brian N. R. Baird

1986-01-01

445

Human health risk assessment screening approach for evaluating contaminants at source control and integrator operable units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more streamlined approach is proposed for executing the Remedial Investigation\\/Feasibility Study Process. This approach recognizes the uncertainties associated with the process, particularly regarding the derivation of human health risk estimates. The approach is tailored for early identification of sites and contaminants of immediate concern, early remediation of such sites, and early identification of low-risk sites that can be eliminated

B. G. Blaylock; M. L. Frank; F. O. Hoffman; P. D. Miller; R. K. White; S. T. Purucker; A. Redfearn

1992-01-01

446

Improving the use of epidemiologic data in health-risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiolic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. This paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. The approach recognizes that the various designs used to increase statistical power and to control for covariables have different functions in contemporary risk assessment as practiced by regulatory agencies. Each of these study

L. S. Erdreich; C. Burnett

1985-01-01

447

Risk factors for skin cancers: a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We examined the associations of constitutional risk factors and sun exposure with the risks of three types of skin cancer simultaneously and evaluated the interaction between constitutional susceptibility and sun exposure in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (200 melanoma, 275 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 283 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 804 controls). Information

Jiali Han; Graham A Colditz; David J Hunter

2006-01-01

448

History of spouse violence against mother: Correlated risks and unique effects in child mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined mental health risk associated with lifetime occurrence of spouse violence against mother among 303 10 to 12 year-old inner-city children. Maternal report data showed a 30% prevalence rate for lifetime occurrence of spouse violence in this sample. Results of correlational analyses indicated that violence against mother was associated with several other historical risk factors including divorce,

Steve Spaccarelli; Irwin N. Sandler; Mark Roosa

1994-01-01

449

A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

F. Jay Murray

1995-01-01

450

Health and Ecological Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms: Risk Assessment Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome in order to provide a complete risk assessment of their impacts. Six recognized human poisoning syndromes resulting from

Frances M. Van Dolah; Daniel Roelke; Richard M. Greene

2001-01-01

451

Classification of Obesity and Assessment of Obesity-Related Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barriers to the evaluation and treatment of obesity by health-care p