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Sample records for unaccompanied homeless youth

  1. Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

  2. Unaccompanied, Unidentified and Uncounted: Developing Strategies to Meet the Needs of America's Homeless Youth. Issue Brief on the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleseed, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth appear to be one of the fastest growing and most vulnerable segments of the larger homeless population, but flawed information-gathering by government entities makes it impossible to be sure. This issue brief examines reasons why the plight of unaccompanied homeless youth is not fully captured through current models of…

  3. Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Intersections of Homelessness, School Experiences and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    School districts are faced with the challenge of how best to serve the needs of a growing homeless student population. As the numbers of homeless children and youth continue to rise, it is imperative for educators and others to understand the experiences of unaccompanied homeless youth. A qualitative research project was undertaken to obtain the…

  4. Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…

  5. Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

  6. Income Tax and the FAFSA for Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This two-page brief answers various questions about the relationship between the filing of tax returns and a youth's completion of the FAFSA. Questions answered include: How does a youth's decision to file a tax return affect the FAFSA?; Are youth required to file tax returns?; and What should an unaccompanied youth do if his/her parents claim…

  7. Using What We Know: Supporting the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public parks,…

  8. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

  9. Educational Rights of Homeless Youth: Exploring Racial Dimensions of Homeless Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Research that addresses educational rights of unaccompanied homeless youth in grades 9-12 is limited. The McKinney-Vento Act was created to address the many needs of homeless individuals, including children and youth's right to an education. McKinney-Vento was created over twenty-years ago, and this research sought to examine the implementation of…

  10. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Schools Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch surfing"…

  11. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Local Liaisons Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch surfing" or…

  12. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  13. Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David

    The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…

  14. Living the Research: Stories from Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norum, Karen E.

    There is an alarming trend in homelessness: children aged 17 and younger are the most rapidly growing group of the homeless; families continue to be a growing group of the homeless; and many people who are homeless were raised or have lived in the suburbs. Homelessness is no longer an inner-city phenomenon. Three homeless youth were interviewed…

  15. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  16. Youth Homelessness 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…

  17. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant…

  18. Successful Adaptation among Sudanese Unaccompanied Minors: Perspectives of Youth and Foster Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree; Bates, Laura; Rana, Meenal; Lee, Jung Ah

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the adaptation of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee minors resettled in the US. Seven years after resettlement, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Sudanese youths and 20 foster parents regarding factors that contributed to successful adaptation. The youths emphasized personal agency and staying focused on getting an…

  19. The High-Stakes Literacies of Undocumented, Unaccompanied Immigrant Youth Detained in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullerton, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Every year, thousands of undocumented, unaccompanied immigrant youth take dangerous journeys to the United States only to be apprehended by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) upon arrival. These youth, who are both involuntary and voluntary immigrants, are then faced with the challenge of having to navigate the complex contexts of the legal…

  20. Determining Eligibility for Rights and Services under the McKinney-Vento Act. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act defines "homeless children and youths" as "individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence." However, because the circumstances of homelessness vary with each family's or unaccompanied youth's situation, determining the extent to which the family or youth fits the definition must…

  1. Electronic case management with homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Schau, Nicholas; Begun, Stephanie; Haffejee, Badiah; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Hathaway, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Case management, a widely practiced form of service brokerage, is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for homeless youth, but it may be difficult to implement, as youth face logistical barriers to attending in-person meetings. As part of a larger clinical trial, the current study investigates the feasibility of providing electronic case management (ECM) to homeless youth, using cell-phones, texts, email, and Facebook. Youth were given prepaid cell-phones and a case manager who provided four ECM sessions every 2-3 weeks over a 3-month period. Contact logs were used to record how many youth engaged in ECM, how many attempts were necessary to elicit engagement, and youths' preferred technology methods for engaging. Although engagement in the number of ECM sessions varied, the majority of youth (87.5%) engaged in at least one ECM session. Youth (41%) most commonly needed one contact before they engaged in an ECM session, and the majority responded by the third attempt. While youth most commonly answered calls directly, their chosen method of returning calls was texting. The majority of youth (80%) described ECM positively, reporting themes of convenience, connection, and accountability. The use of ECM, particularly of texting, offers promising implications for providing services to homeless youth. PMID:25748603

  2. Needs Assessment on Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Planning Council of Winnipeg (Manitoba).

    This assessment of the needs of homeless runaway youth in Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) indicates the need for a cooperative intergovernmental, interdepartmental, and interagency initiative incorporating prevention, intervention and protection, and repatriation. Information was gathered from the Winnipeg Police Department, interviews with 127…

  3. Resilience and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…

  4. Education and Homeless Youth: Policy Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Navigator" is a free newsletter published by the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) focusing on directions and trends in higher education policy. The theme of this issue is: "Education and Homeless Youth: Policy Implementations." The lead article, authored by CHEPA director William G. Tierney, describes CHEPA's study of the…

  5. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  6. Coping with trauma and hardship among unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Janice H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan, who grew up amid violence and loss, coped with trauma and hardship in their lives. The author used a case-centered, comparative, narrative approach to analyze the narratives of 14 male unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan recently resettled in the United States. She analyzed narratives for both content and form and identified four themes that reflect coping strategies used by the participants: (a) collectivity and the communal self, (b) suppression and distraction, (c) making meaning, and (d) emerging from hopelessness to hope. The findings underscore the importance of understanding the cultural variations in responses to trauma and are discussed in relation to the concept of resilience. PMID:15448294

  7. Maltreatment among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Powers, J L; Eckenrode, J; Jaklitsch, B

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 223 adolescents who sought services from runaway and homeless youth programs in New York State during 1986-1987 was identified as having a history of maltreatment. A demographic profile is presented and the nature of their maltreatment described. The majority of these youth were female and between 15-16 years of age. Less than 25% came from intact families and one-third were born to single mothers. Of the sample, 60% had allegedly experienced physical abuse, 42% emotional abuse, 48% neglect, and 21% sexual abuse. Over one-third were "pushed out" of their homes by their families. Biological mothers were the most frequently cited perpetrators of maltreatment (63%), followed by biological fathers (45%). The sample of maltreated runaways is compared to both statewide and national samples of runaway and homeless youth with regard to their demographic characteristics and the problems they present to staff at intake (e.g., depression, substance abuse, etc.). Youth in the maltreated sample were more likely to be female and were more likely to have engaged in suicidal behavior. Otherwise, the maltreated runaways were not readily distinguished from the runaway and homeless youth population at large. PMID:2310977

  8. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: A Developmental Milestone Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are over-represented in the homeless population. To examine why some LGB youths become homeless, this report compares homeless and non-homeless LGB youths. Of the 156 LGB youths, 48% reported ever being homeless (i.e., running away or being evicted from home). Results indicate that sexual orientation awareness and the initiation of sexual behavior occurred earlier in homeless than in non-homeless LGB youths and predated the first homeless episode. Substance use was more frequent and first occurred at an earlier age in homeless as compared to non-homeless LGB youths; however, substance use occurred subsequent to first homelessness. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with homelessness; and, early sexual orientation development was related to homelessness among youths without a history of sexual abuse. Findings suggest that interventions should help youths cope with their unfolding sexual orientation and work to prevent or address the consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:22347763

  9. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  10. Daily Hassles and Coping Dispositions as Predictors of Psychological Adjustment: A Comparative Study of Young Unaccompanied Refugees and Youth in the Resettlement Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…

  11. Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Tobias, Lisa; Reid, Donna; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This research examined outcomes and use of specific types of services 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months post-discharge for a large sample of runaway/homeless youth using crisis shelter services. Data were collected for 371 runaway/homeless youth using emergency shelter and crisis services at eleven agencies across a four-state midwestern region. Outcomes…

  12. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African…

  13. Substance Use and Health and Safety among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; Bowen, Sarah; Baer, John S.; Peterson, Peggy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use is associated with the health and safety of homeless youth using cross-sectional, self-report data from 285 homeless adolescents. Path models were used to examine concurrent relationships between youth's substance use and multiple aspects of their health and safety, including measures of psychological…

  14. Homeless Children and Youth in Utah. 1992 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    A study was done of the numbers and educational status of homeless children in the state of Utah in 1992. A survey was conducted using data provided by 31 shelters statewide and included children and youth who were provided shelter at any time during the year. The total count included 4,424 homeless children and youth in 1992. The largest…

  15. Homeless Children and Youth in Utah. 1991 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    A study was done of the numbers and educational status of homeless children in the state of Utah in 1991. A survey was conducted using data provided by 31 shelters statewide and included children and youth who were provided shelter at any time during the year. The total count of 4,894 homeless children and youth, when corrected for general…

  16. Characteristics of Homeless Youth Attending Two Different Youth Drop-In Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, A. M.; Bousman, C. A.; Clapp, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Services for homeless youth traditionally provided shelter and nourishment but do little to break the cycle of homelessness. A more comprehensive approach to serve homeless youth is the drop-in center model that provides safe and easy-to-find facilities within communities to bridge the gap between the streets and transitional/permanent housing.…

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  18. Providing Lifelines for Our Nation's Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses educational challenges for homeless children and explains how districts can and must meet their needs. According to the U.S. Department of Education Federal Data Collection, 1,065,794 homeless children and youth were enrolled in public schools for the school year 2010-2011, the highest number on record. After listing…

  19. Bringing It Home: Understanding the Lives of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…

  20. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  1. State Plan for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This report describes Oklahoma's response to requirements for the education of homeless children and youth of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The report includes an introduction and an overview of Subtitle B of the McKinney Act and is divided into four sections. Section I, "Functions of the SDE Office," describes the role…

  2. Experiential Therapy with Homeless, Runaway and Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallander, Karin; Levings, Laura

    This paper describes the services and activities of the Orion Center, a drop-in day-use facility for homeless and runaway youth in Seattle (Washington). Orion Center uses experiential therapy and adventure-based activities to develop trust, promote fun and relationship building, and facilitate growth and healing among this homeless population. A…

  3. Mental health correlates of victimization classes among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin; Thompson, Sanna; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Literature reports high rates of street victimization among homeless youth and recognizes psychiatric symptoms associated with such victimization. Few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ in type and frequency of victimization and how youth in such classes differ in psychiatric profiles. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine whether classes of homeless youth, based on both type and frequency of victimization experiences, differ in rates of meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of homeless youth (N=601) from three regions of the United States. Results suggest youth who experience high levels of direct and indirect victimization (high-victimization class) share similarly high rates of depressive episodes and PTSD as youth who experience primarily indirect victimization only (witness class). Rates of meeting criteria for depressive episodes and PTSD were nearly two and three times greater, respectively, among the high victimization and witness classes compared to youth who never or rarely experienced victimization. Findings suggest the need for screening and intervention for homeless youth who report direct and indirect victimization and youth who report indirect victimization only, while prevention efforts may be more relevant for youth who report limited victimization experience. PMID:24725619

  4. Factors Associated with Homelessness of Adolescents under Supervision of the Youth Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…

  5. Challenges to immunization: the experiences of homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve immunization in their

  6. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  7. Feasibility Study of the Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To reduce mental health symptoms and high-risk behaviors and increase social support and service utilization among street-living youth, the authors conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the social enterprise intervention (SEI) at a homeless youth agency. Method: Convenience sampling was used to recruit 16 street-living…

  8. Social Capital and Homeless Youth: Influence of Residential Instability on College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences homeless youth face and the influence of social networks on their education. Using a social capital framework, we analyze the experiences that are different for poor youth in general and those homeless. Data used include interviews with 123 homeless youth and more than 40 policymakers, school counselors, and…

  9. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  10. The Mental and Physical Health of Homeless Youth: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edidin, Jennifer P.; Ganim, Zoe; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.

    2012-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness.…

  11. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ...

  12. Treatment Outcome for Street-Living, Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L.; Meyers, Robert J.; Glassman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive intervention for homeless, street living youth that addresses substance use, social stability, physical and mental health issues has received very little attention. In this study, street living youth aged 14 to 22 were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or treatment as usual (TAU) through a drop-in center. Findings showed that youth assigned to CRA, compared to TAU, reported significantly reduced substance use (37% v. 17% reduction), depression (40% v. 23%) and increased social stability (58% v. 13%). Youth in both conditions improved in many other behavioral domains including substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems, and emotion and task oriented coping. This study indicates that homeless youth can be engaged into treatment and respond favorably to intervention efforts. However, more treatment development research is needed to address the barriers associated with serving these youth. PMID:16989957

  13. Capacity for Survival: Exploring Strengths of Homeless Street Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; McManus, Holly; Lantry, Janet; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of research on homeless youth has focused on the multitude of problems faced by this vulnerable population. The current study, while acknowledging the hazards of life on the streets, seeks to explore the personal strengths and informal resources street youth rely on to navigate their environments. Qualitative data from seven focus groups conducted with street youth ages 18–24 were analyzed using content analysis. These data, rich with interactions among youth participants, highlight three important themes: developing “street smarts,” existence of personal strengths, and informal resources relied upon by youth to survive. Results provide valuable insights into the strengths of homeless youth that can be useful to providers in assessing street youths’ service needs and increasing the likelihood of long-term positive outcomes. PMID:19915687

  14. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = −2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

  15. Homelessness among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Implications for Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…

  16. Physical and Mental Health Issues among Homeless Youth in British Columbia, Canada: Are they Different from Older Homeless Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Linden, Isabelle; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Youth homelessness is on the rise in North America, yet this vulnerable population is rarely studied and compared with adults. This paper aimed to study the homeless youth and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the adult homeless population. It also aimed to describe the youth homeless population and their significant co-morbidities. Methods: Data was derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban centre Vancouver (n=250); the mid-sized city and capital of the province Victoria (n=150). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Results: Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Compared to the adult homeless, the homeless youth were more often female (55%), were Aboriginal (47.6%), had greater substance abuse of alcohol (70.7%), amphetamines (8.5%) and cannabis (75.6%). A lower prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (0.2%) and psychotic disorders (13.4%) was also observed. The prevalence of traumatic experiences, other psychiatric disorders and physical illnesses were similar between the adult and homeless youth. Conclusion: Homeless youth have high rates of physical and psychiatric comorbidity, similar to the adult homeless, despite being 20 years younger. An urgent need for interventions that go beyond the standardized ones being offered to homeless populations as a whole, and to derive specific strategies that target this vulnerable population is required. PMID:25320613

  17. Gender Differences in Traumatic Events and Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…

  18. No Place to Call Home: Child & Youth Homelessness in the United States. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "No Place to Call Home: Child and Youth Homelessness in the United States," prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in May 2015, presents the statistics on child and youth homelessness and recent trends in Wisconsin and the United States. It explores the major challenges faced by homeless minors, and, drawing from recent research by…

  19. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  20. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  1. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  17. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  18. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  19. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  1. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.10 Section 1351.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  10. Homelessness: Local Program Planning and Review Guides Services for Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Three review formats are enclosed in this publication, along with two basic service checklists and a comprehensive program review guide. These formats were developed to serve as tools to be used locally by school district personnel and Boards of Education in the development of quality policies and procedures to serve homeless children and youth.…

  11. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  12. Shelters for Runaway and Homeless Youths: Capacity and Occupancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jody M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of shelters for runaway and homeless youths (n=160) were analyzed to determine shelter capacity, occupancy, and occupancy ratios. Analysis focused in particular on occupancy ratios by funding status, shelter size, metropolitan statistical area, season, and day of the week. Results showed a relatively…

  13. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  14. Pets Help Homeless Youth, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... of researchers, led by scientists at the Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph, found homeless ... study author Michelle Lem, a graduate of the veterinary college, explained in a University of Guelph news ...

  15. Resilient Educational Outcomes: Participation in School by Youth with Histories of Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Sophie; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Disrupted high school experiences, including dropout, are educational consequences for many youth with histories of homelessness. Using an ecological resilience prediction model (ERPM) based on the literature on resilience in at-risk youth, the study followed 82 youth who were initially homeless for a 2-year period, to identify predictors of…

  16. Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangamma, Rashmi; Slesnick, Natasha; Toviessi, Paula; Serovich, Julianne

    2008-01-01

    Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance…

  17. The paradox of homeless youth pregnancy: a review of challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Begun, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Compared to their housed counterparts, homeless youth become pregnant at exceptionally high rates. Causes of such pregnancies are multifaceted, while a paradoxically high proportion of these pregnancies are intended. This review discusses causes and risk factors associated with homeless youth pregnancies, and notes experiences of pregnancy decision-making discord, challenges encountered during and following pregnancy, and difficulties faced by homeless youth when or if they become parents. Because homeless youth face a wide array of unique risks, future research would benefit from exploring alternative approaches to prevention to reduce pregnancies and improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes among this population. PMID:25985287

  18. Pet Ownership among Homeless Youth: Associations with Mental Health, Service Utilization and Housing Status

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As many as 25% of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets. PMID:24728815

  19. Hope for the Future: The State Plan for Educating Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Compensatory Education.

    This report contains the California state plan for educating homeless children and youth required by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The plan is designed to raise the level of awareness of schools and school districts to the needs of homeless children and to provide ideas and suggestions for meeting those needs. It is…

  20. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Sample of Programs, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Kathleen P.

    This report reviews a variety of approaches for working with homeless students. Information was gathered from state Coordinators of Education for Homeless Children and Youth, regional coordinators of homeless programs, and national and local organizations. The programs described are organized into five categories. The first concerns educating…

  1. Educational Rights of Homeless Children and Youth: Legal and Community Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bradley, Ann Aviles

    2008-01-01

    Many homeless children and youth have difficulty in school due to their loss of stable housing, and lack of consistent contact with family and friends. When a child becomes homeless, schools are federally mandated to identify these students and provide the same access to a free and appropriate education as their non-homeless counterparts. Within a…

  2. Staying in School: The Efficacy of the McKinney-Vento Act for Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausikaitis, Ashley Etzel; Wynne, Martha Ellen; Persaud, Schevita; Pitt, Rachel; Hosek, Aaron; Reker, Kayse; Turner, Carina; Flores, Sandy; Flores, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of homeless youth in the United States presents many social justice concerns, including issues of educational access, stigma, and self-advocacy. These problems become even more apparent when homelessness and educational attainment intersect. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 was enacted to address these…

  3. The Care-System for Homeless Youth in the Netherlands: Perceptions of Youngsters through a Peer Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; de Winter, Micha; Korf, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of homeless youth of the care they receive. Since we wanted to involve homeless youth as participants in this project, we adopted the approach of peer-research. This form of collaborative research has a major role for homeless youth in making an inventory of the problems. A parallel is drawn…

  4. A Different Kind of Smart: A Study of the Educational Obstacles Confronting Homeless Youth in New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melanie; Houghton, Alison

    This study provides information on obstacles facing homeless youth in school. Research occurred in four diverse New England cities. Researchers collected detailed case histories on youth age 10-15 years who were currently homeless or who had recently been homeless. Data came from staff of local youth agencies, government officials, and youths…

  5. A Qualitative Study of the Formation and Composition of Social Networks among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social networks are essential for explaining protective and risk factors among homeless youth, little is known about the formation and composition of these groups. In this study, we utilized 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate their social network formation, role relationships, housing status, and network member…

  6. Exploring Family Environment Characteristics and Multiple Abuse Experiences among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) pilot study, a comprehensive vocational training program with integrated clinical services for homeless youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 homeless youth participating in the SEI study to explore their perceptions of family environment characteristics and…

  7. Factors Precipitating Suicidality among Homeless Youth: A Quantitative Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2006-01-01

    Homeless youth are a population at a high risk for suicidal behavior. A previous exploratory study emphasized the importance of feeling trapped or helpless, which appeared to mediate the impact of other risk variables. Confirmatory work was needed to test this inductively derived model. Two hundred eight homeless youths completed surveys on the…

  8. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

  9. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  14. Substance use among runaway and homeless youth in three national samples.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, J M; Ennett, S T; Ringwalt, C L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Standardized estimates of the prevalence of substance use by runaway and homeless youth between the ages of 12 and 21 in various settings were compared with each other and with estimates for youth in the general population. METHODS: Four surveys were used: (1) a nationally representative survey of runaway and homeless youth residing in federally and non-federally funded shelters; (2) a multicity survey of street youth; (3) a nationally representative household survey of youth with and without recent runaway and homeless experiences; and (4) a nationally representative household survey of youth whose previous runaway/homeless status was unknown. RESULTS: For almost every substance, substance use prevalence was highest among street youth. Shelter youth and household youth with recent runaway/homeless experiences reported similar rates. In the household surveys, substance use rates were lowest and were generally comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Many homeless and runaway youth use tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs at rates substantially higher than nonrunaway and nonhomeless youth, indicating a need for comprehensive and intensive substance abuse prevention and treatment services for these youth. PMID:9103102

  15. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between the ages of 18 and 24. Social network members who were met on the street were among the most likely to be perceived as engaging in risky sex, as well as to engage in substance use with the youth. Youth were more likely to count on relatives and sex partners for support compared to other network members, but they also were more likely to use substances with sex partners and perceived them as engaging in risky sex. Interventions may need to recognize the importance of intimate relationships during the developmental stage of emerging adulthood by enhancing supportive bonds and reducing substance use and risky sex in these relationships. PMID:21863378

  16. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  17. Mobile Phone and Social Media Use of Homeless Youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Harpin, Scott; Davis, Jillian; Low, Hana; Gilroy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate homeless youth mobile phone and social media use, to plan health promotion efforts. Nearly half (46.7%) of runaway/homeless youth in this sample (n = 181) owned a mobile phone and a majority of those devices were smart phones. Ownership did not vary significantly by shelter location, though regular use of Facebook was more prevalent among those in housing programs or camping, than those living on the streets. Over 90% of youth in the sample reported using Facebook. Such media use might facilitate parent, family, and health provider communications with homeless youth. PMID:27074405

  18. Homeless Youths' Caretakers: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse on Street Victimization and Housing Instability.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2016-04-01

    Homeless youths who live on the streets are particularly vulnerable to victimization and continued homelessness. Identifying factors associated with housing stability and victimization while homeless can offer useful guidance for those who serve these youths. The current study examined the relationship between multiple caretakers and the unique effect of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) on past-year housing and victimization experiences. Seventy-nine substance-using, street-living youths ages 14 to 24 years completed the survey. Findings confirmed a relationship between multiple caretaker transitions and childhood sexual abuse and neglect, but not physical abuse. Sexual abuse was further associated with higher street victimization and reduced housing stability. In addition, sexual abuse mediated the relationship between multiple caretakers and past-year victimization and housing instability. These findings suggest that sexually abused homeless youths are at particular risk for future victimization and housing instability compared with other youths, and specialized intervention for these youths is indicated. PMID:27180525

  19. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. PMID:27219497

  20. Protective Factors Associated with Fewer Multiple Problem Behaviors Among Homeless/Runaway Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A.; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher levels of problem solving and planning skills were strongly related to lower levels of multiple problem behaviors in homeless youth, suggesting both the positive impact of preexisting personal assets of these youth and important programmatic targets for further building their resilience and decreasing problem behaviors. Indirect relationships between the background factors of self-esteem and social support and multiple problem behaviors were significantly mediated through protective skills. The model suggests that helping youth enhance their skills in goal setting, decision making, and self-reliant coping could lessen a variety of problem behaviors commonly found among homeless youth. PMID:22023279

  1. Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, J M; Ennett, S T; Ringwalt, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youths. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of shelter youths and a multicity sample of street youths were interviewed. RESULTS: Approximately 28% of street youths and 10% of shelter youths reported having participated in survival sex, which was associated with age, days away from home, victimization, criminal behaviors, substance use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted disease, and pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive and ongoing services are needed to provide resources and residential assistance to enable runaway and homeless youths to avoid survival sex, which is associated with many problem behaviors. PMID:10474560

  2. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and...

  11. Social Networks as the Context for Understanding Employment Services Utilization among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279

  12. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV. PMID:23613136

  13. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  14. Characteristics of Natural Mentoring Relationships from the Perspectives of Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle T.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM Homeless youth experience high risks for poor mental health outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the characteristics of natural mentoring relationships among homeless youth and to identify possible mechanisms that can enhance social support for this population. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 who had natural mentors. The interviews focused on how youth met their natural mentors, the function of these relationships, and how natural mentoring relationships differed from other relationships in the youth’s social networks. FINDINGS Main themes that emerged from the interviews included parental absence, natural mentors as surrogate parents, and social support from mentors. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that social supports provided by mentors enhance youth’s adaptive functioning and may promote resilience, thus the use of natural mentors may be an important untapped asset in designing interventions to improve outcomes for homeless youth. PMID:24180604

  15. Who is Supporting Homeless Youth? Predictors of Support in Personal Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth lack the traditional support networks of their housed peers, which increases their risk for poor health outcomes. Using a multilevel dyadic analytic approach, this study identified characteristics of social contacts, relationships, and social networks associated with the provision of tangible and emotional support to homeless youth (N = 419, M age = 20.09, SD = 2.80). Support providers were likely to be family members, sex-partners, or non-street based contacts. The provision of support was also associated with contacts’ employment and homelessness status, frequency of contact, shared risk behaviors, and the number of network members that were homeless and employed. The results provide insights into how homeless youth could be assisted to develop more supportive social networks. PMID:23204810

  16. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  17. State of New Mexico State Plan: Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    New Mexico's State plan for the education of homeless children and youth is submitted in compliance with Title VII-B of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The plan is comprised of 10 sections and five appendices. Section 1 states that the State Department of Education (SDE) is responsible for the administration of the…

  18. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  20. Who Is Supporting Homeless Youth? Predictors of Support in Personal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth lack the traditional support networks of their housed peers, which increases their risk for poor health outcomes. Using a multilevel dyadic analytic approach, this study identified characteristics of social contacts, relationships, and social networks associated with the provision of tangible and emotional support to homeless youth…

  1. Internet and Social Media Use as a Resource Among Homeless Youth*

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about internet and social media use among homeless youth. Consistent with typologies prevalent among housed youth, we found that homeless youth were using internet and social media for entertainment, sociability, and instrumental purposes. Using Haythornwaite’s (2001) premise that it is important to look at the types of ties accessed in understanding the impact of new media, we found that homeless youth were predominantly using e-mail to reach out to their parents, caseworkers, and potential employers, while, using social media to communicate with their peers. Using the “Social Capital” perspective, we found that youth who were connecting to maintained or bridging social ties were more likely to look for jobs and housing online than youth who did not. PMID:25328374

  2. Homeless Children and Youth: A New American Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryder-Coe, Julee H., Ed.; And Others

    These 11 reports focus on policy responses to the needs of very young children who are part of a homeless family, and older young people who are homeless but on their own. The following chapters are included: (1) J. M. Molnar's introduction to the relationship between chronic poverty and homelessness; (2) "Beyond the Numbers: Homeless Families…

  3. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness. PMID:26503713

  4. A strengths based method for homeless youth: Effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While homelessness among youth is a serious problem, there is little information about evidence-based interventions for homeless youth. In cooperation with professionals and youths, Wolf (2012) developed Houvast (Dutch for ‘grip’): a strengths based method grounded in scientific and practice evidence. The main aim of Houvast is to improve the quality of life of homeless youths by focusing on their strengths, thus stimulating their capacity for autonomy and self-reliance. Method/Design The effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast will be tested in ten Dutch services for homeless youth which are randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 5), or a control group which provides care as usual (n = 5). Measurements of both objective and subjective quality of life and secondary outcomes (mental and physical health, substance use, coping, resilience, psychological needs, care needs, working relationship with the professional and attainment of personal goals) will be conducted among homeless youths (n = 251). Youths in both groups will be interviewed by means of a structured interview at baseline, at time of ending care or after having received care for six months (T1) and at nine months after baseline (T2). Model fidelity will be tested around T1. Discussion This study is unique as it includes a large number of homeless youths who are followed for a period of nine months, and because it focuses on a strengths based approach. If the Houvast method proves to be effective in improving quality of life it will be the first evidence-based intervention for homeless youth. Trail registration Netherlands Trail Register (NTR):NTR3254 PMID:23594410

  5. Unprotected Sex of Homeless Youth: Results from a Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Social Network, and Relationship Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth have elevated risk of HIV through sexual behavior. This project investigates the multiple levels of influence on unprotected sex among homeless youth, including social network, individual, and partner level influences. Findings are based on analyses of an exploratory, semi-structured interview (n=40) and a structured personal network interview (n=240) with randomly selected homeless youth in Los Angeles. Previous social network studies of risky sex by homeless youth have collected limited social network data from non-random samples and have not distinguished sex partner influences from other network influences. The present analyses have identified significant associations with unprotected sex at multiple levels, including individual, partner, and, to a lesser extent, the social network. Analyses also distinguished between youth who wished they used condoms after having unprotected sex and youth who did not regret having unprotected sex. Implications for social network based HIV risk interventions with homeless youth are discussed. PMID:22610421

  6. Out on the Street: A Public Health and Policy Agenda for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Who Are Homeless

    PubMed Central

    Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative that we understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and since the population is nonhomogeneous their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. We conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions. PMID:24826829

  7. Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: a preliminary comparison of san francisco and chicago.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Ernika G; Edidin, Jennifer P; Ganim, Zoe; Gustafson, Erika; Hunter, Scott J; Karnik, Niranjan S

    2012-09-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18-24 years-old) in San Francisco (N = 31) and Chicago (N = 56). Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed. PMID:25379220

  8. Responding to the School Mobility of Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness: The McKinney-Vento Act and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia F.; Foscarinis, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Explores the school mobility of children and youth experiencing homelessness and the success of the McKinney-Vento Act (designed to limit the negative effects of school mobility on homeless students) in addressing this mobility. Proposes that affordable housing is the key to eliminating the mobility associated with homelessness and consequently…

  9. In the Shadow of Opportunity: Removing Barriers and Creating Success for America's Homeless Children and Youth. A Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, Austin, TX.

    This report highlights selected states' attempts to meet the requirements of the 1990 amendments to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (SMHAA), which lays the groundwork for assuring that homeless children and youth have access to and success in schools. A homeless child's success story and an issue that impacts a state's ability to…

  10. The primary health care service experiences and needs of homeless youth: a narrative synthesis of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angela; Jackson, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Homeless youth are a growing, vulnerable population with specific primary health care (PHC) requirements. There are no systematic reviews of evidence to guide the delivery of PHC interventions to best address the needs of homeless youth in Australia. We present a narrative synthesis of peer reviewed research designed to determine: (1) the PHC services homeless youth access; (2) experiences of services, reported outcomes and barriers to use; and, (3) the PHC service needs of homeless youth. Findings show that homeless youth access a variety of services and delivery approaches. Increased PHC use is associated with youth who recognise they need help. Street-based clinic linked services and therapy and case management alongside improved housing can positively impact upon mental health and substance use outcomes. Barriers to service use include knowledge; provider attitudes, financial constraints and inappropriate environments. Findings support targetted, co-ordinated networks of PHC and housing services with nurses working alongside community workers. PMID:23721389

  11. The Educational Success of Homeless Youth in California: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    The California Research Bureau (CRB), in participation with the California Council on Youth Relations (CCYR), and with support from The California Wellness Foundation, has been conducting a major research and policy initiative to bring attention to the issues facing homeless youth in California. These include lack of shelter and educational…

  12. Youth with Disabilities Who Are Runaways and/or Homeless: Responding to the Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Graham, Steven; Temelini, David

    This document reports on two studies by the Bridges to Inclusion project concerning issues surrounding runaway and/or homeless youth with disabilities. The first study surveyed emergency adolescent shelter providers funded by the Family and Youth Service Bureau. Findings addressed types of disabilities frequently identified or suspected in…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  14. Implementing a Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless, Street-Living Youths in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2007-01-01

    Homeless, street-dwelling youths are an at-risk population who often use survival behaviors to meet their basic needs. The traditional outreach approach brings services into the streets, yet does not adequately replace the youths' high-risk behaviors. Similarly, job training programs often fail to address the mental health issues that constitute…

  15. Social connectedness and self-esteem: predictors of resilience in mental health among maltreated homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Dang, Michelle T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore social connectedness and self-esteem as predictors of resilience among homeless youth with histories of maltreatment. Connectedness variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and affiliation with prosocial peers. The sample included 150 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 (mean age = 18 years) with the majority being an ethnic minority. Participants completed surveys using audio-CASI. Results revealed that youth with higher levels of social connectedness and self-esteem reported lower levels of psychological distress. When all predictor variables were controlled in the analysis, self-esteem remained significant for predicting better mental health. PMID:24597587

  16. Homeless and Runaway Youth: Attachment Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, Joanne M.

    The "new homeless" of the eighties and nineties are not only more numerous; they are younger, more likely to use drugs, and they exhibit symptoms of mental illness. Homeless mentally ill individuals typically have estranged family relationships and fewer supportive relationships compared with other homeless persons. They typically have more…

  17. Falling through the Gaps: Homeless Children and Youth. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip; DeBaun, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In each state, between 41 percent and 91 percent of the homeless students identified by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) are not considered homeless by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Nationwide, as many as 715,238 homeless students fall into a bureaucratic gap between HUD and ED. This is because ED, HUD, and other…

  18. Understanding Pregnancy-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Mixed-Methods Study of Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents’ and young adults’ pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. METHODS Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13–24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March–April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. RESULTS More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). CONCLUSIONS Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths’ ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. PMID:23231333

  19. Substance use predictors of victimization profiles among homeless youth: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna; Ferguson, Kristin; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Although a substantial body of literature demonstrates high prevalence of street victimization among homeless youth, few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ on the type and frequency of victimization experienced. Nor do we know how substance use patterns relate to victimization classes. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined the existence of victimization classes of homeless youth and investigated substance use predictors of class membership utilizing a large purposive sample (N=601) recruited from homeless youth-serving host agencies in three disparate regions of the U.S. Results of the LCA suggest the presence of three distinct victimization profiles - youth fit into a low-victimization class, a witness class, or a high-victimization class. These three victimization classes demonstrated differences in their substance use, including rates of substance abuse/dependence on alcohol and/or drugs. The presence of distinct victimization profiles suggests the need for screening and referral for differential services. PMID:24439621

  20. Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner’s risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members. PMID:23162182

  1. A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

  2. Runaway and Homeless Youth Grants: Improvements Needed in the Grant Award Process. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-335

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kay E.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awards grants to provide shelter and services to runaway and homeless youth through the Basic Center, Transitional Living and Street Outreach Programs. In response to a mandate for a review of the grant award process for these programs in the Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act of 2008 (Pub. L. No.…

  3. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

  4. Personal Network Correlates of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Green, Harold D.; Zhou, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth who are homeless and on their own are among the most marginalized individuals in the United States and face multiple risks, including use of substances. This study investigates how the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among homeless youth may be influenced by characteristics of their social networks. Methods Homeless youth aged 13–24 were randomly sampled from 41 service and street sites in Los Angeles County (N = 419). Predictors of substance use were examined using linear regression analysis (for average number of drinks and average number of cigarettes per day) and negative binomal regression analysis (for frequency of past month marijuana use). Results Youth with more substance users in their networks reported greater alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana consumption regardless of whether these network members provided tangible or emotional support. Marijuana use was more frequent for youth who met more network members through homeless settings, but less frequent among those who met more network members through treatment or AA/NA. Greater alcohol use occurred among youth who met more network members through substance use-related activities. Youth having more adults in positions of responsibility in their networks consumed less alcohol, and those with more school attendees in their networks consumed less alcohol and cigarettes. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding substance use among homeless youth. Results also support the relevance of network-based interventions to change social context for substance using youth, in terms of both enhancing pro-social influences and reducing exposure to substance use. PMID:20656423

  5. Facilitators and Barriers of Drop-In Center Use Among Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Tucker, Joan S; Kovalchik, Stephanie A

    2016-08-01

    Drop-in centers for homeless youth address basic needs for food, hygiene, and clothing but can also provide critical services that address youth's "higher level" needs (e.g., substance use treatment, mental health care, HIV-related programs). Unlike other services that have restrictive rules, drop-in centers typically try to break down barriers and take a "come as you are" approach to engaging youth in services. Given their popularity, drop-in centers represent a promising location to deliver higher level services to youth that may not seek services elsewhere. A better understanding of the individual-level factors (e.g., characteristics of homeless youth) and agency-level factors (e.g., characteristics of staff and environment) that facilitate and impede youth engagement in drop-in centers will help inform research and outreach efforts designed to engage these at-risk youth in services. Thus, the goal of this review was to develop a preliminary conceptual model of drop-in center use by homeless youth. Toward this goal, we reviewed 20 available peer-reviewed articles and reports on the facilitators and barriers of drop-in center usage and consulted broader models of service utilization from both youth and adult studies to inform model development. PMID:27238839

  6. Mental health and substance abuse indicators among homeless youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merscham, Carrie; Van Leeuwen, James M; McGuire, Megan

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of mental health evaluations from 182 homeless youth residing in a Denver, Colorado, shelter. The literature on homeless youth, although developing, is still somewhat limited as it relates to mental health, substance abuse, and trauma. This study was motivated by clinically observed high rates of mental illness, trauma, dangerousness issues, and drug and alcohol abuse. Using archival data from mental health evaluations conducted over two years, variables including gender, age, ethnicity, primary diagnosis, drug of choice, trauma history, suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, and legal history were assessed. Results discovered significantly higher than expected diagnoses of mental illness and associations between drug of choice and diagnosis, trauma history and suicidal ideation, and trauma history and diagnosis. Results suggest a strong need for co-occurring treatment, trauma-focused therapy, and attention to both mental illness and substance abuse in homeless youth. PMID:19777794

  7. Homelessness Comes to School: How Homeless Children and Youths Can Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri J.

    2011-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and layered phenomenon, but schools can be effective in reducing its educational consequences. Schools currently are not doing enough. The next step is to consider the services that are needed for students as they arrive on the school campus. Taking care of homeless children in school systems involves seven provisos:…

  8. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behavior. Interventions in homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. Objectives To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Selection criteria Randomized studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behavior (biological, self-report sexual-risk behavior or health seeking behavior) in homeless youth (12–24 years). Data collection and analysis Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review and the reporting of self-report sexual risk behavior outcomes was highly variable across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. Results We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and

  9. Youth Homelessness: The Relationships among Mental Health, Hope, and Service Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jean R.; Clark, Sharon E.; Wood, William; Cakmak, Susan; Cox, Andy; MacInnis, Margie; Warren, Bonnie; Handrahan, Elaine; Broom, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a mental health assessment of 60 homeless youth. Our study explored the mental health needs of youth accessing an overnight youth shelter (maximum stay 8 weeks). Methods: Participants completed an interview (45 to 120 minutes in duration) using one demographic form and one of two standardized questionnaires (Youth Self Report, Adult Self Report). Questions assessed youth mental health symptoms, examined various contacts that youth made with mainstream society (services, family), and identified potential motivating factors (hope, service satisfaction) that may play a role in fostering street survival during adolescence. Results: Forty-eight percent of the youth were clinically symptomatic and most youth accessed a range of general health services. Conclusion: However, those most in need had significantly less service satisfaction, less hope about the future, and had not accessed mental health services. PMID:21037918

  10. The Impact of Specific and Complex Trauma on the Mental Health of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carolyn F; Clark, Leslie F; Marlotte, Lauren

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of trauma experiences that occurred prior to and since becoming homeless on depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and self-injurious behaviors among a sample of homeless youth (N = 389). Youth (aged 13 to 25) who had been homeless or precariously housed in the past year completed a survey about housing history, experiences of violence and victimization, mental health, and service utilization. In addition to examining the impact associated with specific trauma types, we also considered the effect of "early-on" poly-victimization (i.e., cumulative number of reported traumas prior to homelessness) and the influence of a compound sexual trauma variable created to represent earlier complex trauma. This created-variable has values ranging from no reported trauma, single trauma, multiple non-sexual traumas, and multiple traumas that co-occurred with sexual abuse. Multivariate analyses revealed that specific traumatic experiences prior to homelessness, including sexual abuse, emotional abuse/neglect, and adverse home environment, predicted greater mental health symptoms. Poly-victimization did not add to the prediction of mental health symptoms after the inclusion of specific traumas. Results with early compound sexual trauma revealed significant differences between lower-order trauma exposures and multiple-trauma exposures. Specifically, experience of multiple traumas that co-occurred with sexual trauma was significantly more detrimental in predicting PTSD symptoms than multiple traumas of non-sexual nature. Findings support the utility of an alternate/novel conceptualization of complex trauma, and support the need to carefully evaluate complex traumatic experiences that occurred prior to homelessness, which can impact the design and implementation of mental health care and services for homeless youth. PMID:25392379

  11. The Challenge of Pregnancy among Homeless Youth: Reclaiming a Lost Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2011-01-01

    Young, homeless women often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homeless women (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population. PMID:20453382

  12. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  13. Art Making as a Component and Facilitator of Resiliency with Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Margaret V.; Sekendur, Banu; Bailey, Bryce; Hoshino, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Homelessness among youth is a serious societal problem in the United States. Treatment efforts have approached the problem from a damage model that focuses on pathology and deficits instead of strengthening coping skills and resiliency. This study utilized both quantitative (N=212) and qualitative (n=3) measures to examine the function of…

  14. The power of the drug, nature of support, and their impact on homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths' perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 drug-using homeless youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth. PMID:20155605

  15. Providing smoking cessation programs to homeless youth: the perspective of service providers.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Mullins, Leslie; Staplefoote, Lynette

    2014-10-01

    There is almost no information available on cigarette smoking among homeless youth, whether they are currently receiving services for smoking cessation, and how to best help them quit. This paper presents data collected from a series of semi-structured telephone interviews with service providers from 23 shelters and drop-in centers serving homeless youth in Los Angeles County about their current smoking cessation programming, interest in providing smoking cessation services to their clients, potential barriers to providing this service, and ways to overcome these barriers. Results indicated that 84% of facilities did not offer smoking cessation services, although nearly all (91%) were interested in doing so. Barriers to implementing formal smoking cessation programs on site included lack of resources (e.g., money, personnel) to support the programs, staff training, and concern that smoking cessation may not be a high priority for homeless youth themselves. Overall, service providers seemed to prefer a less intensive smoking cessation program that could be delivered at their site by existing staff. Data from this formative needs assessment will be useful for developing and evaluating a smoking cessation treatment that could be integrated into the busy, complex environment that characterizes agencies that serve homeless youth. PMID:25012554

  16. The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic…

  17. Alternative Methods To Estimate the Number of Homeless Children and Youth. Final Report. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.

    This report presents the results of a federally mandated study done to determine the best means of identifying, locating, and counting homeless children and youth, for the purpose of facilitating their successful participation in school and other educational activities. Several alternative approaches to obtaining consistent national estimates of…

  18. West Virginia Department of Education Proposed Plan for Education of Homeless Children and Youth. 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Office of Educational Support Services.

    This proposed plan for the education of homeless children and youth in 1989-1990 is West Virginia's response to Title VII (B) of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 (the McKinney Act). Section 1 is comprised of the following four parts: (1) an executive summary, describing background, purpose, and impact of the state plan; (2)…

  19. The Most Frequently Asked Questions on the Education Rights of Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes, regulations, and guidance; relevant case law; and best practices from across the country. While the National…

  20. U.S. Minority Homeless Youth's Access to and Use of Mobile Phones: Implications for mHealth Intervention Design.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Lee, Nicole; Shore, Deborah; Strohminger, Nancy; Allison, Burgundi; Conserve, Donaldson F; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2016-07-01

    Few interventions for homeless youth have leveraged the potential of mHealth technologies, in part because of the limited data on phone behaviors, perceptions, and intervention preferences among youth experiencing homelessness. We conducted 9 focus groups (n = 52 homeless youth) and 41 individual structured interviews also with homeless youth in underserved communities in Baltimore and Washington, DC, to ascertain how youth perceived their mobile phone, acquired and maintained mobile services over time, and thought mHealth programs for this population should be designed. We also measured phone use, functionality, source, duration of ownership, and reasons for changing phones or numbers. Results showed that mobile coverage was high, as most youth self-purchased phones or received gift payments from others. Maintaining mobile connectivity was often challenging because of financial constraints and interpersonal conflict. Youth valued phones to access social support but used several tactics to avoid perceived negative consequences of phone ownership, such as harassment, theft, or relational disputes. Youth most preferred mHealth content relating to sexual, reproductive, and mental health provided that mobile communication was confidential, empowering, and integrated with other digital media. Integrating hidden phones, financial support, and safety management may improve homeless youth's access to and engagement with mHealth strategies over time. PMID:27232544

  1. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Coping Styles and Relationship to Depression Among a Sample of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samantha M; Begun, Stephanie; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which measures of coping adequately capture the ways that homeless youth cope with challenges, and the influence these coping styles have on mental health outcomes, is largely absent from the literature. This study tests the factor structure of the Coping Scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and then investigates the relationship between coping styles and depression using hierarchical logistic regression with data from 201 homeless youth. Results of the EFA indicate a 3-factor structure of coping, which includes active, avoidant, and social coping styles. Results of the hierarchical logistic regression show that homeless youth who engage in greater avoidant coping are at increased risk of meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. Findings provide insight into the utility of a preliminary tool for assessing homeless youths' coping styles. Such assessment may identify malleable risk factors that could be addressed by service providers to help prevent mental health problems. PMID:25821043

  2. A Review of Services and Interventions for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Letcher, Amber; Erdem, Gizem; Serovich, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    Research focused on the impact of community-based services and treatment interventions designed to intervene in the lives of runaway and homeless youth has increased in the last two decades in the U.S. and internationally. In light of the tremendous need for identifying effective strategies to end homelessness and its associated problems among youth, this paper summarizes and critiques the findings of the extant literature including U.S., international, and qualitative studies. Thirty-two papers met criteria for inclusion in the review. Among the conclusions are that comprehensive interventions which target the varied and interconnected needs of these youth and families may be worthy of more study than studies that isolate the intervention focus on one problem. Also, more research incorporating design strategies that increase the reliability and validity of study findings is needed. Other preliminary conclusions and future directions are offered. PMID:20161294

  3. The Power of the Drug, Nature of Support, and their Impact on Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths’ perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. Most commonly-used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth. PMID:20155605

  4. TRANSITIONS INTO AND OUT OF HOMELESSNESS AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tessa; Wood, Evan; Feng, Cindy; Mathias, Steve; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2013-01-01

    The impact of transitions in housing status among street youth have not been well explored. This study uses a generalized linear mixed effects model to identify factors associated with transitions into and out of homelessness among a prospective cohort of 685 drug-using street-involved youth aged 14–26. In multivariate analysis, high intensity substance use, difficulty accessing addiction treatment, incarceration, sex work, and difficulty accessing housing (all p < 0.05) either significantly facilitated or hindered housing transitions. Findings highlight the importance of external structural factors in shaping youth’s housing status and point to opportunities to improve the housing stability of vulnerable youth. PMID:23838565

  5. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. PMID:26897432

  6. Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness. Cambridge Criminology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, John; McCarthy, Bill

    This study explores the social worlds of homeless children in two Canadian cities, Toronto and Vancouver, comparing them with the environments of in-home and in-school children from the perspective of the children. Samples of 390 and 482 children were interviewed. The following chapters are included: (1) "Street and School Criminologies"; (2)…

  7. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV-Related Risk and Protective Behaviors Among Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-07-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  8. A Qualitative Study of the Formation and Composition of Social Networks Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social networks are essential for explaining protective and risk factors among homeless youth, little is known about the formation and composition of these groups. In this study, we utilized 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate their social network formation, role relationships, housing status, and network member functions. Our findings reveal that the formation of these networks occurred in different ways including meeting network members through others or in specific social situations. The majority of social network members were currently housed and provided various functions including instrumental and social support and protection. Responses from participants provide valuable insight into the formation of social networks and potentially explain their subsequent involvement in risky behaviors. PMID:22121330

  9. Improving Youth Mental Health through Family-Based Prevention In Family Homeless Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Cynthia J; Acri, Mary C; Goldstein, Leah; Bannon, William; Beharie, Nisha; McKay, Mary M

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examines changes in suicidal ideation among a sample (N = 28) of homeless youth, ages 11-14, residing within family shelters in a large metropolitan area. Changes in suicidal ideation from pretest to posttest are compared across two group approaches to delivering HIV prevention. Youth and their families participating in the HOPE Family Program, incorporating a family strengthening approach, are compared to those receiving a traditional health education-only approach. Multivariate analyses reveal that youth in the HOPE Family Program were 13 times more likely to report a decrease of suicidal ideation. These findings indicate that health education programs integrating a family strengthening approach hold promise for positively impacting mental health outcomes for vulnerable youth. PMID:25157200

  10. Federally Supported Centers Provide Needed Services for Runaways and Homeless Youths. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act authorizes funds under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 for community-based centers that serve the shelter needs of runaway or homeless youths. To examine the effectiveness of the programs and the characteristics of program participants, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) visited 17…

  11. Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences...Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. A FYSB Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Professionals who work with runaway, throwaway, and homeless youth have long known that many of these young people leave home to escape abusive and/or destructive family situations. This update presents the findings of a national study on such children. Results of the study, "Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence,…

  12. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Two Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Unaccompanied Alien Children...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Support Unaccompanied Alien Children Program Services AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... from the Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to Youth for Tomorrow in Bristow VA and Lincoln Hall in... will support grants to two organizations that are providing services under the Unaccompanied...

  13. Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: a case study from Skid Row, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth. PMID:23384969

  14. Sociometric network structure and its association with methamphetamine use norms among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Begun, Stephanie; Rice, Eric; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Perez-Portillo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Homeless youths' social networks are consistently linked with their substance use. Social networks influence behavior through several mechanisms, especially social norms. This study used sociometric analyses to understand whether social norms of drug use behaviors are clustered in network structures and whether these perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) influence youths' drug use behaviors. An event-based approach was used to delineate boundaries of the two sociometric networks of homeless youth, one in Los Angeles, CA (n = 160) and the other in Santa Monica, CA (n = 130). Network characteristics included centrality (i.e., popularity) and cohesiveness (location in dense subnetworks). The primary outcome was recent methamphetamine use. Results revealed that both descriptive and injunctive norms influenced methamphetamine use. Network cohesion was found to be associated with perception of both descriptive and injunctive norms in both networks, however in opposite directions. Network interventions therefore might be effective if designed to capitalize on social influence that naturally occurs in cohesive parts of networks. PMID:27194667

  15. Mobilizing Homeless Youth for HIV Prevention: A Social Network Analysis of the Acceptability of a Face-to-Face and Online Social Networking Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…

  16. Multiple victimizations before and after leaving home associated with PTSD, depression, and substance use disorder among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha M; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment during childhood is associated with serious mental health consequences among youth in the general population, but limited empirical attention has focused on homeless youth-a population with markedly high rates of childhood maltreatment followed by elevated rates of street victimization. This study investigated the rates of multiple childhood abuses (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) and multiple street victimizations (robbery, physical assault, and sexual assault) and examined their relative relationships to mental health outcomes (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use disorder) among a large (N = 601) multisite sample of homeless youth. Approximately 79% of youth retrospectively reported multiple childhood abuses (two or more types) and 28% reported multiple street victimizations (two or more types). Each additional type of street victimization nearly doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for substance use disorder. Furthermore, each additional type of childhood abuse experienced more than doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for PTSD. Both multiple abuses and multiple street victimizations were associated with an approximate twofold increase in meeting depression criteria. Findings suggest the need for screening, assessment, and trauma-informed services for homeless youth who consider multiple types of abuse and victimization experiences. PMID:25510502

  17. Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors Among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Zane, Jazmin I.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary-Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often strained. In structural equation models, positive paternal relationships significantly predicted less substance use and less criminal behavior, whereas maternal relationships did not have a significant effect on or association with either behavior. Positive maternal relationships predicted less survival sex behavior. Separate gender analyses indicated that among the females, a longer time away from home was significantly associated with a poorer paternal relationship, and more substance use and criminal behavior. Paternal relations, a neglected area of research and often not addressed in attachment theory, should be investigated further. Attachments, particularly to fathers, were protective against many deleterious behaviors. Building on relatively positive relations and attachments may foster family reunifications and beneficial outcomes for at-risk youth. PMID:19290724

  18. Joined-Up Practice: Five Areas of Exemplary Practice for Social Workers and Educators to Re-Engage Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Phil; Livock, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Young people seen as "at risk" are a substantial focus across a wide range of policy and practice fields in national and international contexts. This article addresses two of those fields, youth homelessness and young people failing to obtain a basic education that will give them access to employment and full community participation. By comparing…

  19. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: How Are We Measuring Up? A Progress Report, School Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Compensatory Education and Support Services.

    This report measures how well Maryland educators are working together to provide a public education that meets the long- and short-term needs of homeless children and youth by providing environments that support their physical, social, and emotional growth. It outlines accomplishments for the 1990-91 school year, recommends ways of addressing…

  20. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  1. Homeless Gay and Transgender Youth of Color in San Francisco: "No One Likes Street Kids"--Even in the Castro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This study, focused on five transgender and gay youth of color from San Francisco, explored how family problems, poverty, homophobia, and transphobia propelled them into homelessness and made gay-friendly spaces and resources especially meaningful to them. These young people describe seeking support in San Francisco's well-known gay enclave, the…

  2. The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Learning To Succeed. Volume I: Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarenda M.; Wodatch, Jessica K.; Kelliher, Catherine T.

    A 1984 amendment to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act instructs states to ensure that homeless students have equal access to the same free and appropriate public education as nonhomeless students. It provides local educational authorities increased flexibility to use funds, specify the rights of homeless preschoolers, give parents of…

  3. Boston HAPPENS Program: HIV-positive, homeless, and at-risk youth can access care through youth-oriented HIV services.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elizabeth R; Samples, Cathryn L; Melchiono, Maurice W; Harris, Sion Kim

    2003-01-01

    The Boston HAPPENS Program is a collaborative network of care consisting of multiservice outreach agencies; community health centers; and hospitals for HIV-positive, homeless, and hard-to-reach youth. In four years of data collection, the program served more than 2,000 youth, including 54 HIV-positive youth. The youth were 19.9 +/- 2.9 years old; 64 percent female; 45 percent youth of color; 11 percent gay/lesbian, bisexual, or undecided; and 13 percent homeless or runaway. Homeless youth were much more likely to have been involved with a mental health system (47% vs. 12%, P < 0.001), the criminal justice system (20% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), high-risk sexual behaviors (21% vs. 3%, P < 0.001), and substance abuse (25% vs. 6%, P < 0.001) than were other youth served by the program. Comprehensive networks of care offering a continuum of services and a variety of entry routes and types of care sites are needed to connect under-served youth to health care. Outreach and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing services can offer important portals of entry into health services for at-risk youth. Support services such as outreach, case management, and mental health services are needed to complement medical services by all youth at-risk for contracting HIV. Support services are necessary for the initiation and retention of youth in care so that early case identification and complex treatment regimens can be initiated and tailored to the individual. PMID:12748922

  4. Is Substance Use Associated with Perpetration and Victimization of Physically Violent Behavior and Property Offences among Homeless Youth? A Systematic Review of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use is a commonly reported problem associated with numerous adverse outcomes among homeless youth. Homelessness is reportedly a covariate to perpetration of, and victimization from, physically violent behavior and property offences. Of particular importance in both the perpetration of, and victimization from these behaviors,…

  5. Understanding Condom Use Decision-Making among Homeless Youth using Event-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Yashodhara; Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first qualitative event-based studies to understand the various mechanisms through which multiple factors influence condom use decision-making among homeless youth. Event-level interviews which explore characteristics of the environment surrounding sexual events were conducted with 29 youth, who were asked to describe two recent sexual encounters. In thematic analyses of data across events, reasons that youth gave for engaging in unprotected sex included the expectation of having sex and use of alternative methods of protection against pregnancy. Other non-event factors that influenced condom use decision-making were related to attributes of the partnership (e.g., testing, trust and love, and assessments of risk) and attributes of the youth (e.g., perceptions of diseases, concerns over pregnancy, and discomfort using condoms). Additional event analyses conducted within the same individuals found that decision-making was influenced by multiple interacting factors, with different pathways operating for event and non-event factors. Future interventions should consider taking a multilevel and individualized approach that focuses on event-based determinants of risky sex in this population. PMID:25396781

  6. A Youth-Friendly Intervention for Homeless and Street-Involved Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara Virley; MacDonald, Brian J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a community intervention for a population of youth who are often distrustful of mainstream mental health services. Program focuses on not viewing youth as patients but as experts in working with adults to design youth-friendly interventions. Outlines the development and implementation of a support-group model tailored specifically to the…

  7. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  8. Substance Use and Other Risk Factors for Unprotected Sex: Results From An Event-Based Study of Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery W.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Zhou, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This study used an event-based approach to understand condom use in a probability sample of 309 homeless youth recruited from service and street sites in Los Angeles County. Condom use was significantly less likely when hard drug use preceded sex, the relationship was serious, the partners talked about “pulling out”, or sex occurred in a non-private place (and marginally less likely when heavier drinking preceded sex, or the partnership was monogamous or abusive). Condom use was significantly more likely when the youth held positive condom attitudes or were concerned about pregnancy, the partners talked about condom use, and the partners met up by chance. This study extends previous work by simultaneously examining a broad range of individual, relationship, and contexual factors that may play a role in condom use. Results identify a number of actionable targets for programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission and pregnancy risk among homeless youth. PMID:21932093

  9. Substance use and other risk factors for unprotected sex: results from an event-based study of homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ryan, Gery W; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Zhou, Annie

    2012-08-01

    This study used an event-based approach to understand condom use in a probability sample of 309 homeless youth recruited from service and street sites in Los Angeles County. Condom use was significantly less likely when hard drug use preceded sex, the relationship was serious, the partners talked about "pulling out", or sex occurred in a non-private place (and marginally less likely when heavier drinking preceded sex, or the partnership was monogamous or abusive). Condom use was significantly more likely when the youth held positive condom attitudes or were concerned about pregnancy, the partners talked about condom use, and the partners met up by chance. This study extends previous work by simultaneously examining a broad range of individual, relationship, and contexual factors that may play a role in condom use. Results identify a number of actionable targets for programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission and pregnancy risk among homeless youth. PMID:21932093

  10. A Test of Outreach and Drop-in Linkage Versus Shelter Linkage for Connecting Homeless Youth to Services.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Carmona, Jasmin; Murnan, Aaron; Cash, Scottye; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Outreach and service linkage are key for engaging marginalized populations, such as homeless youth, in services. Research to date has focused primarily on engaging individuals already receiving some services through emergency shelters, clinics, or other programs. Less is known about those who are not connected to services and, thus, likely the most vulnerable and in need of assistance. The current study sought to engage non-service-connected homeless youth (N = 79) into a strengths-based outreach and advocacy intervention. Youth were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of advocacy that focused on linking youth to a drop-in center (n = 40) or to a crisis shelter (n = 39). All youth were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months post-baseline. Findings indicated that youth prefer drop-in center services to the shelter. Also, the drop-in center linkage condition was associated with more service linkage overall (B = 0.34, SE = 0.04, p < 0.01) and better alcohol-l [B = -0.39, SE = 0.09, t(75) = -4.48, p < 0.001] and HIV-related outcomes [B = 0.62, SE = 0.10, t(78) = 6.34, p < 0.001] compared to the shelter linkage condition. Findings highlight the importance of outreach and service linkage for reconnecting service-marginalized youth, and drop-in centers as a primary service option for homeless youth. PMID:26759145

  11. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Barnhart, Kate F.; Lotz, Kevin V.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. PMID:22693658

  12. Realizing or relinquishing rights? Homeless youth, their life on the streets and their knowledge and experience of health and social services in Hillbrow, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathebula, Sibusiso Donald; Ross, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Poverty and youth unemployment are critical issues in South Africa with homeless persons begging at traffic light intersections in all major cities. Support services represent one way of empowering homeless youth. The study therefore examined the experiences of 10 homeless young adult males in Hillbrow, Johannesburg and whether they were aware of local health and social services. Qualitative interviews revealed that participants experienced poor health, addiction, physical violence, psychological trauma, and public hostility. Despite limited education, they were aware of and utilized local health and social services. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for social work. PMID:23701578

  13. Chasing the European Dream: Unaccompanied African Youths' Educational Experience in a Canary Islands' Reception Centre and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger-Voyer, Valérie; Montero-Sieburth, Martha; Perez, Lidia Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, Spain's Canary Islands have received thousands of undocumented migrants arriving by boat from the coasts of North and West Africa. The sharp increase of unaccompanied minors has presented a particular challenge, as these minors fall under the State's protection system and are entitled to an education and other…

  14. The P, A and R of Participatory Action Research with Unaccompanied Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukko, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities and the challenges of conducting participatory action research (PAR) with unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and youth. Drawing from a PAR project with 12 unaccompanied asylum-seeking girls in a Finnish reception centre, the paper explores the P, A and R of PAR asking the following questions: what kind…

  15. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on AIDS and Homeless Youth: An Agenda for the Future (1st, San Francisco, California, June 25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan; And Others

    This proceedings of the first international conference on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and homeless youth included over 125 delegates from 32 countries. There was strong consensus among delegates that street youth are often in high and multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk situations, and programmatic responses are needed.…

  17. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jessica S.; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15–24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3–18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3–47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0–18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state’s general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  18. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Colette L; Lin, Jessica S; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15-24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3-18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3-47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0-18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state's general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  19. Homeless Families, Children, and Youth in Stanislaus County--Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boley, Ellen

    The homeless crisis in America is a complex issue with no "quick fixes." In Stanislaus County, California, it seems that there are many programs operating in isolation of one another. Approximately 5% of the county's population is homeless. Homeless persons have survival needs for food and clothing, hygiene, health care, affordable housing,…

  20. Dietary intake, overweight status, and perceptions of food insecurity among homeless Minnesotan youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2008-01-01

    Youth, 9-18 years (n = 202), living in homeless shelters in Minneapolis, Minnesota, were assessed for height, weight, dietary intake, and perceptions of food insecurity. Perceptions of food security were measured by asking youth to respond to the statements (1) "There are times when we do not have enough food in the house," (2) "I go to bed hungry at night," (3) "I do not get enough to eat at home," and (4) "Have you ever had to miss a meal (or not been able to eat) because there was no food at home?" Additionally, questions evaluated coping mechanisms used by children to ward off hunger. Fifty-five percent of the children reported not enough food in the house and 25% reported going to bed hungry. Youth had inadequate intakes of vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and the majority consumed less than the estimated average requirements (EAR) for vitamins A, C, and E, phosphorus, folate, and zinc. Fruits, vegetables, and dairy were also consumed below recommended levels. Forty-five percent of boys and 50% of girls were at risk-for-overweight or were overweight. Overeating, eating anything, eating disliked foods, and eating at the homes of family and friends were identified as strategies to cope with food insecurity. Overeating when food is available may explain why we see a hunger-obesity paradigm to the magnitude that we do among the poorest Americans. These strategies protect children from the immediate negative associations of poverty and hunger, but they may contribute to long-term weight problems currently found in the US. PMID:18491407

  1. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches. PMID:21400037

  2. Mobilizing homeless youth for HIV prevention: a social network analysis of the acceptability of a face-to-face and online social networking intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Barman Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth.Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F recruited online youth (OY) to participate in MySpace and Facebook communities where digital media was disseminated and discussed. The resulting social networks were assessed with respect to size, growth, density, relative centrality of positions and homophily of ties. Seven PL, 53 F2F and 103 OY created two large networks. After the first 50 F2F youth participated, online networks entered a rapid growth phase. OY were among the most central youth in these networks. Younger aged persons and females were disproportionately connected to like youth. The program appears highly acceptable to homeless youth. Social network analysis revealed which PL were the most critical to the program and which types of participants (younger youth and females) may require additional outreach efforts in the future. PMID:22247453

  3. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  4. Institutional Discharges and Subsequent Shelter Use among Unaccompanied Adults in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to…

  5. YTH StreetConnect: Development and Usability of a Mobile App for Homeless and Unstably Housed Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gamedze, Londiwe; Williams, Samantha; Ford, Jessie VanNess; Habel, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless and unstably housed (H/UH) youth are disproportionately affected by sexual health issues, including human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, and dating violence, and are at a higher risk for poor mental health and underutilization of services. Research suggests that linking health care to H/UH adolescents might help improve their continuity of care, with most preferring to access health care information via the Internet. YTH StreetConnect is a dual-purpose mobile app that helps H/UH youth access health and vital services in Santa Clara County, CA, USA. We developed YTH StreetConnect PRO in parallel with the youth app as a companion tablet app for providers who serve H/UH youth. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a mobile app to support H/UH youth and their providers in accessing health and vital resources, and to conduct usability and feasibility testing of the app among H/UH youth and technical consultants with local expertise in serving H/UH youth. Methods Formative research included a literature review on H/UH youths’ mobile phone and Internet usage. In January 2015, we conducted interviews with medical and service providers of H/UH youth. Usability and feasibility testing were done with target audiences. Additionally, we conducted focus groups with youth regarding the app’s youth friendliness, accessibility, and usefulness. Results H/UH youth and their providers noted the app’s functionality, youth friendliness, and resources. Usability testing proposed improvements to the app, including visual updates to the user interface, map icons, new underrepresented resource categories, and the addition of a peer rating system. Limitations included a small sample size among H/UH youth and providers and a single site for the study (Santa Clara County, CA), making the findings ungeneralizable to the US population. Conclusions YTH StreetConnect is a promising way to increase service utilization

  6. Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance. PMID:20521916

  7. Culture Clash in San Francisco: Reconnecting Youth Who Are Homeless with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracenin, Damun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum provided to homeless high school students in San Francisco. The curriculum is delivered at a community-based organization already serving the homeless rather than in the schools and features spontaneous symposiums, scheduled symposiums, independent learning, private and small group instruction in basic academic…

  8. The McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Implications for Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 academic school year, nearly a million (956,914) students were reported by school districts as being homeless, a 41% increase over just a 2-year period year. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of national legislative efforts to address the education of children who are homeless, with a particular…

  9. Invited commentary: seeking a coherent strategy in our response to homeless and street-involved youth: a historical review and suggested future directions.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean

    2012-05-01

    This invited commentary seeks to encourage a critical dialogue about youth homelessness that might assist in re-energizing a field that seems increasingly stagnant with a research body focused primarily on analyses of risk, hopelessly inadequate policy frameworks in most cities, diminishing funds for services, and decreasing media attention. Reviewing major trends in research and public responses to youth homelessness in the past century, I propose that there exist three major culturally-bound dimensions from which we construct our understanding of and responses to youth homelessness. These dimensions, which are considered in a transactional framework, are the scope of responsibility, the location of moral responsibility, and the amount of agency attributed to the youth. In this review I highlight the manner in which our historically binary and uncritical understanding of these dimensional characterizations of youth homelessness has led to major lapses in the effectiveness of our collective efforts to address this problem. I highlight gaps in the existing body of research literature and provide this framework, arguing that a strategic and cohesive response is vital if we are to move from reiterations of risk and hackneyed calls for prevention strategies to the generation of meaningful solutions. PMID:22302217

  10. To use or not to use: a stage-based approach to understanding condom use among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ober, Allison; Ryan, Gery; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stage-based approach to understand condom use behavior in a representative sample of 309 sexually active homeless youth recruited from shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles County. Focusing on the youth's most recent sexual event, the three stages of condom use examined were: (1) whether the partners decided prior to the event about using condoms; (2) whether a condom was available at the event; and (3) whether a condom was used at the event. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify attitudinal, relationship, and contextual correlates of each of these three stages. Deciding ahead of time about condom use was associated with being Hispanic, level of education, condom attitudes, and various relationship characteristics (e.g., partner type, monogamy, relationship abuse), with the nature of these associations varying depending on the type of decision (i.e., deciding to use, deciding to not use). Condom availability was more likely to be reported by males, if the event was described as being special in some way, or if the event lacked privacy. Condom use was more likely among youth with more positive condom attitudes and among youth who decide ahead of time to use a condom, but less likely among those in monogamous relationships or when hard drugs were used prior to sex. Whether sexual intercourse is protected or unprotected is the end result of a series of decisions and actions by sexual partners. Results from this study illustrate how condom use can be better understood by unpacking the stages and identifying influential factors at each stage. Each stage may, in and of itself, be an important target for intervention with homeless youth. PMID:24099462

  11. The U.S. Homeless Student Population: Homeless Youth Education, Review of Research Classifications and Typologies, and the U.S. Federal Legislative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mai Abdul; Turner, J. Fidel; Elbedour, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The drastic surge in the number of homeless families in the United States (U.S.) has resulted in an increase in the number of homeless students attending U.S. public schools. Meanwhile, the U.S. public school system is struggling to meet the educational needs of their homeless students. Objective: This study examined the historical…

  12. Homelessness and Unstable Housing Associated with an Increased Risk of HIV and STI Transmission among Street-Involved Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean A; Patterson, Thomas L; Buxton, Jane A; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    The role that environmental factors play in driving HIV and STI transmission risk among street-involved youth has not been well examined. We examined factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression among participants enroled in the At Risk Youth Study. Among 529 participants, 253 (47.8%) reported multiple partners while only 127 (24.0%) reported consistent condom use in the past six months. Homelessness was inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.47, p=0.008), while unstable housing was positively associated with greater numbers of sex partners (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]=1.44, p=0.010). These findings indicate the need for interventions which modify environmental factors that drive risk among young street-involved populations. PMID:19201642

  13. Invited Commentary: Seeking a Coherent Strategy in Our Response to Homeless and Street-Involved Youth--A Historical Review and Suggested Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This invited commentary seeks to encourage a critical dialogue about youth homelessness that might assist in re-energizing a field that seems increasingly stagnant with a research body focused primarily on analyses of risk, hopelessly inadequate policy frameworks in most cities, diminishing funds for services, and decreasing media attention.…

  14. "You Have to Adapt Because You Have No Other Choice": The Stories of Strength and Resilience of 208 Homeless Youth in New York City and Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Davidson, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 208 homeless youth interviewed on streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto. The interviews focused on the participants' stories about their struggles to survive and negotiate meaningful and healthy lives in coming to the streets, living on the…

  15. Addressing Homelessness: Recent Happenings--Iowa, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This guide provides information on the following resources available to the homeless in Iowa: (1) Funding Sources for School District Programs Serving Homeless Students; (2) Local Educational Liaison for Homeless Children and Youth; (3) Homeless Advisory Committee; (4) Identification, Counting, and Maintaining Data at the Local School District…

  16. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  17. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  18. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  19. A demographic and behavioral profile of homeless youth in New York City: implications for AIDS outreach and prevention.

    PubMed

    Clatts, M C; Davis, W R

    1999-09-01

    Rapid changes in the world market economy have served to destabilize many local institutions, widening the gap between the rich and the poor and undermining viability of key social and economic institutions such as family and household. Among those most deeply affected by this displacement are children and adolescents, many of whom are forced to leave family institutions before they have acquired the skills and maturity needed to become economically self-sufficient. Fending for themselves amid the vagaries of the underworld of virtually every major city in the world, these youths are at exceptional risk for a wide range of poor health outcomes and premature death. While perhaps a familiar sight in many non-Western countries, this phenomenon also has emerged in the industrialized world, a fact that accounts for the rise in exposure to violence and disease among street-involved youth and young adults in nations such as the United States. There are as yet few empirical data available about the nature of these youth populations or the constellation of behaviors that place them at increased risk for disease outcomes. In this report we construct a demographic and behavioral profile of the homeless youth population in New York City, particularly as behavioral patterns relate to risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:10509314

  20. The mediating roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors on self-harm and suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-07-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and psychosocial background characteristics and self-injurious outcomes through the lens of the stress process paradigm. The model was tested in a sample of runaway and homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N = 474, age 12-24, 41 % female, 17 % White, 32.5 % African American, 21.5 % Hispanic/Latino). Background variables (gender, age, sexual minority status, parental drug use history, and emotional distress) predicted hypothesized mediators of maladaptive behaviors and recent stress. In turn, it was hypothesized that the mediators would predict self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in the last 3 months. Females and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) youth were more likely to have self-harmed and attempted suicide; younger participants reported more self-harming. The mediating constructs were associated more highly with self-harming than suicide attempts bivariately, although differences were modest. Maladaptive behaviors and recent stress were significant predictors of self-harm, whereas only recent stress was a significant predictor of suicide attempts. All background factors were significant predictors of recent stress. Older age, a history of parental drug use, and greater emotional distress predicted problem drug use. Males, younger participants, and participants with emotional distress reported more delinquent behaviors. Significant indirect effects on self-harming behaviors were mediated through stress and maladaptive behaviors. The hypothesized paradigm was useful in explaining the associations among background factors and self-injurious outcomes and the influence of mediating factors on these

  1. Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Title VII-B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assitance Act, as Amended by The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Draft Non-Regulatory Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This non-regulatroy guide from the U.S. Department of Education focuses on the McKinney-Vento Education for the Homeless Children and Youth (McKinney-Vento) program as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. An introductory section explains the purpose of McKinney-Vento, the statutory authority for the program, how the new McKinney-Vento…

  2. Supporting Two Households: Unaccompanied Mexican Minors and Their Absences from U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates simultaneous household participation in the lives of undocumented, unaccompanied Mexican teenage minors in New York City and its impact on their school attendance. Emigrating without parents, some Mexican youths arrive to enter into the labor market, not school. Unable to assume monetary dependence, these youths' absences…

  3. Trials, Tribulations, and Occasional Jubilations while Conducting Research with Homeless Children, Youth, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    A personal account of a program of research on homelessness and poverty spanning the past 20 years is provided, with a focus on the many methodological, practical, and ethical difficulties encountered. Interesting discoveries and enjoyable aspects of the research process are also presented. Several role conflicts that arose for the researcher in…

  4. On the Outside: The Needs of Unsupported, Homeless Youth. Policy Background Paper No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Frank; Hartley, Robyn

    This document brings together relevant information on the topic of unsupported, homeless young people under 18 years of age. The stated purpose of the document is to identify policy directions which take account of the changing situations of many young people who are struggling to survive. Chapter 1 briefly outlines the background of the paper.…

  5. Factors Associated with Drug Use among Youth Living in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Tracy; Dusenbury, Linda; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Farmer-Huselid, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Examined predictors of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use with homeless adolescents and preadolescents (N=234). Results reveal that social influences (friends and family drug use) are strong predictors of experimental drug use and intentions to use drugs, as are several psychological factors (psychological well-being, assertiveness, and social…

  6. "We're Locking the Door": Family Histories in a Sample of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Shahid; Scott, Hannah; Stanyon, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the pathways to homelessness for young people are embedded in often ongoing negative childhood experiences. Many of these experiences are rooted in multiple and intersecting problems including, but not limited to: family conflict, abuse, addictions, and mental health issues. The authors draw upon qualitative interviews…

  7. If You Provide the Test, They will Take It: Factors Associated with HIV/STI Testing in a Representative Sample of Homeless Youth in Los Angeles*

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Allison J.; Martino, Steven C.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), yet those at greatest risk may never have been tested for HIV or STI. In a probability sample of sexually active homeless youth in Los Angeles (n =305), this study identifies factors associated with HIV/STI testing status. Most youth (85%) had ever been tested and 47% had tested in the past 3 months. Recent testing was significantly more likely among youth who self-identified as gay, were Hispanic, injected drugs, and used drop-in centers, and marginally more likely among youth with more depressive symptoms. Drop-in center use mediated the association of injection drug use with HIV/STI testing. HIV/STI testing was unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Drop-in centers can play an important role in facilitating testing, including among injection drug users, but more outreach is needed to encourage testing in other at-risk subgroups. PMID:22827904

  8. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73 years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study. PMID:22894551

  9. Moving Away From Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gael, Young Fine

    This discussion document from a symposium on shut out youth attempts to heighten awareness of the housing problems experienced by youth in Ireland. It is based on information obtained from a questionnaire sent to voluntary organizations working in local areas. It focuses on homelessness and its related issues of health, education, and the…

  10. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  11. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  12. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homeless Youth Help for Victims & Survivors of Domestic Violence Help for Victimes of Human Trafficking & Commercial Sexual Exploitation General Help Programs Runaway & Homeless Youth Family Violence Prevention & Services Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Grants Grant Awards ...

  13. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Runaway & Homeless Youth Help for Victims & Survivors of Domestic Violence Help for Victimes of Human Trafficking & Commercial Sexual ... an end to youth homelessness , adolescent pregnancy and domestic violence . National Domestic Violence Hotline 1-800-799-SAFE ( ...

  14. Educating Homeless Students: Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn, Ed.

    This book is for educators who serve homeless students or students temporarily sharing houses with other families. It describes many promising strategies for working with these students. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: An Introduction" (James H. Stronge); (2) "Meeting the Developmental and Educational Needs of…

  15. That Is Not What Homeless Is: A School District's Journey toward Serving Homeless, Doubled-Up, and Economically Displaced Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Skrla, Linda; Low, Justin

    2015-01-01

    School districts play a key role in identifying, supporting, and educating homeless students. This qualitative case study of a school district in Northern California illustrates how district leadership serves as a bridge between federal policy and local school sites. In this case study, federal funding funneled through the state served as the…

  16. Child Abuse in Blended Households: Reports from Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRee, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Building upon prior research that reveals an elevated risk of abuse to children in blended households, the study considers whether risk of abuse varies by the type of non-related parent figure (i.e., stepparent, adoptive parent, or cohabiting adult) in residence. Method: A sample of 40,000 youths that sought services from runaway and…

  17. A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Mary E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Samples, Cathryn L.; Goodenow, Carol S.; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk…

  18. Estrangement Factors Associated with Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs among Homeless Youth in Three U. S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna; Jun, Jina; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Pollio, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent among homeless, street-involved young people. Societal estrangement is often associated with substance use, particularly among this population. The current study sought to identify four domains of social estrangement (disaffiliation, human capital, identification with homeless culture, and psychological…

  19. Runaway and Homeless Youth: A Three Phase Differential Response Which Provides Crisis Intervention, Assessment, and Long-Term Programs--Both Residential and Non-Residential--for Adolescent Males and Females 16-21 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faye, Michael

    A practicum at a crisis intervention center in the middle of a large Canadian city in Ontario was designed to offer crisis intervention, shelter, and non-residential support for runaway and homeless youth, ages 16 to 21, who lived on the streets or in emergency shelters. The practicum provided an opportunity for program staff to develop a…

  20. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  1. Initiation of services in the Boston HAPPENS Program: human immunodeficiency virus-positive, homeless, and at-risk youth can access services.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elizabeth R; Samples, Cathryn L; Melchiono, Maurice W; Keenan, Peter M; Fox, Durrell J; Harris, Sion Kim

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluates the factors associated with initiation of services in the Boston HAPPENS Program, which is a collaborative network of care consisting of multiservice outreach agencies, community health centers and hospitals, for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and hard to reach youth who are 12-24 years old. The program served 2116 youth who were 19.8 +/- 2.9 years old; 64% female; 45% youth of color; 16% gay/lesbian, bisexual, or undecided; and 10% homeless or runaway. At first contact with the program, 56% received outreach services; and 91% received a health intervention. Among those receiving a health intervention, 55% had HIV counseling and testing services, 49% medical care, 24% case management, and 9% mental health services. HIV-positive youth needed more contacts before a first medical visit than those who were HIV-negative or untested (p < 0.001). Different kinds of service sites reached different populations of at-risk youth. Logistic regression modeling showed that for young women, older age, lesbian-bisexual orientation, substance use, high-risk sexual behaviours, and receiving outreach services at first contact were independent predictors of initiation of services at outreach agencies; however, unprotected sex with males, and pregnancy were associated with a greater likelihood of care at hospitals or community health centers. For young men, older age, Asian/other ethnicity, and substance abuse were associated with care at outreach agencies; however, positive HIV status and unprotected sex with females were associated with care at hospitals or community health centers. Comprehensive networks of care offering a continuum of services and a variety of entry routes and types of care sites are needed to connect underserved youth to health care. PMID:12442735

  2. Education Rights of Homeless Students: A Guide for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There is no question that students who are homeless, like all students, are entitled to be educated. A federal law, known as the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, requires states to provide homeless children and youth with the same access to free public education as is available to other students. The Act also requires states to eliminate…

  3. School Help for Homeless Children with Disabilities: Information for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult for families dealing with homelessness to enroll their children in school and ensure their daily attendance. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act gives homeless children and youth the right to enroll in school immediately, even if they do not have documents that are usually required for enrollment. The Individuals with…

  4. "Stealing and Being Stolen From": Perpetration of Property Offenses and Property Victimization Among Homeless Youth--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Homelessness is purportedly a predictor of property offending and property victimization, yet published studies examining this occurrence are scarce. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies reporting the rates of perpetration of property offenses and property victimization, and associations between homelessness…

  5. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  6. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain. PMID:23221269

  7. Hearings on the Reauthorization of Title 3(b) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988: Drug Abuse Education and Prevention Programs for Runaway and Homeless Youth and Youth Gangs. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Washington, D.C., July 18, 1991; Downey, California, August 2, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document contains witness testimonies from two Congressional hearings examining the reauthorization of Title 3(b) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 relating to the drug abuse education and prevention for runaway and homeless youth and youth gangs. Opening statements are included from Representatives Martinez and Fawell. Witnesses providing…

  8. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND...

  9. The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Oppedal, Brit; Idsoe, Thormod

    2015-04-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about psychosocial resources that may sustain post-resettlement psychological adjustment among unaccompanied minor asylum-seekers. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of social support from family abroad and friends on acculturation, discrimination, and mental health among these vulnerable children and youth. Questionnaire data were collected from a population-based multi-ethnic sample involving 895 unaccompanied minors resettled in municipalities in all regions of the country. They met in groups in their local communities. The informants were on average 18.6 years, and had an average length of stay in Norway of 3.5 years. The findings showed that the participants suffered from high levels of ongoing war related intrusive symptoms and depression. Still, at the same time they engaged in adaptation processes that are normative to youth with immigrant backgrounds, in terms of constructing supportive networks and developing culture competence. In accordance with the main effect hypothesis, social support had direct effects on depression and indirect effects by increasing culture competence that may aid the young refugees in dealing with discrimination. However, there were no effects of social support on symptoms of PTSD. The findings give direction to areas of interventions, beyond dealing with the sequel of the traumas the unaccompanied minors have been exposed to, not only for clinicians, but also social workers and school personnel. PMID:25614276

  10. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children: Whose Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernesjo, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing attention being paid to unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. This article provides an overview of research in the field and its implications for an understanding of these children as a particularly vulnerable category. The existing research focuses primarily on investigating the children's emotional well-being…

  11. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  12. A Comparison of Three Interventions for Homeless Youth Evidencing Substance Use Disorders: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Bantchevska, Denitza

    2015-01-01

    While research on homeless adolescents and young adults evidencing substance use disorder is increasing, there is a dearth of information regarding effective interventions, and more research is needed to guide those who serve this population. The current study builds upon prior research showing promising findings of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) (Slesnick, Prestopnik, Meyers, & Glassman, 2007). Homeless adolescents and young adults between the ages of 14 to 20 years were randomized to one of three theoretically distinct interventions: (1) CRA (n = 93), (2) Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET, n = 86), or (3) Case Management (CM, n = 91). The relative effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Findings indicated that substance use and associated problems were significantly reduced in all three interventions across time. Several moderating effects were found, especially for sex and history of childhood abuse. Findings show little evidence of superiority or inferiority of the three interventions and suggest that drop-in centers have choices for addressing the range of problems that these adolescents and young adults face. PMID:25736623

  13. A comparison of three interventions for homeless youth evidencing substance use disorders: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Bantchevska, Denitza

    2015-07-01

    While research on homeless adolescents and young adults evidencing substance use disorder is increasing, there is a dearth of information regarding effective interventions, and more research is needed to guide those who serve this population. The current study builds upon prior research showing promising findings of the community reinforcement approach (CRA) (Slesnick, Prestopnik, Meyers, & Glassman, 2007). Homeless adolescents and young adults between the ages of 14 to 20 years were randomized to one of three theoretically distinct interventions: (1) CRA (n = 93), (2) motivational enhancement therapy (MET, n = 86), or (3) case management (CM, n = 91). The relative effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Findings indicated that substance use and associated problems were significantly reduced in all three interventions across time. Several moderating effects were found, especially for sex and history of childhood abuse. Findings show little evidence of superiority or inferiority of the three interventions and suggest that drop-in centers have choices for addressing the range of problems that these adolescents and young adults face. PMID:25736623

  14. Educating Children with Disabilities Who Are Homeless. Policy Forum Proceedings Document (Arlington, Virginia, December 5-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Joy

    This publication summarizes the proceedings of a Project FORUM conference that examined the needs of homeless children and youth with disabilities. The summarized presentations address the definition of homelessness, the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, services for homeless students under the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  15. Emotional expressiveness and avoidance in narratives of unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Julia; Nelson, Kristin; Karnik, Niranjan; Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Seidel, Stefan; Ebner, Nina; Ryst, Erika; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Realubit, Cassey; Steiner, Hans; Skala, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine a cohort of unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) by means of psycholinguistic methods in order to obtain a more subtle picture of their degree of traumatization. Methods Twenty-eight participants were included in the Stress-Inducing Speech Task (SIST) consisting of a free association (FA) and a stress (STR) condition. Narratives were examined by means of (1) quantitative parameters (word count); (2) psycholinguistic variables (temporal junctures, TJs), narrative structure, referential activity (RA)—a measure of emotional expressivity; and (3) content analysis ratings. Results Word count was significantly lower than in age-matched norms. In the FA condition, TJs were lower, but in the STR condition, rates were comparable. RA was significantly higher in both conditions. Content analysis ratings showed that the experiences described by these youths were potentially traumatic in nature. Conclusions This pattern of narrative shows a mixture of fulfilling the task demand, while containing an emotionally charged narrative. Narrative structure was absent in the FA condition, but preserved in the STR condition, as URMs struggled with the description of non-normative events. This indicates that these youths have not yet emotionally dealt with and fully integrated their trauma experiences. PMID:26955827

  16. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  17. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  18. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  19. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  20. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  1. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  2. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  3. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  4. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  5. Homeless in Chicago: The Special Case of Pregnant Teenagers and Young Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knauss, Jenny; Nelson, Krista

    This report from the Illinois Caucus on Teenage Pregnancy concerns the plight of an estimated 7,000 homeless teenagers in the state who are either pregnant or are teenage mothers. The scope of the homeless youth problem in Illinois is defined in the introduction. A section on dimensions of need focuses on the "feminization of homelessness,"…

  6. Pregnancy and Mental Health of Young Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active young women (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research. PMID:21486259

  7. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  8. The Invisible Crisis: Connecting Schools with Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn M.; Warke, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth represent a growing proportion of the homeless population. Using the lens of transformative leadership, this multifamily case study explores the realities of homeless children, the challenges their families face, and the role of school leaders in ensuring that they receive a quality education. It recommends that leaders (1)…

  9. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  10. Access to Pre-K Education under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Pre-K Policy Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Ellen; Splansky, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act ("McKinney-Vento") provides federal funding to states to address the problems that homeless children and youth encounter in enrolling, attending, and succeeding in the nation's public schools. McKinney-Vento requires states to develop plans that ensure homeless children and youth the same access…

  11. Pregnancy and sexual health among homeless young injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting. PMID:18692891

  12. The prevalence of homelessness among adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Ringwalt, C L; Greene, J M; Robertson, M; McPheeters, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Homeless adolescents represent one of the nation's most vulnerable populations. This study reports the 12-month prevalence of homeless episodes among US adolescents. METHODS: Personal, audiotaped interviews were conducted in 1992 and 1993 with a representative household sample of 6496 adolescents aged 12 to 17 as part of the Youth Risk behavior Survey sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Respondents reported whether they had spent the night in any of a variety of locations other than home during the previous 12 months. RESULTS: Altogether, 7.6% of the youths questioned reported that they had spent at least 1 night in youth or adult shelter (3.3%), public place (2.2%), an abandoned building (1.0%), outside 2.2%), underground (0.4%), or with a stranger (1.1%). Boys were much more likely than girls to report having experienced a homeless episode. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that homelessness among adolescents is not simply an urban problem and that prevention programs targeting homeless youths should be implemented nationwide. Additional research is needed to assess the frequency and duration of homeless experiences. Future studies of homelessness in the general population should include questions pertinent to adolescents. PMID:9736871

  13. Unaccompanied Immigrant Minors: Where to Begin.

    PubMed

    Ciaccia, Kimberly A; John, Rita Marie

    2016-01-01

    The number of unaccompanied immigrant minors (UIMs) from Central America significantly increased in 2014. Nearly 50,000 children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crossed the United States-Mexico border in 2014, compared with 3,933 in 2011. Few resources exist to guide pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) in their care of UIM. The multifactorial reasons behind migration and the state of children's health in Central America provide insight into the needs of UIMs. Guidelines for similar groups such as foreign-born children and refugees offer direction for the health care considerations of UIMs. This article provides demographic information on UIMs, highlights the unique and challenging medical and mental health issues facing UIMs, and discusses the role of the PNP. A UIM's initial visit with a PNP serves as an opportunity to build trust through culturally competent, trauma-informed care, provide preventive care, assess for unmet health needs, and screen for mental health conditions. PMID:26858232

  14. The Student Homelessness Crisis and the Role of School Psychology: Missed Opportunities, Room for Improvement, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Affecting more than 1 million youth, student homelessness is growing at an unprecedented rate in the United States. This is alarming because homeless students face significant barriers to their academic success and positive life outcomes. Unfortunately, despite the significant risks and challenges they face, homeless students often are overlooked…

  15. Increasing School Stability for Students Experiencing Homelessness: Overcoming Challenges to Providing Transportation to the School of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Barksdale, Katina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to review the provisions of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act as related to the provision of transportation of homeless children and youth to their school of origin and provide recommendations for implementing the transportation mandate. The National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) in 2003-2004…

  16. Residential Instability and the McKinney-Vento Homeless Children and Education Program: What We Know, Plus Gaps in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Mary; Harwood, Robin; Hall, Sam

    2010-01-01

    As homelessness increased among families and children during the 1980s and 1990s, policymakers created, and strengthened, the McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) program. The McKinney-Vento EHCY program aims to mitigate the effects of residential instability through the identification of homeless children in schools and…

  17. Double Jeopardy: Homeless & Illiterate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1988

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, federal funding for literacy services will focus new attention on the plight of the homeless. Under the McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, each state will receive funds for literacy for the homeless. Although there are no firm estimates on how many persons are homeless, a number of indicators point to a problem of major and…

  18. Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3) "The Causes of Homelessness"…

  19. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  20. Understanding the Attainment of Stable Housing: A Seven-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Homeless Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Braciszewski, Jordan M.; Toro, Paul A.; Stout, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Stable housing provides a solid foundation for youth development, making it an essential topic of study among young homeless people. Although gains have been made in research with adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness, few longitudinal studies of this population exist, clouding the long-term housing outcome picture. The current study examined the course and risk factors for homelessness in a sample of 243 homeless adolescents followed over a seven-year period. The vast majority of youth returned to stable housing quickly; however, early experiences of homelessness, even at this young age, were observed to have a substantial negative impact on future housing. Participants from poorer neighborhoods and those identifying as ethnic minorities also took longer to achieve stable housing. The data suggest that family reunification interventions may serve this population well. Preparing youth for returning home may prevent subsequent homeless episodes, while also improving their overall functioning. PMID:26997683

  1. Helping the Homeless in School and out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children can be hard to identify and even harder to help. But teachers can do a great deal to make sure that they do not fall through the cracks. Teachers of highly mobile students must develop the skills to make these children and youth feel welcome while quickly weaving them into classroom routines. They must rapidly assess new…

  2. Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl

    PubMed Central

    Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Rosner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background There is uncertainty whether young traumatized refugees should be treated with culturally adapted psychotherapy or with an evidence-based western approach. As yet, empirical studies on culturally adapted treatments for unaccompanied young refugees in industrialized host countries are not available. Studies do, however, suggest that trauma-focused treatment is promising for this group. Objective We describe the treatment of an unaccompanied refugee minor girl with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who underwent manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). Methods A 17-year-old girl from East Africa, who came to Germany without a caregiver, was treated for PTSD resulting from several traumatic experiences and losses in her home country and while fleeing. She lived in a group home for adolescents. Baseline, post, and follow-up data are reported. Results The girl participated in 12 sessions of manualized TF-CBT. Her caregiver from the youth services received another 12 sessions in line with the treatment manual. Symptoms decreased in a clinically significant manner; at the end of the treatment, the girl was deemed to have recovered from PTSD. Treatment success remained stable over 6 months. Conclusions Manualized TF-CBT is feasible for young refugees without significant cultural adaptations. It can, however, be seen as culturally sensitive. PMID:26781638

  3. 76 FR 26302 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien Children Description Following the passage of the 2002 Homeland... Resettlement (ORR), is charged with the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children in Federal custody... unaccompanied alien. Annual Burden Estimates Number of Average Instrument Number of responses per burden...

  4. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This request for comment is...: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles OMB Number: 1651-0014 Form Number: Form...

  5. 76 FR 11254 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... the Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles (CBP Form 255). This request for comment is being made... Unaccompanied Articles. OMB Number: 1651-0030. Form Number: CBP Form 255. Abstract: CBP Form 255 is completed...

  6. Sudanese Refugee Youth in Foster Care: The "Lost Boys" in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Laura; Baird, Diane; Johnson, Deborah J.; Lee, Robert E.; Luster, Tom; Rehagen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the resettlement experiences of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee youth placed in foster care from the perspectives of the youth, foster parents, and agency caseworkers. Youth experienced considerable success. The challenges of adjusting to school and family life, however, suggest a need for funding to support more intensive…

  7. Life shocks and homelessness.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  8. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  9. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  10. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. PMID:26460699

  11. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  12. Feeding the homeless.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Magnus, M H

    1991-12-01

    Nurses have a unique role in addressing homelessness, an issue of vital national concern. The management and organizational expertise of nurses can be key elements to coordinating community resources to assist the homeless. The authors describe the design and implementation of a community meal program for the homeless. PMID:1744733

  13. Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness, they can…

  14. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  15. Homeless Health Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many homeless women are victims of domestic or sexual abuse. Homeless children have high rates of emotional and behavioral problems, often from having witnessed abuse. Help such as shelters, health centers, and free meals are available. Contact your local homelessness assistance agency.

  16. A Risk and Resilience Perspective on Unaccompanied Refugee Minors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cacciatore, Joanne; Klimek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a diverse and extremely vulnerable group served by social workers about whom there is little research. URMs enter the United States from many lands without parents or kin, often having experienced war and other traumatic events. Using a risk and resilience framework, we summarize the…

  17. Behavior Problems and Traumatic Events of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the traumatic events and behavior symptoms of 46 unaccompanied refugee minors waiting for placement in an asylum center in Finland. The children had experienced numerous losses, separations, persecution, and threats. About half were functioning within clinical or borderline range. Younger children had more severe psychiatric…

  18. Factors Related to Educational Resilience among Sudanese Unaccompanied Minors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Meenal; Qin, Desiree Baolian; Bates, Laura; Luster, Tom; Saltarelli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational resilience is defined as having successful outcomes in school despite the adversities one has faced in life. There is a dearth of research on a particularly high-risk group--unaccompanied refugee minors who are separated from their parents by war and lack the protection and advocacy provided by adult caretakers.…

  19. Unaccompanied Refugee Minors; A Challenging Group to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Tammy; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth; Spinhoven, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM), like all adolescents, have the right to be able to develop emotionally and cognitively to their fullest potential in host countries (Article 6, Convention of the Rights of the Child, 1991). URM make up a very special and vulnerable population of young people under the age of 18 who have been separated from their…

  20. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  1. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer…

  2. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, James P.

    2014-01-01

    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  3. Homeless Youths’ HIV Risk Behaviors with Strangers: Investigating the Importance of Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths’ HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14–21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19–21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14–18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths’ HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV. PMID:23613136

  4. Unaccompanied refugee minors' early life narratives of physical abuse from caregivers and teachers in their home countries.

    PubMed

    Skårdalsmo Bjørgo, Envor M; Jensen, Tine K

    2015-10-01

    The early life narratives of 34 unaccompanied refugee minors, especially their reports of interpersonal violence, were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The youth originated from eight countries, with Afghanistan, Eritrea, and Sri Lanka being the most frequent origins, and they arrived to Norway before the age of 15. Four of these youth were girls. The physical violence took place at home and/or at school and could be extremely harsh. Approximately half of the youth expressed some type of ambivalence toward the perpetrator. In analyzing how the youth understood the reasons for violence two categories of internal and three categories of external attributions were found. Several of the youth blamed their own behavior for the abuse, although such internal attributions were frequently combined with external attributions. Some different patterns of attributions emerged between home and school violence. Most of the youth placed the blame for school violence on their own behavior or that violence was part of normal school discipline. For violence at home there was a tendency to place more blame on the perpetrator (mostly fathers). Possible long-term consequences of the experiences and the different attributional styles as well as implications of the findings are discussed. Professionals should assess refugee children for interpersonal violence experiences as well as for other experiences in their home country. PMID:26307532

  5. Educating Transient Youth: Influence of Residential Instability on Educational Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald Edward

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth face many barriers that limit their ability to complete a high school diploma and transition to postsecondary education. The federal government passed the McKinney-Vento Act over 20 years ago to address issues of access to public education for homeless youth. The most recent reauthorization of the law expanded the definition of…

  6. The New Homelessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  7. Lost in the shuffle: culture of homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joanne O'sullivan; Burke, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    Estimates indicate that approximately 1.7 million youth are homeless in the United States. Many associated risk factors have been identified for adolescent homelessness, including family conflict, leaving foster care, running away or being thrown away, physical or sexual abuse, and coming out to parents as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or questioning one's sexual identity (GLBTQ). The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the culture of homelessness for adolescents. Nineteen homeless adolescents from a major urban area in the northeast U.S. were observed and interviewed over an 18-month period. The elements of the street culture of homeless adolescents were identified by study participants' stories. For many study participants, the decision to live on the streets was a logical and rational alternative to remaining in possibly dangerous and unstable home environments. It provided a means to their generating social capital. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that existing programs and policies relative to adolescents who are at risk for homelessness or already living on the streets should be re-examined and redesigned to meet the unique needs of vulnerable youth so they do not get lost in the shuffle. PMID:19681376

  8. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Program Affordable Housing Community Development Consolidated Planning Economic Development Environmental Review Financial Management Homelessness Assistance Rural Systems News News Feed Email Updates Training & Events All ...

  9. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed. PMID:26246453

  10. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  11. Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…

  12. Homelessness: Recommendations for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Governor's Advisory Board on the Shelter, Nutrition, and Service Programs for Homeless Persons, Annapolis.

    This report identifies the following objectives in the State of Maryland's efforts to prevent and substantially reduce homelessness: (1) expand resources for the prevention of homelessness, and investigate possible changes in policies contributing to homelessness; (2) establish a strong emergency response to homelessness throughout the State; (3)…

  13. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  14. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Three Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants to Unaccompanied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Expansion Supplement Grants to Unaccompanied Alien Children's Shelter Care Grantees AGENCY: Office of... single-source program expansion supplement grants from its Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to two... will support services to unaccompanied alien children through September 30, 2012. The supplement...

  15. Transitions to Adulthood for Homeless Adolescents: Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Gupton, Jarrett T.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Education plays a critical role in how adolescents mature into adults. A vulnerable, and often forgotten, sub-population of the poor is homeless youth, for whom lack of a stable or adequate residence creates a unique set of educational barriers. The Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) spent 18 months documenting the experiences of…

  16. Homelessness and Hunger*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J

    2014-01-01

    We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982

  17. Navigating the Intersections of IDEA and McKinney-Vento: A Problem-Solving Process. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act is the main federal program concerning the education of children and youth experiencing homelessness. It provides federal funding to states, which then distribute the funds to their school districts through a competitive application process; the funds are used to ensure that children and youth…

  18. 76 FR 27079 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 11254) on March 1, 2011, allowing for a 60... Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Declaration of Unaccompanied...

  19. 78 FR 16521 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 76063) on... Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This is a proposed extension of an information...

  20. Ensuring Full Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities for Students Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Extra-curricular school activities, such as sports, music, theater, debate, and clubs, are often a key to engaging children and youth in school. They can provide students with a sense of belonging, stability, pride, and responsibility and strengthen a student's applications for higher education admission and scholarships. Homelessness, however,…

  1. 20 CFR 668.430 - What individuals are eligible to receive supplemental youth services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... level appropriate to their age group; (4) Pregnant or parenting; (5) Have disabilities, including learning disabilities; (6) Homeless or runaway youth; (7) Offenders; or (8) Other eligible youth who...

  2. Perpetrators of Early Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 372 homeless and runaway adolescents found one-half reported being physically abused and almost one-third experienced sexual abuse. Females experienced significantly higher rates of sexual abuse. Sexual minority youth experienced more physical and sexual abuse compared to heterosexual youth. Nonfamily members most often perpetrated…

  3. Maltreatment and Victimization in Homeless Adolescents: Out of the Frying Pan and into the Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana Mari; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2004-01-01

    Homelessness among adolescents is a growing concern, with 1 to 1.5 million youths in any given year spending some period of time in emergency shelters or on the streets. These vulnerable youth have been found to exhibit a host of emotional and behavioral problems including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic reactions, drug and alcohol abuse, and…

  4. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  5. For Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... families find and sustain permanent housing. How It Works Through public housing authorities, HUD provides rental assistance ... might remain homeless without this assistance. How It Works Through referrals and direct outreach, nonprofit agencies and ...

  6. Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Problems among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Maritt; Frederick, Tyler; Erickson, Patricia G.

    2011-01-01

    Among marginalized populations, homeless adults are known to have elevated rates of mental health and substance use problems compared to the general population, but less is known about their youthful homeless counterparts. While few studies currently exist, what research has been conducted among street-involved youth has confirmed high rates of…

  7. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... efforts to understand and respond to homelessness, trauma, poverty and the need for social services and supports ... efforts to understand and respond to homelessness, trauma, poverty and the need for social services and supports ...

  8. Impact on health care adds to the social cost of homelessness, MDs say.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, F

    1996-01-01

    Homelessness has become a visible part of Canada's urban landscape, infecting adult men and women, youths and families with children alike, and the issue becomes particularly serious as winter approaches. During a workshop in Toronto earlier this year, physicians, researchers and social workers examined the effects of homelessness on health, identifying many of the unique health needs of this vulnerable segment of society. PMID:8976341

  9. Homelessness: From the Clients' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Edwina L.

    Although homelessness is not a new phenomenon, the number of homeless people today has fostered mobilization on their behalf by public and private sectors. Principal factors accepted as contributing to homelessness are inadequate low-cost housing, unemployment, chemical dependency, family violence, and inadequate community services for the…

  10. Evaluating Programs for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rog, Debra J., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Six articles provide an overview of the multiple approaches to evaluating the problems of homelessness and introduce the challenges of evaluating interventions for the homeless. The first part focuses on research about homelessness, and the second part describes major demonstration programs and their evaluations. (SLD)

  11. No Homeless Child Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Although it is difficult to determine the precise number of homeless children, the National Coalition for the Homeless reports that there are more than 1.3 million children lacking a permanent residence on any given night. Further, 39 percent of the homeless population was comprised of children under the age of 18 in July 2009, the most recent…

  12. What's Age Gotta Do with It? Understanding the Age-Identities and School-Going Practices of Mexican Immigrant Youth in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports of out-of-school immigrant youth have brought attention to predominantly Mexican and Central American immigrant youth who immigrate to the United States and do not enroll in formal schooling (Fry, 2002; Hill and Hayes, 2007). Many arrive to the United States unaccompanied, joining their older, undocumented counterparts in becoming…

  13. Homelessness Experiences, Sexual Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking among High School Students in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Fulginiti, Anthony; Astor, Roee; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prior studies reported homeless adolescents engage in more sexual risk than their housed peers. However, these comparisons are typically made post hoc by comparing homeless adolescent community-based samples with high school probability samples. This study utilizes a random sample of high school students to examine homelessness experiences and sexual risk behaviors. Methods A supplemental survey to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey containing questions regarding homelessness and sexual health was administered to Los Angeles high school students (N=1,839). Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the associations between demographics, past year homelessness experiences (i.e., place of nighttime residence), and being sexually active and condom use at last intercourse. Results Homelessness experiences consisted of staying in a shelter (10.4%), a public place (10.1%), and with a stranger (5.6%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), younger, and male adolescents were more likely to experience homelessness. LGBTQ adolescents were also more likely to report staying with a stranger and less likely to report staying in a shelter. Compared to adolescents who stayed in shelters, adolescents who stayed with strangers and in public places were more likely to engage in unprotected sex at last intercourse. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual activity and sexual risk taking are more likely to report homelessness experiences. With regard to sexual health, staying with strangers could be a particularly risky form of homelessness; LGBTQ and Black adolescents are more likely to experience this form of homelessness. Efforts to reduce homelessness and sexual risk-taking need to recognize the specific vulnerabilities faced by these populations. PMID:23360897

  14. Confirming Eligibility for McKinney-Vento Services: Do's and Don'ts for Local Liaisons. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, schools must identify children and youth in homeless situations and provide appropriate services. One such service is immediate enrollment in school, even when students lack paperwork normally required for enrollment, such as school records, proof of guardianship, a birth certificate, immunization…

  15. Confirming Eligibility for McKinney-Vento Services: Do's and Don'ts for School Districts. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, schools must identify children and youth in homeless situations and provide appropriate services. One such service is immediate enrollment in school, even when students lack paperwork normally required for enrollment, such as school records, proof of guardianship, a birth certificate, immunization…

  16. Social networking technology, social network composition, and reductions in substance use among homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G; Monro, William

    2011-03-01

    Peer-based prevention programs for homeless youth are complicated by the potential for reinforcing high-risk behaviors among participants. The goal of this study is to understand how homeless youth could be linked to positive peers in prevention programming by understanding where in social and physical space positive peers for homeless youth are located, how these ties are associated with substance use, and the role of social networking technologies (e.g., internet and cell phones) in this process. Personal social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Los Angeles, CA. Respondents reported on composition of their social networks with respect to: home-based peers and parents (accessed via social networking technology; e.g., the internet, cell phone, texting), homeless peers and agency staff (accessed face-to-face) and whether or not network members were substance-using or non-substance-using. Associations between respondent's lifetime cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use and recent (previous 30 days) alcohol and marijuana use were assessed by the number of non-substance-using versus substance-using ties in multivariate linear regression models. 43% of adolescents reported a non-substance-using home-based tie. More of these ties were associated with less recent alcohol use. 62% of adolescents reported a substance-using homeless tie. More of these ties were associated with more recent marijuana use as well as more lifetime heroin and methamphetamine use. For homeless youth, who are physically disconnected from positive peers, social networking technologies can be used to facilitate the sorts of positive social ties that effective peer-based prevention programs require. PMID:21194011

  17. Readings in Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszowicz, Peter F.

    Researchers have documented links between a number of behavioral issues and homelessness, including the following: limited/no social networks; social isolation; proneness of victimization; history of emotional, physical, sexual, and substance abuse; lack of education; and anxiety resulting from inadequate physical space. The possible benefits of…

  18. Homelessness and Dual Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Robert E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews recent research on the epidemiology, subject characteristics, and service needs of the homeless population who are dually diagnosed to suffer both severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Discusses evolving approaches to providing social services, various treatments, system and legal issues, and problems with current research.…

  19. Hope for Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Cyndy Jones

    1996-01-01

    The Thomas J. Pappas Regional Education Center in Phoenix, Arizona, is a magnet school for homeless students from unorganized territories, military installations, Indian reservations, and national forest lands. This "accommodation" school, supported by federal grants, in-kind business donations, and committed volunteer mentors from the local…

  20. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  1. Realities of life and future prospects within two cultures: unaccompanied minor refugees from South East Asia in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Jockenhovel-schieke, H

    1986-09-01

    From August 1979 on, more than 30,000 refugees from South East Asia were accepted in the Federal Republic of Germany as quota refugees in a special program; among them were 1600 unaccompanied minor refugees. About 1500 were accompanied Vietnamese children and youths who had fled their home country as 'boat people' across the South China Sea. Unaccompanied minor refugees have, like all other recognized refugees, a legal claim to family reunion in the Federal Republic. Today, only parents can join their children and vice versa, and spouses their spouses. The 1st phase of socialization in the lives of the unaccompanied minor refugees evolved in the cultural traditions of their South East Asian country of origin up to the age of 10 to 15 years. In the 2nd phase of socialization--the enculturation--the child establishes its culturally specific emotionality, language, mentality, and patterns of behavior through interaction and verbal communication with the people nearest him. The 3rd phase of socialization begins at school age and reaches full significance at the age of starting to work, with the accompanying expectations of society. Most of the minor unaccompanied refugees from South Asia had already completed their enculturation--the establishment of their cultural identity. The realities of life the young single refugees as foreigners in German society are determined by 4 special factors: 1) the great cultural differences between their country of originin South East Asia and the resettlement country, 2) the young people left their homes as refugees and their resettlement in the Federal Repulic was determined by chance events, 3) they have to live there alone and without the emotional support of their families in a situation of cultural change, and 4) because of their Asian physiognomy they will always appear as foreigners even if they have integrated well. The future prospects of the young South East Asian refugees in German society will be determined primarily by to

  2. The Neighborhood Context of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Pollio, David E.; North, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined and compared the changing neighborhood characteristics of a group of homeless adults over time. Methods. We collected the addresses of previous housing and sleep locations from a longitudinal study of 400 homeless adults in the St. Louis, Missouri, region and compared census measures of housing and economic opportunities at different points along individual pathways from housing to homelessness and at 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Results. Sleep locations of homeless adults were much more concentrated in the urban core at baseline than were their previous housed and follow-up locations. These core areas had higher poverty, unemployment, and rent-to-income ratios and lower median incomes. Conclusions. The spatial concentration of homeless adults in areas with fewer opportunities and more economic and housing distress may present additional barriers to regaining stable housing and employment. A big-picture spatial and time-course viewpoint is critical for both policymakers and future homelessness researchers. PMID:23409889

  3. Homeless Children and Youth Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2014-07-24

    07/24/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4905-4906) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Homeless Children and Youth Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Stivers, Steve [R-OH-15

    2014-07-24

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, P; Melamid, E; Burnam, m A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This effort used data from the Course of Homelessness study and comparative secondary data on the general population to identify negative childhood and family background experiences that may increase risk for adult homelessness. METHODS. Frequencies of negative childhood experiences were examined among a probability sample of 1563 homeless adults. Differences in risk for such experiences were calculated by sex, age cohort, and racial/ethnicity status. Where possible, rates of negative childhood experiences among the homeless were compared with the general population. RESULTS. Substantial numbers of this sample experienced multiple problems as children across several domains: poverty, residential instability, and family problems. Women and Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of poverty. Homeless adults were at increased risk of childhood out-of-home placement, tenure in public housing, and homelessness, but not at greater risk for physical abuse. Women appeared to be at greater risk for sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS. The problems that homeless individuals experience as adults have very clear analogs in their childhoods. Vulnerability to homelessness stems from factors unevenly distributed across age, sex, and race/ethnicity groups. PMID:7503338

  6. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  7. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  8. Faces of Homelessness: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Quincy.

    A brief teacher's guide supplements a videotape of two 15-minute segments on homelessness. The stated objective of the video is to cover the issues of homelessness as they exist today and to dispel the stereotypes of homelessness leftover from earlier eras. A family which has found itself homeless is introduced and then aspects of the phenomenon…

  9. The Effects of Runaway-Homeless Episodes on High School Dropout

    PubMed Central

    Aratani, Yumiko; Cooper, Janice L.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationship between running away from home between the ages of 12 and 14 and dropping from high school among youth. Propensity score matching was conducted in estimating the effect of running away on high school dropout while controlling for confounding factors, such as familial instability and socioemotional health risks. The findings suggest that having runaway-homeless episodes have a detrimental effect on academic achievement. PMID:25641997

  10. Public Policy and the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Describes regional and federal responses to the homelessness crisis, including the author-sponsored White House Conference on Homelessness Act. Supports legislative measures to accomplish the following goals: (1) increased low-income housing; (2) treatment of mentally ill and alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals; and (3) new approaches to…

  11. Homeless identities: enacted and ascribed.

    PubMed

    Parsell, Cameron

    2011-09-01

    Homelessness has been a perennial concern for sociologists. It is a confronting phenomenon that can challenge western notions of home, a discrete family unit and the ascetics and order of public space. To be without a home and to reside in public places illustrates both an intriguing way of living and some fundamental inadequacies in the functioning of society. Much homelessness research has had the consequence of isolating the 'homeless person' as distinct category or indeed type of individual. They are ascribed with homeless identities. The homeless identity is not simply presented as one dimensional and defining, but this imposed and ill-fitting identity is rarely informed by a close and long-term engagement with the individuals it is supposed to say something about. Drawing on a recent Australian ethnographic study with people literally without shelter, this article aims to contribute to understandings of people who are homeless by outlining some nuanced and diverse aspects of their identities. It argues that people can and do express agency in the way they enact elements of the self, and the experience of homelessness is simultaneously important and unimportant to understand this. Further, the article suggests that what is presumably known about the homeless identity is influenced by day-to-day lives that are on public display. PMID:21899522

  12. The Homeless in Contemporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Richard D.; And Others

    This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…

  13. Research on Homelessness: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Marybeth; Weitzman, Beth C.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces an issue on the causes, consequences, and social response to homelessness, with contributions by scholars in anthropology, history, medicine, sociology, economics, public administration, law, and psychology. Much attention has been given to the problems of homeless individuals; this issue attempts a comprehensive overview of the…

  14. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  15. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention Activities in a School-Based Program for Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Weist, Mark D.; Shugarman, Ryan; Woeste, Michael J.; Mullet, Elizabeth; Rosner, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Children who experience homelessness are at increased risk for a range of health and mental health problems. In spite of this increased risk, they are often less likely to receive appropriate services. School-based programs offer considerable potential to reduce the gap between needs and appropriate services for these youth; however, there are few…

  16. Advocating for the McKinney-Vento Homelessness Act: The Role of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Sandra I.; Peek, Sarah; Muhammad, Sharien; Gonder, Ty; Cook, Janice; Bolton, Jessica; Parrish, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth in the United States is rapidly increasing with more children living in unstable or temporary environments. They may encounter difficulties meeting enrollment requirements, have poor attendance, low academic performance, and experience behavioral and emotional issues. The reauthorization of McKinney-Vento Act (MCKV) in 2002 was…

  17. The Real Cost of Linking Homeless Young People to Employment, Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…

  18. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  19. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  20. On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors…

  1. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  2. An Investigation of School Counselors' Efforts to Serve Students Who Are Homeless: The Role of Perceived Knowledge, Preparation, Advocacy Role, and Self-Efficacy to Their Involvement in Recommended Interventions and Partnership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaenzle, Stacey Anita

    2012-01-01

    With the array of challenges faced by children and youth who are homeless, approaches to support their needs must be systemic and involve partnerships with all key stakeholders. This study examined school counselors' involvement in partnership practices and interventions to meet the needs of students who are homeless. Further, this study…

  3. Preventing Family and Educational Disconnection through Wilderness-Based Therapy Targeting Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…

  4. Serving Transgender Youth: The Role of Child Welfare Systems. Proceedings of a Colloquium, September 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCrescenzo, Teresa; Mallon, Gerald P.

    The need to respond to the concerns of transgender youth in care is compelling. Transgender youth, particularly those involved with the child welfare system, are often severely stereotyped and subject to abuse, homelessness, depression, and fear. The Child Welfare Leaguer of America convened a roundtable of professionals and transgender youth to…

  5. What Are We Missing? A Review of the Educational and Vocational Interests of Marginalised Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidley, J. M.; Wildman, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 22 rural Australian youth, aged 12-18 and not attending school or work, found that youth were strongly motivated towards creative, practical, and life skills learning. Describes a model of the phenomenon of "street kids" at the intersection of youth unemployment, homelessness, and truancy. Recommends establishment of pilot programs…

  6. Coming of age in New York City: two homeless boys.

    PubMed

    Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on two cases, both homeless young gay men living--trying to survive--in New York City. The young men's stories and their manner of being in psychotherapy are presented. One, Hispanic, had developed as an angry, aggressive, manipulative anti-authoritarian; the other, African American, was engaging, passive, exploitable, and full of rescue fantasies. The author raises questions about how humiliating childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect can become woven into character formations of such opposite sorts. The paper concludes with reflections on the technical challenges of working with homeless youth of color in drop-in center circumstances, and some indication of how the therapeutic process had to be adapted to these young people and their situations. PMID:16482970

  7. Activities of the Administration for Children, Youth and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Dodie

    Discussed are initiatives of the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) in the areas of Head Start, child care, the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, support of historically black colleges and universities, foster care and adoption assistance, the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, and current and future plans. The…

  8. Risk and Resilience for Psychological Distress amongst Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Matthew; Jagdev, Daljit; Chandra, Navin; Cunniff, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the level of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and background risk and protective factors that might increase or ameliorate this distress amongst unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and adolescents (UASC). Methods: Cross-sectional survey carried out in London. Participants were 78 UASC aged 13-18 years,…

  9. Constructing "Deservingness": DREAMers and Central American Unaccompanied Children in the National Immigration Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a Latina/o Critical Theory framework (LatCrit), I examine the narratives that emerged within national newsprint media coverage of DREAMers and Central American unaccompanied children. Data included 268 newspaper articles published during periods of heightened national media attention about DREAMers (96 articles) and Central American…

  10. Serving Refugee Students and Unaccompanied Minors: More than Just Learning English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kasimu, Nakachi

    2015-01-01

    Unrest, crime, and poverty in Central America and other parts of the world have led to periodic migrations of unaccompanied children and young refugees into the United States. These children then enroll in U.S. schools--public education for all children, including undocumented children, is a right guaranteed by the 1982 "Plyler v. Doe"…

  11. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: The Office of Refugee... Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority: Awards announced in this notice are... supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care providers for a total of $5,016,218....

  12. Singers' Recall for the Words and Melody of a New, Unaccompanied Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…

  13. Global Mental Health in Our Own Backyard: An Unaccompanied Immigrant Child's Migration From El Salvador to New York City.

    PubMed

    Baily, Charles D R; Henderson, Schuyler W; Tayler, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    There has been a recent surge in the number of children migrating to the United States without a parent. Despite their vulnerability to extreme adversity at every stage of their migration process, little is known about the psychosocial context and mental health needs of unaccompanied children. This article presents a case study of a 16-year-old Salvadoran boy who participated in a larger, mixed-methods study on the psychosocial context, psychological presentation, and mental health service utilization of unaccompanied children living in New York pending their immigration cases. After the presentation of the case, different models for understanding the experiences and needs of unaccompanied children are discussed. PMID:27552314

  14. Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons

    MedlinePlus

    ... of them involving opioids—are now the biggest killer among homeless people in the Boston area. Drug ... Cancer and heart disease were the next biggest killers (at around 16 percent each); HIV =accounted for ...

  15. Homeless in God's Country: Coping Strategies and Felt Experiences of the Rural Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of…

  16. Homeless, Not Hopeless. An Informational Guide for School Personnel: Understanding and Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Elli; Stauffer, Carol

    This guide explains how to educate homeless students within the public schools, focusing on the Saint Paul, Minnesota, public schools. Section 1 defines homelessness. Section 2 presents data on the increasing numbers of homeless students in the area. Section 3 describes common problems faced by homeless students, including family mobility,…

  17. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702

  18. Rural Homelessness: A Geography without a Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Homelessness in rural Iowa is proportionately high but well hidden, obliging the rural homeless to discursively and materially relate their needs to a placeless condition of being defined by agencies, institutions, and academics. Positioning the homeless outside of social space places them in the space of nature, with implications for the meaning…

  19. Escaping Homelessness: Anticipated and Perceived Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allisha; Tweed, Roger

    2009-01-01

    One study with two distinct sections was conducted to identify factors facilitating escape from homelessness. In Section 1, 58 homeless individuals rated possible facilitators of escape (factors they believed would help them become more independent and self-sufficient). In Section 2, 80 participants who had already exited homelessness rated the…

  20. An Annotated Publications List on Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Beth Ann

    This annotated publications list on homelessness contains citations for 19 publications, most of which deal with problems of alcohol or drug abuse among homeless persons. Citations are listed alphabetically by author and cover the topics of homelessness and alcoholism, drug abuse, public policy, research methodologies, mental illness, alcohol- and…

  1. The Paradox of Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Schillmoeller, Susan

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the midst of relative prosperity. However, as the problem persists, the public may be becoming increasingly less compassionate to the homeless and annoyed by the problem. Although it is difficult to determine how many people are homeless, the most widely circulated estimate puts their number at about 600,000.…

  2. Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Shegos, Ellen

    Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…

  3. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  4. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  5. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  6. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  7. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  8. 78 FR 21256 - Shelter for the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 226 RIN 0790-AI88 Shelter for the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Under... Defense Shelter for the Homeless Program. This direct final rule makes nonsubstantive changes to the... the Homeless Program. DoD expects no opposition to the changes and no significant adverse...

  9. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  10. The Invisible Homeless: A New Urban Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers, Richard H.

    Contemporary homelessness is the result of increasing social and economic inequality faced by those in American society who are most vulnerable to individual, family, and economic instability. This case study of the homeless population of Los Angeles (California), based on two surveys conducted in 1984, views the homeless as a segment of the…

  11. 76 FR 67192 - Administration on Children, Youth and Families Announces the Award of a Single-Source Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families... Switchboard (NRS) in Chicago, IL AGENCY: Family and Youth Services Bureau, ACYF, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... the ``Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act of 2008,'' Public Law 110-378. CFDA Number: 93.623. SUMMARY:...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  17. Clearing the Path to School Success for Students in Out-of-Home Care. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Legal Center for Foster Care and Education and the National Center for Homeless Education present this guide to help educators and child welfare advocates clear the path to school success for children and youth who are forced to leave their homes due to abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction. Two federal laws, among others, provide tools to…

  18. When Working Together Works: Academic Success for Students in Out-of-Home Care. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Center for Homeless Education and the Legal Center for Foster Care and Education present this brief to help educators and child welfare advocates work together to support the academic success of children and youth in out-of-home care. The brief offers practical, proven strategies for implementing two federal laws collaboratively: The…

  19. Screening for infectious diseases among unaccompanied minor refugees in Berlin, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Stefanie; Friedrich-Jänicke, Barbara; Pörtner, Kirsten; Trebesch, Isabel; Durst, Anita; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Steiner, Florian; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2016-07-01

    Infectious diseases (except tuberculosis) were screened among 1248 unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) arriving in Berlin in 2014-2015; 40 % originated from Syria. More than half of the refugees presented without any pathologic finding. Infections requiring treatment were diagnosed in 19.6 %, mainly infections with Giardia and intestinal helminths as well as schistosomiasis, while potentially contagious diseases were diagnosed in 15.3 % of all screened UMRs. PMID:27450185

  20. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  1. Where Do You Go from Nowhere: Homelessness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health and Welfare Council of Central Maryland, Inc., Baltimore.

    This report assesses the extent of homelessness in Maryland. Data are provided in the following areas: (1) the number of homeless people; (2) causes of homelessness; (3) distribution of the homeless and characteristics of those sheltered; (4) shelter beds available; (5) what is needed to address the problems of homelessness; (6) the extent of the…

  2. Homelessness: Issues and Legislation in the 101st Congress. Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasem, Ruth Ellen

    This report discusses the nature of homelessness and the homeless in America, recent programs that have been implemented to help the homeless, and issues concerning the Federal government's role in helping these people. The following topics concerning the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of homelessness are covered: (1) "Mental…

  3. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals. PMID:26202545

  4. Elderly Homeless Veterans in Los Angeles: Chronicity and Precipitants of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. Methods. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Results. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Conclusions. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population. PMID:24148059

  5. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

  6. Education Rights of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    This document is designed to help New Jersey parents, guardians, and caregivers understand the legal concepts and procedures involved in disputes over the enrollment of homeless students in local public schools. It also informs them of their legal rights. The requirements of the McKinney Act and of the state regulations concerning the education of…

  7. Prepping Homeless Students for School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    The Yellow School Bus Project (YSBP) was created to provide homeless children with the supplies and clothes they need to succeed in school and feel good about themselves. When given these gifts, they receive the explicit message that they are smart and worthwhile, the implicit message that there are people in the community who are invested in…

  8. Homeless--And Doubled Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…

  9. [Homelessness: psychological and behavioral issues].

    PubMed

    Mercuel, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Risk factors lead to social exclusion and their accumulation can lead to homelessness. This inevitably contributes to a progressive increase in psychological distress or aggravates a pre-existing mental illness. Over the years, homeless people, who are never happy, develop various survival strategies and mental defenses that can sometimes prove effective. Other individuals who are less"adapted" to living in the street may suffer from both mental and physical collapse. Proactive programs designed to facilitate access to healthcare and welfare have been created in order to offer solutions designed to enable homeless people to leave the street, through access to medical care, accommodation and civil rights. The psychiatric sector has been slow to adapt to the needs of this population, although several teams specializing in mental illness and precariousness have been created These teams explore every possible avenue to help homeless people with mental health issues to recover a psychological balance that allows them to choose a recovery pathway and thus to regain a dignified lifestyle. PMID:24919358

  10. Universal screening for homelessness and risk for homelessness in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D; Byrne, Thomas H; Kane, Vincent R; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We examined data for all veterans who completed the Veterans Health Administration's national homelessness screening instrument between October 1, 2012, and January 10, 2013. Among veterans who were not engaged with the US Department of Veterans Affairs homeless system and presented for primary care services, the prevalence of recent housing instability or homelessness was 0.9% and homelessness risk was 1.2%. Future research will refine outreach strategies, targeting of prevention resources, and development of novel interventions. PMID:24148032

  11. Outcomes for a Transitional Living Program Serving LGBTQ Youth in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Theresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Providing stable housing for runaway and homeless youth is a major function of a transitional living program. This article introduces the focus of one program working with LGBTQ youth in New York City and discusses some issues to consider when working with this population. The article also presents data associated with young people's lives after…

  12. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  13. Homelessness Outcome Reporting Normative Framework: Systems-Level Evaluation of Progress in Ending Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…

  14. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    HERBERT, CLAIRE W.; MORENOFF, JEFFREY D.; HARDING, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports. PMID:26913294

  15. 75 FR 22164 - Urban Non-Urban Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into Employment AGENCY: Veterans' Employment... training, and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor...

  16. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  17. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  18. Humanistic constructs and counseling homeless men.

    PubMed

    Sumerlin, J R; Privette, G

    1994-08-01

    The present humanistic model for counseling homeless men assumed that counseling goals evolve from each client's internal frame of reference and may include a positive adaptation to his homeless experience. The model encompasses Rogers' necessary components of psychotherapy, Sullivan's interpersonal theory of psychiatry, Adler's use of wellness and encouragement, and Privette's peak-performance contribution. Factor analysis of history of homelessness, background data, ratings of subjective health and of happiness, and scores on Jones and Crandall's Short Index of Self-actualization yielded nine factors relevant to counseling. Empirical support was reported for placing a counseling services program in a multiservice facility for homeless persons. PMID:7809334

  19. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  20. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  1. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  2. 76 FR 76917 - Homeless Management Information Systems Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...This proposed rule provides for the establishment of regulations for Homeless Management Information Systems (HMIS), which are the local information technology systems that HUD recipients and subrecipients use for homeless assistance programs authorized by the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (the McKinney-Vento Act). The Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act......

  3. An Examination of Criminal Behavior among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarz, Andrea

    Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States, with an estimated 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. While criminal activity may become a means for the homeless to obtain resources needed for basic survival, little is known about the level of criminal activity among the homeless or about the types of crimnal…

  4. Florida's Adult Homeless Literacy Training & Basic Skills Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    Some facts about the homeless population in Florida are the following: (1) 40,000 persons in Florida are homeless on any given day, with 40 percent of the total being families; (2) 65 percent are new homeless (not chronic); (3) 30 percent of the homeless are addicted to drugs or alcohol and 20 percent are mentally ill; (4) causes of homelessness…

  5. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  6. Over the Edge: Homeless Families and the Welfare System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    Homelessness among families is quickly reaching crisis proportions across the country. Over 30 percent of America's three million homeless people are members of families, and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Perhaps more disturbing, homelessness represents only the most extreme manifestation of a more…

  7. Stressful life experiences and mental health problems among unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tine K; Fjermestad, Krister W; Granly, Lene; Wilhelmsen, Nicolai H

    2015-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children aged 10-16 years (N = 93, M = 13.8, SD = 1.4, 81% boys) were assessed 6 months after arrival in Norway (SD = 5 months). Participants originated from 14 countries (63% Asia; 36% Africa). Severe life events (SLE) and psychological symptoms were measured by self-report. Participants reported a mean of 5.5 SLE (SD = 2.4), the most prevalent being death of a close person (68%), witnessing violence (63%), and war (62%). Some 54% scored above clinical cutoff on posttraumatic stress symptoms, 30% on anxiety symptoms, 20% on depressive symptoms, and 7% on externalizing symptoms. Number of SLE was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (r =.50, p < .001), depression (r =.27, p = .020), and anxiety symptoms(r =. 34, p = .003), but not externalizing symptoms (r =.02, p = .874). None of the symptom variables were associated with age or gender. Results indicate that many unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have experienced not only war-related traumas but several other severe life adversities as well. It may thus be helpful to conduct early assessments on this group of children to assess their need for treatment or other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23982990

  8. A Rural County's Response to Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Elizabeth Lee; White, Priscilla

    This paper describes the response of one locality, a rural county in Western Massachusetts, to the reality of rural homelessness. Jessie's House, in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, is a short-term emergency shelter providing meals, housing, and advocacy to homeless families and individuals. The shelter has a staff of three full-time residents and…

  9. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  10. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  11. The challenges of the homeless haemophilia patient.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L

    2013-07-01

    The current economic hardships within the United States can increase the risk of persons becoming homeless. In 2001, it was estimated that between 0.1% and 2.1% of the population were homeless every night and that 2.3 - 3.5 million persons could become homeless every year [1]. Many issues can increase the risk of homelessness including: home foreclosure, declining work force due to declining wages, low-wage opportunities and less secure jobs, decline in public assistance, lack of affordable housing with limited housing assistance programs, poverty, lack of affordable health care, domestic violence, mental illness, and addiction disorders. Many on the streets may suffer from mental illness, developmental disabilities, and or chronic physical illness [6]. Given these issues, the Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) can expect to experience the issue of homelessness within their own population of persons with hemophilia. Currently, there are no studies that address the issue of the person with hemophilia who may become homeless. This presents unique challenges that this population may encounter to survive in addition to managing bleeding issues related to the diagnosis of hemophilia. This article will review the issues related to homelessness in the general population. Two case studies of persons with hemophilia who became homeless will be discussed outlining the strategies utilized to assist the patient during this crisis. PMID:23557394

  12. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  13. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  14. Helping Homeless People: Unique Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Clemmie, Ed.; Jackson-Jobe, Peggy, Ed.

    This publication is designed to provide a practical guide for gaining a detailed awareness and understanding of homelessness. After a foreword by Jesse Jackson, these chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Assessing the Unique Needs of Homeless People (Clemmie Solomon), which discusses the need for helping professionals to commit to addressing…

  15. Homelessness, Poverty, and Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Dalhouse, Doris; Risko, Victoria J.

    2008-01-01

    Over 100 million families worldwide lack permanent housing or income sufficient to meet their basic needs. Some homeless children are able to succeed in school despite the many challenges they face, but others are not. Seventy-five percent of U.S. homeless children perform below grade level in reading, and schools and teachers may not be prepared…

  16. Homeless Children: The Watchers and the Waiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxill, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book takes an interdisciplinary approach in discussing the issue of homeless children and the resolution of the problem. An introduction by Nancy A. Boxill presents background on the nature of the problem and summarizes the subsequent papers. "Home and Homelessness in the Lives of Children" by Leanne G. Rivlin analyzes the impact on children…

  17. Homelessness: The Extent of the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakey, William R.; Fischer, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys the many categories of people comprising the homeless population and describes the methods that have been used to estimate their numbers. Concludes that the vast effort required to enumerate homeless people would be better directed toward focused research on the needs of identifiable subgroups. (DM)

  18. Perceptions about Homeless Elders and Community Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…

  19. Correlates of Homeless Episodes among Indigenous People

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one–fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study. PMID:21656303

  20. Parenting in homeless families: the double crisis.

    PubMed

    Hausman, B; Hammen, C

    1993-07-01

    The same factors that impede a mother's ability to maintain a stable residence are likely to impair her capacity to nurture children. This double crisis of homelessness and child rearing confronts caregivers with a special set of ethical and practical dilemmas. Psychosocial characteristics of homeless mothers and children are reviewed, and the need to support these mothers is underscored. PMID:8372903

  1. Measuring pain in the context of homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Rebecca; Kline, Susan; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to inform the development of measures of pain impact appropriate for all respondents, including homeless individuals, so that they can be used in clinical research and practice. The secondary objective was to increase understanding about the unique experience of homeless people with pain. Methods Seventeen homeless individuals with chronic health conditions (often associated with pain) participated in cognitive interviews to test the functioning of 56 pain measurement items and provided information about their experience living with and accessing treatment for pain. Results The most common problems identified with items were that they lacked clarity or were irrelevant in the context of homelessness. Items that were unclear, irrelevant and/or had other identified problems made it difficult for participants to respond. Participants also described multiple ways in which their pain was exacerbated by conditions of homelessness and identified barriers to accessing appropriate treatment. Conclusions Results suggested that the majority of items were problematic for the homeless and require substantial modifications to make the pain impact bank relevant to this population. Additional recommendations include involving homeless in future item bank development, conducting research on the topic of pain and homelessness, and using cognitive interviewing in other types of health disparities research. PMID:19582592

  2. Late-Onset PTSD in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Exploring the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smid, Geert E.; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J. L. M.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset. We examined data from URM collected 1 (T1) and 2…

  3. Health interventions for people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Stephen W; Burns, Tom

    2014-10-25

    Homelessness has serious implications for the health of individuals and populations. Primary health-care programmes specifically tailored to homeless individuals might be more effective than standard primary health care. Standard case management, assertive community treatment, and critical time intervention are effective models of mental health-care delivery. Housing First, with immediate provision of housing in independent units with support, improves outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Many different types of interventions, including case management, are effective in the reduction of substance misuse. Interventions that provide case management and supportive housing have the greatest effect when they target individuals who are the most intensive users of services. Medical respite programmes are an effective intervention for homeless patients leaving the hospital. Although the scientific literature provides guidance on interventions to improve the health of homeless individuals, health-care providers should also seek to address social policies and structural factors that result in homelessness. PMID:25390579

  4. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  5. The health of homeless children revisited.

    PubMed

    Grant, Roy; Shapiro, Alan; Joseph, Sharon; Goldsmith, Sandra; Rigual-Lynch, Lourdes; Redlener, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    To the extent that representative data are available for specific health conditions (eg, under-immunization, asthma prevalence), the authors' data suggest that the gap between the health status of homeless children and housed children in minority, low-income families is narrowing. Studies of the health status of homeless children allow a window into the health status of medically underserved children whose needs may not be readily documented because of their lack of access to the health care system. Although prevalence rates of most of the health conditions discussed in this article exceeded national norms, they were generally consistent with rates characteristic of health disparities based on race-ethnicity and income. It must be emphasized that in most instances, children were seen for their first pediatric visit within weeks of entering the homeless shelter system. The health conditions identified were often present before the child and family became homeless. The high prevalence of asthma among homeless children should therefore be a matter of concern to health providers and payors, because the authors' data strongly suggest that this is not confined to children in homeless shelters as a special population. Similarly, childhood obesity predates homelessness (or at least the episode of homelessness during which health care was provided) and as such the authors' data may indicate the extent of this problem more generally among medically underserved children in the communities of origin. These conditions seem to be exacerbated by the specific conditions associated with homeless shelter life. Asthma care, assuming it was previously available, is disrupted when housing is lost, and shelter conditions may have multiple asthma triggers. Nutrition often suffers as a result of inadequate access to nutritious food and cooking facilities in shelters, as indicated by the high rate of iron-deficiency anemia among very young children. It is clear that homeless children in

  6. The high-risk environment of homeless young adults: consequences for physical and sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Beal, Morgan R

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how the social environment of homeless youth contributes to their risk and how it varies for different types of victimization. As such, the current study examines the constructs of victimization theories in order to investigate the potential risk for physical and sexual victimization among homeless young adults. Results revealed that running at an earlier age, running more often, sleeping on the street, panhandling, deviant peers associations, and not having a family member in one's network are associated with more physical victimization. Being female, a sexual minority, having an unkempt physical appearance, panhandling, and having friends who traded sex are associated with more sexual victimization. Overall, we find that the constructs differed in their ability to explain sexual versus physical victimization. PMID:20229696

  7. Care of the homeless: an overview.

    PubMed

    Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

    2014-04-15

    Homelessness affects men, women, and children of all races and ethnicities. On any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization rates, and are more likely to die at a younger age than the general population. The average life span for a homeless person is between 42 and 52 years. Homeless children are much sicker and have more academic and behavioral problems. Insufficient personal income and the lack of affordable housing are the major reasons for homelessness. Complex, advanced medical problems and psychiatric illnesses, exacerbated by drug and alcohol abuse, in combination with the economic and social issues (such as the lack of housing and proper transportation) make this subset of the population a unique challenge for the health care system, local communities, and the government. An integrated, multidisciplinary health care team with an outreach focus, along with involvement of local and state agencies, seems best suited to address the components needed to ensure quality of care, to help make these patients self-sufficient, and to help them succeed. Family physicians are well suited to manage the needs of the homeless patient, provide continuity of care, and lead these multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24784122

  8. Street youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bond, L S; Mazin, R; Jiminez, M V

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the population of homeless street youth who are living marginally and to describe aspects of this population's dynamics, motivations, values, and aspirations. Street youth, ranging in age from birth to 21, are on the street for one reason or another--dire poverty in the home, which necessitates their working on the street to supplement the family income, because they have been rejected by parents or guardians, because they have left home due to violence in the home, drug or alcohol use by family members, or because of lack of a place where they feel they can be "themselves." These conditions make street youths particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, not to mention malnutrition, stress, and drug use. Their violently accelerated emotional maturation, ignorance, alcohol- and drug-induced confusion, together with the exploitation and sexual abuse of which they are often victims, are additional factors that contribute to sexual practices that may lead to HIV infection. PMID:1389867

  9. Comparisons of family environment between homeless and non-homeless individuals with schizophrenia in Xiangtan, Hunan

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jinliang; CHEN, Jindong; LI, Shuchun; LIU, Jun; OUYANG, Guohua; LUO, Wenxuan; GUO, Xiaofeng; LI, Ting; LI, Kaijie; LI, Zhenkuo; WANG, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Background Homelessness is an increasingly important problem for individuals with serious mental illness in China. Aim Identify the characteristics of families that are associated with homelessness among individuals with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were 1856 homeless individuals with schizophrenia (defined as those who had no place of residence or involved caregivers for 7 consecutive days) and 1728 non-homeless individuals with schizophrenia from Xiangtan, Hunan. The self-completion Family Environment Scale-Chinese Version (FES-CV) was administered to these participants after their acute psychotic symptoms resolved. Results Compared to individuals in the non-homeless group, those in the homeless group were older and more likely to be non-locals (i.e., from outside of Xiangtan), be residents of rural (versus urban) communities, have temporary (versus permanent) jobs, be married, and have a low level of education. After controlling for demographic differences using multivariate logistic regression models, homelessness was independently associated higher scores in the FES-CV intellectual-cultural orientation, organization, achievement orientation, and control subscales and with lower scores in the FES-CV cohesion, moralreligious emphasis, independence, and active-recreational orientation subscales. Conclusion After controlling for sociodemographic factors, certain aspects of the family environment areassociated with being homeless among patients with schizophrenia in China. Further work is needed to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of homelessness in high-risk individuals. PMID:26300600

  10. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance. PMID:26963226

  11. Intonation in unaccompanied singing: accuracy, drift, and a model of reference pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Matthias; Frieler, Klaus; Dixon, Simon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a study on intonation and intonation drift in unaccompanied singing, and proposes a simple model of reference pitch memory that accounts for many of the effects observed. Singing experiments were conducted with 24 singers of varying ability under three conditions (Normal, Masked, Imagined). Over the duration of a recording, ∼50 s, a median absolute intonation drift of 11 cents was observed. While smaller than the median note error (19 cents), drift was significant in 22% of recordings. Drift magnitude did not correlate with other measures of singing accuracy, singing experience, or the presence of conditions tested. Furthermore, it is shown that neither a static intonation memory model nor a memoryless interval-based intonation model can account for the accuracy and drift behavior observed. The proposed causal model provides a better explanation as it treats the reference pitch as a changing latent variable. PMID:24993224

  12. The mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors on arrival in the host country.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Marianne; Meyer Demott, Melinda A; Jakobsen, Marianne; Broekaert, Eric; Heir, Trond; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UM) in Europe and heightened concerns for this group, research on their mental health has seldom included the factor "time since arrival." As a result, our knowledge of the mental health statuses of UM at specific points in time and over periods in their resettlement trajectories in European host countries is limited. This study therefore examined the mental health of UM shortly after their arrival in Norway (n = 204) and Belgium (n = 103) through the use of self-report questionnaires (HSCL-37A, SLE, RATS, HTQ). High prevalence scores of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were found. In addition, particular associations were found with the number of traumatic events the UM reported. The results indicate that all UM have high support needs on arrival in the host country. Longitudinal studies following up patterns of continuity and change in their mental health during their trajectories in the host country are necessary. PMID:25130065

  13. [The health situation and health care needs of unaccompanied minor refugees - an approximation based on qualitative and quantitative studies from Bielefeld, Germany].

    PubMed

    Spallek, Jacob; Tempes, Jana; Ricksgers, Hannah; Marquardt, Louisa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Krämer, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Unaccompanied minor refugees are children or adolescents below the age of 18 years who are not accompanied by their parents. International studies show that unaccompanied minor refugees represent a special risk group. Currently, empirical study results about the health status of unaccompanied minor refugees barely exist for Germany. Therefore, the goal of this article is an assessment of the health status and health care of unaccompanied minor refugees in Bielefeld, Germany. For this purpose, two qualitative studies and one quantitative study from Bielefeld are used.Results demonstrate that the health care of unaccompanied minor refugees underlies certain peculiarities that indicate major medical needs: Firstly, the need for psychological/psychiatric care and secondly the need for health care regarding infectious diseases. Further challenges in the health care needs of this population group result from its specific situation, and comprise legal conditions, as well as language and cultural competencies on behalf of the health care providers and the unaccompanied minor refugees themselves. PMID:27072502

  14. Street youth: adaptation and survival in the AIDS decade.

    PubMed

    Luna, G C

    1991-11-01

    This article discusses adaptational and survival strategies of homeless youth and describes how pilot research, begun in 1982 on these strategies in the western United States, led to additional research and activity focused upon the related international street youth problem. The results of this research suggest that a critical relationship exists between survival strategies and the AIDS pandemic. The impact of this pandemic on street youth can be mitigated only by immediate and comprehensive preventive actions at both national and international levels. PMID:1772887

  15. Unsheltered Homelessness Among Veterans: Correlates and Profiles.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Thomas; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D

    2016-02-01

    We identified correlates of unsheltered status among Veterans experiencing homelessness and described distinct subgroups within the unsheltered homeless Veteran population using data from a screening instrument for homelessness that is administered to all Veterans accessing outpatient care at a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility. Correlates of unsheltered homelessness included male gender, white race, older age, lower levels of VHA eligibility, substance use disorders, frequent use of VHA inpatient and infrequent use of VHA outpatient services, and residing in the West. We identified six distinct subgroups of unsheltered Veterans; the tri-morbid frequent users represented the highest need group, but the largest group was comprised of Veterans who made highly infrequent use of VHA healthcare services. Differences between sheltered and unsheltered Veterans and heterogeneity within the unsheltered Veteran population should be considered in targeting housing and other interventions. PMID:26289119

  16. The homeless: help from hotels and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Eyster, J J; Ford, J L

    1993-07-01

    Specific examples and information are given to service providers to address the needs of homeless people. Together nurses and restaurant and hotel managers combined their expertise to assist local agencies in their community kitchens and shelters. PMID:8321464

  17. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  18. Who Are Homeless Families? A Profile of Homelessness in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents results of a survey involving 400 homeless families on a number of social and economic factors, including family structure, housing history, employment background, educational attainment, and various interpersonal problems. The study sought to gain a greater understanding of the demographics surrounding homelessness.…

  19. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

  20. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  1. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children's Forced Repatriation: Social Workers' and Police Officers' Health and Job Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  2. Social Policy and Social Science Research on Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews prior research on homelessness and describes what remains to be done. Calls for greater attention to the socioeconomic causes of homelessness, its image in the media, and public attitudes toward the problem. (DM)

  3. The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grineski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be characterized…

  4. The Coping Strategies of Homeless Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    This study investigated the stresses confronting homeless adolescents and the coping strategies that enable stressed urban minority children to achieve in school. A total of 176 homeless children ranging in age from 9 to 14 years were interviewed, and 199 control subjects who were not homeless were surveyed. Academic achievement was determined…

  5. Disaffiliation to Entrenchment: A Model for Understanding Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Charles; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Survey data collected from 166 homeless persons in Austin (Texas) identified four clusters distinguished by the size of the individual's social network, the degree of dysfunction, and the length of time homeless. Recommends group-based plans for building better paths out of homelessness. (DM)

  6. Homeless Families Today: Our Challenge Tomorrow. A Regional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    In order to increase the knowledge base on the public policy issues pertaining to family homelessness, Columbia University and the Institute for Children & Poverty designed and implemented an extensive survey on the demographics of homeless families. Data on more than 140 variables were collected from 743 homeless heads-of-households in the spring…

  7. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    PubMed

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness. PMID:25989002

  8. Crossing the Threshhold: Successful Learning Provision for Homeless People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Helen; McKaig, Wendy; Taylor, Sue

    This guide tells the story of a successful collaboration between The City Literary Institute and homelessness agencies to create an arts-based learning program for homeless people in central London. It identifies guidelines and good practice to stimulate similar work in other locations with problems of homelessness and rough sleeping. The guide is…

  9. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program... ``RIN 2900-AN73, Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program.'' Copies of comments received will...

  10. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  11. Transforming Teacher Constructs of Children and Families Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers-Costello, Beth; Swick, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on articulating the importance of teacher development of constructs about homeless children and families and examining factors that influence teachers' perceptions of children and families who are homeless or at high-risk of becoming homeless. The article also explores some strategies to support teachers in…

  12. The Teacher Attitudes toward Homeless Students Scale: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest there are roughly 1.6 million homeless children and this number is growing (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2011). This trend is particularly worrisome given that homeless children face a number of obstacles within society and education, not the least of which is negative teacher attitudes (Swick, 2000; U.S.…

  13. Homeless High School Students in America: Who Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…

  14. Homelessness in the Elementary School Classroom: Social and Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…

  15. Homelessness in America: Unabated and Increasing. A 10-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Gleason, Mary Ann

    Ten years after passage of the McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, homelessness was studied in 11 urban, rural, and suburban communities and 4 states. The first section of the report examines the findings of detailed research on homelessness in these locations. The second section draws conclusions and outlines future directions for efforts to…

  16. 76 FR 52575 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the... enrolled in the VA health care system. Through the HCHV program, VA identifies homeless veterans...

  17. Runaway and Homeless Youth Inclusion Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4

    2013-08-01

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  19. Up the Down Staircase: A Look at Family Homelessness in New Jersey. A Report of Homes for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    In response to the increasing numbers of homeless families, Homes for the Homeless surveyed families in emergency shelters in Newark (New Jersey) to gain some insights into the characteristics and circumstances of urban homeless families. Newark was chosen because it is a large urban center with a high concentration of welfare recipients that is…

  20. Youth Participation in Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Roshani

    Frequently, adults organize and implement youth projects without involving youth in the process. However, youth should be involved in problem identification and program design because they understand the needs of their peers and how to reach them effectively. This paper examines youth participation as a process for bringing about effective youth…