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Sample records for unaccompanied homeless youth

  1. Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

  2. Unaccompanied, Unidentified and Uncounted: Developing Strategies to Meet the Needs of America's Homeless Youth. Issue Brief on the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleseed, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth appear to be one of the fastest growing and most vulnerable segments of the larger homeless population, but flawed information-gathering by government entities makes it impossible to be sure. This issue brief examines reasons why the plight of unaccompanied homeless youth is not fully captured through current models of…

  3. Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Intersections of Homelessness, School Experiences and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    School districts are faced with the challenge of how best to serve the needs of a growing homeless student population. As the numbers of homeless children and youth continue to rise, it is imperative for educators and others to understand the experiences of unaccompanied homeless youth. A qualitative research project was undertaken to obtain the…

  4. Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…

  5. Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

  6. Income Tax and the FAFSA for Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This two-page brief answers various questions about the relationship between the filing of tax returns and a youth's completion of the FAFSA. Questions answered include: How does a youth's decision to file a tax return affect the FAFSA?; Are youth required to file tax returns?; and What should an unaccompanied youth do if his/her parents claim…

  7. Using What We Know: Supporting the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public parks,…

  8. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

  9. Educational Rights of Homeless Youth: Exploring Racial Dimensions of Homeless Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Research that addresses educational rights of unaccompanied homeless youth in grades 9-12 is limited. The McKinney-Vento Act was created to address the many needs of homeless individuals, including children and youth's right to an education. McKinney-Vento was created over twenty-years ago, and this research sought to examine the implementation of…

  10. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Schools Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch surfing"…

  11. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Local Liaisons Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch surfing" or…

  12. Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David

    The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…

  13. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  14. Living the Research: Stories from Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norum, Karen E.

    There is an alarming trend in homelessness: children aged 17 and younger are the most rapidly growing group of the homeless; families continue to be a growing group of the homeless; and many people who are homeless were raised or have lived in the suburbs. Homelessness is no longer an inner-city phenomenon. Three homeless youth were interviewed…

  15. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  16. Youth Homelessness 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…

  17. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant…

  18. Successful Adaptation among Sudanese Unaccompanied Minors: Perspectives of Youth and Foster Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree; Bates, Laura; Rana, Meenal; Lee, Jung Ah

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the adaptation of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee minors resettled in the US. Seven years after resettlement, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Sudanese youths and 20 foster parents regarding factors that contributed to successful adaptation. The youths emphasized personal agency and staying focused on getting an…

  19. The High-Stakes Literacies of Undocumented, Unaccompanied Immigrant Youth Detained in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullerton, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Every year, thousands of undocumented, unaccompanied immigrant youth take dangerous journeys to the United States only to be apprehended by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) upon arrival. These youth, who are both involuntary and voluntary immigrants, are then faced with the challenge of having to navigate the complex contexts of the legal…

  20. Determining Eligibility for Rights and Services under the McKinney-Vento Act. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act defines "homeless children and youths" as "individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence." However, because the circumstances of homelessness vary with each family's or unaccompanied youth's situation, determining the extent to which the family or youth fits the definition must…

  1. Electronic case management with homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Schau, Nicholas; Begun, Stephanie; Haffejee, Badiah; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Hathaway, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Case management, a widely practiced form of service brokerage, is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for homeless youth, but it may be difficult to implement, as youth face logistical barriers to attending in-person meetings. As part of a larger clinical trial, the current study investigates the feasibility of providing electronic case management (ECM) to homeless youth, using cell-phones, texts, email, and Facebook. Youth were given prepaid cell-phones and a case manager who provided four ECM sessions every 2-3 weeks over a 3-month period. Contact logs were used to record how many youth engaged in ECM, how many attempts were necessary to elicit engagement, and youths' preferred technology methods for engaging. Although engagement in the number of ECM sessions varied, the majority of youth (87.5%) engaged in at least one ECM session. Youth (41%) most commonly needed one contact before they engaged in an ECM session, and the majority responded by the third attempt. While youth most commonly answered calls directly, their chosen method of returning calls was texting. The majority of youth (80%) described ECM positively, reporting themes of convenience, connection, and accountability. The use of ECM, particularly of texting, offers promising implications for providing services to homeless youth. PMID:25748603

  2. Resilience and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…

  3. Needs Assessment on Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Planning Council of Winnipeg (Manitoba).

    This assessment of the needs of homeless runaway youth in Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) indicates the need for a cooperative intergovernmental, interdepartmental, and interagency initiative incorporating prevention, intervention and protection, and repatriation. Information was gathered from the Winnipeg Police Department, interviews with 127…

  4. Education and Homeless Youth: Policy Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Navigator" is a free newsletter published by the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) focusing on directions and trends in higher education policy. The theme of this issue is: "Education and Homeless Youth: Policy Implementations." The lead article, authored by CHEPA director William G. Tierney, describes CHEPA's study of the…

  5. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  6. Coping with trauma and hardship among unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Janice H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan, who grew up amid violence and loss, coped with trauma and hardship in their lives. The author used a case-centered, comparative, narrative approach to analyze the narratives of 14 male unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan recently resettled in the United States. She analyzed narratives for both content and form and identified four themes that reflect coping strategies used by the participants: (a) collectivity and the communal self, (b) suppression and distraction, (c) making meaning, and (d) emerging from hopelessness to hope. The findings underscore the importance of understanding the cultural variations in responses to trauma and are discussed in relation to the concept of resilience. PMID:15448294

  7. Maltreatment among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Powers, J L; Eckenrode, J; Jaklitsch, B

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 223 adolescents who sought services from runaway and homeless youth programs in New York State during 1986-1987 was identified as having a history of maltreatment. A demographic profile is presented and the nature of their maltreatment described. The majority of these youth were female and between 15-16 years of age. Less than 25% came from intact families and one-third were born to single mothers. Of the sample, 60% had allegedly experienced physical abuse, 42% emotional abuse, 48% neglect, and 21% sexual abuse. Over one-third were "pushed out" of their homes by their families. Biological mothers were the most frequently cited perpetrators of maltreatment (63%), followed by biological fathers (45%). The sample of maltreated runaways is compared to both statewide and national samples of runaway and homeless youth with regard to their demographic characteristics and the problems they present to staff at intake (e.g., depression, substance abuse, etc.). Youth in the maltreated sample were more likely to be female and were more likely to have engaged in suicidal behavior. Otherwise, the maltreated runaways were not readily distinguished from the runaway and homeless youth population at large. PMID:2310977

  8. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Developmental Milestone Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are over-represented in the homeless population. To examine why some LGB youths become homeless, this report compares homeless and non-homeless LGB youths. Of the 156 LGB youths, 48% reported ever being homeless (i.e., running away or being evicted from home). Results indicate that sexual orientation awareness and the initiation of sexual behavior occurred earlier in homeless than in non-homeless LGB youths and predated the first homeless episode. Substance use was more frequent and first occurred at an earlier age in homeless as compared to non-homeless LGB youths; however, substance use occurred subsequent to first homelessness. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with homelessness; and, early sexual orientation development was related to homelessness among youths without a history of sexual abuse. Findings suggest that interventions should help youths cope with their unfolding sexual orientation and work to prevent or address the consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:22347763

  9. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  10. Daily Hassles and Coping Dispositions as Predictors of Psychological Adjustment: A Comparative Study of Young Unaccompanied Refugees and Youth in the Resettlement Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…

  11. Substance Use and Health and Safety among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; Bowen, Sarah; Baer, John S.; Peterson, Peggy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use is associated with the health and safety of homeless youth using cross-sectional, self-report data from 285 homeless adolescents. Path models were used to examine concurrent relationships between youth's substance use and multiple aspects of their health and safety, including measures of psychological…

  12. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African…

  13. Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Tobias, Lisa; Reid, Donna; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This research examined outcomes and use of specific types of services 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months post-discharge for a large sample of runaway/homeless youth using crisis shelter services. Data were collected for 371 runaway/homeless youth using emergency shelter and crisis services at eleven agencies across a four-state midwestern region. Outcomes…

  14. Homeless Children and Youth in Utah. 1992 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    A study was done of the numbers and educational status of homeless children in the state of Utah in 1992. A survey was conducted using data provided by 31 shelters statewide and included children and youth who were provided shelter at any time during the year. The total count included 4,424 homeless children and youth in 1992. The largest…

  15. Homeless Children and Youth in Utah. 1991 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    A study was done of the numbers and educational status of homeless children in the state of Utah in 1991. A survey was conducted using data provided by 31 shelters statewide and included children and youth who were provided shelter at any time during the year. The total count of 4,894 homeless children and youth, when corrected for general…

  16. Characteristics of Homeless Youth Attending Two Different Youth Drop-In Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, A. M.; Bousman, C. A.; Clapp, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Services for homeless youth traditionally provided shelter and nourishment but do little to break the cycle of homelessness. A more comprehensive approach to serve homeless youth is the drop-in center model that provides safe and easy-to-find facilities within communities to bridge the gap between the streets and transitional/permanent housing.…

  17. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  18. State Plan for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This report describes Oklahoma's response to requirements for the education of homeless children and youth of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The report includes an introduction and an overview of Subtitle B of the McKinney Act and is divided into four sections. Section I, "Functions of the SDE Office," describes the role…

  19. Experiential Therapy with Homeless, Runaway and Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallander, Karin; Levings, Laura

    This paper describes the services and activities of the Orion Center, a drop-in day-use facility for homeless and runaway youth in Seattle (Washington). Orion Center uses experiential therapy and adventure-based activities to develop trust, promote fun and relationship building, and facilitate growth and healing among this homeless population. A…

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  1. Providing Lifelines for Our Nation's Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses educational challenges for homeless children and explains how districts can and must meet their needs. According to the U.S. Department of Education Federal Data Collection, 1,065,794 homeless children and youth were enrolled in public schools for the school year 2010-2011, the highest number on record. After listing…

  2. Bringing It Home: Understanding the Lives of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…

  3. Mental health correlates of victimization classes among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin; Thompson, Sanna; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Literature reports high rates of street victimization among homeless youth and recognizes psychiatric symptoms associated with such victimization. Few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ in type and frequency of victimization and how youth in such classes differ in psychiatric profiles. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine whether classes of homeless youth, based on both type and frequency of victimization experiences, differ in rates of meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of homeless youth (N=601) from three regions of the United States. Results suggest youth who experience high levels of direct and indirect victimization (high-victimization class) share similarly high rates of depressive episodes and PTSD as youth who experience primarily indirect victimization only (witness class). Rates of meeting criteria for depressive episodes and PTSD were nearly two and three times greater, respectively, among the high victimization and witness classes compared to youth who never or rarely experienced victimization. Findings suggest the need for screening and intervention for homeless youth who report direct and indirect victimization and youth who report indirect victimization only, while prevention efforts may be more relevant for youth who report limited victimization experience. PMID:24725619

  4. Factors Associated with Homelessness of Adolescents under Supervision of the Youth Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…

  5. Challenges to immunization: the experiences of homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve immunization in their

  6. Feasibility Study of the Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To reduce mental health symptoms and high-risk behaviors and increase social support and service utilization among street-living youth, the authors conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the social enterprise intervention (SEI) at a homeless youth agency. Method: Convenience sampling was used to recruit 16 street-living…

  7. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  8. Social Capital and Homeless Youth: Influence of Residential Instability on College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences homeless youth face and the influence of social networks on their education. Using a social capital framework, we analyze the experiences that are different for poor youth in general and those homeless. Data used include interviews with 123 homeless youth and more than 40 policymakers, school counselors, and…

  9. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  10. The Mental and Physical Health of Homeless Youth: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edidin, Jennifer P.; Ganim, Zoe; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.

    2012-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness.…

  11. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ...

  12. Capacity for Survival: Exploring Strengths of Homeless Street Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; McManus, Holly; Lantry, Janet; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of research on homeless youth has focused on the multitude of problems faced by this vulnerable population. The current study, while acknowledging the hazards of life on the streets, seeks to explore the personal strengths and informal resources street youth rely on to navigate their environments. Qualitative data from seven focus groups conducted with street youth ages 18–24 were analyzed using content analysis. These data, rich with interactions among youth participants, highlight three important themes: developing “street smarts,” existence of personal strengths, and informal resources relied upon by youth to survive. Results provide valuable insights into the strengths of homeless youth that can be useful to providers in assessing street youths’ service needs and increasing the likelihood of long-term positive outcomes. PMID:19915687

  13. Treatment Outcome for Street-Living, Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L.; Meyers, Robert J.; Glassman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive intervention for homeless, street living youth that addresses substance use, social stability, physical and mental health issues has received very little attention. In this study, street living youth aged 14 to 22 were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or treatment as usual (TAU) through a drop-in center. Findings showed that youth assigned to CRA, compared to TAU, reported significantly reduced substance use (37% v. 17% reduction), depression (40% v. 23%) and increased social stability (58% v. 13%). Youth in both conditions improved in many other behavioral domains including substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems, and emotion and task oriented coping. This study indicates that homeless youth can be engaged into treatment and respond favorably to intervention efforts. However, more treatment development research is needed to address the barriers associated with serving these youth. PMID:16989957

  14. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = −2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

  15. Homelessness among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Implications for Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…

  16. Physical and Mental Health Issues among Homeless Youth in British Columbia, Canada: Are they Different from Older Homeless Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Linden, Isabelle; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Youth homelessness is on the rise in North America, yet this vulnerable population is rarely studied and compared with adults. This paper aimed to study the homeless youth and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the adult homeless population. It also aimed to describe the youth homeless population and their significant co-morbidities. Methods: Data was derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban centre Vancouver (n=250); the mid-sized city and capital of the province Victoria (n=150). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Results: Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Compared to the adult homeless, the homeless youth were more often female (55%), were Aboriginal (47.6%), had greater substance abuse of alcohol (70.7%), amphetamines (8.5%) and cannabis (75.6%). A lower prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (0.2%) and psychotic disorders (13.4%) was also observed. The prevalence of traumatic experiences, other psychiatric disorders and physical illnesses were similar between the adult and homeless youth. Conclusion: Homeless youth have high rates of physical and psychiatric comorbidity, similar to the adult homeless, despite being 20 years younger. An urgent need for interventions that go beyond the standardized ones being offered to homeless populations as a whole, and to derive specific strategies that target this vulnerable population is required. PMID:25320613

  17. Gender Differences in Traumatic Events and Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…

  18. No Place to Call Home: Child & Youth Homelessness in the United States. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "No Place to Call Home: Child and Youth Homelessness in the United States," prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in May 2015, presents the statistics on child and youth homelessness and recent trends in Wisconsin and the United States. It explores the major challenges faced by homeless minors, and, drawing from recent research by…

  19. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  20. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  1. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  17. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  18. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  19. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  1. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  10. Homelessness: Local Program Planning and Review Guides Services for Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Three review formats are enclosed in this publication, along with two basic service checklists and a comprehensive program review guide. These formats were developed to serve as tools to be used locally by school district personnel and Boards of Education in the development of quality policies and procedures to serve homeless children and youth.…

  11. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  12. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  13. Shelters for Runaway and Homeless Youths: Capacity and Occupancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jody M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of shelters for runaway and homeless youths (n=160) were analyzed to determine shelter capacity, occupancy, and occupancy ratios. Analysis focused in particular on occupancy ratios by funding status, shelter size, metropolitan statistical area, season, and day of the week. Results showed a relatively…

  14. Pets Help Homeless Youth, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... of researchers, led by scientists at the Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph, found homeless ... study author Michelle Lem, a graduate of the veterinary college, explained in a University of Guelph news ...

  15. Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangamma, Rashmi; Slesnick, Natasha; Toviessi, Paula; Serovich, Julianne

    2008-01-01

    Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance…

  16. Resilient Educational Outcomes: Participation in School by Youth with Histories of Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Sophie; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Disrupted high school experiences, including dropout, are educational consequences for many youth with histories of homelessness. Using an ecological resilience prediction model (ERPM) based on the literature on resilience in at-risk youth, the study followed 82 youth who were initially homeless for a 2-year period, to identify predictors of…

  17. The paradox of homeless youth pregnancy: a review of challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Begun, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Compared to their housed counterparts, homeless youth become pregnant at exceptionally high rates. Causes of such pregnancies are multifaceted, while a paradoxically high proportion of these pregnancies are intended. This review discusses causes and risk factors associated with homeless youth pregnancies, and notes experiences of pregnancy decision-making discord, challenges encountered during and following pregnancy, and difficulties faced by homeless youth when or if they become parents. Because homeless youth face a wide array of unique risks, future research would benefit from exploring alternative approaches to prevention to reduce pregnancies and improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes among this population. PMID:25985287

  18. Pet Ownership among Homeless Youth: Associations with Mental Health, Service Utilization and Housing Status

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As many as 25% of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets. PMID:24728815

  19. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Sample of Programs, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Kathleen P.

    This report reviews a variety of approaches for working with homeless students. Information was gathered from state Coordinators of Education for Homeless Children and Youth, regional coordinators of homeless programs, and national and local organizations. The programs described are organized into five categories. The first concerns educating…

  20. Educational Rights of Homeless Children and Youth: Legal and Community Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bradley, Ann Aviles

    2008-01-01

    Many homeless children and youth have difficulty in school due to their loss of stable housing, and lack of consistent contact with family and friends. When a child becomes homeless, schools are federally mandated to identify these students and provide the same access to a free and appropriate education as their non-homeless counterparts. Within a…

  1. Hope for the Future: The State Plan for Educating Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Compensatory Education.

    This report contains the California state plan for educating homeless children and youth required by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The plan is designed to raise the level of awareness of schools and school districts to the needs of homeless children and to provide ideas and suggestions for meeting those needs. It is…

  2. Staying in School: The Efficacy of the McKinney-Vento Act for Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausikaitis, Ashley Etzel; Wynne, Martha Ellen; Persaud, Schevita; Pitt, Rachel; Hosek, Aaron; Reker, Kayse; Turner, Carina; Flores, Sandy; Flores, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of homeless youth in the United States presents many social justice concerns, including issues of educational access, stigma, and self-advocacy. These problems become even more apparent when homelessness and educational attainment intersect. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 was enacted to address these…

  3. The Care-System for Homeless Youth in the Netherlands: Perceptions of Youngsters through a Peer Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; de Winter, Micha; Korf, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of homeless youth of the care they receive. Since we wanted to involve homeless youth as participants in this project, we adopted the approach of peer-research. This form of collaborative research has a major role for homeless youth in making an inventory of the problems. A parallel is drawn…

  4. A Different Kind of Smart: A Study of the Educational Obstacles Confronting Homeless Youth in New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melanie; Houghton, Alison

    This study provides information on obstacles facing homeless youth in school. Research occurred in four diverse New England cities. Researchers collected detailed case histories on youth age 10-15 years who were currently homeless or who had recently been homeless. Data came from staff of local youth agencies, government officials, and youths…

  5. A Qualitative Study of the Formation and Composition of Social Networks among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social networks are essential for explaining protective and risk factors among homeless youth, little is known about the formation and composition of these groups. In this study, we utilized 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate their social network formation, role relationships, housing status, and network member…

  6. Exploring Family Environment Characteristics and Multiple Abuse Experiences among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) pilot study, a comprehensive vocational training program with integrated clinical services for homeless youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 homeless youth participating in the SEI study to explore their perceptions of family environment characteristics and…

  7. Factors Precipitating Suicidality among Homeless Youth: A Quantitative Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2006-01-01

    Homeless youth are a population at a high risk for suicidal behavior. A previous exploratory study emphasized the importance of feeling trapped or helpless, which appeared to mediate the impact of other risk variables. Confirmatory work was needed to test this inductively derived model. Two hundred eight homeless youths completed surveys on the…

  8. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

  9. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  14. Substance use among runaway and homeless youth in three national samples.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, J M; Ennett, S T; Ringwalt, C L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Standardized estimates of the prevalence of substance use by runaway and homeless youth between the ages of 12 and 21 in various settings were compared with each other and with estimates for youth in the general population. METHODS: Four surveys were used: (1) a nationally representative survey of runaway and homeless youth residing in federally and non-federally funded shelters; (2) a multicity survey of street youth; (3) a nationally representative household survey of youth with and without recent runaway and homeless experiences; and (4) a nationally representative household survey of youth whose previous runaway/homeless status was unknown. RESULTS: For almost every substance, substance use prevalence was highest among street youth. Shelter youth and household youth with recent runaway/homeless experiences reported similar rates. In the household surveys, substance use rates were lowest and were generally comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Many homeless and runaway youth use tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs at rates substantially higher than nonrunaway and nonhomeless youth, indicating a need for comprehensive and intensive substance abuse prevention and treatment services for these youth. PMID:9103102

  15. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between the ages of 18 and 24. Social network members who were met on the street were among the most likely to be perceived as engaging in risky sex, as well as to engage in substance use with the youth. Youth were more likely to count on relatives and sex partners for support compared to other network members, but they also were more likely to use substances with sex partners and perceived them as engaging in risky sex. Interventions may need to recognize the importance of intimate relationships during the developmental stage of emerging adulthood by enhancing supportive bonds and reducing substance use and risky sex in these relationships. PMID:21863378

  16. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  17. Mobile Phone and Social Media Use of Homeless Youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Harpin, Scott; Davis, Jillian; Low, Hana; Gilroy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate homeless youth mobile phone and social media use, to plan health promotion efforts. Nearly half (46.7%) of runaway/homeless youth in this sample (n = 181) owned a mobile phone and a majority of those devices were smart phones. Ownership did not vary significantly by shelter location, though regular use of Facebook was more prevalent among those in housing programs or camping, than those living on the streets. Over 90% of youth in the sample reported using Facebook. Such media use might facilitate parent, family, and health provider communications with homeless youth. PMID:27074405

  18. Protective Factors Associated with Fewer Multiple Problem Behaviors Among Homeless/Runaway Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A.; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher levels of problem solving and planning skills were strongly related to lower levels of multiple problem behaviors in homeless youth, suggesting both the positive impact of preexisting personal assets of these youth and important programmatic targets for further building their resilience and decreasing problem behaviors. Indirect relationships between the background factors of self-esteem and social support and multiple problem behaviors were significantly mediated through protective skills. The model suggests that helping youth enhance their skills in goal setting, decision making, and self-reliant coping could lessen a variety of problem behaviors commonly found among homeless youth. PMID:22023279

  19. Homeless Youths' Caretakers: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse on Street Victimization and Housing Instability.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2016-04-01

    Homeless youths who live on the streets are particularly vulnerable to victimization and continued homelessness. Identifying factors associated with housing stability and victimization while homeless can offer useful guidance for those who serve these youths. The current study examined the relationship between multiple caretakers and the unique effect of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) on past-year housing and victimization experiences. Seventy-nine substance-using, street-living youths ages 14 to 24 years completed the survey. Findings confirmed a relationship between multiple caretaker transitions and childhood sexual abuse and neglect, but not physical abuse. Sexual abuse was further associated with higher street victimization and reduced housing stability. In addition, sexual abuse mediated the relationship between multiple caretakers and past-year victimization and housing instability. These findings suggest that sexually abused homeless youths are at particular risk for future victimization and housing instability compared with other youths, and specialized intervention for these youths is indicated. PMID:27180525

  20. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. PMID:27219497

  1. Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, J M; Ennett, S T; Ringwalt, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youths. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of shelter youths and a multicity sample of street youths were interviewed. RESULTS: Approximately 28% of street youths and 10% of shelter youths reported having participated in survival sex, which was associated with age, days away from home, victimization, criminal behaviors, substance use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted disease, and pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive and ongoing services are needed to provide resources and residential assistance to enable runaway and homeless youths to avoid survival sex, which is associated with many problem behaviors. PMID:10474560

  2. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  11. Social Networks as the Context for Understanding Employment Services Utilization among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279

  12. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV. PMID:23613136

  13. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  14. Characteristics of Natural Mentoring Relationships from the Perspectives of Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle T.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM Homeless youth experience high risks for poor mental health outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the characteristics of natural mentoring relationships among homeless youth and to identify possible mechanisms that can enhance social support for this population. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 who had natural mentors. The interviews focused on how youth met their natural mentors, the function of these relationships, and how natural mentoring relationships differed from other relationships in the youth’s social networks. FINDINGS Main themes that emerged from the interviews included parental absence, natural mentors as surrogate parents, and social support from mentors. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that social supports provided by mentors enhance youth’s adaptive functioning and may promote resilience, thus the use of natural mentors may be an important untapped asset in designing interventions to improve outcomes for homeless youth. PMID:24180604

  15. Who is Supporting Homeless Youth? Predictors of Support in Personal Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth lack the traditional support networks of their housed peers, which increases their risk for poor health outcomes. Using a multilevel dyadic analytic approach, this study identified characteristics of social contacts, relationships, and social networks associated with the provision of tangible and emotional support to homeless youth (N = 419, M age = 20.09, SD = 2.80). Support providers were likely to be family members, sex-partners, or non-street based contacts. The provision of support was also associated with contacts’ employment and homelessness status, frequency of contact, shared risk behaviors, and the number of network members that were homeless and employed. The results provide insights into how homeless youth could be assisted to develop more supportive social networks. PMID:23204810

  16. State of New Mexico State Plan: Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    New Mexico's State plan for the education of homeless children and youth is submitted in compliance with Title VII-B of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The plan is comprised of 10 sections and five appendices. Section 1 states that the State Department of Education (SDE) is responsible for the administration of the…

  17. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  18. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  20. Who Is Supporting Homeless Youth? Predictors of Support in Personal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth lack the traditional support networks of their housed peers, which increases their risk for poor health outcomes. Using a multilevel dyadic analytic approach, this study identified characteristics of social contacts, relationships, and social networks associated with the provision of tangible and emotional support to homeless youth…

  1. Internet and Social Media Use as a Resource Among Homeless Youth*

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about internet and social media use among homeless youth. Consistent with typologies prevalent among housed youth, we found that homeless youth were using internet and social media for entertainment, sociability, and instrumental purposes. Using Haythornwaite’s (2001) premise that it is important to look at the types of ties accessed in understanding the impact of new media, we found that homeless youth were predominantly using e-mail to reach out to their parents, caseworkers, and potential employers, while, using social media to communicate with their peers. Using the “Social Capital” perspective, we found that youth who were connecting to maintained or bridging social ties were more likely to look for jobs and housing online than youth who did not. PMID:25328374

  2. Homeless Children and Youth: A New American Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryder-Coe, Julee H., Ed.; And Others

    These 11 reports focus on policy responses to the needs of very young children who are part of a homeless family, and older young people who are homeless but on their own. The following chapters are included: (1) J. M. Molnar's introduction to the relationship between chronic poverty and homelessness; (2) "Beyond the Numbers: Homeless Families…

  3. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness. PMID:26503713

  4. A strengths based method for homeless youth: Effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While homelessness among youth is a serious problem, there is little information about evidence-based interventions for homeless youth. In cooperation with professionals and youths, Wolf (2012) developed Houvast (Dutch for ‘grip’): a strengths based method grounded in scientific and practice evidence. The main aim of Houvast is to improve the quality of life of homeless youths by focusing on their strengths, thus stimulating their capacity for autonomy and self-reliance. Method/Design The effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast will be tested in ten Dutch services for homeless youth which are randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 5), or a control group which provides care as usual (n = 5). Measurements of both objective and subjective quality of life and secondary outcomes (mental and physical health, substance use, coping, resilience, psychological needs, care needs, working relationship with the professional and attainment of personal goals) will be conducted among homeless youths (n = 251). Youths in both groups will be interviewed by means of a structured interview at baseline, at time of ending care or after having received care for six months (T1) and at nine months after baseline (T2). Model fidelity will be tested around T1. Discussion This study is unique as it includes a large number of homeless youths who are followed for a period of nine months, and because it focuses on a strengths based approach. If the Houvast method proves to be effective in improving quality of life it will be the first evidence-based intervention for homeless youth. Trail registration Netherlands Trail Register (NTR):NTR3254 PMID:23594410

  5. Unprotected Sex of Homeless Youth: Results from a Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Social Network, and Relationship Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth have elevated risk of HIV through sexual behavior. This project investigates the multiple levels of influence on unprotected sex among homeless youth, including social network, individual, and partner level influences. Findings are based on analyses of an exploratory, semi-structured interview (n=40) and a structured personal network interview (n=240) with randomly selected homeless youth in Los Angeles. Previous social network studies of risky sex by homeless youth have collected limited social network data from non-random samples and have not distinguished sex partner influences from other network influences. The present analyses have identified significant associations with unprotected sex at multiple levels, including individual, partner, and, to a lesser extent, the social network. Analyses also distinguished between youth who wished they used condoms after having unprotected sex and youth who did not regret having unprotected sex. Implications for social network based HIV risk interventions with homeless youth are discussed. PMID:22610421

  6. Out on the Street: A Public Health and Policy Agenda for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Who Are Homeless

    PubMed Central

    Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative that we understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and since the population is nonhomogeneous their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. We conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions. PMID:24826829

  7. Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: a preliminary comparison of san francisco and chicago.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Ernika G; Edidin, Jennifer P; Ganim, Zoe; Gustafson, Erika; Hunter, Scott J; Karnik, Niranjan S

    2012-09-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18-24 years-old) in San Francisco (N = 31) and Chicago (N = 56). Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed. PMID:25379220

  8. Responding to the School Mobility of Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness: The McKinney-Vento Act and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia F.; Foscarinis, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Explores the school mobility of children and youth experiencing homelessness and the success of the McKinney-Vento Act (designed to limit the negative effects of school mobility on homeless students) in addressing this mobility. Proposes that affordable housing is the key to eliminating the mobility associated with homelessness and consequently…

  9. In the Shadow of Opportunity: Removing Barriers and Creating Success for America's Homeless Children and Youth. A Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, Austin, TX.

    This report highlights selected states' attempts to meet the requirements of the 1990 amendments to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (SMHAA), which lays the groundwork for assuring that homeless children and youth have access to and success in schools. A homeless child's success story and an issue that impacts a state's ability to…

  10. The primary health care service experiences and needs of homeless youth: a narrative synthesis of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angela; Jackson, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Homeless youth are a growing, vulnerable population with specific primary health care (PHC) requirements. There are no systematic reviews of evidence to guide the delivery of PHC interventions to best address the needs of homeless youth in Australia. We present a narrative synthesis of peer reviewed research designed to determine: (1) the PHC services homeless youth access; (2) experiences of services, reported outcomes and barriers to use; and, (3) the PHC service needs of homeless youth. Findings show that homeless youth access a variety of services and delivery approaches. Increased PHC use is associated with youth who recognise they need help. Street-based clinic linked services and therapy and case management alongside improved housing can positively impact upon mental health and substance use outcomes. Barriers to service use include knowledge; provider attitudes, financial constraints and inappropriate environments. Findings support targetted, co-ordinated networks of PHC and housing services with nurses working alongside community workers. PMID:23721389

  11. The Educational Success of Homeless Youth in California: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    The California Research Bureau (CRB), in participation with the California Council on Youth Relations (CCYR), and with support from The California Wellness Foundation, has been conducting a major research and policy initiative to bring attention to the issues facing homeless youth in California. These include lack of shelter and educational…

  12. Implementing a Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless, Street-Living Youths in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2007-01-01

    Homeless, street-dwelling youths are an at-risk population who often use survival behaviors to meet their basic needs. The traditional outreach approach brings services into the streets, yet does not adequately replace the youths' high-risk behaviors. Similarly, job training programs often fail to address the mental health issues that constitute…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  14. Youth with Disabilities Who Are Runaways and/or Homeless: Responding to the Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Graham, Steven; Temelini, David

    This document reports on two studies by the Bridges to Inclusion project concerning issues surrounding runaway and/or homeless youth with disabilities. The first study surveyed emergency adolescent shelter providers funded by the Family and Youth Service Bureau. Findings addressed types of disabilities frequently identified or suspected in…

  15. Social connectedness and self-esteem: predictors of resilience in mental health among maltreated homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Dang, Michelle T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore social connectedness and self-esteem as predictors of resilience among homeless youth with histories of maltreatment. Connectedness variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and affiliation with prosocial peers. The sample included 150 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 (mean age = 18 years) with the majority being an ethnic minority. Participants completed surveys using audio-CASI. Results revealed that youth with higher levels of social connectedness and self-esteem reported lower levels of psychological distress. When all predictor variables were controlled in the analysis, self-esteem remained significant for predicting better mental health. PMID:24597587

  16. Falling through the Gaps: Homeless Children and Youth. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip; DeBaun, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In each state, between 41 percent and 91 percent of the homeless students identified by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) are not considered homeless by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Nationwide, as many as 715,238 homeless students fall into a bureaucratic gap between HUD and ED. This is because ED, HUD, and other…

  17. Homeless and Runaway Youth: Attachment Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, Joanne M.

    The "new homeless" of the eighties and nineties are not only more numerous; they are younger, more likely to use drugs, and they exhibit symptoms of mental illness. Homeless mentally ill individuals typically have estranged family relationships and fewer supportive relationships compared with other homeless persons. They typically have more…

  18. Understanding Pregnancy-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Mixed-Methods Study of Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents’ and young adults’ pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. METHODS Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13–24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March–April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. RESULTS More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). CONCLUSIONS Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths’ ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. PMID:23231333

  19. Substance use predictors of victimization profiles among homeless youth: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna; Ferguson, Kristin; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Although a substantial body of literature demonstrates high prevalence of street victimization among homeless youth, few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ on the type and frequency of victimization experienced. Nor do we know how substance use patterns relate to victimization classes. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined the existence of victimization classes of homeless youth and investigated substance use predictors of class membership utilizing a large purposive sample (N=601) recruited from homeless youth-serving host agencies in three disparate regions of the U.S. Results of the LCA suggest the presence of three distinct victimization profiles - youth fit into a low-victimization class, a witness class, or a high-victimization class. These three victimization classes demonstrated differences in their substance use, including rates of substance abuse/dependence on alcohol and/or drugs. The presence of distinct victimization profiles suggests the need for screening and referral for differential services. PMID:24439621

  20. Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner’s risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members. PMID:23162182

  1. A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

  2. Runaway and Homeless Youth Grants: Improvements Needed in the Grant Award Process. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-335

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kay E.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awards grants to provide shelter and services to runaway and homeless youth through the Basic Center, Transitional Living and Street Outreach Programs. In response to a mandate for a review of the grant award process for these programs in the Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act of 2008 (Pub. L. No.…

  3. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

  4. Personal Network Correlates of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Green, Harold D.; Zhou, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth who are homeless and on their own are among the most marginalized individuals in the United States and face multiple risks, including use of substances. This study investigates how the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among homeless youth may be influenced by characteristics of their social networks. Methods Homeless youth aged 13–24 were randomly sampled from 41 service and street sites in Los Angeles County (N = 419). Predictors of substance use were examined using linear regression analysis (for average number of drinks and average number of cigarettes per day) and negative binomal regression analysis (for frequency of past month marijuana use). Results Youth with more substance users in their networks reported greater alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana consumption regardless of whether these network members provided tangible or emotional support. Marijuana use was more frequent for youth who met more network members through homeless settings, but less frequent among those who met more network members through treatment or AA/NA. Greater alcohol use occurred among youth who met more network members through substance use-related activities. Youth having more adults in positions of responsibility in their networks consumed less alcohol, and those with more school attendees in their networks consumed less alcohol and cigarettes. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding substance use among homeless youth. Results also support the relevance of network-based interventions to change social context for substance using youth, in terms of both enhancing pro-social influences and reducing exposure to substance use. PMID:20656423

  5. Facilitators and Barriers of Drop-In Center Use Among Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Tucker, Joan S; Kovalchik, Stephanie A

    2016-08-01

    Drop-in centers for homeless youth address basic needs for food, hygiene, and clothing but can also provide critical services that address youth's "higher level" needs (e.g., substance use treatment, mental health care, HIV-related programs). Unlike other services that have restrictive rules, drop-in centers typically try to break down barriers and take a "come as you are" approach to engaging youth in services. Given their popularity, drop-in centers represent a promising location to deliver higher level services to youth that may not seek services elsewhere. A better understanding of the individual-level factors (e.g., characteristics of homeless youth) and agency-level factors (e.g., characteristics of staff and environment) that facilitate and impede youth engagement in drop-in centers will help inform research and outreach efforts designed to engage these at-risk youth in services. Thus, the goal of this review was to develop a preliminary conceptual model of drop-in center use by homeless youth. Toward this goal, we reviewed 20 available peer-reviewed articles and reports on the facilitators and barriers of drop-in center usage and consulted broader models of service utilization from both youth and adult studies to inform model development. PMID:27238839

  6. Mental health and substance abuse indicators among homeless youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merscham, Carrie; Van Leeuwen, James M; McGuire, Megan

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of mental health evaluations from 182 homeless youth residing in a Denver, Colorado, shelter. The literature on homeless youth, although developing, is still somewhat limited as it relates to mental health, substance abuse, and trauma. This study was motivated by clinically observed high rates of mental illness, trauma, dangerousness issues, and drug and alcohol abuse. Using archival data from mental health evaluations conducted over two years, variables including gender, age, ethnicity, primary diagnosis, drug of choice, trauma history, suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, and legal history were assessed. Results discovered significantly higher than expected diagnoses of mental illness and associations between drug of choice and diagnosis, trauma history and suicidal ideation, and trauma history and diagnosis. Results suggest a strong need for co-occurring treatment, trauma-focused therapy, and attention to both mental illness and substance abuse in homeless youth. PMID:19777794

  7. Homelessness Comes to School: How Homeless Children and Youths Can Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri J.

    2011-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and layered phenomenon, but schools can be effective in reducing its educational consequences. Schools currently are not doing enough. The next step is to consider the services that are needed for students as they arrive on the school campus. Taking care of homeless children in school systems involves seven provisos:…

  8. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behavior. Interventions in homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. Objectives To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Selection criteria Randomized studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behavior (biological, self-report sexual-risk behavior or health seeking behavior) in homeless youth (12–24 years). Data collection and analysis Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review and the reporting of self-report sexual risk behavior outcomes was highly variable across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. Results We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and

  9. Youth Homelessness: The Relationships among Mental Health, Hope, and Service Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jean R.; Clark, Sharon E.; Wood, William; Cakmak, Susan; Cox, Andy; MacInnis, Margie; Warren, Bonnie; Handrahan, Elaine; Broom, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a mental health assessment of 60 homeless youth. Our study explored the mental health needs of youth accessing an overnight youth shelter (maximum stay 8 weeks). Methods: Participants completed an interview (45 to 120 minutes in duration) using one demographic form and one of two standardized questionnaires (Youth Self Report, Adult Self Report). Questions assessed youth mental health symptoms, examined various contacts that youth made with mainstream society (services, family), and identified potential motivating factors (hope, service satisfaction) that may play a role in fostering street survival during adolescence. Results: Forty-eight percent of the youth were clinically symptomatic and most youth accessed a range of general health services. Conclusion: However, those most in need had significantly less service satisfaction, less hope about the future, and had not accessed mental health services. PMID:21037918

  10. The Impact of Specific and Complex Trauma on the Mental Health of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carolyn F; Clark, Leslie F; Marlotte, Lauren

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of trauma experiences that occurred prior to and since becoming homeless on depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and self-injurious behaviors among a sample of homeless youth (N = 389). Youth (aged 13 to 25) who had been homeless or precariously housed in the past year completed a survey about housing history, experiences of violence and victimization, mental health, and service utilization. In addition to examining the impact associated with specific trauma types, we also considered the effect of "early-on" poly-victimization (i.e., cumulative number of reported traumas prior to homelessness) and the influence of a compound sexual trauma variable created to represent earlier complex trauma. This created-variable has values ranging from no reported trauma, single trauma, multiple non-sexual traumas, and multiple traumas that co-occurred with sexual abuse. Multivariate analyses revealed that specific traumatic experiences prior to homelessness, including sexual abuse, emotional abuse/neglect, and adverse home environment, predicted greater mental health symptoms. Poly-victimization did not add to the prediction of mental health symptoms after the inclusion of specific traumas. Results with early compound sexual trauma revealed significant differences between lower-order trauma exposures and multiple-trauma exposures. Specifically, experience of multiple traumas that co-occurred with sexual trauma was significantly more detrimental in predicting PTSD symptoms than multiple traumas of non-sexual nature. Findings support the utility of an alternate/novel conceptualization of complex trauma, and support the need to carefully evaluate complex traumatic experiences that occurred prior to homelessness, which can impact the design and implementation of mental health care and services for homeless youth. PMID:25392379

  11. The Challenge of Pregnancy among Homeless Youth: Reclaiming a Lost Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2011-01-01

    Young, homeless women often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homeless women (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population. PMID:20453382

  12. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  13. The power of the drug, nature of support, and their impact on homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths' perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 drug-using homeless youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth. PMID:20155605

  14. Art Making as a Component and Facilitator of Resiliency with Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Margaret V.; Sekendur, Banu; Bailey, Bryce; Hoshino, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Homelessness among youth is a serious societal problem in the United States. Treatment efforts have approached the problem from a damage model that focuses on pathology and deficits instead of strengthening coping skills and resiliency. This study utilized both quantitative (N=212) and qualitative (n=3) measures to examine the function of…

  15. The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic…

  16. Providing smoking cessation programs to homeless youth: the perspective of service providers.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Mullins, Leslie; Staplefoote, Lynette

    2014-10-01

    There is almost no information available on cigarette smoking among homeless youth, whether they are currently receiving services for smoking cessation, and how to best help them quit. This paper presents data collected from a series of semi-structured telephone interviews with service providers from 23 shelters and drop-in centers serving homeless youth in Los Angeles County about their current smoking cessation programming, interest in providing smoking cessation services to their clients, potential barriers to providing this service, and ways to overcome these barriers. Results indicated that 84% of facilities did not offer smoking cessation services, although nearly all (91%) were interested in doing so. Barriers to implementing formal smoking cessation programs on site included lack of resources (e.g., money, personnel) to support the programs, staff training, and concern that smoking cessation may not be a high priority for homeless youth themselves. Overall, service providers seemed to prefer a less intensive smoking cessation program that could be delivered at their site by existing staff. Data from this formative needs assessment will be useful for developing and evaluating a smoking cessation treatment that could be integrated into the busy, complex environment that characterizes agencies that serve homeless youth. PMID:25012554

  17. Alternative Methods To Estimate the Number of Homeless Children and Youth. Final Report. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.

    This report presents the results of a federally mandated study done to determine the best means of identifying, locating, and counting homeless children and youth, for the purpose of facilitating their successful participation in school and other educational activities. Several alternative approaches to obtaining consistent national estimates of…

  18. West Virginia Department of Education Proposed Plan for Education of Homeless Children and Youth. 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Office of Educational Support Services.

    This proposed plan for the education of homeless children and youth in 1989-1990 is West Virginia's response to Title VII (B) of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 (the McKinney Act). Section 1 is comprised of the following four parts: (1) an executive summary, describing background, purpose, and impact of the state plan; (2)…

  19. The Most Frequently Asked Questions on the Education Rights of Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes, regulations, and guidance; relevant case law; and best practices from across the country. While the National…

  20. U.S. Minority Homeless Youth's Access to and Use of Mobile Phones: Implications for mHealth Intervention Design.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Lee, Nicole; Shore, Deborah; Strohminger, Nancy; Allison, Burgundi; Conserve, Donaldson F; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2016-07-01

    Few interventions for homeless youth have leveraged the potential of mHealth technologies, in part because of the limited data on phone behaviors, perceptions, and intervention preferences among youth experiencing homelessness. We conducted 9 focus groups (n = 52 homeless youth) and 41 individual structured interviews also with homeless youth in underserved communities in Baltimore and Washington, DC, to ascertain how youth perceived their mobile phone, acquired and maintained mobile services over time, and thought mHealth programs for this population should be designed. We also measured phone use, functionality, source, duration of ownership, and reasons for changing phones or numbers. Results showed that mobile coverage was high, as most youth self-purchased phones or received gift payments from others. Maintaining mobile connectivity was often challenging because of financial constraints and interpersonal conflict. Youth valued phones to access social support but used several tactics to avoid perceived negative consequences of phone ownership, such as harassment, theft, or relational disputes. Youth most preferred mHealth content relating to sexual, reproductive, and mental health provided that mobile communication was confidential, empowering, and integrated with other digital media. Integrating hidden phones, financial support, and safety management may improve homeless youth's access to and engagement with mHealth strategies over time. PMID:27232544

  1. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Coping Styles and Relationship to Depression Among a Sample of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samantha M; Begun, Stephanie; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which measures of coping adequately capture the ways that homeless youth cope with challenges, and the influence these coping styles have on mental health outcomes, is largely absent from the literature. This study tests the factor structure of the Coping Scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and then investigates the relationship between coping styles and depression using hierarchical logistic regression with data from 201 homeless youth. Results of the EFA indicate a 3-factor structure of coping, which includes active, avoidant, and social coping styles. Results of the hierarchical logistic regression show that homeless youth who engage in greater avoidant coping are at increased risk of meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. Findings provide insight into the utility of a preliminary tool for assessing homeless youths' coping styles. Such assessment may identify malleable risk factors that could be addressed by service providers to help prevent mental health problems. PMID:25821043

  2. A Review of Services and Interventions for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Letcher, Amber; Erdem, Gizem; Serovich, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    Research focused on the impact of community-based services and treatment interventions designed to intervene in the lives of runaway and homeless youth has increased in the last two decades in the U.S. and internationally. In light of the tremendous need for identifying effective strategies to end homelessness and its associated problems among youth, this paper summarizes and critiques the findings of the extant literature including U.S., international, and qualitative studies. Thirty-two papers met criteria for inclusion in the review. Among the conclusions are that comprehensive interventions which target the varied and interconnected needs of these youth and families may be worthy of more study than studies that isolate the intervention focus on one problem. Also, more research incorporating design strategies that increase the reliability and validity of study findings is needed. Other preliminary conclusions and future directions are offered. PMID:20161294

  3. The Power of the Drug, Nature of Support, and their Impact on Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths’ perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. Most commonly-used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth. PMID:20155605

  4. TRANSITIONS INTO AND OUT OF HOMELESSNESS AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tessa; Wood, Evan; Feng, Cindy; Mathias, Steve; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2013-01-01

    The impact of transitions in housing status among street youth have not been well explored. This study uses a generalized linear mixed effects model to identify factors associated with transitions into and out of homelessness among a prospective cohort of 685 drug-using street-involved youth aged 14–26. In multivariate analysis, high intensity substance use, difficulty accessing addiction treatment, incarceration, sex work, and difficulty accessing housing (all p < 0.05) either significantly facilitated or hindered housing transitions. Findings highlight the importance of external structural factors in shaping youth’s housing status and point to opportunities to improve the housing stability of vulnerable youth. PMID:23838565

  5. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. PMID:26897432

  6. Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness. Cambridge Criminology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, John; McCarthy, Bill

    This study explores the social worlds of homeless children in two Canadian cities, Toronto and Vancouver, comparing them with the environments of in-home and in-school children from the perspective of the children. Samples of 390 and 482 children were interviewed. The following chapters are included: (1) "Street and School Criminologies"; (2)…

  7. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV-Related Risk and Protective Behaviors Among Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-07-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  8. A Qualitative Study of the Formation and Composition of Social Networks Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social networks are essential for explaining protective and risk factors among homeless youth, little is known about the formation and composition of these groups. In this study, we utilized 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate their social network formation, role relationships, housing status, and network member functions. Our findings reveal that the formation of these networks occurred in different ways including meeting network members through others or in specific social situations. The majority of social network members were currently housed and provided various functions including instrumental and social support and protection. Responses from participants provide valuable insight into the formation of social networks and potentially explain their subsequent involvement in risky behaviors. PMID:22121330

  9. Improving Youth Mental Health through Family-Based Prevention In Family Homeless Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Cynthia J; Acri, Mary C; Goldstein, Leah; Bannon, William; Beharie, Nisha; McKay, Mary M

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examines changes in suicidal ideation among a sample (N = 28) of homeless youth, ages 11-14, residing within family shelters in a large metropolitan area. Changes in suicidal ideation from pretest to posttest are compared across two group approaches to delivering HIV prevention. Youth and their families participating in the HOPE Family Program, incorporating a family strengthening approach, are compared to those receiving a traditional health education-only approach. Multivariate analyses reveal that youth in the HOPE Family Program were 13 times more likely to report a decrease of suicidal ideation. These findings indicate that health education programs integrating a family strengthening approach hold promise for positively impacting mental health outcomes for vulnerable youth. PMID:25157200

  10. Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences...Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. A FYSB Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Professionals who work with runaway, throwaway, and homeless youth have long known that many of these young people leave home to escape abusive and/or destructive family situations. This update presents the findings of a national study on such children. Results of the study, "Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence,…

  11. Federally Supported Centers Provide Needed Services for Runaways and Homeless Youths. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act authorizes funds under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 for community-based centers that serve the shelter needs of runaway or homeless youths. To examine the effectiveness of the programs and the characteristics of program participants, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) visited 17…

  12. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Two Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Unaccompanied Alien Children...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Support Unaccompanied Alien Children Program Services AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... from the Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to Youth for Tomorrow in Bristow VA and Lincoln Hall in... will support grants to two organizations that are providing services under the Unaccompanied...

  13. Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: a case study from Skid Row, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth. PMID:23384969

  14. Sociometric network structure and its association with methamphetamine use norms among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Begun, Stephanie; Rice, Eric; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Perez-Portillo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Homeless youths' social networks are consistently linked with their substance use. Social networks influence behavior through several mechanisms, especially social norms. This study used sociometric analyses to understand whether social norms of drug use behaviors are clustered in network structures and whether these perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) influence youths' drug use behaviors. An event-based approach was used to delineate boundaries of the two sociometric networks of homeless youth, one in Los Angeles, CA (n = 160) and the other in Santa Monica, CA (n = 130). Network characteristics included centrality (i.e., popularity) and cohesiveness (location in dense subnetworks). The primary outcome was recent methamphetamine use. Results revealed that both descriptive and injunctive norms influenced methamphetamine use. Network cohesion was found to be associated with perception of both descriptive and injunctive norms in both networks, however in opposite directions. Network interventions therefore might be effective if designed to capitalize on social influence that naturally occurs in cohesive parts of networks. PMID:27194667

  15. Mobilizing Homeless Youth for HIV Prevention: A Social Network Analysis of the Acceptability of a Face-to-Face and Online Social Networking Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…

  16. Multiple victimizations before and after leaving home associated with PTSD, depression, and substance use disorder among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha M; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment during childhood is associated with serious mental health consequences among youth in the general population, but limited empirical attention has focused on homeless youth-a population with markedly high rates of childhood maltreatment followed by elevated rates of street victimization. This study investigated the rates of multiple childhood abuses (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) and multiple street victimizations (robbery, physical assault, and sexual assault) and examined their relative relationships to mental health outcomes (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use disorder) among a large (N = 601) multisite sample of homeless youth. Approximately 79% of youth retrospectively reported multiple childhood abuses (two or more types) and 28% reported multiple street victimizations (two or more types). Each additional type of street victimization nearly doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for substance use disorder. Furthermore, each additional type of childhood abuse experienced more than doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for PTSD. Both multiple abuses and multiple street victimizations were associated with an approximate twofold increase in meeting depression criteria. Findings suggest the need for screening, assessment, and trauma-informed services for homeless youth who consider multiple types of abuse and victimization experiences. PMID:25510502

  17. Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors Among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Zane, Jazmin I.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary-Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often strained. In structural equation models, positive paternal relationships significantly predicted less substance use and less criminal behavior, whereas maternal relationships did not have a significant effect on or association with either behavior. Positive maternal relationships predicted less survival sex behavior. Separate gender analyses indicated that among the females, a longer time away from home was significantly associated with a poorer paternal relationship, and more substance use and criminal behavior. Paternal relations, a neglected area of research and often not addressed in attachment theory, should be investigated further. Attachments, particularly to fathers, were protective against many deleterious behaviors. Building on relatively positive relations and attachments may foster family reunifications and beneficial outcomes for at-risk youth. PMID:19290724

  18. Joined-Up Practice: Five Areas of Exemplary Practice for Social Workers and Educators to Re-Engage Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Phil; Livock, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Young people seen as "at risk" are a substantial focus across a wide range of policy and practice fields in national and international contexts. This article addresses two of those fields, youth homelessness and young people failing to obtain a basic education that will give them access to employment and full community participation. By comparing…

  19. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: How Are We Measuring Up? A Progress Report, School Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Compensatory Education and Support Services.

    This report measures how well Maryland educators are working together to provide a public education that meets the long- and short-term needs of homeless children and youth by providing environments that support their physical, social, and emotional growth. It outlines accomplishments for the 1990-91 school year, recommends ways of addressing…

  20. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  1. Homeless Gay and Transgender Youth of Color in San Francisco: "No One Likes Street Kids"--Even in the Castro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This study, focused on five transgender and gay youth of color from San Francisco, explored how family problems, poverty, homophobia, and transphobia propelled them into homelessness and made gay-friendly spaces and resources especially meaningful to them. These young people describe seeking support in San Francisco's well-known gay enclave, the…

  2. The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Learning To Succeed. Volume I: Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarenda M.; Wodatch, Jessica K.; Kelliher, Catherine T.

    A 1984 amendment to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act instructs states to ensure that homeless students have equal access to the same free and appropriate public education as nonhomeless students. It provides local educational authorities increased flexibility to use funds, specify the rights of homeless preschoolers, give parents of…

  3. Boston HAPPENS Program: HIV-positive, homeless, and at-risk youth can access care through youth-oriented HIV services.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elizabeth R; Samples, Cathryn L; Melchiono, Maurice W; Harris, Sion Kim

    2003-01-01

    The Boston HAPPENS Program is a collaborative network of care consisting of multiservice outreach agencies; community health centers; and hospitals for HIV-positive, homeless, and hard-to-reach youth. In four years of data collection, the program served more than 2,000 youth, including 54 HIV-positive youth. The youth were 19.9 +/- 2.9 years old; 64 percent female; 45 percent youth of color; 11 percent gay/lesbian, bisexual, or undecided; and 13 percent homeless or runaway. Homeless youth were much more likely to have been involved with a mental health system (47% vs. 12%, P < 0.001), the criminal justice system (20% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), high-risk sexual behaviors (21% vs. 3%, P < 0.001), and substance abuse (25% vs. 6%, P < 0.001) than were other youth served by the program. Comprehensive networks of care offering a continuum of services and a variety of entry routes and types of care sites are needed to connect under-served youth to health care. Outreach and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing services can offer important portals of entry into health services for at-risk youth. Support services such as outreach, case management, and mental health services are needed to complement medical services by all youth at-risk for contracting HIV. Support services are necessary for the initiation and retention of youth in care so that early case identification and complex treatment regimens can be initiated and tailored to the individual. PMID:12748922

  4. Is Substance Use Associated with Perpetration and Victimization of Physically Violent Behavior and Property Offences among Homeless Youth? A Systematic Review of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use is a commonly reported problem associated with numerous adverse outcomes among homeless youth. Homelessness is reportedly a covariate to perpetration of, and victimization from, physically violent behavior and property offences. Of particular importance in both the perpetration of, and victimization from these behaviors,…

  5. Understanding Condom Use Decision-Making among Homeless Youth using Event-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Yashodhara; Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first qualitative event-based studies to understand the various mechanisms through which multiple factors influence condom use decision-making among homeless youth. Event-level interviews which explore characteristics of the environment surrounding sexual events were conducted with 29 youth, who were asked to describe two recent sexual encounters. In thematic analyses of data across events, reasons that youth gave for engaging in unprotected sex included the expectation of having sex and use of alternative methods of protection against pregnancy. Other non-event factors that influenced condom use decision-making were related to attributes of the partnership (e.g., testing, trust and love, and assessments of risk) and attributes of the youth (e.g., perceptions of diseases, concerns over pregnancy, and discomfort using condoms). Additional event analyses conducted within the same individuals found that decision-making was influenced by multiple interacting factors, with different pathways operating for event and non-event factors. Future interventions should consider taking a multilevel and individualized approach that focuses on event-based determinants of risky sex in this population. PMID:25396781

  6. A Youth-Friendly Intervention for Homeless and Street-Involved Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara Virley; MacDonald, Brian J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a community intervention for a population of youth who are often distrustful of mainstream mental health services. Program focuses on not viewing youth as patients but as experts in working with adults to design youth-friendly interventions. Outlines the development and implementation of a support-group model tailored specifically to the…

  7. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  8. Substance use and other risk factors for unprotected sex: results from an event-based study of homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ryan, Gery W; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Zhou, Annie

    2012-08-01

    This study used an event-based approach to understand condom use in a probability sample of 309 homeless youth recruited from service and street sites in Los Angeles County. Condom use was significantly less likely when hard drug use preceded sex, the relationship was serious, the partners talked about "pulling out", or sex occurred in a non-private place (and marginally less likely when heavier drinking preceded sex, or the partnership was monogamous or abusive). Condom use was significantly more likely when the youth held positive condom attitudes or were concerned about pregnancy, the partners talked about condom use, and the partners met up by chance. This study extends previous work by simultaneously examining a broad range of individual, relationship, and contexual factors that may play a role in condom use. Results identify a number of actionable targets for programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission and pregnancy risk among homeless youth. PMID:21932093

  9. Substance Use and Other Risk Factors for Unprotected Sex: Results From An Event-Based Study of Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery W.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Zhou, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This study used an event-based approach to understand condom use in a probability sample of 309 homeless youth recruited from service and street sites in Los Angeles County. Condom use was significantly less likely when hard drug use preceded sex, the relationship was serious, the partners talked about “pulling out”, or sex occurred in a non-private place (and marginally less likely when heavier drinking preceded sex, or the partnership was monogamous or abusive). Condom use was significantly more likely when the youth held positive condom attitudes or were concerned about pregnancy, the partners talked about condom use, and the partners met up by chance. This study extends previous work by simultaneously examining a broad range of individual, relationship, and contexual factors that may play a role in condom use. Results identify a number of actionable targets for programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission and pregnancy risk among homeless youth. PMID:21932093

  10. A Test of Outreach and Drop-in Linkage Versus Shelter Linkage for Connecting Homeless Youth to Services.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Carmona, Jasmin; Murnan, Aaron; Cash, Scottye; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Outreach and service linkage are key for engaging marginalized populations, such as homeless youth, in services. Research to date has focused primarily on engaging individuals already receiving some services through emergency shelters, clinics, or other programs. Less is known about those who are not connected to services and, thus, likely the most vulnerable and in need of assistance. The current study sought to engage non-service-connected homeless youth (N = 79) into a strengths-based outreach and advocacy intervention. Youth were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of advocacy that focused on linking youth to a drop-in center (n = 40) or to a crisis shelter (n = 39). All youth were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months post-baseline. Findings indicated that youth prefer drop-in center services to the shelter. Also, the drop-in center linkage condition was associated with more service linkage overall (B = 0.34, SE = 0.04, p < 0.01) and better alcohol-l [B = -0.39, SE = 0.09, t(75) = -4.48, p < 0.001] and HIV-related outcomes [B = 0.62, SE = 0.10, t(78) = 6.34, p < 0.001] compared to the shelter linkage condition. Findings highlight the importance of outreach and service linkage for reconnecting service-marginalized youth, and drop-in centers as a primary service option for homeless youth. PMID:26759145

  11. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Barnhart, Kate F.; Lotz, Kevin V.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. PMID:22693658

  12. Realizing or relinquishing rights? Homeless youth, their life on the streets and their knowledge and experience of health and social services in Hillbrow, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathebula, Sibusiso Donald; Ross, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Poverty and youth unemployment are critical issues in South Africa with homeless persons begging at traffic light intersections in all major cities. Support services represent one way of empowering homeless youth. The study therefore examined the experiences of 10 homeless young adult males in Hillbrow, Johannesburg and whether they were aware of local health and social services. Qualitative interviews revealed that participants experienced poor health, addiction, physical violence, psychological trauma, and public hostility. Despite limited education, they were aware of and utilized local health and social services. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for social work. PMID:23701578

  13. Chasing the European Dream: Unaccompanied African Youths' Educational Experience in a Canary Islands' Reception Centre and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger-Voyer, Valérie; Montero-Sieburth, Martha; Perez, Lidia Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, Spain's Canary Islands have received thousands of undocumented migrants arriving by boat from the coasts of North and West Africa. The sharp increase of unaccompanied minors has presented a particular challenge, as these minors fall under the State's protection system and are entitled to an education and other…

  14. The P, A and R of Participatory Action Research with Unaccompanied Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukko, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities and the challenges of conducting participatory action research (PAR) with unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and youth. Drawing from a PAR project with 12 unaccompanied asylum-seeking girls in a Finnish reception centre, the paper explores the P, A and R of PAR asking the following questions: what kind…

  15. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on AIDS and Homeless Youth: An Agenda for the Future (1st, San Francisco, California, June 25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan; And Others

    This proceedings of the first international conference on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and homeless youth included over 125 delegates from 32 countries. There was strong consensus among delegates that street youth are often in high and multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk situations, and programmatic responses are needed.…

  17. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Colette L; Lin, Jessica S; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15-24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3-18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3-47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0-18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state's general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  18. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jessica S.; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15–24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3–18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3–47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0–18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state’s general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  19. Homeless Families, Children, and Youth in Stanislaus County--Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boley, Ellen

    The homeless crisis in America is a complex issue with no "quick fixes." In Stanislaus County, California, it seems that there are many programs operating in isolation of one another. Approximately 5% of the county's population is homeless. Homeless persons have survival needs for food and clothing, hygiene, health care, affordable housing,…

  20. Dietary intake, overweight status, and perceptions of food insecurity among homeless Minnesotan youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2008-01-01

    Youth, 9-18 years (n = 202), living in homeless shelters in Minneapolis, Minnesota, were assessed for height, weight, dietary intake, and perceptions of food insecurity. Perceptions of food security were measured by asking youth to respond to the statements (1) "There are times when we do not have enough food in the house," (2) "I go to bed hungry at night," (3) "I do not get enough to eat at home," and (4) "Have you ever had to miss a meal (or not been able to eat) because there was no food at home?" Additionally, questions evaluated coping mechanisms used by children to ward off hunger. Fifty-five percent of the children reported not enough food in the house and 25% reported going to bed hungry. Youth had inadequate intakes of vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and the majority consumed less than the estimated average requirements (EAR) for vitamins A, C, and E, phosphorus, folate, and zinc. Fruits, vegetables, and dairy were also consumed below recommended levels. Forty-five percent of boys and 50% of girls were at risk-for-overweight or were overweight. Overeating, eating anything, eating disliked foods, and eating at the homes of family and friends were identified as strategies to cope with food insecurity. Overeating when food is available may explain why we see a hunger-obesity paradigm to the magnitude that we do among the poorest Americans. These strategies protect children from the immediate negative associations of poverty and hunger, but they may contribute to long-term weight problems currently found in the US. PMID:18491407

  1. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches. PMID:21400037

  2. Mobilizing homeless youth for HIV prevention: a social network analysis of the acceptability of a face-to-face and online social networking intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Barman Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth.Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F recruited online youth (OY) to participate in MySpace and Facebook communities where digital media was disseminated and discussed. The resulting social networks were assessed with respect to size, growth, density, relative centrality of positions and homophily of ties. Seven PL, 53 F2F and 103 OY created two large networks. After the first 50 F2F youth participated, online networks entered a rapid growth phase. OY were among the most central youth in these networks. Younger aged persons and females were disproportionately connected to like youth. The program appears highly acceptable to homeless youth. Social network analysis revealed which PL were the most critical to the program and which types of participants (younger youth and females) may require additional outreach efforts in the future. PMID:22247453

  3. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  4. Institutional Discharges and Subsequent Shelter Use among Unaccompanied Adults in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to…

  5. YTH StreetConnect: Development and Usability of a Mobile App for Homeless and Unstably Housed Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gamedze, Londiwe; Williams, Samantha; Ford, Jessie VanNess; Habel, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless and unstably housed (H/UH) youth are disproportionately affected by sexual health issues, including human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, and dating violence, and are at a higher risk for poor mental health and underutilization of services. Research suggests that linking health care to H/UH adolescents might help improve their continuity of care, with most preferring to access health care information via the Internet. YTH StreetConnect is a dual-purpose mobile app that helps H/UH youth access health and vital services in Santa Clara County, CA, USA. We developed YTH StreetConnect PRO in parallel with the youth app as a companion tablet app for providers who serve H/UH youth. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a mobile app to support H/UH youth and their providers in accessing health and vital resources, and to conduct usability and feasibility testing of the app among H/UH youth and technical consultants with local expertise in serving H/UH youth. Methods Formative research included a literature review on H/UH youths’ mobile phone and Internet usage. In January 2015, we conducted interviews with medical and service providers of H/UH youth. Usability and feasibility testing were done with target audiences. Additionally, we conducted focus groups with youth regarding the app’s youth friendliness, accessibility, and usefulness. Results H/UH youth and their providers noted the app’s functionality, youth friendliness, and resources. Usability testing proposed improvements to the app, including visual updates to the user interface, map icons, new underrepresented resource categories, and the addition of a peer rating system. Limitations included a small sample size among H/UH youth and providers and a single site for the study (Santa Clara County, CA), making the findings ungeneralizable to the US population. Conclusions YTH StreetConnect is a promising way to increase service utilization

  6. Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance. PMID:20521916

  7. Culture Clash in San Francisco: Reconnecting Youth Who Are Homeless with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracenin, Damun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum provided to homeless high school students in San Francisco. The curriculum is delivered at a community-based organization already serving the homeless rather than in the schools and features spontaneous symposiums, scheduled symposiums, independent learning, private and small group instruction in basic academic…

  8. The McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Implications for Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 academic school year, nearly a million (956,914) students were reported by school districts as being homeless, a 41% increase over just a 2-year period year. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of national legislative efforts to address the education of children who are homeless, with a particular…

  9. Invited commentary: seeking a coherent strategy in our response to homeless and street-involved youth: a historical review and suggested future directions.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean

    2012-05-01

    This invited commentary seeks to encourage a critical dialogue about youth homelessness that might assist in re-energizing a field that seems increasingly stagnant with a research body focused primarily on analyses of risk, hopelessly inadequate policy frameworks in most cities, diminishing funds for services, and decreasing media attention. Reviewing major trends in research and public responses to youth homelessness in the past century, I propose that there exist three major culturally-bound dimensions from which we construct our understanding of and responses to youth homelessness. These dimensions, which are considered in a transactional framework, are the scope of responsibility, the location of moral responsibility, and the amount of agency attributed to the youth. In this review I highlight the manner in which our historically binary and uncritical understanding of these dimensional characterizations of youth homelessness has led to major lapses in the effectiveness of our collective efforts to address this problem. I highlight gaps in the existing body of research literature and provide this framework, arguing that a strategic and cohesive response is vital if we are to move from reiterations of risk and hackneyed calls for prevention strategies to the generation of meaningful solutions. PMID:22302217

  10. To use or not to use: a stage-based approach to understanding condom use among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ober, Allison; Ryan, Gery; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stage-based approach to understand condom use behavior in a representative sample of 309 sexually active homeless youth recruited from shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles County. Focusing on the youth's most recent sexual event, the three stages of condom use examined were: (1) whether the partners decided prior to the event about using condoms; (2) whether a condom was available at the event; and (3) whether a condom was used at the event. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify attitudinal, relationship, and contextual correlates of each of these three stages. Deciding ahead of time about condom use was associated with being Hispanic, level of education, condom attitudes, and various relationship characteristics (e.g., partner type, monogamy, relationship abuse), with the nature of these associations varying depending on the type of decision (i.e., deciding to use, deciding to not use). Condom availability was more likely to be reported by males, if the event was described as being special in some way, or if the event lacked privacy. Condom use was more likely among youth with more positive condom attitudes and among youth who decide ahead of time to use a condom, but less likely among those in monogamous relationships or when hard drugs were used prior to sex. Whether sexual intercourse is protected or unprotected is the end result of a series of decisions and actions by sexual partners. Results from this study illustrate how condom use can be better understood by unpacking the stages and identifying influential factors at each stage. Each stage may, in and of itself, be an important target for intervention with homeless youth. PMID:24099462

  11. The U.S. Homeless Student Population: Homeless Youth Education, Review of Research Classifications and Typologies, and the U.S. Federal Legislative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mai Abdul; Turner, J. Fidel; Elbedour, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The drastic surge in the number of homeless families in the United States (U.S.) has resulted in an increase in the number of homeless students attending U.S. public schools. Meanwhile, the U.S. public school system is struggling to meet the educational needs of their homeless students. Objective: This study examined the historical…

  12. Homelessness and Unstable Housing Associated with an Increased Risk of HIV and STI Transmission among Street-Involved Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean A; Patterson, Thomas L; Buxton, Jane A; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    The role that environmental factors play in driving HIV and STI transmission risk among street-involved youth has not been well examined. We examined factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression among participants enroled in the At Risk Youth Study. Among 529 participants, 253 (47.8%) reported multiple partners while only 127 (24.0%) reported consistent condom use in the past six months. Homelessness was inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.47, p=0.008), while unstable housing was positively associated with greater numbers of sex partners (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]=1.44, p=0.010). These findings indicate the need for interventions which modify environmental factors that drive risk among young street-involved populations. PMID:19201642

  13. "You Have to Adapt Because You Have No Other Choice": The Stories of Strength and Resilience of 208 Homeless Youth in New York City and Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Davidson, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 208 homeless youth interviewed on streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto. The interviews focused on the participants' stories about their struggles to survive and negotiate meaningful and healthy lives in coming to the streets, living on the…

  14. Invited Commentary: Seeking a Coherent Strategy in Our Response to Homeless and Street-Involved Youth--A Historical Review and Suggested Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This invited commentary seeks to encourage a critical dialogue about youth homelessness that might assist in re-energizing a field that seems increasingly stagnant with a research body focused primarily on analyses of risk, hopelessly inadequate policy frameworks in most cities, diminishing funds for services, and decreasing media attention.…

  15. Addressing Homelessness: Recent Happenings--Iowa, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This guide provides information on the following resources available to the homeless in Iowa: (1) Funding Sources for School District Programs Serving Homeless Students; (2) Local Educational Liaison for Homeless Children and Youth; (3) Homeless Advisory Committee; (4) Identification, Counting, and Maintaining Data at the Local School District…

  16. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  17. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  18. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  19. A demographic and behavioral profile of homeless youth in New York City: implications for AIDS outreach and prevention.

    PubMed

    Clatts, M C; Davis, W R

    1999-09-01

    Rapid changes in the world market economy have served to destabilize many local institutions, widening the gap between the rich and the poor and undermining viability of key social and economic institutions such as family and household. Among those most deeply affected by this displacement are children and adolescents, many of whom are forced to leave family institutions before they have acquired the skills and maturity needed to become economically self-sufficient. Fending for themselves amid the vagaries of the underworld of virtually every major city in the world, these youths are at exceptional risk for a wide range of poor health outcomes and premature death. While perhaps a familiar sight in many non-Western countries, this phenomenon also has emerged in the industrialized world, a fact that accounts for the rise in exposure to violence and disease among street-involved youth and young adults in nations such as the United States. There are as yet few empirical data available about the nature of these youth populations or the constellation of behaviors that place them at increased risk for disease outcomes. In this report we construct a demographic and behavioral profile of the homeless youth population in New York City, particularly as behavioral patterns relate to risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:10509314

  20. The mediating roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors on self-harm and suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-07-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and psychosocial background characteristics and self-injurious outcomes through the lens of the stress process paradigm. The model was tested in a sample of runaway and homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N = 474, age 12-24, 41 % female, 17 % White, 32.5 % African American, 21.5 % Hispanic/Latino). Background variables (gender, age, sexual minority status, parental drug use history, and emotional distress) predicted hypothesized mediators of maladaptive behaviors and recent stress. In turn, it was hypothesized that the mediators would predict self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in the last 3 months. Females and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) youth were more likely to have self-harmed and attempted suicide; younger participants reported more self-harming. The mediating constructs were associated more highly with self-harming than suicide attempts bivariately, although differences were modest. Maladaptive behaviors and recent stress were significant predictors of self-harm, whereas only recent stress was a significant predictor of suicide attempts. All background factors were significant predictors of recent stress. Older age, a history of parental drug use, and greater emotional distress predicted problem drug use. Males, younger participants, and participants with emotional distress reported more delinquent behaviors. Significant indirect effects on self-harming behaviors were mediated through stress and maladaptive behaviors. The hypothesized paradigm was useful in explaining the associations among background factors and self-injurious outcomes and the influence of mediating factors on these

  1. Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Title VII-B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assitance Act, as Amended by The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Draft Non-Regulatory Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This non-regulatroy guide from the U.S. Department of Education focuses on the McKinney-Vento Education for the Homeless Children and Youth (McKinney-Vento) program as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. An introductory section explains the purpose of McKinney-Vento, the statutory authority for the program, how the new McKinney-Vento…

  2. Supporting Two Households: Unaccompanied Mexican Minors and Their Absences from U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates simultaneous household participation in the lives of undocumented, unaccompanied Mexican teenage minors in New York City and its impact on their school attendance. Emigrating without parents, some Mexican youths arrive to enter into the labor market, not school. Unable to assume monetary dependence, these youths' absences…

  3. On the Outside: The Needs of Unsupported, Homeless Youth. Policy Background Paper No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Frank; Hartley, Robyn

    This document brings together relevant information on the topic of unsupported, homeless young people under 18 years of age. The stated purpose of the document is to identify policy directions which take account of the changing situations of many young people who are struggling to survive. Chapter 1 briefly outlines the background of the paper.…

  4. Factors Associated with Drug Use among Youth Living in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Tracy; Dusenbury, Linda; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Farmer-Huselid, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Examined predictors of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use with homeless adolescents and preadolescents (N=234). Results reveal that social influences (friends and family drug use) are strong predictors of experimental drug use and intentions to use drugs, as are several psychological factors (psychological well-being, assertiveness, and social…

  5. Trials, Tribulations, and Occasional Jubilations while Conducting Research with Homeless Children, Youth, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    A personal account of a program of research on homelessness and poverty spanning the past 20 years is provided, with a focus on the many methodological, practical, and ethical difficulties encountered. Interesting discoveries and enjoyable aspects of the research process are also presented. Several role conflicts that arose for the researcher in…

  6. "We're Locking the Door": Family Histories in a Sample of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Shahid; Scott, Hannah; Stanyon, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the pathways to homelessness for young people are embedded in often ongoing negative childhood experiences. Many of these experiences are rooted in multiple and intersecting problems including, but not limited to: family conflict, abuse, addictions, and mental health issues. The authors draw upon qualitative interviews…

  7. If You Provide the Test, They will Take It: Factors Associated with HIV/STI Testing in a Representative Sample of Homeless Youth in Los Angeles*

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Allison J.; Martino, Steven C.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), yet those at greatest risk may never have been tested for HIV or STI. In a probability sample of sexually active homeless youth in Los Angeles (n =305), this study identifies factors associated with HIV/STI testing status. Most youth (85%) had ever been tested and 47% had tested in the past 3 months. Recent testing was significantly more likely among youth who self-identified as gay, were Hispanic, injected drugs, and used drop-in centers, and marginally more likely among youth with more depressive symptoms. Drop-in center use mediated the association of injection drug use with HIV/STI testing. HIV/STI testing was unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Drop-in centers can play an important role in facilitating testing, including among injection drug users, but more outreach is needed to encourage testing in other at-risk subgroups. PMID:22827904

  8. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73 years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study. PMID:22894551

  9. Moving Away From Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gael, Young Fine

    This discussion document from a symposium on shut out youth attempts to heighten awareness of the housing problems experienced by youth in Ireland. It is based on information obtained from a questionnaire sent to voluntary organizations working in local areas. It focuses on homelessness and its related issues of health, education, and the…

  10. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…