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Sample records for unadjusted odds ratio

  1. Odds ratios for mediation analysis for a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2010-12-15

    For dichotomous outcomes, the authors discuss when the standard approaches to mediation analysis used in epidemiology and the social sciences are valid, and they provide alternative mediation analysis techniques when the standard approaches will not work. They extend definitions of controlled direct effects and natural direct and indirect effects from the risk difference scale to the odds ratio scale. A simple technique to estimate direct and indirect effect odds ratios by combining logistic and linear regressions is described that applies when the outcome is rare and the mediator continuous. Further discussion is given as to how this mediation analysis technique can be extended to settings in which data come from a case-control study design. For the standard mediation analysis techniques used in the epidemiologic and social science literatures to be valid, an assumption of no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome is needed. The approach presented here, however, will apply even when there are interactions between the effect of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome. PMID:21036955

  2. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  3. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087

  4. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  5. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  6. A quantitative expression of resiliency in the workplace: an odds ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S; Sherman, Martin F; Nucifora, Frederick; Langlieb, Alan; Kaminsky, Michael J; Links, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews four empirical investigations into the effectiveness of workplace-based crisis intervention programs designed to enhance psychological resiliency. As an extension of a previously published review of effect sizes of workplace-based crisis interventions (Everly et al., 2006), this paper extends the expression of intervention effectiveness by proposing, then utilizing, the odds ratio statistic. It is proposed that the odds ratio is a more useful tool by which to express the practical utility of workplace-based psychosocial interventions. Thus, the use of odds ratios may be a tool that serves to ease the translation of research into practice. That is, odds ratios may aid in expressing the potential usefulness of workplace-based crisis intervention programs in terms that can be easily understood by program managers and policy makers without extensive training in inferential statistics, thereby potentiating increased utilization of such programs as indicated. PMID:19112928

  7. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive

  8. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994–2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. PMID:25693776

  9. Electron-capture branching ratio measurements of odd-odd intermediate nuclei in double-beta decay at the TITAN facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennarz, A.; Brunner, T.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Jang, F.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Ma, T.; Man, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to measure electron-capture branching ratios is being introduced, where the TITAN ion traps and the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF are the central components. The technique will be applied to the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta decay. The decay properties of these nuclei will constrain theoretical models dealing with the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements for both the 2 ? and the 0 ? mode. The present setup and its potential for measuring extremely low branching ratios at low instrumental backgrounds is described.

  10. Matrix methods for estimating odds ratios with misclassified exposure data: extensions and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, M J; Spiegelman, D

    1999-06-01

    Misclassification of exposure variables is a common problem in epidemiologic studies. This paper compares the matrix method (Barron, 1977, Biometrics 33, 414-418; Greenland, 1988a, Statistics in Medicine 7, 745-757) and the inverse matrix method (Marshall, 1990, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 43, 941-947) to the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) that corrects the odds ratio for bias due to a misclassified binary covariate. Under the assumption of differential misclassification, the inverse matrix method is always more efficient than the matrix method; however, the efficiency depends strongly on the values of the sensitivity, specificity, baseline probability of exposure, the odds ratio, case-control ratio, and validation sampling fraction. In a study on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), an estimate of the asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of the inverse matrix estimate was 0.99, while the matrix method's ARE was 0.19. Under nondifferential misclassification, neither the matrix nor the inverse matrix estimator is uniformly more efficient than the other; the efficiencies again depend on the underlying parameters. In the SIDS data, the MLE was more efficient than the matrix method (ARE = 0.39). In a study investigating the effect of vitamin A intake on the incidence of breast cancer, the MLE was more efficient than the matrix method (ARE = 0.75). PMID:11318185

  11. Collective gyromagnetic ratios and the structure of odd superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Perries, S.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, M.

    1997-04-01

    Collective gyromagnetic ratios g{sub R}, microscopically calculated from Hartree-Fock plus BCS calculations using the SkM{sup {asterisk}} force, are found to be very different from the rough Z/A estimates. It is pointed out that the latter disagree with the spectroscopic data in normally deformed states of even-even nuclei. The consequences of taking into account microscopic values of g{sub R} on the spectroscopic properties of odd superdeformed A=190 nuclei are discussed. Quenching factors, for proton and neutron g{sub s} ratios, are tentatively proposed. Single-particle assignments postulated by experimentalists for the available data are confirmed by our consistent approach. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Distribution of odds ratio in 2 × 2 contingency table: adjustment for correlation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Atanu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2011-01-01

    The Log-odds ratio for 2 × 2 contingency tables is often approximated by a normal distribution with an approximated variance. Hwang and Biswas (2008) illustrated that the standard expression for the variance should be modified in the presence of correlation. They also provided an adjustment to this variance expression when a single 2 × 2 table is available with matched-pair data. In this present paper, we first provide the required adjustment for multiple 2 × 2 tables, theoretically and also with reference to some data examples. We illustrate that this variance-adjusted normal approximation is a better approximation for such data. We provide two examples, one of which came from a late-phase clinical trial. As the theoretical development of this research depends on the existence of a bivariate binomial distribution, a multivariate (and hence bivariate) binomial distribution is motivated and derived. We then provide a suitably correlation adjusted Mantel-Haenszel test procedure. PMID:21191860

  13. Identifying the odds ratio estimated by a two-stage instrumental variable analysis with a logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Stephen

    2013-11-30

    An adjustment for an uncorrelated covariate in a logistic regression changes the true value of an odds ratio for a unit increase in a risk factor. Even when there is no variation due to covariates, the odds ratio for a unit increase in a risk factor also depends on the distribution of the risk factor. We can use an instrumental variable to consistently estimate a causal effect in the presence of arbitrary confounding. With a logistic outcome model, we show that the simple ratio or two-stage instrumental variable estimate is consistent for the odds ratio of an increase in the population distribution of the risk factor equal to the change due to a unit increase in the instrument divided by the average change in the risk factor due to the increase in the instrument. This odds ratio is conditional within the strata of the instrumental variable, but marginal across all other covariates, and is averaged across the population distribution of the risk factor. Where the proportion of variance in the risk factor explained by the instrument is small, this is similar to the odds ratio from a RCT without adjustment for any covariates, where the intervention corresponds to the effect of a change in the population distribution of the risk factor. This implies that the ratio or two-stage instrumental variable method is not biased, as has been suggested, but estimates a different quantity to the conditional odds ratio from an adjusted multiple regression, a quantity that has arguably more relevance to an epidemiologist or a policy maker, especially in the context of Mendelian randomization. PMID:23733419

  14. Application and interpretation of simple odds ratios in physical therapy-related research.

    PubMed

    Levangie, P K

    2001-09-01

    Over the past several decades, physical therapists have demonstrated an increasing responsiveness to the profession's obligation to generate objective evidence for examination and intervention strategies employed in physical therapy practice. This trend is evident, not only in the increasing number of journals that are publishing physical therapy research, but in the growing sophistication of research design and analytic options used by investigators. At the same time, physical therapists are held increasingly accountable for adopting an evidence-based approach to practice. The result for many of us is a growing concern about our ability to interpret study findings. The ability to independently weigh the importance to our own practice of evidence reported in a study requires that we understand the strengths and potential weaknesses of the sample, design, and analyses being used. The odds ratio (OR) is one of the analytic measures that has only recently appeared in the physical therapy literature. Because the OR may be unfamiliar to physical therapists, the goal of this paper is to provide a description of the simple OR and a discussion of its uses, interpretation, and potential limitations. PMID:11570733

  15. Analysis of familial aggregation of atopic eczema and other atopic diseases by ODDS RATIO regression models.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Blettner, M

    1996-05-01

    In order to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on the occurrence of atopic diseases, we investigated the familial aggregation of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in the relatives of 426 patients with atopic eczema and 628 subjects with no history of eczema (5,136 family members in total). Analyses were performed by regression models for odds ratios (OR) allowing us to estimate OR for the familial aggregation and simultaneously to adjust for other covariates. Three models were analyzed assuming that the OR i) is the same among any two members of a family, ii) depends on different familial constellations, i.e., whether the pairs are siblings, parents, or parent/sibling pairs, and iii) is not the same between the father and the children and between the mother and the children. The OR of familial aggregation for atopic eczema was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.58-2.96) if no distinction was made between the degree of relationship. Further analyses within the members of the family showed a high OR among siblings (OR = 3.86; 95%-CI 2.10-7.09), while the OR between parents and siblings was only 1.90 (95%-CI 1.31-2.97). Only for atopic eczema was the familial aggregation between fathers and siblings (ms: OR = 2.66; fs: OR = 1.29). This can be explained by stronger maternal heritability, shared physical environment of mother and child, or environmental events that affect the fetus in utero. Since for all atopic diseases a stronger correlation was found between siblings than between siblings and parents, our study indicates that environmental factors, especially during childhood, seem to explain the recently observed increased frequencies of atopic diseases. PMID:8618061

  16. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  17. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model

  18. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ejlertsson, Gran; Edn, Lena; Leden, Ido

    2002-01-01

    Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs) with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. Results Positive health was associated with age ? 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1) to avoid a disability pension for individuals <55 years of age; if necessary, to make sure rehabilitation actions continue, 2) to increase efforts to support immigrants to adjust to circumstances connected to ill-health and retirement, 3) to pay special attention to individuals with fibromyalgia and other general pain disorders, and 4) to strengthen ADL activities to support an independent active life among disability pensioners. PMID:12225618

  19. Field curvature correction method for ultrashort throw ratio projection optics design using an odd polynomial mirror surface.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Yanting; Yu, Feihong; Sun, Xiaowei

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a field curvature correction method of designing an ultrashort throw ratio (TR) projection lens for an imaging system. The projection lens is composed of several refractive optical elements and an odd polynomial mirror surface. A curved image is formed in a direction away from the odd polynomial mirror surface by the refractive optical elements from the image formed on the digital micromirror device (DMD) panel, and the curved image formed is its virtual image. Then the odd polynomial mirror surface enlarges the curved image and a plane image is formed on the screen. Based on the relationship between the chief ray from the exit pupil of each field of view (FOV) and the corresponding predescribed position on the screen, the initial profile of the freeform mirror surface is calculated by using segments of the hyperbolic according to the laws of reflection. For further optimization, the value of the high-order odd polynomial surface is used to express the freeform mirror surface through a least-squares fitting method. As an example, an ultrashort TR projection lens that realizes projection onto a large 50 in. screen at a distance of only 510 mm is presented. The optical performance for the designed projection lens is analyzed by ray tracing method. Results show that an ultrashort TR projection lens modulation transfer function of over 60% at 0.5 cycles/mm for all optimization fields is achievable with f-number of 2.0, 126° full FOV, <1% distortion, and 0.46 TR. Moreover, in comparing the proposed projection lens' optical specifications to that of traditional projection lenses, aspheric mirror projection lenses, and conventional short TR projection lenses, results indicate that this projection lens has the advantages of ultrashort TR, low f-number, wide full FOV, and small distortion. PMID:25090357

  20. Technical note: The risk ratio, an alternative to the odds ratio for estimating the association between multiple risk factors and a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; DiCiccio, T J

    2012-05-01

    The objectives were (1) to explain why the risk ratio (RR) is an appropriate measure of association when the outcome of interest is dichotomous (e.g., displaced abomasum or no displaced abomasum) in both cohort studies and randomized trials; and (2) to outline an applied method for estimating the RR using currently available software. Interest in the association between multiple risk factors and a yes or no outcome is very common in the dairy industry; historically, logistic regression, which reports odds ratios (OR), was the method available in common statistical packages to evaluate this kind of association. However, the OR can overestimate the magnitude of the response in cohort studies and randomized trials when the outcome frequency is large. In addition, the interpretation of odds is not intuitive; fortunately, recent advances in statistical software have allowed the estimation of the RR. Because SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) is commonly used to analyze data, this technical note outlines the basic programming code that may be used to estimate the RR from raw data. Example data from a prospective cohort study was used to compare the OR and RR of developing a displaced abomasum or ketosis or metritis based on multiple predictors, their interaction, and a random effect (e.g., herd). PMID:22541486

  1. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  2. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, M Dolores; Gmez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing

  3. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  4. 42 CFR 484.225 - Annual update of the unadjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prospective 60-day episode payment rate. 484.225 Section 484.225 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies 484.225 Annual update of the unadjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate. (a) CMS updates the unadjusted national 60-day...

  5. Pooling Dietary Data Using Questionnaires With Open-ended and Predefined Responses: Implications for Comparing Mean Intake or Estimating Odds Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Michael D.; Forman, Michele R.; Mahabir, Somdat; Etzel, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    In the current era of diet-gene analyses, large sample sizes are required to uncover the etiology of complex diseases. As such, consortia form and often combine available data. Food frequency questionnaires, which commonly use 2 different types of responses about the frequency of intake (predefined responses and open-ended responses), may be pooled to achieve the desired sample size. The common practice is to categorize open-ended responses into the predefined response categories. A problem arises when the predefined categories are noncontiguous: possible open-ended responses may fall in gaps between the predefined categories. Using simulated data modeled from frequency of intake among 1,664 controls in a lung cancer case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas, 2000–2005), the authors describe the effect of different categories of open-ended responses that fall in between noncontiguous, predefined response sets on estimates of the mean difference in intake and the odds ratios. A significant inflation of false positives appears when comparing mean differences of intake, while the bias in estimating odds ratios may be acceptably small. Therefore, if pooling data cannot be restricted to the same type of response, inferences should focus on odds ratio estimation to minimize bias. PMID:20139126

  6. A note on the use of the generalized odds ratio in meta-analysis of association studies involving bi- and tri-allelic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalized odds ratio (GOR) was recently suggested as a genetic model-free measure for association studies. However, its properties were not extensively investigated. We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate type-I error rates, power and bias in both effect size and between-study variance estimates of meta-analyses using the GOR as a summary effect, and compared these results to those obtained by usual approaches of model specification. We further applied the GOR in a real meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease. Findings For bi-allelic polymorphisms, the GOR performs virtually identical to a standard multiplicative model of analysis (e.g. per-allele odds ratio) for variants acting multiplicatively, but augments slightly the power to detect variants with a dominant mode of action, while reducing the probability to detect recessive variants. Although there were differences among the GOR and usual approaches in terms of bias and type-I error rates, both simulation- and real data-based results provided little indication that these differences will be substantial in practice for meta-analyses involving bi-allelic polymorphisms. However, the use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful for the synthesis of data from tri-allelic variants, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations (≤10%). This gain in power may depend on knowledge of the direction of the effects. Conclusions For the synthesis of data from bi-allelic variants, the GOR may be regarded as a multiplicative-like model of analysis. The use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful in the tri-allelic case, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations. PMID:21645382

  7. A graphic display for the presentation of site-wise odds ratios for score transitions to augment the traditional findings from clinical studies employing dental indexes.

    PubMed

    Proskin, H M; Kleber, C J; Sharma, N C; Nelson, B J

    2001-07-01

    Many of the parameters used in clinical dental research involve the assessment of a condition at each of a number of sites within the mouth. Traditionally, such measurements are averaged over all sites within the mouth (or over all sites of a specified type) for each study participant before statistical analysis. However, a consideration of the original, site-wise scores may provide some additional insights into the performance of therapeutic modalities that might not be made evident through an application of the traditional, means-based approach. A method based on the calculation of site-wise odds ratios of certain types of baseline-to-final examination score transitions was applied to the modified gingival index data from two clinical studies performed to investigate the effect of the daily chewing of a commercially available chewing gum relative to a mint control. A graphical display of these site-specific findings was prepared, which indicated that the chewing gum regimen tended to be associated with a higher frequency of occurrence of favorable score transitions than was the mint control at several measurement sites throughout the mouth. PMID:11913305

  8. Double-Robust Estimation of an Exposure-Outcome Odds Ratio Adjusting for Confounding in Cohort and Case-control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Rotnitzky, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Modern epidemiologic studies often aim to evaluate the causal effect of a point exposure on the risk of a disease from cohort or case-control observational data. Because confounding bias is of serious concern in such non-experimental studies, investigators routinely adjust for a large number of potential confounders in a logistic regression analysis of the effect of exposure on disease outcome. Unfortunately, when confounders are not correctly modeled, standard logistic regression is likely biased in its estimate of the effect of exposure, potentially leading to erroneous conclusions. We partially resolve this serious limitation of standard logistic regression analysis with a new iterative approach that we call ProRetroSpective estimation, which carefully combines standard logistic regression with a logistic regression analysis in which exposure is the dependent variable and the outcome and confounders are the independent variables. As a result, we obtain a correct estimate of the exposure-outcome odds ratio, if either the standard logistic regression of the outcome given exposure and confounding factors is correct, or the regression model of exposure given the outcome and confounding factors is correct but not necessarily both, that is, it is double-robust. In fact, it also has certain advantadgeous efficiency properties. The approach is general in that it applies to both cohort and case-control studies whether the design of the study is matched or unmatched on a subset of covariates. Finally, an application illustrates the methods using data from the National Cancer Institute's Black/White Cancer Survival Study. PMID:21225896

  9. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer - Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galas, Aleksander; Miszczyk, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Background There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon. Objective The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer. Methods A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Results Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006), stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007) and total aberrations (p = 0.009). There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50–80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations. Conclusions The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy. PMID:26824604

  10. Against the Odds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. "Against the Odds," a new exhibition at the National ...

  11. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  12. The importance of delivery rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barretts and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Jay H.; Cook, Michael B.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Abnet, Christian C.; Giffen, Carol; Webb, Penelope M.; Murray, Liam J.; Casson, Alan G.; Risch, Harvey A.; Ye, Weimin; Kamangar, Farin; Bernstein, Leslie; Sharp, Linda; Nyrn, Olof; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Wu, Anna H.; Brown, Linda M.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ward, Mary H.; Freedman, Neal D.; Whiteman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration. Methods The authors pooled data from 12 case-control studies from the Barretts Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), including 1,242 (EAC), 1,263 (EGJA) and 954 (ESCC) cases and 7,053 controls, modeled joint ORs for cumulative exposure and exposure rate for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and evaluated effect modification by sex, body mass index (BMI), age and self-reported acid reflux. Results For smoking, all sites exhibited inverse delivery rate effects, whereby ORs with pack-years increased, but trends weakened with increasing cigarettes/day. None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects (P<0.01). For EAC and EGJA, ORs with drink-years exhibited inverse associations in <5 drinks/day consumers and no association in heavier consumers. For ESCC, ORs with drink-years increased, with trends strengthening with greater drinks/day. There was no significant effect modification, except for EAC and EGJA where acid reflux mitigated the inverse associations (P=0.02). For ESCC, younger ages at diagnosis enhanced drinking-related ORs (P<0.01). Conclusions Patterns of ORs by pack-years and drink-years, delivery rate effects and effect modifiers revealed common as well as distinct etiologic elements for these diseases. PMID:22504051

  13. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  14. Flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of odd and even homologous bimesogens.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Katie L; Morris, Stephen M; Castles, Flynn; Qasim, Malik M; Gardiner, Damian J; Coles, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    It is known that bimesogenic liquid crystals exhibit a marked "odd-even" effect in the flexoelastic ratio (the effective flexoelectric coefficient to the average elastic coefficient), with the ratio being higher for the "odd-spaced" bimesogens (those with an odd number of alkyl groups in the spacer chain) than their neighboring even-spaced counterparts. To determine the contribution of each property to the flexoelastic ratio, we present experimental results on the flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of two homologous nonsymmetric bimesogens which possess odd and even alkyl spacers. Our results show that, although there are differences in the flexoelectric coefficients, there are substantially larger differences in the effective elastic coefficient. Specifically, the odd bimesogen is found to have both a low splay elastic coefficient and a very low bend elastic coefficient which, when combined, results in a significantly lower effective elastic coefficient and consequently a higher flexoelastic ratio. PMID:22400606

  15. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  16. Simultaneous Description of Even-Even, Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Nuclear Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2010-01-21

    The orthosymplectic extension of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is used for the simultaneous description of the spectra of different families of neighboring heavy nuclei. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are built on. Hence, the spectra of the odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the consequent and self-consistent coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom of the odd particles, specified by the fermion sector SO{sup F}(2OMEGA) subset of OS{sub p}(2OMEGA/12, R), to the boson core which states belong to an Sp{sup B}(12, R) irreducible representation.The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity for two sets of neighboring nuclei with distinct collective properties are compared with experiment and IBM/IBFM/IBFFM predictions. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the used dynamical symmetry of the model.

  17. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  19. Plasma Bicarbonate and Odds of Incident Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several biomarkers of metabolic acidosis, including lower plasma bicarbonate, have been associated with prevalent hypertension in cross-sectional studies. We sought to examine prospectively whether lower plasma bicarbonate is associated with incident hypertension. METHODS We conducted a prospective case–control study nested within the Nurses’ Health Study II. Plasma bicarbonate was measured in 695 nonobese women without hypertension at time of blood draw who subsequently developed hypertension during 6 years of follow-up. Control subjects were matched to case subjects according to age, race, time and day of blood draw, and day of menstrual cycle. We used unconditional logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) for development of hypertension by quintile of baseline plasma bicarbonate. RESULTS After adjusting for matching factors, body mass index, family history of hypertension, plasma creatinine, and dietary and lifestyle factors, higher plasma bicarbonate was associated with lower odds of developing hypertension across quintiles (P for linear trend = 0.04). Those in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of plasma bicarbonate had 31% lower odds of developing hypertension (OR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.48–0.99). Further adjustment for diet-estimated net endogenous acid production, plasma insulin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and uric acid did not alter these findings. CONCLUSIONS Our case–control study is consistent with a modest association between higher plasma bicarbonate and reduced odds of developing hypertension among nonobese women, although our findings are of borderline statistical significance. Further research is required to confirm this finding as part of a larger prospective cohort study and to elucidate the mechanism for this relation. PMID:23942654

  20. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  1. Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.

    2013-04-01

    The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.

  2. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  3. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  4. Boson fermion symmetries and dynamical supersymmetries for odd-odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A.B.; Huebsch, T.; Paar, V.

    1985-01-01

    Odd-odd nuclei are modeled by the application of symmetries and supersymmetries in IBM/IBFM. Odd-odd nuclei are described as a mixed system if bosons and fermions by a Hamiltonian consisting of three contributions: the IBM Hamiltonian, a one-fermion and fermion-fermion interaction terms, and a boson-fermion interaction term. 23 refs., 2 figs., (WRF)

  5. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  6. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  7. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: l1 + l2 + l3 = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  8. Reinvestigation of the collective band structures in odd-odd 138Pm nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. J.; Xiao, Z. G.; Zhu, S. J.; Qi, C.; Yeoh, E. Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, R. S.; Yi, H.; Yan, W. H.; Xu, Q.; Wu, X. G.; He, C. Y.; Zheng, Y.; Li, G. S.; Li, C. B.; Li, H. W.; Liu, J. J.; Hu, S. P.; Wang, J. L.; Yao, S. H.

    2015-05-01

    The high-spin states in the odd-odd 138Pm nucleus have been reinvestigated via the 124Te(19F, 5 n) reaction at the beam energy of 103 MeV. Most of the known transitions and levels are confirmed. A number of bands are revised and one new band has been established. For the yrast πh 11/2⊗ νh 11/2 band based on 8+ state, no evidence supporting the occurence of signature inversion is found. The experimental and theoretical B( M1)/ B( E2) ratios have been calculated for band (2), which support the πg 7/2[413]5/2+ ⊗ νh 11/2[514]9/2- Nilsson configuration assignment. Four bands with ΔI = 2 transitions are tentatively assigned as doubly decoupled bands. The other three bands are proposed as oblate-triaxial bands. The possible configuration assignments for these bands are also discussed under the calculations of total Routhian surface and particle-rotor model.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical ability keeping track of the equations and their meaning. However, the text continues to be accessible and moves swiftly from `quantum classics' such as the harmonic oscillator to electrical conductivity and the collapse of stars. Reassuringly, Treiman takes time out to ask `What's going on?' where he considers the question of how probabilities get converted into `facts' when things are measured. His own fascination with the subject comes through as he considers the different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The chapter on `building blocks' starts in 1932 when ` ... it could seem that all the basic building blocks of the whole world were at last in hand'. Swiftly and succinctly it moves through to the standard model, acknowledging that a closer look would ` ... quickly carry us far afield into highly technical thickets'. The final chapter tackles the more difficult subject of quantum field theory. This is a very swift journey through quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. It is the final summary that stands out, however. The author reminds us what to marvel about: the miracles of quantum theory that are ` ... outrageous to common sense and intuition'. This is a useful book for any science department. It will be of particular use to those of us who studied the subject some time ago and who need to refresh their memories, for example teachers of A-level physics. The asides about `what is going on' and the history that is included make it a `book' rather than a `textbook'. First-year undergraduates, or just possibly motivated and mathematically able A-level students, would also benefit. Beware, however. The mathematics is not trivial and you would arguably need to have met it before in order to cope. Although the book occasionally relapses into textbook style you are left with a sense of the wonder of the subject and an appreciation of the beauty of the mathematics that underpins it.

  10. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother

  11. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  12. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  13. Odd orders in Shor's factoring algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Shor's factoring algorithm (SFA) finds the prime factors of a number, , exponentially faster than the best known classical algorithm. Responsible for the speedup is a subroutine called the quantum order finding algorithm (QOFA) which calculates the order—the smallest integer, , satisfying , where is a randomly chosen integer coprime to (meaning their greatest common divisor is one, ). Given , and with probability not 1/2, the factors are given by and . For odd , it is assumed that the factors cannot be found (since is not generally integer) and the QOFA is relaunched with a different value of . But a recent paper (Martin-Lopez et al. Nat. Photonics 6:773, 2012) noted that the factors can sometimes be found from odd orders if the coprime is square. This raises the question of improving SFA's success probability by considering odd orders. We show that an improvement is possible, though it is small. We present two techniques for retrieving the order from apparently useless runs of the QOFA: not discarding odd orders; and looking out for new order finding relations in the case of failure. In terms of efficiency, using our techniques is equivalent to avoiding square coprimes and disregarding odd orders, which is simpler in practice. Even still, our techniques may be useful in the near future, while demonstrations are restricted to factoring small numbers. The most convincing demonstrations of the QOFA are those that return a non-power-of-two order, making odd orders that lead to the factors attractive to experimentalists.

  14. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  15. Flavor Dependence of T-odd PDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard P. Gamberg; Gary R. Goldstein; Marc Schlegel

    2007-04-20

    The flavor dependence of the naive time reversal odd ("T-odd'') parton distributions for $u$- and $d$-quarks are explored in the spectator model. The flavor dependence of $h_{1}^{\\perp}$ is of significance for the analysis of the azimuthal $\\cos(2\\phi)$ asymmetries in unpolarized SIDIS and DY-processes, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized nucleons. As a by-product of the formalism, we calculate the chiral-odd but ``T-even'' function $h_{1L}^{\\perp}$ which enables us to present a prediction for the single spin asymmetry $A_{UL}^{\\sin(2\\phi)}$ for a longitudinally polarized target in SIDIS.

  16. (abstract) Odd Hydrogen in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, Hari; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk L.

    1994-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has many features in common with the terrestrial mesosphere. Both share similar pressure and temperature ranges, and much of the same chemistry operates in each. For example, the radical species H, OH, and H(sub 2)O, which comprise the odd hydrogen family, are of central importance in the catalytic destruction of CO and O(sub 3) in both atmospheres. The inclusion of recent chemical kinetics data, specifically temperature dependent CO(sub 2) absorption cross-sections, into our one dimensional photochemical model of the Martial atmosphere shows that oxidation of CO by odd hydrogen is too efficient. The incorporation of smaller cross sections for CO(sub 2) leads to an enhanced photolysis rate of water vapor, increasing odd hydrogen to the point where the predicted mixing ratio of CO in our model is substantially less than the observed value of 6.5 x 10(sup -4). Interestingly, most photochemical models of the terrestrial mesosphere underestimate the CO and O(sub 3) densities using currently accepted photodissociation and kinetic rate coefficients. This has also been attributed to an overabundance of odd hydrogen in the models. We shall show that agreement between models and observations of CO in the Martian atmosphere as well as of CO and O(sub 3) in the terrestrial mesosphere can be achieved by revising the rate constants for the reactions OH + HO(sub 2) and CO + OH within their published uncertainties. The fact that similar revisions alleviate discrepancies in both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres warrants a re-evaluation of these key rate constants at the appropriate temperatures and pressures.

  17. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  18. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  19. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  20. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  1. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general

  2. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  3. Odd and Even Numbers--Magician's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadar, Nitsa

    1982-01-01

    It is felt teachers can adopt techniques of magicians to mathematics instruction whenever it seems appropriate. Ideas for a unit on the properties of odd and even integers are presented for teachers who enjoy some theatrics in the classroom. The goal is to teach mathematical ideas underlying magic tricks. (MP)

  4. The dangers of underestimating the importance of data adjustments in band ratioing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The practical importance of simple data adjustments for path (atmospheric) radiance and sensor calibration offsets prior to band ratioing has often been overlooked or misjudged. This paper describes and demonstrates the critical nature of data adjustments for the production of useful ratio images, including ratio images derived solely from long wavelength bands. A simple bispectral graphic model is used for illustrating and evaluating the impact of data offsets upon ratio images. Orthogonal indices, used as alternatives to band ratios, are shown to be sometimes less sensitive to topographic influences than ratios of unadjusted data but not less sensitive than ratios of properly adjusted data.

  5. Neutron-Proton Interaction in Odd-Odd Spherical Nuclei Near 208PB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, Petr; Kvasil, Jan; Sheline, Raymond K.

    A total of 74 levels from 21 multiplets of the nuclei 206Tl, 208Tl, 208Bi, and 210Bi have been calculated with a Generalized Intermediate Coupling Model, with Gaussian and delta potentials with and without an interaction between octupole phonon and odd nucleons. The goodness of fit is compared with that of other calculations of Molinari et al. and Schiffer and True. It is quite clear that the calculations work well in spite of the fact that they are required to fit simultaneously odd-odd nuclei with neutron and proton shells which differ by principal harmonic oscillator quantum numbers Δ N = +1.

  6. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  7. Classification of Traces and Associated Determinants on Odd-Class Operators in Odd Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira Jiménez, Carolina; Ouedraogo, Marie Françoise

    2012-04-01

    To supplement the already known classification of traces on classical pseudodifferential operators, we present a classification of traces on the algebras of odd-class pseudodifferential operators of non-positive order acting on smooth functions on a closed odd-dimensional manifold. By means of the one to one correspondence between continuous traces on Lie algebras and determinants on the associated regular Lie groups, we give a classification of determinants on the group associated to the algebra of odd-class pseudodifferential operators with fixed non-positive order. At the end we discuss two possible ways to extend the definition of a determinant outside a neighborhood of the identity on the Lie group associated to the algebra of odd-class pseudodifferential operators of order zero.

  8. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  9. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  10. Cluster radioactivities of odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Hourani, E.; Greiner, W.

    The partial half-lives of the hypothetical even-even equivalent of an odd-mass nucleus for cluster transitions toward various excited states of the daughter, used as a reference to find the hindrance factor, can be calculated within analytical superasymmetric fission model, by taking into account the angular momentum of the emitted cluster. Detailed tables are presented for 14C radioactivity of 221Fr, 221,223Ra, 225Ac; 24Ne radioactivity of 233U, 231Pa, and 23F decay of 231Pa, showing that, except for 225Ac, the existing experimental evidences, do not exclude (moderate) hindered transitions to the ground states of the daugther nuclei.

  11. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-03-01

    Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.

  13. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  15. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  16. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Description of Chiral Doublet Bands in Odd-Odd Cs Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Ding, Bin-Gang

    2010-08-01

    Properties of the chair doublet bands of the odd-odd Cs isotopes built on the πh11/2 otimesvh11/2 configuration are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and possessing the SO(5)(or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the energy spectra, the energy staggering parameter as a function of the spin are obtained. The calculation shows that the stronger competition between the pairing and anti-pairing effects and the SU(3) symmetry broking more seriously exist in the stable chiral structure.

  17. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  18. Using the Logarithm of Odds to Define a Vector Space on Probabilistic Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Kilian M.; Fisher, John; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha; McCarley, Robert W.; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Kikinis, Ron; Wells, William M.

    2007-01-01

    The Logarithm of the Odds ratio (LogOdds) is frequently used in areas such as artificial neural networks, economics, and biology, as an alternative representation of probabilities. Here, we use LogOdds to place probabilistic atlases in a linear vector space. This representation has several useful properties for medical imaging. For example, it not only encodes the shape of multiple anatomical structures but also captures some information concerning uncertainty. We demonstrate that the resulting vector space operations of addition and scalar multiplication have natural probabilistic interpretations. We discuss several examples for placing label maps into the space of LogOdds. First, we relate signed distance maps, a widely used implicit shape representation, to LogOdds and compare it to an alternative that is based on smoothing by spatial Gaussians. We find that the LogOdds approach better preserves shapes in a complex multiple object setting. In the second example, we capture the uncertainty of boundary locations by mapping multiple label maps of the same object into the LogOdds space. Third, we define a framework for non-convex interpolations among atlases that capture different time points in the aging process of a population. We evaluate the accuracy of our representation by generating a deformable shape atlas that captures the variations of anatomical shapes across a population. The deformable atlas is the result of a principal component analysis within the LogOdds space. This atlas is integrated into an existing segmentation approach for MR images. We compare the performance of the resulting implementation in segmenting 20 test cases to a similar approach that uses a more standard shape model that is based on signed distance maps. On this data set, the Bayesian classification model with our new representation outperformed the other approaches in segmenting subcortical structures. PMID:17698403

  19. Marginal likelihood estimation for proportional odds models with right censored data.

    PubMed

    Lam, K F; Leung, T L

    2001-03-01

    One major aspect in medical research is to relate the survival times of patients with the relevant covariates or explanatory variables. The proportional hazards model has been used extensively in the past decades with the assumption that the covariate effects act multiplicatively on the hazard function, independent of time. If the patients become more homogeneous over time, say the treatment effects decrease with time or fade out eventually, then a proportional odds model may be more appropriate. In the proportional odds model, the odds ratio between patients can be expressed as a function of their corresponding covariate vectors, in which, the hazard ratio between individuals converges to unity in the long run. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the regression parameter for a semiparametric proportional odds model at which the baseline odds function is an arbitrary, non-decreasing function but is left unspecified. Instead of using the exact survival times, only the rank order information among patients is used. A Monte Carlo method is used to approximate the marginal likelihood function of the rank invariant transformation of the survival times which preserves the information about the regression parameter. The method can be applied to other transformation models with censored data such as the proportional hazards model, the generalized probit model or others. The proposed method is applied to the Veteran's Administration lung cancer trial data. PMID:11280846

  20. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  1. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  2. Intrinsic structures and associated rotational bands in medium-heavy deformed odd-odd nuclei. 2: Update supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Sood, P.C.; Jain, A.K.

    1998-07-01

    The preceding article, Intrinsic Structures and Associated Rotational Bands in Medium-Heavy Deformed Odd-Odd Nuclei, 1, by D.M. Headly et al., presents the experimentally observed energy levels of odd-odd nuclei with 57 {le} Z {le} 81 and 87 {le} N {le} 117 with a literature cutoff date of August 1995. This supplement updates the experimental data specifically dealing with level structures of these nuclei through March 1998.

  3. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  4. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  5. High-Spin States in the Odd-Odd Nucleus 92Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Heng; Lu, Jing-Bin; Luo, Peng-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Guang; He, Chuang-Ye; Zheng, Yun; Ma, Ke-Yan; Yang, Dong; Li, Cong-Bo; Hu, Shi-Peng; Liu, Jia-Jian; Wang, Jin-Long; Yao, Shun-He; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian

    2014-04-01

    High spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 92Nb are investigated using the 82Se (14N, 4n)92Nb reaction at a beam energy of 54 MeV. The level scheme of the 92Nb was extended up to Jπ =(16+) at about 7.3 MeV and Jπ=(21-) at about 9.7 MeV. According to systematic analyses and a comparison with the neighboring nucleus, the higher spin states could be interpreted by the multi-particle excitations in the π(f5/2,p3/2,p1/2,g9/2)ν(p1/2,g9/2,d5/2, g7/2) configuration space.

  6. Isovector pairing in odd-odd N=Z {sup 50}Mn.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, C. D. O.; Bentley, M. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Warner, D. D.; Bruce, A. M.; Cameron, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, C. N.; Fallon, P.; Frankland, L.; Gelletly, W.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Joss, D. T.; Lister, C. J.; Regan, P. H.; Reiter, P.; Rubio, B.; Seweryniak, D.; Svensson, C. E.; Vincent, S. M.; Williams, S. J.; Physics; Univ. of York; Univ. of Liverpool; Keele Univ.; Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universit and INFN; Univ. Basel; CLRC Daresbury Lab.; Univ. of Brighton; McMaster Univ.; LBNL; Univ. of Surrey; CSIC-Uni.

    2002-01-17

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 50}{sub 25}Mn have been investigated. A sequence of states up to J{sup {pi}}=6{sup +} has been assigned as the T=1 analogue of the yrast band in {sup 50}{sub 24}Cr for the first time. The differences in energy between levels in these bands are interpreted in terms of rotational alignments and the effect they have on the Coulomb energy of the nucleus. Comparisons with shell model calculations show that the Coulomb energy difference between the T=1 analogue structures is an important indicator of the competition between isovector pairing modes in N=Z nuclei and their isobars.

  7. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  8. Cortisol and GH: odd and controversial ideas.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Martine; Guinot, Michel; Le Bouc, Yves

    2007-10-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis represents a physiological response to the energetic, metabolic, vascular, and sometimes neurophysiologic or psychological needs of exercise. Long-lasting increased and (or) decreased secretion of cortisol (the end-product of the HPA axis) or of GH is detrimental to health. This suggests that the activity of these hormonal axes is finely tuned toward homeostasia, tolerating limited prolonged homeostatic disruption. However, the relationships between exercise training and cortisol and GH secretion are full of odd and controversial ideas. In this review, the relationships between HPA axis adaptation to exercise training or disadaptation with overtraining will be discussed, with an emphasis on the limitation on the current measures used to profile hormonal activity. Knowledge of these relationships between cortisol and GH responses to exercise is an important tool to fight against doping with glucocorticoids and GH, and their health-damaging consequences. PMID:18059614

  9. Environment and energy: an odd duo

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.S.

    1989-03-01

    Some people believe that environmental policies will drive energy needs. Others believe that energy issues in the 101st US Congress will be determined by environmental concerns. But whatever may turn out to be the case, neither the demands of energy or of the environment can be met without consideration of the other. Environmental progress must be wed to energy issues such as efficiency and technology. Traditional approaches to their environmental problems always run into energy considerations, to be sure, but one way to avoid this collision of environmental and energy demands is to take an alternative, nontraditional approach. In the traditional approach, solutions to environmental problems such as global warming, acid rain, and nonattainment make energy-using demands, run into budgetary restraints, cost money, and include a command and control approach. The latter is based on the theory that by commanding acid rain control, for example, in legislation, the acid rain problem can be controlled. If and when they choose to move ahead, command control techniques certainly will be avoided; rather, the market place will sort out the conflict between this odd duo of environment-energy issues.

  10. Band structures in doubly odd Rh98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Sihotra, S.; Singh, K.; Singh, V.; Sandeep, Goswamy, J.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Malik, S. S.; Palit, R.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2014-03-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd Rh98 nucleus were populated in the As75(Si28,2p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 120-MeV incident Si28 beam. The subsequent de-excitations were investigated through in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques using an early implementation phase of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) spectrometer equipped with 18 clover Ge detectors. The level structures in Rh98 have been established up to excitation energy ≈10 MeV and angular momentum ˜23ℏ. The previously reported level schemes are considerably modified and extended substantially. Significant expansion of the level scheme at low excitation energies stipulates that the previously reported 842-726-994-980-265 keV γ-transition cascade in Rh98 is not directly based on the ground state (T1/2 = 8.7 min). Tilted-axis cranking (TAC) shell-model calculations have been used to put the present level scheme of Rh98 in perspective. Level structures have been interpreted in terms of the rotational bands based on the πp1/2⊗νh11/2 [triaxiality parameter (γ) = 25∘], and πf5/2⊗νh11/2 proton-neutron configurations having moderate quadrupole deformation (ɛ2 ≈ 0.13) and the admixtures. Excited band structures are based on the πp1/2/f5/2⊗π(g9/2)2⊗νh11/2 configuration and the fully stretched [πp1/2⊗ν(h11/2)2⊗νd5/2]13- configuration.

  11. Odd-even mass difference and isospin dependent pairing interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, C. A.; Lue, H. F.; Sagawa, H.

    2009-08-15

    The neutron and proton odd-even mass differences are studied with Hartree-Fock + BCS (HF+BCS) calculations with Skyrme interactions and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction, which is recently derived from a microscopic nucleon-nucleon interaction. To this end, we perform HF+BCS calculations for even and odd semi-magic tin and lead isotopes together with even and odd Z isotones with N=50 and 82. The filling approximation is applied to the last unoccupied particle in odd nuclei. Comparisons with the experimental data show a clear manifestation of the isospin dependent pairing correlations in both proton and neutron pairing gaps.

  12. The Wigner caustic on shell and singularities of odd functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domitrz, Wojciech; Manoel, Miriam; Rios, Pedro de M.

    2013-09-01

    We study the Wigner caustic on shell of a Lagrangian submanifold L of affine symplectic space. We present the physical motivation for studying singularities of the Wigner caustic on shell and present its mathematical definition in terms of a generating family. Because such a generating family is an odd deformation of an odd function, we study simple singularities in the category of odd functions and their odd versal deformations, applying these results to classify the singularities of the Wigner caustic on shell, interpreting these singularities in terms of the local geometry of L.

  13. Assessing Differential Step Functioning in Polytomous Items Using a Common Odds Ratio Estimator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2007-01-01

    Many statistics used in the assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items yield a single item-level index of measurement invariance that collapses information across all response options of the polytomous item. Utilizing a single item-level index of DIF can, however, be misleading if the magnitude or direction of the DIF…

  14. Odds Ratio, Delta, ETS Classification, and Standardization Measures of DIF Magnitude for Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Patrick O.; McHorney, Colleen A.; Stump, Timothy E.; Perkins, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous methodological and applied studies that used binary logistic regression (LR) for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomously scored items either did not report an effect size or did not employ several useful measures of DIF magnitude derived from the LR model. Equations are provided for these effect size indices.…

  15. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called “complete records” or “complete case” analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  16. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan W; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R

    2015-10-15

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called "complete records" or "complete case" analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  17. An Analytical Evaluation of Two Common-Odds Ratios as Population Indicators of DIF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; And Others

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) statistic for identifying differential item functioning (DIF) commonly conditions on the observed test score as a surrogate for conditioning on latent ability. When the comparison group distributions are not completely overlapping (i.e., are incongruent), the observed score represents different levels of latent ability…

  18. Assessing Differential Step Functioning in Polytomous Items Using a Common Odds Ratio Estimator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2007-01-01

    Many statistics used in the assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items yield a single item-level index of measurement invariance that collapses information across all response options of the polytomous item. Utilizing a single item-level index of DIF can, however, be misleading if the magnitude or direction of the DIF

  19. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  20. Spectroscopy of the odd-odd fp-shell nucleus {sup 52}Sc from secondary fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gade, A.; Bazin, D.; Mueller, W.F.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Zhu, S.; Brown, B.A.; Campbell, C.M.; Cook, J.M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Glasmacher, T.; Terry, J.R.; Deacon, A.N.; Freeman, S.J.; Kay, B.P.; Mantica, P.F.

    2006-03-15

    The odd-odd fp-shell nucleus {sup 52}Sc was investigated using in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following secondary fragmentation of a {sup 55}V and {sup 57}Cr cocktail beam. Aside from the known {gamma}-ray transition at 674(5) keV, a new decay at E{sub {gamma}}=212(3) keV was observed. It is attributed to the depopulation of a low-lying excited level. This new state is discussed in the framework of shell-model calculations with the GXPF1, GXPF1A, and KB3G effective interactions. These calculations are found to be fairly robust for the low-lying level scheme of {sup 52}Sc irrespective of the choice of the effective interaction. In addition, the frequency of spin values predicted by the shell model is successfully modeled by a spin distribution formulated in a statistical approach with an empirical, energy-independent spin-cutoff parameter.

  1. First observation of scissors mode states in an odd-mass nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Bauske, I.; Arias, J.M.; von Brentano, P.; Frank, A.; Friedrichs, H.; Heil, R.D.; Herzberg, R.; Hoyler, F.; Van Isacker, P.; Kneissl, U.; Margraf, J.; Pitz, H.H.; Wesselborg, C.; Zilges, A. Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, W-5000 Koeln Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 and Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Cuernavaca, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, W-6300 Giessen Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, W-7400 Tuebingen Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford Gu2 5XH, England, and Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, Boite Postal 5027, F-14021 Caen CEDEX )

    1993-08-16

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments are reported to search for enhanced [ital M]1 scissors mode states in the deformed odd-mass nucleus [sup 163]Dy. A concentration of dipole strengths near 3 MeV excitation energy is found, which fits nicely into the systematics observed for [ital M]1 excitations in the neighboring even-even Dy isotopes. The observed strength distribution and the decay branching ratios are discussed in the context of the interacting boson-fermion model.

  2. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, A. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-07-20

    We have developed a fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric model. In order to calculate possible effects of long-term changes for trace gases for a large number of scenarios and to examine the model sensitivities to dynamical and photochemical assumptions and inputs, the model is designed to minimize computer requirements. The species continuity equations are solved using process splitting, that is, by successively applying the operators associated with advective changes with photochemical and diffusive forcing. The first study undertaken with this model concerns family chemistry approximations, in which groups of species are related by photochemical equilibrium assumptions and transported as one species. These assumptions are tested by comparing results for the family transport model (FTM), in which odd nitrogen (NO/sub y/=N+NO+NO/sub 2/+NO/sub 3/+2N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ +HO/sub 2/NO/sub 2/+ClONO/sub 2/+HNO/sub 3/) is transported as a family, with the results for a separate transport model (STM) in which HNO/sub 3/, HO/sub 2/NO/sub 2/, ClONO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are transported separately from NO/sub /ital x//=N+NO+NO/sub 2/+NO/sub 3/. Two cases are considered: (1) a current atmosphere annual cycle; and (2) a typical scenario for increased fluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide. Although there are differences in odd nitrogen species partitioning, especially at high latitudes, the calculated O/sub 3/ distributions are nearly identical. For the perturbation scenario the annual average column ozone change and its temporal and spatial characteristics are nearly the same for the FTM and the STM. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age. PMID:21431308

  4. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  5. Evening Snacking Might Raise Odds for Breast Cancer's Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158068.html Evening Snacking Might Raise Odds for Breast Cancer's Return Women who fasted less than 13 hours ... 31, 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients fond of midnight snacking may be at ...

  6. More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156347.html More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby Some ... three-to-four cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF), a new British study suggests. Among more than ...

  7. Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158132.html Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes: Study Experts say many thyroid patients are already ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes ...

  8. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants make the release of multiple eggs ... News) -- Although it's long been known that fraternal twins run in families, researchers say they've just ...

  9. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  10. Engineering Escherichia coli for odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-10-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into Escherichia coli. The engineered E. coli usually produced even chain FFAs. In this study, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE) from Salmonella enterica was overexpressed in two efficient even chain FFAs producers, ML103 (pXZM12) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica and ML103 (pXZ18) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Ricinus communis combined with supplement of extracellular propionate. With these metabolically engineered E. coli, the odd straight chain FFAs, undecanoic acid (C11:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) were produced from glucose and propionate. The highest total odd straight chain FFAs produced by ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) reached 276 mg/l with a ratio of 23.43 % of the total FFAs. In ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE), the highest total odd straight chain FFAs accumulated to 297 mg/l, and the ratio reached 17.68 % of the total FFAs. Due to the different substrate specificity of the acyl-ACP thioesterases, the major odd straight chain FFA components of ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) were undecanoic acid and tridecanoic acid, while the ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE) preferred pentadecanoic acid. PMID:25030454

  11. Excited states of deformable odd {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei: Nonconservation of the angular momentum of external nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Sharipov, Sh.; Ermamatov, M. J.

    2009-01-15

    The previously developed rotationally single-particle and vibrational model of the triaxial deformable odd nuclei is extended to the case where the total angular momentum of an external nucleon is not conserved. The calculated ratios of the excitation energies of the {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei are compared with the existing experimental data. The ratios of E2-transition probabilities and those of quadrupole moments of the above nuclei are calculated using parameters determined from the spectra of these nuclei.

  12. P-odd, P-even, and T-odd asymmetries in true quaternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Titova, L. V.

    2013-04-15

    The coefficients of P-odd, P-even, and T -odd asymmetries for a third and a fourth prescission particle emitted in the true quaternary fission of nuclei that was induced by polarized cold neutrons were studied on the basis of quantum-mechanical fission theory. By using non-evaporation (nonadiabatic) mechanisms of light-particle emission, these coefficients were compared with the analogous coefficients for prescission third particles emitted in the ternary fission of nuclei.

  13. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives. PMID:24966035

  14. Effect of core polarization on magnetic dipole moments in deformed odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, L.; Minkov, N.; Duc, Dao Duy; Quentin, P.; Bartel, J.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic properties of deformed odd-mass nuclei are studied within a nonrelativistic mean-field-plus-pairing approach, namely the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-BCS approach with self-consistent blocking. For an odd number of nucleons these approaches lead to the breaking of the time-reversal invariance. The deviation from the Schmidt values of the isoscalar magnetic dipole moment is known to result from a subtle balance between core-polarization effects and meson-exchange current effects. However, the former are usually calculated in the random phase approximation without time-reversal symmetry breaking at the mean-field level. In this work we show that if one takes into account this symmetry breaking already in the mean-field solution, the correction from core polarization yields a significant contribution to the empirical quenching of the spin gyromagnetic ratios as compared to the free values in deformed odd-mass nuclei. Moreover, we calculate magnetic dipole moments in the Bohr and Mottelson unified-model description with self-consistent blocked mean-field intrinsic states. The obtained results in the A ˜100 and A ˜180 mass regions as well as for three actinide nuclei compare favorably with experimental data.

  15. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  16. Search for a very light CP-odd neutral Higgs boson of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Pacheco, A.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Mattison, T.; Meinhard, H.; Menary, S.; Meyer, T.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Takashima, M.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Mirabito, L.; Schäfer, U.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1992-07-01

    The reactions e+e- → hZ∗ande+e- → hA have been used to search for the neutral Higgs bosons h and A of the MSSM in the case where the CP-odd A is lighter than 2 mμ, taking into account the large h → AA decay branching ratio. No signal was found in the data sample collected until the end of 1991 by the ALEPH experiment at LEP. For tan β ⩾, mA < 2 mμ is excluded at 95% CL for any mh.

  17. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  18. New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc and the breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, C.; Linnemann, A.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. von; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.

    2007-06-15

    Using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,p) reaction at E{sub {sup 3}He}=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of {gamma} transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5{sup +} and 7{sup +} levels belonging to the lowest T=0{pi}f{sub 7/2}{nu}f{sub 7/2} multiplet have been determined and the (6{sup +}) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},3{sup +},5{sup +},7{sup +}) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of {sup 42}Sc.

  19. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. PMID:26520360

  20. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  1. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  2. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  3. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-01-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum sl_2 at a fourth root of unity.

  4. Against the Odds: Insights from One District's Small School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry; Lichtenstein, Gary; Evenchik, Arthur; Tombari, Martin; Pozzoboni, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    "Against the Odds" offers an in-depth look at the Mapleton, Colorado, school district's transformation of two traditional high schools into seven small schools, each enrolling fewer than four hundred students. This even-handed account chronicles both the heartening successes and frequent frustrations of a district-wide embrace of the small school…

  5. Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Merilee S.

    2004-01-01

    "Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…

  6. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  7. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  8. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  9. Trends in the human sex odds at birth in Europe and the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2007-06-01

    To investigate trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992. For parts of Germany, annual birth statistics and fallout measurements after Chernobyl are available at the district level. Trend models allowing for discontinuities of the male birth proportions are suggested. Superimposed on a downward trend in male proportions there was a jump in 1987 with a sex odds ratio of 1.0047 (95%-confidence interval: 1.0013-1.0081, p=0.0061). A positive association of the male proportion in Germany between 1986 and 1991 with radioactive exposure at the district level is reflected by a sex odds ratio of 1.0145 per mSv/a (1.0021-1.0271, p=0.0218). These findings suggest a possible long-term chronic influence of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident on the human sex odds at birth in several European countries. PMID:17482426

  10. Existence of intrinsic reflection asymmetry at low spin in odd and odd-odd mass nuclei in the Pm/Eu region

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I. )

    1995-03-01

    The low-spin features of odd-mass nuclei in the [ital Z][similar to]62, [ital N][similar to]90 region, for which stable octupole deformations has been previously suggested, are studied without introducing the static intrinsic reflection asymmetry (SIRA). Calculations using a Woods-Saxon potential and taking into account the Coriolis mixing show that most properties can be described in this approximation. Furthermore, the calculated polarization energies of octupole-driving orbitals are not large enough to support the existence of SIRA at low spin in this region.

  11. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  12. When is an odd number not odd? Influence of task rule on the MARC effect for numeric classification.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang Seok; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    When classifying numbers as odd or even with left-right keypresses, performance is better with the mapping even-right/odd-left than with the opposite mapping. This linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect has been attributed to compatibility between the linguistic markedness of stimulus and response codes. In 2 experiments participants made keypresses to the Arabic numerals or number words 3, 4, 8, and 9 using the odd-even parity rule or a multiple-of-3 rule, which yield the same keypress response for each stimulus. For both stimulus modes, the MARC effect was obtained with the odd-even rule, but tended to reverse with the multiple-of-3 rule. The reversal was complete for the right response, but task rule had little influence on the left response. The results are consistent with the view that the MARC effect and its reversal are caused by correspondence of the stimulus code designated as positive by the task rule with the positive-polarity right response code. PMID:17723063

  13. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on odd nitrogen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J. R.; Mcquillan, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbon breakdown in the atmosphere produces aldehydes of which a fraction are transferred into peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) in the presence of NO and NO2. Since ethane is destroyed photochemically primarily above 1 km, PAN can be introduced into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere without the need to be transported from the boundary layer where most hydrocarbons are destroyed and where PAN may be lost due to thermal decomposition and heterogeneous loss. Mixing ratios of ethane in the lower troposphere increase by a factor of 4-8 from equatorial to northern mid-latitudes. This difference is directly translatable into a PAN latitude gradient. At mid-latitudes the concentration of PAN below 20 km is 0.1 ppb comparable to and in some instances larger than predicted HO2NO2 mixing ratios. Like HO2NO2 and HNO3, PAN serves as a reservoir for odd nitrogen.

  14. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049; Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 ; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 ; Zhang, Yanpeng; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  15. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  16. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  17. Combining universal and odd RR axions for aligned natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xin; Li, Tianjun; Shukla, Pramod E-mail: tli@itp.ac.cn

    2014-10-01

    We successfully embed the Kim-Nilles-Peloso (KNP) alignment mechanism for enhancing the axion decay constant in the context of large volume type IIB orientifolds. The flat direction is generated in the plane of (C{sub 0}-C{sub 2}) axions corresponding to the involutively even universal axion C{sub 0} and odd axion C{sub 2}, respectively. The moduli stabilization with large volume scheme has been established as well.

  18. Yrast band in doubly-odd /sup 138/Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.; Ahn, K.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Xu, N.; Fossan, D.B.

    1988-11-01

    A rotational band, showing both signature components with a small energy splitting, has been identified in the doubly-odd /sup 138/Eu nucleus via the /sup 92/Mo(/sup 50/Cr,3pn..gamma..) reaction. Both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..gamma..-n coincidence studies were employed. Comparisons with the lighter /sup 136/Pm, /sup 134/Pr, and /sup 132/La isotones suggest a ..pi..h/sub 11/2/x..nu..h/sub 11/2/ structure.

  19. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  20. Odd oxygen measurements during the Noctilucent Cloud 93 rocket campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbel, J.; Murtagh, D. P.; Espy, P. J.; Witt, G.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    1998-10-01

    The NLC-93 campaign at Esrange, Sweden, addressed the chemical, dynamical and electrical environment of the summer mesopause in the presence of noctilucent clouds (NLC). A major topic was the detailed investigation of odd oxygen abundances and their structure in the vicinity of the cloud layer. Applying independent in situ measurements, we have obtained consistent profiles of atomic oxygen, ozone, and mesospheric total density. Atomic oxygen was measured on two rocket flights by means of a newly developed probe utilizing the 1304 Å resonance fluorescence/absorption technique. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the radiative transfer and the instrument aerodynamics are included in the data analysis. We find relatively low atomic oxygen densities with a peak of 2×1011cm-3 at 96 km. An airglow radiometer recorded the O2 IR-atmospheric band emission, allowing the retrieval of ozone densities by means of an inversion model that considers both direct and indirect sources of O2(a1Δg). The odd oxygen measurements are compared to a steady state photochemical model. While good agreement is found in the mesosphere, the results deviate close to the cold mesopause. Significant vertical structures are found in the atomic oxygen profiles; sharp gradients and distinct minima coincide with the observed NLC layer. Possible influences of heterogeneous chemistry on the odd oxygen abundance are discussed.

  1. A loop group extension of the odd Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott O.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

  2. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  3. Solar Cycle Dependence Of Temperature, Odd-Oxygen, Odd-Hydrogen, And Airglow In The Mesopause Region Observed By SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, T.; Russell, J. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Gordley, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first consistent, global set of temperature, pressure, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen and airglow measurements in the mesopause region spanning a complete solar cycle. The measurements are derived from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite. These data clearly indicate the influence of solar variability on the atmosphere structure and composition. In general, the values of most parameters decrease with decreasing solar activity. However, odd-hydrogen is observed to increase with decreasing solar activity. While the data indicate a direct relation between solar activity and atmospheric response, the role of dynamical variability in modulating the direct solar response has not yet been investigated, particularly on regional scales (e.g.,tropical, mid-latitude, or polar). We describe the SABER observations in detail and discuss how they can be used with general circulation models to assess the coupled role of dynamics and solar variability in determining the overall atmospheric response.

  4. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  5. Light Charged and CP-odd Higgses in MSSM-like Models

    SciTech Connect

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2008-11-23

    We study the Higgs sector of supersymmetric models containing two Higgs doublets with a light MSSM-like CP odd Higgs, m{sub A} < or approx. 10 GeV, and tan{beta} < or approx. 2.5. In this scenario all Higgses resulting from two Higgs doublets: light and heavy CP even Higgses, h and H, the CP odd Higgs, A, and the charged Higgs, H{sup {+-}}, could have been produced at LEP or the Tevatron, but would have escaped detection because they decay in modes that have not been searched for or the experiments are not sensitive to. Especially H{yields}ZA and H{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}*A with A{yields}cc-bar, {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} present an opportunity to discover some of the Higgses at LEP, the Tevatron and also at B factories. In addition, the 2.8{sigma} excess of the branching ratio W{yields}{tau}v with respect to the other leptons measured at LEP correlates well with the existence of the charged Higgs with properties typical for this scenario. Dominant {tau}- and c-rich decay products of all Higgses require modified strategies for their discovery at the LHC.

  6. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  7. Fitting Proportional Odds Model to Case-Control data with Incorporating Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zehui; Li, Xinmin; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies have been proved to be an efficient tool to reveal the aetiology of many human complex diseases and traits. When the phenotype is binary, the logistic regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the association strength of the genetic variants predispose to human diseases because the maximum likelihood estimator of the odds ratio based on case-control data is equivalent to that from the same model by taking the data as being arisen prospectively. This equivalence does not hold for the proportional odds model and using it to analyze the case-control data directly often results in a substantial bias. Through putting a parameter of the minor allele frequency in the modified likelihood function under the condition that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law holds within controls, a consistent estimator is obtained. On the basis of it, we construct a score test statistic to test whether the genetic variant is associated with the diseases. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator has smaller mean squared error than the existing methods when the genetic effect size is away from zero and the proposed test statistic has a good control of type I error rate and is more powerful than the existing procedures. Application to 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the region of TRAF1-C5 genes for the association with four-level anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody from Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 further demonstrates its performance. PMID:26607176

  8. Odd-parity perturbations of self-similar Vaidya spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Brien C.

    2007-01-01

    We carry out an analytic study of odd-parity perturbations of the self-similar Vaidya spacetimes that admit a naked singularity. It is found that an initially finite perturbation remains finite at the Cauchy horizon. This holds not only for the gauge-invariant metric and matter perturbation, but also for all the gauge-invariant perturbed Weyl curvature scalars, including the gravitational radiation scalars. In each case, 'finiteness' refers to Sobolev norms of scalar quantities on naturally occurring spacelike hypersurfaces, as well as pointwise values of these quantities.

  9. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  10. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  11. Radiative lifetimes of odd-parity levels in Nb I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Nakhate, S. G.

    2015-11-01

    Radiative lifetimes are reported for 37 odd-parity energy levels of neutral niobium (Nb I), out of which 33 have been measured for the first time. The levels belong to electronic configurations 4d35s5p and 4d45p between 18,790 and 35,730 cm-1. The time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique was employed. The Nb atoms were generated in a free-jet by laser vaporization of niobium metal. Lifetime values reported in this work fall in the range 12-340 ns and are accurate to ±10%.

  12. Behavior of odd-even mass staggering around 132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.

    2013-10-01

    We have performed shell-model calculations of binding energies of nuclei around 132Sn. The main aim of our study has been to find out if the behavior of odd-even staggering across N=82 is explainable in terms of the shell model. In our calculations, we have employed realistic low-momentum two-body effective interactions derived from the charge-dependent Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential that have already proved quite successful in describing the spectroscopic properties of nuclei in the 132Sn region. Comparison shows that our results fully explain the trend of the experimental staggering.

  13. Signatures of odd-frequency correlations in the Josephson current of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Caroline; Buzdin, Alexandre; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.

    2015-09-01

    Contacting a bilayer ferromagnet with a singlet even-frequency superconductor allows for the realization of an effective triplet odd-frequency superconductor. In this work, we investigate the Josephson effect between superconductors with different symmetries (e.g., odd versus even frequency). In particular, we study the supercurrent flowing between two triplet odd-frequency superconducting leads through a weak singlet even-frequency superconductor. We show that the peculiar temperature dependence of the critical current below the superconducting transition of the weak superconductor is a signature of the competition between odd/odd-frequency and odd/even-frequency Josephson couplings.

  14. Higher dimensional geometries related to fuzzy odd-dimensional spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2002-10-01

    We study SO(m) covariant matrix realizations of ∑i = 1mXi2 = 1 for even m as candidate fuzzy odd spheres following \\cite{guram}. As for the fuzzy four sphere, these matrix algebras contain more degrees of freedom than the sphere itself and the full set of variables has a geometrical description in terms of a higher dimensional coset. The fuzzy S2k-1 is related to a higher dimensional coset SO(2k)/U(1) × U(k-1). These cosets are bundles where base and fibre are hermitean symmetric spaces. The detailed form of the generators and relations for the matrix algebras related to the fuzzy three-spheres suggests matrix actions which admit the fuzzy spheres as solutions. These matrix actions are compared with the BFSS, IKKT and BMN matrix models as well as some others. The geometry and combinatorics of fuzzy odd spheres lead to some remarks on the transverse five-brane problem of matrix theories and the exotic scaling of the entropy of 5-branes with the brane number.

  15. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  16. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  17. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  18. Search for Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Radiative Decays of {upsilon}(1S)

    SciTech Connect

    Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a{sub 1}{sup 0}) decaying to {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} or {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in radiative decays of the {upsilon}(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, previously proposed as an explanation for 3 {sigma}{sup +}{yields}p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  19. Testing supersymmetry in the associated production of CP-odd and charged Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Yuan, C.-P.

    2002-03-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the masses of the charged Higgs boson (H±) and the CP-odd scalar (A) are related by MH+2=MA2+mW2. Furthermore, because the coupling of W--A-H+ is fixed by gauge interaction, the tree level production rate of qq¯‧→W±∗→AH± depends only on one supersymmetry parameter—the mass (MA) of A. We show that to a good approximation this conclusion also holds at the one-loop level. Consequently, this process can be used to distinguish MSSM from its alternatives (such as a general two-Higgs-doublet model) by verifying the above mass relation, and to test the prediction of the MSSM on the product of the decay branching ratios of A and H± in terms of only one single parameter—MA.

  20. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were <27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27-30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders). In interview 3 (30-34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant gender was obtained from medical records. The relationship between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and logistic regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Childhood trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl, with an odds ratio of >3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  1. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  2. Level structure of odd-odd 134Sb populated in the ?- decays of 134,135Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shergur, J.; Whr, A.; Walters, W. B.; Kratz, K.-L.; Arndt, O.; Brown, B. A.; Cederkall, J.; Dillmann, I.; Fraile, L. M.; Hoff, P.; Joinet, A.; Kster, U.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2005-06-01

    The level structure of odd-odd 134Sb has been studied at CERN/ISOLDE following the ?- decay of 134Sn and the ?-delayed neutron decay of 135Sn. Elemental and isobaric separation were accomplished by use of a resonance ionization laser ion source and an on-line mass separator, respectively. Both ?-ray singles and ?-? coincidence data were taken as a function of time. New levels at 279, 441, 555, 617, and 1385 keV have been identified and given proposed spin and parity assignments of 7-, 5-, 6-, 4-, and 5-, respectively, following ?-delayed neutron decay of 7/2- 135Sn. New 1- levels have been identified at 1900, 2170, and 2430 keV following the ?- decay of 0+ 134Sn. The resulting level structures are compared to shell-model calculations using the CD Bonn interaction and scaled and unscaled Kuo-Herling interactions developed for the 208Pb region. Remarkably enough, the unscaled Kuo-Herling interaction provides the best fit for the levels below 1 MeV.

  3. Summertime distribution and relations of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) in the troposphere over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Blake, D.; Barrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report here large-scale features of the distribution of NO(x), HNO3, PAN, particle NO3, and NO(y) in the troposphere from 0.15 to 6 km altitude over central Canada. These measurements were conducted in July - August 1990 from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint United States-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B-Northern Wetlands Study. Our findings show that this region is generally NO(x) limited, with NO(x) mixing ratios typically 20-30 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We found little direct evidence for anthropogenic enhancement of mixing ratios of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) above those in 'background' air. Instead, it appears that enhancements in the mixing ratios of these species were primarily due to emissions from several day old or CO-rich-NO(x)-poor smoldering local biomass-burning fires. NO(x) mixing ratios in biomass-burning impacted air masses were usually less than 50 pptv, but those of HNO3 and PAN were typically 100-300 pptv representing a twofold-threefold enhancement over 'background' air. During our study period, inputs of what appeared to be aged tropical air were a major factor influencing the distribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the midtroposphere over northeastern North America. These air masses were quite depleted in NO(y) (generally less than 150 pptv), and a frequent summertime occurrence of such air masses over this region would imply a significant influence on the reactive odd nitrogen budget. Our findings show that the chemical composition of aged air masses over subarctic Canada and those documented in the Arctic during ABLE 3A have strikingly similar chemistries, suggesting large-scale connection between the air masses influencing these regions.

  4. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  5. Ground State Magnetic Properties of Odd Neutron DY Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Zenginerler, Zemine; Kaplan, Pinar

    2013-10-01

    Using the quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM) and taking into account the spin-spin interaction, the effects of the spin polarization on spin gyromagnetic factors (gs) as well as the intrinsic magnetic moments (gK) of the deformed odd neutron 155-165Dy isotopes were studied. The calculated values of gs and gK are in fair agreement with the experiment as well as with other microscopic calculations. Our calculations indicated that because of the core polarization, the gs factors of the nucleons in the nucleus reduce noticeably from its free nucleon value and the spin-spin interactions play an important role in the explanation of the quenching of the gs factors. A very good reproduction of the phenomenological quenching of gs factor from its free values (gs eff = 0.6-0.7gs free) is obtained for 155-165Dy.

  6. Can one measure C-odd asymmetry in ee??? ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layssac, J.; Narison, S.

    2009-01-01

    C-odd asymmetry can be studied from an accurate measurement of the angular distribution due to the interference between the S- and P-waves in ee??? at order ?3. Though the integrated total cross-section is zero as expected from the Furry's theorem, the asymmetry is dominated by the pion rescattering diagram which is enhanced by the presence of the lns/me2, and is quite large (?11% at ?=30 and ?{s}

  7. Odd-Frequency Triplet Josephson Current Through an Exchange Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moke, Adam; Baker, Thomas; Richie-Halford, Adam; Bill, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    The existence of an odd-frequency long range triplet component in the order parameter of a proximity system with singlet superconductors is a recent prediction that has garnered great interest. The experimental fingerprint of this phenomenon is difficult to establish. We investigate a hybrid structure in which the emergence of the long range triplet component may be measured and identified. We consider a superconductor - exchange spring - superconductor Josephson junction as a function of increasing twist of the magnetic domain wall in the exchange spring. We show that as the domain wall is generated the long range triplet component emerges and modifies the current flowing through the Josephson junction. The critical temperature is also affected by the increased twist of the domain wall. The calculations lead us to propose an experiment where the long range triplet component can unequivocally be identified.

  8. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  9. Measuring an Effect Size from Dichotomized Data: Contrasted Results Whether Using a Correlation or an Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousson, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that dichotomizing continuous data has the effect to decrease statistical power when the goal is to test for a statistical association between two variables. Modern researchers however are focusing not only on statistical significance but also on an estimation of the "effect size" (i.e., the strength of association…

  10. Fission barriers for the emission of odd-numbered fragments from multicharged C{sub 60} prepared in Ar{sup 8+}-C{sub 60} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.; Chen, L.; Bernard, J.; Buchet-Poulizac, M. C.; Wei, B.; Bredy, R.

    2006-01-15

    We report on measurements of the branching ratios of emission of small C{sub n}{sup +} fragments in asymmetrical fission of highly charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions (r=4-6). For the channels corresponding to the emission of one fragment, only small fragments with an even number of carbon atoms are observed. For the channels with the emission of two fragments, successive emission of small fragments with an odd number of carbon atoms has been observed with a surprisingly high branching ratio (30%). In order to reproduce the experimental branching ratios in the framework of a statistical evaporation model, the height of fission barriers for the emission of one odd numbered fragment has to be reduced at higher temperature in order to allow the opening of these channels that are forbidden at lower temperature.

  11. Application of USDA and SDBA Hamiltonians in calculating the excited states of odd-A magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sammarrae, Anwer A.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.; Aziz, A. A.; Yusof, Norhasliza; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we assess the accuracy of theoretical shell model in calculating the excited states in odd- A magnesium isotopes with neutron numbers between 9 and 15, on the basis of recently reported experimental results. The assessments rely on the calculations of the energy levels, reduced electric quadrupole transition probabilities, reduced magnetic dipole transition probabilities, and multipole mixing ratio. The theoretical results are based on the new sd-shell Universal Hamiltonian (USDA) and the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn A Hamiltonian (SDBA). We show the area in which the two Hamiltonians are effective and demonstrate the possibility of confirming known states and suggesting new states.

  12. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  13. Increasing the Odds: Applying Emergentist Theory in Language Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This review introduces a leading theory of language development, emergentism, the view that language ability is the product of interactions between the language environment and the learning capabilities of the child. It suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions designed to address developmental language delays in young children. Method A review of selected literature on emergentist theory and research is presented, with a focus on the acquisition of early morphology and syntax. A significant method for developing and testing emergentist theory, connectionist modeling, is described. Key themes from both connectionist and behavioral studies are summarized and applied with specific examples to language intervention techniques. A case study is presented to integrate elements of emergentism with language intervention. Conclusions Evaluating the theoretical foundation for language interventions is an important step in evidence-based practice. This article introduces three themes in the emergentist literature that have implications for language intervention: sufficiency of language input, active engagement of the child with the input, and the introduction of factors that increase the odds for correctly mapping language form to meaning. Evidence supporting the importance of these factors in effective language intervention is presented, along with limitations in that evidence. PMID:21616988

  14. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  15. Nonparametric Risk and Nonparametric Odds in Quantitative Genetic Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient in a linear regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the genetic effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with a quantitative trait under the assumption that the trait value follows a normal distribution or is appropriately normally distributed after a certain transformation. When this assumption is violated, the distribution-free tests are preferred. In this work, we propose the nonparametric risk (NR) and nonparametric odds (NO), obtain the asymptotic normal distribution of estimated NR and then construct the confidence intervals. We also define the genetic models using NR, construct the test statistic under a given genetic model and a robust test, which are free of the genetic uncertainty. Simulation studies show that the proposed confidence intervals have satisfactory cover probabilities and the proposed test can control the type I error rates and is more powerful than the exiting ones under most of the considered scenarios. Application to gene of PTPN22 and genomic region of 6p21.33 from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 for association with the anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody further show their performances. PMID:26174851

  16. Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juricic, Vladimir; Roy, Bitan

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the possibility of realizing a time-reversal-symmetry breaking superconducting state that exhibits an f + is pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, I will argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. I will show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a fermionic multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed in the framework of an ɛ-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. I will then discuss the scaling of the superconducting gap with the strain-induced axial pseudo-magnetic field. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which quantum spin Hall topological insulator. Finally, I will mention some experimental signatures of this f + is time-reversal odd superconductor. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions. VJ is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  17. Even-odd entanglement in boson and spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Matera, J. M.

    2011-04-15

    We examine the entanglement entropy of the even half of a translationally invariant finite chain or lattice in its ground state. This entropy measures the entanglement between the even and odd halves (each forming a 'comb' of n/2 sites) and can be expected to be extensive for short-range couplings away from criticality. We first consider bosonic systems with quadratic couplings, where analytic expressions for arbitrary dimensions can be provided. The bosonic treatment is then applied to finite spin chains and arrays by means of the random-phase approximation. Results for first-neighbor anisotropic XY couplings indicate that, while at strong magnetic fields this entropy is strictly extensive, at weak fields important deviations arise, stemming from parity-breaking effects and the presence of a factorizing field (in the vicinity of which it becomes size-independent and identical to the entropy of a contiguous half). Exact numerical results for small spin s chains are shown to be in agreement with the bosonic random-phase approximation prediction.

  18. Odd-Frequency Triplet Josephson Current Through an Exchange Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, Andreas; Baker, Thomas E.; Richie-Halford, Adam; Moke, Adam K.

    2013-03-01

    The existence of an odd-frequency long range triplet component in the order parameter of a proximity system with singlet superconductors is a recent prediction that has garnered great interest. The experimental fingerprint of this phenomenon is difficult to establish. We investigate a hybrid structure in which the emergence of the long range triplet component may be measured and identified. We consider a superconductor - exchange spring - superconductor Josephson junction as a function of increasing twist of the magnetic domain wall in the exchange spring. We show that as the domain wall is generated the long range triplet component emerges and modifies the current flowing through the Josephson junction. The critical temperature is also affected by the increased twist of the domain wall. The calculations lead us to propose an experiment where the long range triplet component can unequivocally be identified. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (DMR-0907242), the Army Research Laboratory, the Research Corporation, the Graduate Research Fellowship and RSCA at CSU Long Beach.

  19. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  20. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  1. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  2. Signature inversion in the semidecoupled π h9/2 ⊗ ν i13/2 band of the odd-odd nucleus 172Lu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkova, Ts; Lieder, R. M.; Gast, W.; Bazzacco, D.; de Angelis, G.; Lieder, E. O.; Jäger, H. M.; Mihailescu, L.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Ur, C.; Martinez, T.; Axiotis, M.; Napoli, D.; Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus 172Lu have been populated in a 170Er(7Li,5n) reaction at 51 MeV and the emitted γ -radiation was detected with the GASP array. A new semidecoupled band with the proposed π 1/2-[541] ⊗ ν 7/2^ + [633] configuration has been established exhibiting a signature inversion. A systematic study of the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei of the rare-earth region is presented. The variation of the inversion spin remains nearly constant for nuclei with the same N-Z, increases with N for an isotopic chain and decreases with Z for an isotonic chain. On the basis of the systematics a change of the spins by 1ℎ is proposed for the semidecoupled bands in 180Re, 182,184Ir and 184,186Au.

  3. Prosociality and negative emotionality mediate the association of serotonin transporter genotype with childhood ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Whitney A; Lee, Steve S

    2013-01-01

    Although there is evidence that the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the pathways underlying these associations are largely unknown. Given their theoretical and biological plausibility, we tested whether individual differences in key temperament dimensions (i.e., prosociality, negative emotionality, daring) constituted potential pathways from 5-HTTLPR to ADHD and ODD. Using a well-characterized sample of 194 six to nine-year-old children with and without ADHD, we utilized multiple mediation procedures with bootstrapping to evaluate prosociality, negative emotionality, and daring as independent mediators of 5-HTTLPR with separate parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and ODD. Controlling for ODD, prosociality and negative emotionality significantly mediated the association of 5-HTTLPR and parent-reported ADHD. Similarly, controlling for ADHD, prosociality and negative emotionality each uniquely mediated the association of 5-HTTLPR and parent-reported ODD. For teacher-reported ADHD, prosociality significantly mediated the association of 5-HTTLPR (controlling for ODD) whereas controlling for ODD, negative emotionality significantly mediated the prediction of teacher-reported ODD from 5-HTTLPR. Specifically, the number of 5-HTTLPR long alleles was inversely associated with prosociality and positively associated with negative emotionality; prosociality was inversely associated and negative emotionality was positively associated with ADHD and ODD. We consider the role of temperament in genetically sensitive designs as well as its potential value in the development and delivery of effective interventions. PMID:24116887

  4. Even-odd Effects in the Prompt Emission in Fission of Even-even Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.; Visan, I.

    The even-odd effects in prompt emission received less attention compared to the extensively studied Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions. In this context, the present work is focusing on the even-odd effects (in both Z and N) appearing in the prompt emission of even-even nuclei fissioning spontaneously (252Cf, 236,238,240,242,244Pu) and by thermal neutron induced fission (233,235U, 239Pu). The study shows that these effects are mainly due to the Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions and ΔZ and the N even-odd effects in average neutron separation energies. The most pronounced even-odd effect in prompt emission is observed for the prompt neutron multiplicity, its global size decreasing with increasing fissility. The N even-odd effect in , influences the global even-odd effect in prompt neutron multiplicity often in an opposite way compared to the Z even-odd effect. The global N even-odd effect in is considerably higher in the case of 236-244Pu(SF) compared to other neutron induced fissioning nuclei with comparable mass. <ν>(TKE) shows an increase of the Z even-odd effect with increasing TKE. Compared to 233,235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(SF) for which these effects show a decrease for heavier fissioning systems, in the case of 236-244Pu(SF) this behaviour is not visible. The comparison of even-odd effects of 240Pu(SF) and 239Pu(nth,f) showed i) a higher even-odd effect in Y(Z) and ΔZ for SF confirming the Z even-odd effect decrease with increasing excitation energy and ii) the higher N even-odd effect in for SF impacts the prompt emission leading to a lower Z even-odd effect in prompt neutron multiplicity of 240Pu(SF) compared to 239Pu(nth,f).

  5. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics (electromechanical devices like micro-actuators and micro oscillators), in music instruments (hammers in piano), in human voice producing folds (voice cords), etc.

  6. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium ([Formula: see text], Bismuth ([Formula: see text]), Astatine ([Formula: see text]), Francium ([Formula: see text]), Actinium ([Formula: see text]) and Protactinium ([Formula: see text]) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207

  7. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Ramady, Amir M.

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl81217), Bismuth (Bi83217), Astatine (At85217), Francium (Fr87217), Actinium (Ac89217) and Protactinium (Pa91217) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory’s website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207

  8. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  9. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  10. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  11. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  12. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  13. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  14. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  15. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,

  16. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120

  17. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  18. The odd-even effect in Sudoku puzzles: effects of working memory, aging, and experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sang; Gibson, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    The odd-even effect in numerical processing has been explained as the easier processing of even numbers compared with odd numbers. We investigated this effect in Sudoku puzzles, a reasoning problem that uses numbers but does not require arithmetic operations. Specifically, we asked whether the odd-even effect occurred with Sudoku puzzles and whether individual differences in working memory (WM), aging, and experience with Sudoku modulated this effect. We manipulated the presence of odd and even numbers in Sudoku puzzles, measured WM with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and backward digit span task, tested older and younger adults, and collected Sudoku experience frequency. Performance on Sudoku was more accurate for even puzzles than odd ones. Younger, experienced, and higher-WM participants were more accurate on Sudoku, but these individual difference variables did not interact with the odd-even effect. Odd numbers may impose more cognitive load than even numbers, but future research is needed to examine how age, experience, or WM may influence the odd-even effect. PMID:21977693

  19. Clinically Referred ODD Children with or without CD and Healthy Controls: Comparisons across Contextual Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate…

  20. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  1. An apparent 'even-odd' cycle distribution in Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data (Howard et al., 1984) appear to be distributed according to 'even-odd' cycle numbering. Linear fits of annual 'numbers of spots' versus annual sunspot number for even- and odd-numbered cycles have slopes which are statistically different at the 5 percent level of significance. The existence of an 'even-odd' split in Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data may be due either to a real difference in even- and odd-numbered cycles on the sun or to a difference in weather at Mt. Wilson during even- and odd-numbered cycles, or both. For cycle 22, an even-numbered cycle, the peak 'numbers of spots' is estimated to be near 2600.

  2. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun; Zhang Fengshou; Bian Baoan

    2011-01-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4{<=}T{sub Z}{<=}1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  3. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Bian, Bao-An

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4⩽TZ⩽1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  4. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  5. Association of anxiety and ODD/CD in children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Aguirre, Vincent P; Lee, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if anxiety is associated with increased or decreased ODD and CD in children with ADHD. We examined parent and teacher ratings of ODD and CD from the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale in 203 school age children (ages 6-9); 70% were male, and 47% were Caucasian. Children were divided into four diagnostic groups based on ADHD and anxiety status from the Diagnostic Interview Scale for Children. According to parents, children with ADHD and anxiety had the highest levels of ODD/CD, followed by children with ADHD only (i.e., without anxiety). Children with anxiety only and controls had lowest ODD and CD scores, and these groups did not differ from each other. The same patterns were found according to teacher report, except that the anxiety only group had significantly lower levels of ODD than non-ADHD controls. Further, combined type ADHD youth with anxiety exhibited the highest levels of ODD and CD compared to all other groups. Comorbid anxiety may strengthen the association of ADHD and ODD/CD, particularly in the combined subtype. We discuss the importance of comorbid anxiety to the development of externalizing problems as well as potential explanatory factors underlying elevated ODD and CD among children with ADHD and anxiety. PMID:22420771

  6. Deformed ODD-ODD nuclei: Matrix elements for the residual n-p interaction and patterns of alternating perturbations in level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Kvasil, J.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )

    1989-09-01

    The application of a simple semi-empirical model is discussed in terms of interpreting experimental nuclear structure data for twelve of the best characterized odd-odd deformed nuclei. An essential part of this modeling is to calculate values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and Newby shifts, the observables that arise from the n-p residual interaction in odd-odd nuclei. Assumptions regarding the form for this n-p force are traced historically. The predictive power of a favored form of the n-p force, one that includes a central force with short and long-range components, a tensor force, and some effects of core polarization, is examined in light of experimental data obtained since its formulation. A data set of 42 experimentally determined Newby shifts has been reviewed as to the reliability of each entry. Exceptions to a recently proposed rule for the a priori determination of the sign of Newby shift are discussed. Evidence is presented for the existence of an odd-even staggering or signature effect in the rotational spacings of many K{sup {minus}} bands (with K > 0). By use of Coriolis-coupling calculations, it has been possible to reproduce the staggering observed in some of the K{sup {minus}} rotational bands of {sup 156}Tb, {sup 168}Tm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 182}Ta, and {sup 182}Re. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Elevated odds of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis: a population-based study of age and sex differences*

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, K; Wilsgaard, T; Olsen, AO; Eggen, AE; Olsen, K; Cassano, PA; Furberg, A-S

    2015-01-01

    Background Questions remain concerning to what extent age and sex may modify the suggested association between psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome in the general population. Objectives To investigate the association between psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome within a large population-based cohort by age and sex. Methods A cross-sectional study including 10 521 participants aged 3079 years from the Troms Study cohort was performed; 1137 participants reported lifetime psoriasis of a mainly mild character. The new harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results There was a uniformly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men and women with psoriasis compared with those without across all age groups. In women, psoriasis was associated with a 38-times higher odds of metabolic syndrome at age 30 years (95% confidence interval 1597), with a decreasing odds ratio with increasing age. In men, psoriasis was associated with a stable 135-times higher odds of metabolic syndrome (95% confidence interval 1116) at all ages. Abdominal obesity was the most frequent metabolic syndrome component in women in this study, and there was indication of a doseresponse relationship between psoriasis severity, indicated through treatment, and having a high waistline in women. Conclusions This study suggests age and sex variations in the risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals with psoriasis. Given the high prevalence of psoriasis and the significantly elevated burden of metabolic syndrome in this patient group, there may be a benefit from targeted screening of metabolic syndrome among individuals with psoriasis regardless of age and disease severity. PMID:25059341

  8. Laboratory search for a long-range T-odd, P-odd interaction from axionlike particles using dual-species nuclear magnetic resonance with polarized 129Xe and 131Xe gas.

    PubMed

    Bulatowicz, M; Griffith, R; Larsen, M; Mirijanian, J; Fu, C B; Smith, E; Snow, W M; Yan, H; Walker, T G

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K·r is one such possibility, where r is the distance between the nucleons and K is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized 129Xe and 131Xe when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2∼20  s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgp(n) by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude. PMID:25166656

  9. Laboratory Search for a Long-Range T-Odd, P-Odd Interaction from Axionlike Particles Using Dual-Species Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with Polarized Xe129 and Xe131 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, M.; Griffith, R.; Larsen, M.; Mirijanian, J.; Fu, C. B.; Smith, E.; Snow, W. M.; Yan, H.; Walker, T. G.

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K→·r→ is one such possibility, where r→ is the distance between the nucleons and K→ is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized Xe129 and Xe131 when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2˜20s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgpn by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude.

  10. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  11. α-decay spectroscopy of light odd-odd Bi isotopes - II: 186Bi and the new nuclide 184Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreyev, A. N.; Ackermann, D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Münzenberg, G.; Page, R. D.; Vel, K. Van De; Duppen, P. Van; Heyde, K.

    2003-10-01

    Alpha-decay of the new nuclide 184Bi has been studied in the complete-fusion reaction 93Nb(94Mo, 3n)184Bi at the velocity filter SHIP. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight and subsequently identified on the basis of recoil-α, recoil-α-γ analysis and excitation functions measurements. Two α-decaying isomeric states in 184Bi with half-life values of 13(2) ms and 6.6(1.5) ms were identified. The α-branching ratio of 180Tl was deduced for the first time as b_α = (2 --12)%. Improved data on the fine-structure α-decay of 186Bi were obtained in the 93Nb(95Mo, 2n)186Bi reaction. A similarity of the decay energies and half-life values of 184,186Bi is pointed out and a possible explanation for this effect is suggested.

  12. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  13. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  14. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sayanti; Sinha, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders. PMID:23097736

  15. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  16. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early ruin are explored; those which prevent early ruin are said to provide "sustainable odds", and it is suggested that these must be non-probabilistic. The aim here is not for the insurance cooperative to make a profit in the long run (or to form a book in any one round) but rather to increase the chance that the cooperative will not go bust, merely breaking even in the long run and thereby continuing to provide a service. In the perfect model scenario, with complete knowledge of all uncertainties and unlimited computational resources, fair odds may prove to be sustainable. The implications these results hold in the case of games against nature, which is perhaps a more relevant context for decision makers concerned with geophysical systems, are discussed. The claim that acknowledged model error makes fair (probabilistic) odds an irrational aim is considered, as are the challenges of working within the framework of sustainable (but non-probabilistic) odds.

  17. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  18. A Note on the Noncollapsibility of Rate Differences and Rate Ratios.

    PubMed

    Sjölander, Arvid; Dahlqwist, Elisabeth; Zetterqvist, Johan

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that the odds ratio is noncollapsible, in the sense that conditioning on a covariate that is related to the outcome typically changes the size of the odds ratio, even if this covariate is unrelated to the exposure. The risk difference and risk ratio do not have this peculiar property; we say that the risk difference and risk ratio are collapsible. However, noncollapsibility is not unique for the odds ratio; the rate difference and rate ratio are generally noncollapsible as well. This may seem paradoxical, since the rate can be viewed as a risk per unit time, and thus one would naively suspect that the rate difference/ratio should inherit collapsibility from the risk difference/ratio. Adding to the confusion, it was recently shown that the exposure coefficient in the Aalen additive hazards model is collapsible. This may seem to contradict the fact that the rate difference is generally noncollapsible, since the exposure coefficient in the Aalen additive hazards model is a rate difference. In this article, we use graphical arguments to explain why the rate difference/ratio does not inherit collapsibility from the risk difference/ratio. We also explain when and why the exposure coefficient in the Aalen additive hazards model is collapsible. PMID:26680297

  19. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  20. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Buka, Stephen L.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race and gender, with further matching based on mother’s age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66–6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p≤0.008–0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R2=0.26, p≤0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R2=0.21, p≤0.02), adenovirus (R2=0.25, p≤0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  1. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Buka, Stephen L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race, and gender, with further matching based on mother's age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin, and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66-6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p ≤ 0.008-0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R(2)=0.26, p ≤ 0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R(2)=0.21, p ≤ 0.02), and adenovirus (R(2)=0.25, p ≤ 0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  2. Electron capture strength on odd- A nucleus 59Co in explosive astrophysical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Muneeb-Ur; Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2014-05-01

    The Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions within massive stars play sumptuous role in the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. GT strength distributions and electron capture rates have been calculated for odd- A nucleus 59Co within the proton-neutron quasiparticles random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) formalism. The pn-QRPA results are compared with other model calculations and ( n, p) reaction experiment carried out at TRIUMF charge-exchange facility. The pn-QRPA calculated a total B( GT +) strength of 3.3 for 59Co to be compared with the shell model value of 2.5 and the 1.9±0.1 in the ( n, p) charge-exchange reaction. Aufderheide et al. (1993) extracted total strength equaling 2.4±0.3. The placement of GT centroid at 5.6 MeV by the pn-QRPA model is in reasonable agreement with the shell model centroid at 5.1 MeV whereas the measured GT centroid was placed at 4.4±0.3 MeV in the ( n, p) experiment. Fuller, Fowler and Newman (FFN) (1980, 1982a, 1982b), placed the GT centroid at too low excitation energy of 2.0 MeV in the daughter nucleus 59Fe, and this misplacement led to the enhancement of FFN rates. The suppressed pn-QRPA and shell model electron capture rates are in good agreement with each other. The rates are suggestive of higher value of Y e (electron-to-baryon ratio) and may contribute to a more massive homologously collapsing core resulting in a more energetic shock. It might be interesting for the simulators to check the effect of these suppressed rates on the fine-tuning of the time rate of Y e , the concomitant heavy element nucleosynthesis, and, on the energetics of the subsequent shock wave.

  3. General Patterns and Particular Pictures: Lessons Learned from Reports from "Beating the Odds" Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes reports of elementary and middle schools that are "beating the odds" by strengthening professional learning communities and improving student academic achievement. Draws implications for implementation of No Child Left Behind Act. (Contains 30 references.) (PKP)

  4. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  5. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  6. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the 'rules' of plating.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1-6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  7. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  8. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  9. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  10. Bottomonium Spectroscopy with Mixing of eta{sub b} States and a Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, Florian; Ellwanger, Ulrich; Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel

    2009-09-11

    The mass of the eta{sub b}(1S), measured recently by the BABAR Collaboration, is significantly lower than expected from QCD predictions for the UPSILON(1S)-eta{sub b}(1S) hyperfine splitting. We suggest that the observed eta{sub b}(1S) mass is shifted downwards due to a mixing with a CP-odd Higgs boson A with a mass m{sub A} in the range 9.4-10.5 GeV compatible with LEP, CLEO, and BABAR constraints. We determine the resulting predictions for the spectrum of the eta{sub b}(nS)-A system and the branching ratios into tau{sup +}tau{sup -} as functions of m{sub A}.

  11. Birthweight ratio revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Brownlee, K G; Ng, P C; Roussounis, S H; Dear, P R

    1991-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis suggested in a recent report that the birthweight ratio might be a useful predictor of several important clinical outcome measures in babies of less than 31 weeks' gestation, we examined the association between the birthweight ratio and aspects of both short and long term outcome in 436 Leeds babies of less than 31 weeks' gestation. Unlike the report, and contrary to what we had expected, we were unable to find any significant association between birthweight ratio and length of time on the ventilator, mortality, neurological outcome, or intellectual outcome. PMID:2025035

  12. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  13. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  14. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  15. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs. PMID:24889416

  16. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  17. Ratio and Proportion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipton, Sheila

    1980-01-01

    Examples of ratio and proportion problems from engineering, science, business, and catering are presented and solved. The goal is to illustrate how certain basic processes are used across a wide spectrum of occupations. (MK)

  18. Even-odd effects in prompt emission of spontaneously fissioning even-even Pu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.; Visan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The available experimental Y (A, TKE) data for 236,238,240,242,244Pu(SF) together with the Zp model prescription with appropriate parameters allows the investigation of even-odd effects in fragment distributions. The size of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) is decreasing from 244Pu(SF) to 236Pu(SF) confirming the general observation of a decrease of the even-odd effect with the fissility parameter. Charge polarizations (ΔZ) and root-mean squares (rms) as a function of A of 236-244Pu(SF) were obtained for the first time. In the asymmetric fission region both ΔZ (A) and rms (A) exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units due to the even-odd effects. The total average charge deviations < ΔZ > (obtained by averaging ΔZ (A) over the experimental Y (A) distribution) are of about |0.5| for all studied Pu(SF) systems. The comparison of the calculated ΔZ (A) and rms (A) of 240Pu(SF) with those of 239Pu (nth, f) reported by Wahl shows an in-phase oscillation with a higher amplitude in the case of 240Pu(SF), confirming the higher even-odd effect in the case of SF. As in the previously studied cases (233,235U (nth, f), 239Pu (nth, f), 252Cf(SF)) the even-odd effects in the prompt emission of 236-244Pu(SF) are mainly due to the Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions and charge polarizations and the N even-odd effects in the average neutron separation energies from fragments < Sn >. The size of the global N even-odd effect in < Sn > is decreasing with the fissility parameter, being higher for the Pu(SF) systems compared to the previously studied systems. The prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of Z, ν (Z), exhibit sawtooth shapes with a visible staggering for asymmetric fragmentations. The size of the global Z even-odd effect in ν (Z) exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing fissility. The average prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of TKE show an increase of the even-odd effect with increasing TKE, with global effect sizes close to each other (a decrease of the effect for heavier fissioning nuclei is not observed here). The amounts of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) and of the N even-odd effect in < Sn > of 240Pu(SF) are larger compared to 239Pu (nth, f). This fact affects the prompt emission leading to a lower Z even-odd effect in the prompt neutron multiplicity of 240Pu(SF) compared to 239Pu (nth, f).

  19. Determining maintenance cost ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef S.; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the wide range of costs involved in maintaining equipment and discusses methods that different industries use to measure and report their maintenance cost. Results are presented of the study of maintenance costs in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and of a comparison of DSN maintenance cost with the maintenance costs of a number of other reports. A comparison of the maintenance costs in terms of the maintenance cost ratio (annual maintenance cost/capital replacement cost) shows that DSN has the lowest maintenance cost ratio of the industries and organizations surveyed.

  20. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  1. Flexible parametrization of generalized parton distributions: The chiral-odd sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-06-01

    We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the Reggeized diquark model. While for chiral-even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. While awaiting the analysis of measurements on pseudoscalar mesons exclusive electroproduction which are key for the extraction of chiral-odd GPDs, we worked out a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using parity transformations. The connection works for quark-parton models including both scalar and axial vector diquark models, and spectator models in general. This relation allows us to estimate the size of the various chiral-odd contributions and it opens the way for future quantitative fits.

  2. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    PubMed

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment. PMID:25228507

  3. Racial Disparities in Tobacco Use and Social Influences in a Rural Southern Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Johnson, William D.; Annang, Lucy; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial differences of tobacco use and social exposure to tobacco products in a sample of middle school students. Questionnaires were administered in January 2005 to 290 students in a Mississippi Delta-area middle school. The participants were 51.0% female and 56.6% African American. Unadjusted odds ratios revealed that…

  4. Odd-Even Pattern Observed in Polyaniline/(Au0 – Au8) Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-01-12

    Theoretically predicted effect of odd-even pattern of electron pairing on behavior of gold clusters in polyaniline/AuN (N = 0 to 8) has been confirmed experimentally. In these composites the atomic Au clusters with even number of atoms exhibit higher catalytic activity for electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol in 1 M NaOH than the odd-number atoms clusters. Also, infrared spectroscopy shows that even numbered PANI/AuN composites affect the N-H stretching vibration more strongly than the corresponding odd numbered ones. This behavior matches the theoretically predicted variations of HOMO-LUMO gap energy and the stability of the atomic Au clusters. It also agrees with the earlier experimental work in which the UPS spectra of isolated, mass-selected Au clusters have been reported.

  5. Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph

    Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which pairing is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics, such as spin triplet (singlet) pairing in an s-wave (p-wave) superconductor. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to a one-dimensional array of Majorana zero modes becomes an odd-frequency superconductor. This work was supported by NSERC, CRC, CIFAR, and the University of Alberta.

  6. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  7. Odd-parity superconductivity by competing spin-orbit coupling and orbital effect in artificial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Yanase, Youichi

    2015-11-01

    We show that odd-parity superconductivity occurs in multilayer Rashba systems without requiring spin-triplet Cooper pairs. A pairing interaction in the spin-singlet channel stabilizes the odd-parity pair-density-wave (PDW) state in the magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional conducting plane. It is shown that the layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the orbital effect play essential roles for the PDW state in binary and tricolor heterostructures. We demonstrate that the odd-parity PDW state is a symmetry-protected topological superconducting state characterized by the one-dimensional winding number in the symmetry class BDI. The superconductivity in the artificial heavy-fermion superlattice CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 and bilayer interface SrTiO3/LaAlO3 is discussed.

  8. Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-05-01

    A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.

  9. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  10. Enhancement of the C P -odd effect in the nuclear electric dipole moment of 6Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Hiyama, Emiko

    2015-05-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 6Li nucleus within the α +p +n three-body cluster model using the Gaussian expansion method, assuming the one-meson exchange P , CP-odd nuclear forces. It is found that the EDM of 6Li is 2 times more sensitive to the isovector pion exchange P , CP-odd nuclear force than the deuteron EDM because of the CP-odd interaction between the nucleons and the α cluster. The 9Be EDM is also calculated in the same framework as an α +α +n three-body system. We also test the ab initio calculation of the EDM of the deuteron, 3H , and 3He nuclei using the realistic Argonne v 18 nuclear force. In the ab initio calculations, good agreements with previous studies are obtained. We finally discuss the prospects for new physics beyond the standard model.

  11. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Some Electromagnetic Transition Properties of Odd-A Europium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resit Yazar, Harun; Uluer, Ihsan; Ünaloǧlu, Volkan; Yaşar, Sinan

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we analyze the positive parity of states of odd-A Eu isotopes within the framework of interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-1). The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the 3s1/2, 2d3/2, 2d5/2, and 1g7/2 single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd-A Eu isotopes. Also, an IBM-1 calculation is presented for the low-lying states in the even-even 152-154Sm core nucleus. The energy levels and B(E2) transition probabilities are calculated and compared with the experimental data. It is found that the calculated positive parity low spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  12. Diverging scaling with converging multisite entanglement in odd and even quantum Heisenberg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Rakshit, Debraj; Sen(De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-02-01

    We investigate finite-size scaling of genuine multisite entanglement in the ground state of quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders. We obtain the ground states of odd- and even-legged Heisenberg ladder Hamiltonians and compute genuine multisite entanglement, the generalized geometric measure (GGM), which shows that for even rungs, GGM increases for odd-legged ladder while it decreases for even ones. Interestingly, the ground state obtained by short-range dimer coverings, under the resonating valence bond ansatz, encapsulates the qualitative features of GGM for both the ladders. We find that while the quantity converges to a single value for higher legged odd- and even-ladders, in the asymptotic limit of a large number of rungs, the finite-size scaling exponents of the same tend to diverge. The scaling exponent of GGM is therefore capable to distinguish the odd–even dichotomy in Heisenberg ladders, even when the corresponding multisite entanglements merge.

  13. Lower Numeracy Is Associated with Increased Odds of 30-Day Emergency Department and Hospital Recidivism for Patients with Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Candace D.; Collins, Sean; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H.; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. Methods and Results A cohort of patients with AHF who presented to four emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; thirty-day follow up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30-days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, gender, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relationships between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.98, P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted OR of recidivism was 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65, P=0.37). Conclusions Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure. PMID:23230305

  14. Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ? 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ? 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ?1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults. PMID:22551801

  15. Construction of an odds model of coronary heart disease using published information: the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Model (CHIME)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher J; Taylor, Paul; Potts, Henry WW

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a need for a new cardiovascular disease model that includes a wider range of relevant risk factors, in particular lifestyle factors, to aid targeting of interventions and improve population models of the impact of cardiovascular disease and preventive strategies. The model needs to be applicable to a wider population including different ethnic groups, different countries and to those with and without cardiovascular disease. This paper describes the construction of the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Model that aims to meet these requirements. Method An odds model is used. Information was taken from 2003 mortality statistics for England and Wales, the Health Survey for England 2003 and published data on relative risk in those with and without CVD and mean blood pressure values in hypertensives. The odds ratios used were taken from the INTERHEART study. Results A worked example is given calculating the 10-year coronary heart disease risk for a 57 year-old non-diabetic male with no personal or family history of cardiovascular disease, who smokes 30 cigarettes a day and has a systolic blood pressure of 137 mmHg, a total cholesterol (TC) of 6.2 mmol/l, a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of 1.3 mol/l, and a body mass index of 21. He neither drinks regularly nor exercises. He can give no reliable information about his mental health or fruit and vegetable intake. His 10-year risk of CHD death is 2.47%. Conclusion This paper demonstrates a method for developing a CHD risk model. Further improvements could be made to the model with additional information. The method is applicable to other causes of death. PMID:18976488

  16. Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.

    2007-08-15

    We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.

  17. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  18. Herd and cow characteristics affecting the odds of veterinary treatment for disease – a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mörk, Marie Jansson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Lindberg, Ann; Vågsholm, Ivar; Egenvall, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that a number of different factors affect whether an animal receives treatment or not when diseased. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if herd or individual animal characteristics influence whether cattle receives veterinary treatment for disease, and thereby also introduce misclassification in the disease recording system. Methods The data consisted mainly of disease events reported by farmers during 2004. We modelled odds of receiving veterinary treatment when diseased, using two-level logistic regression models for cows and young animals (calves and heifers), respectively. Model parameters were estimated using three procedures, because these procedures have been shown, under some conditions, to produce biased estimates for multi-level models with binary outcomes. Results Cows located in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Holstein cows had higher odds for veterinary treatment than cows in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Red cows. Cows with a disease event early in lactation had higher odds for treatment than when the event occurred later in lactation. There were also higher odds for veterinary treatment of events for cows in January and April than in July and October. The odds for veterinary treatment of events in young animals were higher if the farmer appeared to be good at keeping records. Having a disease event at the same date as another animal increased the odds for veterinary treatment for all events in young animals, and for lameness, metabolic, udder and other disorders, but not for peripartum disorders, in cows. There were also differences in the odds for veterinary treatment between disease complexes, both for cows and young animals. The random effect of herd was significant in both models and accounted for 40–44% of the variation in the cow model and 30–46% in the young animal model. Conclusion We conclude that cow and herd characteristics influence the odds for veterinary treatment and that this might bias the results from studies using data from the cattle disease database based on veterinary practice records. PMID:19698112

  19. Spontaneous Formation of a π Soliton in a Superconducting Wire with an Odd Number of Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyok-Jon; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2002-06-01

    We consider a one-dimensional superconducting wire where the total number of electrons can be controlled in the Coulomb blockade regime. We predict that a π soliton (kink) will spontaneously form in the system when the number of electrons is odd, because this configuration has a lower energy. If the wire with an odd number of electrons is closed in a ring, the phase difference on the two sides of the soliton will generate a supercurrent detectable by a SQUID. The two degenerate states with the current flowing clockwise or counterclockwise can be utilized as a qubit.

  20. Spontaneous formation of a π soliton in a superconducting wire with an odd number of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovenko, Victor

    2003-03-01

    We consider a one-dimensional superconducting wire where the total number of electrons can be controlled in the Coulomb blockade regime. We predict that a π soliton (kink) will spontaneously form in the system when the number of electron is odd, because this configuration has a lower energy. If the wire with an odd number of electrons is closed in a ring, the phase difference on the two sides of the soliton will generate a spontaneous supercurrent detectable by SQUID. The two degenerate states with the current flowing clockwise or counterclockwise can be utilized as a qubit. Reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017002 (2002)

  1. Electric dipole moments as probes of new CP-odd physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, Adam

    2009-12-17

    We review the importance of precision probes for flavor-diagonal CP-violation, specifically searches for electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules, in accessing new CP-odd physics at high scales. We summarize the effective field theory analysis of observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent new physics constraints, incorporating the recently improved limit on the Hg EDM. We also discuss the current status of these limits in the context of 1- and 2-loop contributions in supersymmetric models.

  2. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Description of Properties of Triaxial Superdeformed Bands in Odd-A Lu Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Li, Jin-Bo; Cao, Hong-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Properties of the triaxial superdeformed (TSD) bands of odd-A Lu isotopes are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and a perturbation possessing the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the γ-ray energies, the dynamical moments of inertia and the spin of the TSD bands in odd-A Lu isotopes are obtained. The calculation shows that the competition between the pairing and anti-pairing effects exists in these TSD bands. Meanwhile, the SU(3) symmetry in TSD bands are broken more seriously than in superdeformed (SD) bands.

  3. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  4. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  5. Interstellar CNO Isotope Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Langer, N.; Chin, Y.-N.; Mauersberger, R.

    In an interpretation of interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system CNO isotope ratios, we find two scenarios which are free of internal inconsistencies. The first requires that the early solar system was enriched by material from massive stars, leading to enhanced 12C/13C and 18O/17O ratios and to a reduced 14N/15N ratio. The second involves infall of gas onto the galactic disk after the formation of the solar system. Both scenarios require that the bulk of the interstellar 16O, 18O and 15N originates from massive stars (>8M⊙), with 18O and perhaps 15N being destroyed in lower mass stars. 17O is mainly synthesized in stars of intermediate mass while 12C, 13C, and 14N are produced in stars of high and intermediate masses. With respect to nucleosynthesis, evolutionary models of massive stars applying the Ledoux criterion for convection and semiconvective mixing should be preferred. These yield high 18O abundances above the convective He-burning core. For 17O, theoretical yields and observational data are not consistent, since models predict too much 17O from massive stars. The absence of an 18O/17O gradient in the galactic plane remains unexplained. Since 18O and 17O are products of quite different processes, this absence strongly constrains numerical models of the "chemical" evolution of the Galaxy.

  6. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…

  7. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  8. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  9. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived

  10. Probing a light CP-odd scalar in di-top-associated production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Farooque, Trisha; Juste, Aurelio; Liu, Tao; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-10-01

    CP-odd scalars are an integral part of many extensions of the Standard Model. Recently, electroweak-scale pseudoscalars have received increased attention in explaining the diffuse gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Centre. Elusive due to absence of direct couplings to gauge bosons, these particles receive only weak constraints from direct searches at LEP or searches performed during the first LHC runs. We investigate the LHC's sensitivity in probing a CP-odd scalar in the mass range 20 ≤ m_A ≤ 100 GeV via di-top-associated production using jet-substructure-based reconstruction techniques. We parameterise the scalar's interactions using a simplified model approach and relate the obtained upper limits to couplings within type-I and type-II 2HDMs as well as the NMSSM. We find that in di-top-associated production, experiments at the LHC can set tight limits on CP-odd scalars that fit the Galactic Centre excess. However, direct sensitivity to light CP-odd scalars from the NMSSM remains challenging.

  11. Partial proportional odds model-an alternate choice for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Menéndez, Mónica

    2014-11-01

    The conventional methods for crash injury severity analyses include either treating the severity data as ordered (e.g. ordered logit/probit models) or non-ordered (e.g. multinomial models). The ordered models require the data to meet proportional odds assumption, according to which the predictors can only have the same effect on different levels of the dependent variable, which is often not the case with crash injury severities. On the other hand, non-ordered analyses completely ignore the inherent hierarchical nature of crash injury severities. Therefore, treating the crash severity data as either ordered or non-ordered results in violating some of the key principles. To address these concerns, this paper explores the application of a partial proportional odds (PPO) model to bridge the gap between ordered and non-ordered severity modeling frameworks. The PPO model allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. This study is based on a five-year (2008-2012) national pedestrian safety dataset for Switzerland. A comparison between the application of PPO models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models for pedestrian injury severity evaluation is also included here. The study shows that PPO models outperform the other models considered based on different evaluation criteria. Hence, it is a viable method for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities. PMID:25113015

  12. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  13. Observation of the naive-T-odd Sivers effect in deep-inelastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Bacchetta, A; Ball, B; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Bonomo, C; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; López Ruiz, A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X-G; Lu, X-R; Ma, B-Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, H; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2009-10-01

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi(+), pi(0), and K(+/-), as well as in the difference of the pi(+) and pi(-) cross sections. PMID:19905623

  14. Muon signals of very light CP-odd Higgs states of the NMSSM at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Almarashi, M. M.; Moretti, S.

    2011-02-01

    We study here the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay mode of a very light CP-odd Higgs boson of the NMSSM, a{sub 1}, produced in association with a bottom-antibottom pair and find that, despite small event rates, a significant signal should be extractable from the SM background at the LHC with high luminosity.

  15. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  16. Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411

  17. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300

  18. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial

  19. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  20. Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools characteristics and…

  1. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  2. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  3. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  4. Neither Even nor Odd: Sixth Grade Students' Dilemmas Regarding the Parity of Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Esther; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates two sixth grade students' dilemmas regarding the parity of zero. Both students originally claimed that zero was neither even nor odd. Interviews revealed a conflict between students' formal definitions of even numbers and their concept images of even numbers, zero, and division. These images were supported by practically…

  5. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  6. Even-odd spatial nonequivalence for atomic quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. S.; Gupta, Reena

    2014-05-01

    A general expression for the density of states (DOS) of power-law trapped d-dimensional ideal quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) is derived and is found to bifurcate into even- dand odd- d classes. The expressions for the grand potential and hence for several thermodynamic quantities are then shown to be amenable to exact analytical forms provided d is an odd integer. Also, a condition γ < 2 d is obtained in case of odd- d for appearance of the Bose-Einstein condensation with γ as the power-law exponent. It is thus established that isotropic SOCs render even and odd dimensional spaces nonequivalent for uniform as well as trapped gases, and that the DOS of one-dimensional (1D) ideal gases, uniform or trapped, remains unaffected by the SOC. Furthermore, the analytical study of the transition temperature and the condensate fraction in a 3D Bose gas under combined presence of the harmonic trapping and the Weyl coupling shows that the condensation is favored by the former but disfavored by the latter. This countering behavior is discussed to be in conformity with the exchange-symmetry-induced statistical interactions resulting from these two entities as enunciated recently [Phys. Rev. A 88, 053607 (2013)].

  7. Empowerment Zone: Texas School Beats the Odds with a Shared Commitment to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Timothy; Dow, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The odds were stacked against the new elementary school from the beginning. In its favor, the school was a beautiful building with an established principal. Beyond that, anyone would predict that the first year would be tough. The staff consisted of new teachers and transfers from across the district. The students were reassigned from two…

  8. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  9. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…

  10. Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across…

  11. The odd-even effect of fragmentation cross sections for 36Ar and 40Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J. X.; Tian, J. L.; Zhang, D. H.

    2015-01-01

    Projectile fragmentation cross sections are calculated for reactions of 36Ar and 40Ar on C, Al, Cu, and Pb targets at 400 A MeV by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model, together with the statistical model code GEMINI. The total cross sections increase with increasing target mass, which is in good agreement with the experimental results and other theoretical predictions. The isotopic distributions and isospin distributions suggest that the odd-even effect is dependent on the projectile nuclei. For a 36Ar projectile with {{T}Z}=0, the partial cross sections appear an obvious odd-even effect, and the isotopic distributions show that the maximal cross sections for the even-Z isotope are larger than that for the neighboring odd-Z isotope. However, the fragmentation cross sections and the isotopic distributions for the 40Ar projectile have not shown these characteristics. The isospin distributions show that the odd-even effect of fragments from the {{T}Z}=0 projectile is stronger than that from the {{T}Z}=-2 projectile.

  12. Infinitely variable ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Geppert, E.F.

    1989-02-21

    A variable ratio vehicle transmission is described whose gear ratio is determined essentially only by torque on the output shaft of the transmission, comprising: a housing fixed in the vehicle; a power input shaft entering one end of the housing; a power output shaft entering the other end of the housing; a planet carrier mounted concentrically on the input shaft; a planet shaft mounted rotatably to the planet carrier; planet gears fixed coaxially to the planet shaft, one planet gear being a power transferring gear, a second planet gear being a reaction planet gear; a brake means rotatable about the input shaft sleeve for controlling the rate of rotation of the reaction planet gear about the planet shaft axis when the reaction planet gear orbits about the input shaft axis, the brake means having an inhibitor means for providing a substantially constant drag against rotation of the brake means about the input shaft; the brake means having a disk-like wall encircling the input shaft and a brake gear meshed with the reaction planet gear; the inhibitor means having two sets of annular friction disks disposed between the disk-like wall and the one end of the housing; the transmission further comprising means for operatively connecting the transferring planet gear to the output shaft.

  13. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  14. Prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy using the log odds of positive lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Li, Feng-Yan; Li, Qun; Lin, Huan-Xin; Lin, Qin; He, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    To compare the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) with the number of positive lymph nodes (pN), lymph node ratio (LNR), removed lymph node (RLN) count, and negative lymph node (NLN) count in determining the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after esophagectomy. The records of patients with ESCC who received esophagectomy were retrospectively reviewed. The log-rank test was used to compare curves for overall survival (OS), and Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. The prognostic performance of the different lymph node staging systems were compared using the linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and Akaike information criterion. A total of 589 patients were enrolled. Univariate Cox analysis showed that pN stage, LNR, RLN count, NLN count, and the LODDS were significantly associated with OS (p < 0.05 for all). Multivariate Cox analysis adjusted for significant factors indicated that LODDS was independent risk factor on overall survival (OS), and a higher LODDS was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio = 3.297, 95% confidence interval: 2.684–4.050, p < 0.001). The modified Tumor-LODDS-Metastasis staging system had better discriminatory ability, monotonicity, and homogeneity, and better optimistic prognostic stratification than the Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system in determining the prognosis of patients with ESCC. The LODDS staging system was superior to other lymph node classifications in determining the prognosis of patients with ESCC after esophagectomy. LODDS may be incorporated into esophageal staging system if these results are eventually confirmed by other studies. PMID:26426993

  15. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  16. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  17. High-Ratio Gear Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  18. Obese Mothers have Lower Odds of Experiencing Pro-breastfeeding Hospital Practices than Mothers of Normal Weight: CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T

    2016-03-01

    Objectives This study examines the extent to which a mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category is associated with her exposure to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices. Methods Data from the 2004-2008 CDC PRAMS were analyzed for three states (Illinois, Maine, and Vermont) that had administered an optional survey question about hospital pro-breastfeeding practices. Results Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 19 % were obese (pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 30). Obese mothers had lower odds than mothers of normal weight of initiating breastfeeding [70 vs. 79 % (unweighted), p < 0.0001]. Compared with women of normal weight, obese mothers had lower odds of being exposed to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices during the birth hospitalization. Specifically, obese mothers had higher odds of using a pacifier in the hospital [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (1.17-1.48), p < 0.0001] and lower odds of: a staff member providing them with information about breastfeeding [OR 0.71, 95 % CI (0.57-0.89), p = 0.002], a staff member helping them breastfeed [OR 0.69, 95 % CI (0.61-0.78), p < 0.0001], breastfeeding in the first hour after delivery [OR 0.55, 95 % CI (0.49-0.62), p < 0.0001], being given a telephone number for breastfeeding help [OR 0.65, 95 % CI (0.57-0.74), p < 0.0001], rooming in [OR 0.84, 95 % CI (0.73-0.97), p = 0.02], and being instructed to breastfeed on demand [OR 0.66, 95 % CI (0.58-0.75), p < 0.0001]. Adjusting for multiple covariates, all associations except rooming in remained significant. Conclusions Obesity stigma may be a determinant of breastfeeding outcomes for obese mothers. Breastfeeding support should be improved for this at-risk population. PMID:26515471

  19. Epitaxial transfer through end-group coordination modulates the odd-even effect in an alkanethiol monolayer assembly.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Yeneneh Y; Jha, Kshitij C; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-04-01

    Short spacer length and high end-group coordination lead to the top network acting as a template for the buried sulfur-gold interface of n-alkanethiols (SH-(CH2)n-OH or SH-(CH2)n-CH3) on gold {111}. Annealing and templating both drive toward a higher sampling of the spatially favorable bridge adsorption sites. The hydrogen-bonded network increases in strength by increasing the number of hydrogens participating per oxygen, from 1.75 to 1.98 for n = 14-30. Higher n leads to better packing (five times for hydroxyl-terminated and seven times for methyl-terminated for n = 14-30) and stability of monolayers, while lower n results in better epitaxial transfer (transfer coefficient ratio = 13.5 for {SH-(CH2)14-OH}/{SH-(CH2)30-CH3}) and actuation. Odd values of n for the hydroxyl-terminated n-alkanethiols lead to lattice spacing of an average of 0.04 ± 0.01 Å higher than even values. There is a structural transition in properties around spacer length n = 24-27. Characterization of monolayer assembly through correlation between adatom and network layers provides recursive design principles for actuation and sensing applications. PMID:24553572

  20. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  1. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  2. 750 GeV dark pion: Cousin of a dark G -parity odd WIMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Lu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    We point out a potential common origin of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton resonance and a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) candidate. In a dark QCD sector with an unbroken dark G parity, the diphoton resonance could be a dark G -even pion, while the WIMP could be the lightest dark G -odd pion. Both particles are Standard Model gauge singlets and have the same decay constant. For the dark pion decay constant of around 500 GeV, both the diphoton excess at the LHC and the dark matter thermal abundance can be accommodated in our model. Our model predicts additional dark G -even and dark G -odd color-octet pions within reach of the 13 TeV LHC runs. For the 5 +5 ¯ model, compatible with the grand unified theories, the WIMP mass is predicted to be within (613,750) GeV.

  3. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  4. Even and Odd Charge Coherent States: Higher-Order Nonclassical Properties and Generation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Truong Minh; Dinh, Dang Huu; Dat, Tran Quang

    2016-02-01

    We examine the higher-order nonclassical properties of the even and odd charge coherent states as well as proposing a scheme to generate these states whose modes can freely travel in open space. We show that the even and odd charge coherent states exhibit both higher-order antibunching and higher-order squeezing. While the two-mode higher-order antibunching occurs in any order and essentially depends on the charge number, the two-mode higher-order squeezing appears only in the even orders. We also prove that these states are genuinely entangled, and they can be generated by means of cross-Kerr media, beam splitters, phase shifts and threshold detectors. We find that the fidelity and the corresponding success probability to generate these states are dependent on the correlative parameters.

  5. An investigation of the solar cycle response of odd-nitrogen in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusch, David W.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report covers the first year of funding for the study of the solar cycle variations of odd-nitrogen (N((sup 2)D), N((sup 4)S), NO) in the Earth's thermosphere. The study uses the extensive data base generated by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites, and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer Satellite. The AE data are being used, for the first time, to define the solar variability effect on the odd-nitrogen species through analysis of the emissions at 520 nano-m from N((sup 2)D) and the emission from O(+)((sup 2)P). Additional AE neutral and ion density data are used to help define and quantify the physical processes controlling the variations. The results from the airglow study will be used in the next two years of this study to explain the solar cycle changes in NO measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer.

  6. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  7. P- and T-odd two-nucleon interaction and the deuteron electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.-P.; Timmermans, R.G.E.

    2004-11-01

    The nuclear physics relevant to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron is addressed. The general operator structure of the P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon interaction is discussed and applied to the two-body contributions of the deuteron EDM, which can be calculated in terms of P- and T-odd meson-nucleon coupling constants with only small model dependence. The one-body contributions, the EDMs of the proton and the neutron, are evaluated within the same framework. Although the total theoretical uncertainties are sizable, we conclude that, compared to the neutron, the deuteron EDM is competitive in terms of sensitivity to CP violation, and complementary with respect to the microscopic sources of CP violation that can be probed.

  8. Systematical law of (n, γ) reaction cross sections of odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djerboua, Y.; Zhang, Xiaoping; Amrani, N.; Boucenna, A.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2015-06-01

    A formula for neutron radiative capture cross section is derived within the framework of compound nucleus hypothesis for incident neutron energy (En) above the resonance region up to MeV. Based on this formula, we find a linear relationship between the logarithm of an (n, γ) cross section at fixed En divided by A1.4 and the relative neutron excess of the target nucleus, and new systematics are established between the (n, γ) reaction cross section and the energy level density of a compound nucleus. The calculated (n, γ) cross sections for odd-A target nuclei from this relationship are in good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that this new systematical law is helpful to analyze the experimental data. It would be helpful in estimating the (n, γ) cross sections of neighboring odd-A isotopes for which no experimental data are available.

  9. Odd tensor electric transitions in high-spin Sn-isomers and generalized seniority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The similar behavior of the B (E 1) values of the recently observed 13- odd tensor E1 isomers and the B (E 2) values of the 10+ and 15- even tensor E2 isomers in the Sn-isotopes has been understood in terms of the generalized seniority for multi-j orbits by using the quasi-spin scheme. This simple approach proves to be quite successful in explaining the measured transition probabilities and the corresponding half-lives in the high-spin isomers of the semi-magic Sn-isotopes. Hence, we show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the 13- Sn-isomers, which decay by odd-tensor E1 transitions to the same seniority states.

  10. Computer search for binary cyclic UEP codes of odd length up to 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Mao-Chao; Lin, Chi-Chang; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    Using an exhaustive computation, the unequal error protection capabilities of all binary cyclic codes of odd length up to 65 that have minimum distances at least 3 are found. For those codes that can only have upper bounds on their unequal error protection capabilities computed, an analytic method developed by Dynkin and Togonidze (1976) is used to show that the upper bounds meet the exact unequal error protection capabilities.

  11. CP-odd correlations using jet momenta from tt events at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sudhir Kumar; Valencia, G.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss T-odd correlations between jet and lepton momenta in tt events at the Tevatron that can be used to search for CP violation. We identify correlations suitable for the lepton plus jets and purely hadronic top-quark pair decay channels. As an example of CP violation we consider the top-quark anomalous couplings, including its chromo-electric dipole moment, and we estimate the limits that can be placed at the Tevatron.

  12. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior. PMID:24882503

  13. Observation of the Naive-T-Odd Sivers Effect in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Taroian, S.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Boettcher, H.; Fabbri, R.; Gabbert, D.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hristova, I.; Lu, X.-G.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Riedl, C.; Stewart, J.

    2009-10-09

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi{sup +}, pi{sup 0}, and K{sup +}-, as well as in the difference of the pi{sup +} and pi{sup -} cross sections.

  14. Test of the Universality of Naive-time-reversal-odd Fragmentation Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Daniel; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vogelsang, Werner; Yuan, Feng

    2010-08-23

    We investigate the"spontaneous'' hyperon transverse polarization in e+e- annihilation and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes as a test of the universality of the naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. We find that universality implies definite sign relations among various observables. This provides a unique opportunity to study initial/final state interaction effects in the fragmentation process and test the associated factorization.

  15. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  16. Error statistics in a high-speed fibreoptic communication line with a phase shift of odd bits

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Elena G

    2009-11-30

    The propagation of optical pulses through a fibreoptic communication line with a phase shift of odd bits is directly numerically simulated. It is shown that simple analytic expressions approximate well the error probability. The phase shift of odd bits in the initial sequence is statistically shown to decrease significantly the error probability in the communication line. (fibreoptic communication lines)

  17. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test

  18. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  19. Further Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Humphries, Marisha; Duax, Jeanne; Donald, Radiah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) and symptoms using the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule and generate data on the manifestation of symptoms of ODD and CD in 3- to 5-year-old children. Method: One hundred twenty-three consecutive referrals to a child and…

  20. The construction and use of log-odds substitution scores for multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Altschul, Stephen F; Wootton, John C; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct "BILD" ("Bayesian Integral Log-odds") substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  1. Coherent quadrupole-octupole modes and split parity-doublet spectra in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N.; Drenska, S.; Yotov, P.; Lalkovski, S.; Bonatsos, D.; Scheid, W.

    2007-09-15

    A collective model describing coherent quadrupole-octupole oscillations and rotations with a Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon is applied to odd nuclei. The particle-core coupling provides a parity-doublet structure of the spectrum, whereas the quadrupole-octupole motion leads to a splitting of the doublet energy levels. The formalism successfully reproduces the split parity-doublet spectra and the attendant B(E1) and B(E2) transition probabilities in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides estimations for the influence of the Coriolis interaction on the collective motion and subsequently for the value of angular momentum projection K on which the spectrum is built. The analysis of the energy splitting and B(E1) transition probabilities between opposite parity counterparts suggests degenerate doublet structures at high angular momenta. The study provides information about the evolution of quadrupole-octupole collectivity in odd-mass nuclei.

  2. Childhood ODD and ADHD Behavior: The Effect of Classroom Sharing, Gender, Teacher Gender and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Lubke, Gitta H; Glasner, Tina J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-07-01

    One criterion for a diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is that symptoms are present in at least two settings, and often teacher ratings are taken into account. The short Conners' Teacher Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R) is a widely used standardized instrument measuring ODD and ADHD behavior in a school setting. In the current study CTRS-R data were available for 7, 9 and 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register. Measurement invariance (MI) across student gender and teacher gender was established for three of the four scales (Oppositional Behavior, Hyperactivity and ADHD Index) of the CTRS-R. The fourth scale (ATT) showed an unacceptable model fit even without constraints on the data and revision of this scale is recommended. Gene-environment (GxE) interaction models revealed that heritability was larger for children sharing a classroom. There were some gender differences in the heritability of ODD and ADHD behavior and there was a moderating effect of teacher's gender at some of the ages. Taken together, this indicates that there was evidence for GxE interaction for classroom sharing, gender of the student and gender of the teacher. PMID:25711757

  3. On the Gaussian overlap approximation for the collective excitations of odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohoziński, Stanisław G.

    2015-02-01

    The multi-dimensional generator coordinate method is applied to describe the quadrupole collective states of odd nuclei. The laboratory Cartesian components of the quadrupole deformation tensor are used as the generator coordinates. The two mean-field states of an odd nucleus constituting a Kramers’ doublet are taken as the two intrinsic generating states which can rotate in the laboratory reference frame. The time-signature invariance of these intrinsic states is assumed. A version of the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA) for the two generating states is constructed. A system of two coupled differential equations for the collective excitations of odd nuclei is derived from the variational principle using the GOA. The system forms a generalized eigenvalue differential equation in the two-dimensional ‘alispin’ space. Breaking the time-reversal symmetry and alignment of the angular momentum in the mean-field states modifies the rotational part of the Hamiltonian compared to that of the standard Bohr Hamiltonian, whereas the quadrupole vibrations are modified through the coupling of the Kramers states.

  4. odd-skipped related 2 is required for fin chondrogenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Pui-ying; Kamei, Caramai N.; Mangos, Steve; Mudumana, Sudha; Liu, Yan; Drummond, Iain A.

    2014-01-01

    Background odd-skipped related 2 (osr2) encodes a vertebrate ortholog of the Drosophila odd-skipped zinc-finger transcription factor. Osr2 in mouse is required for proper palate, eyelid, and bone development. Zebrafish knock down experiments have also suggested a role for osr2, along with its paralog osr1, in early pectoral fin specification and pronephric development. Results We show here that osr2 has a specific function later in development, independent of osr1, in the regulation of sox9a expression and promoting fin chondrogenesis. mRNA in situ hybridization demonstrated osr2 expression in the developing floorplate and later during organogenesis in the pronephros and gut epithelium. In the pectoral fin buds, osr2 was specifically expressed in fin mesenchyme. osr2 knock down in zebrafish embryos disrupted both three and five zinc finger alternatively spliced osr2 isoforms and eliminated wild-type osr2 mRNA. osr2 morphants exhibited normal pectoral fin bud specification but exhibited defective fin chondrogenesis, with loss of differentiated chondrocytes. Defects in chondrogenesis were paralleled by loss of sox9a as well as subsequent col2a1 expression, linking osr2 function to essential regulators of chondrogenesis. Conclusions The zebrafish odd-skipped related 2 gene regulates sox9a and col2a1 expression in chondrocyte development and is specifically required for zebrafish fin morphogenesis. PMID:23913342

  5. Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2010-07-15

    Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.

  6. Intrinsic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect Due to s -Wave Odd-Frequency Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bernardo, A.; Salman, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Amado, M.; Egilmez, M.; Flokstra, M. G.; Suter, A.; Lee, S. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Prokscha, T.; Morenzoni, E.; Blamire, M. G.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2015-10-01

    In 1933, Meissner and Ochsenfeld reported the expulsion of magnetic flux—the diamagnetic Meissner effect—from the interior of superconducting lead. This discovery was crucial in formulating the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. In exotic superconducting systems BCS theory does not strictly apply. A classical example is a superconductor-magnet hybrid system where magnetic ordering breaks time-reversal symmetry of the superconducting condensate and results in the stabilization of an odd-frequency superconducting state. It has been predicted that under appropriate conditions, odd-frequency superconductivity should manifest in the Meissner state as fluctuations in the sign of the magnetic susceptibility, meaning that the superconductivity can either repel (diamagnetic) or attract (paramagnetic) external magnetic flux. Here, we report local probe measurements of faint magnetic fields in a Au /Ho /Nb trilayer system using low-energy muons, where antiferromagnetic Ho (4.5 nm) breaks time-reversal symmetry of the proximity-induced pair correlations in Au. From depth-resolved measurements below the superconducting transition of Nb, we observe a local enhancement of the magnetic field in Au that exceeds the externally applied field, thus proving the existence of an intrinsic paramagnetic Meissner effect arising from an odd-frequency superconducting state.

  7. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce odd chain-length fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhu; Wong, Adison; Foo, Jee Loon; Ng, Joey; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Chang, Matthew Wook; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fatty aldehydes and alcohols are valuable precursors used in the industrial manufacturing of a myriad of specialty products. Herein, we demonstrate the de novo production of odd chain-length fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expressing a novel biosynthetic pathway involving cytosolic thioesterase, rice α-dioxygenase and endogenous aldehyde reductases. We attained production titers of ∼20 mg/l fatty aldehydes and ∼20 mg/l fatty alcohols in shake flask cultures after 48 and 60 h respectively without extensive fine-tuning of metabolic fluxes. In contrast to prior studies which relied on bi-functional fatty acyl-CoA reductase to produce even chain-length fatty alcohols, our biosynthetic route exploits α-oxidation reaction to produce odd chain-length fatty aldehyde intermediates without using NAD(P)H cofactor, thereby conserving cellular resource during the overall synthesis of odd chain-length fatty alcohols. The biosynthetic pathway presented in this study has the potential to enable sustainable and efficient synthesis of fatty acid-derived chemicals from processed biomass. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 842-851. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26461930

  8. Charge radii of odd-A191-211Po isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjødin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2013-02-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured for the odd-A polonium isotopes 191-211Po and changes in the nuclear mean square charge radii δ have been deduced. The measurements were performed at CERN-ISOLDE using the in-source resonance-ionization spectroscopy technique. The combined analysis of these data and our recent results for even-A polonium isotopes indicates an onset of deformation already at 197,198Po, when going away from stability. This is significantly earlier than was suggested by previous theoretical and experimental studies of the polonium isotopes. Moreover and in contrast to the mercury isotopes, where a strong odd-even staggering of the charge radii of the ground states was observed by approaching the neutron mid-shell at N = 104, no such effect is present in polonium down to 191Po. Consequently the charge radii of both isomeric and ground states of the odd-A polonium isotopes follow the same trend as the even-A isotopes.

  9. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6–10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and family functioning. ODD and GAD symptom groups were defined using various combinations of mother and teacher reports. ODD symptom groups were associated with conduct disorder symptoms, and GAD symptom groups with major depressive disorder symptoms, regardless of rater. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with ODD and GAD symptom groups; however, covarying ADHD symptoms altered few findings. The ODD+GAD symptom groups were associated with higher rates of co-occurring symptoms and risk factors within (source-specific syndromes) and across (cross-informant comorbidity) informants. PMID:18470769

  10. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  11. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes: influence of reservoir species on NOx and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.

  12. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-09-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated ratio is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the ratio divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third ratio estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these ratio estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of ratio bias, and discuss proper ratio estimation for SIMS analysis.

  13. Using the Cumulative Common Log-Odds Ratio to Identify Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items in the Exercise and Sport Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2007-01-01

    One aspect of construct validity is the extent to which the measurement properties of a rating scale are invariant across the groups being compared. An increasingly used method for assessing between-group differences in the measurement properties of items of a scale is the framework of differential item functioning (DIF). In this paper we…

  14. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  15. Behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of auditory distractibility in children with ADHD and comorbid ODD.

    PubMed

    Oja, L; Huotilainen, M; Nikkanen, E; Oksanen-Hennah, H; Laasonen, M; Voutilainen, A; von Wendt, L; Alho, K

    2016-02-01

    Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit - Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker. In addition, novel sounds (e.g., a sound of hammer, rain, or car horn) unrelated to the task were presented from a loudspeaker behind the child. The percentage of correct responses was lower for target sounds preceded by a novel sound than for targets not preceded by such sound in the ADHD group, but not in the control group. In both groups, a biphasic positive P3a response was observed in ERPs to the novel sounds. The later part of the P3a appeared to continue longer over the frontal scalp areas in the ADHD group than in the controls presumably because a reorienting negativity (RON) ERP response following the P3a was smaller in the ADHD group than in the control group. This suggests that the children with ADHD had problems in reorienting their attention to the current task after a distracting novel sound leading to deterioration of performance in this task. The present study also indicates that children with ADHD and comorbid ODD show same kind of distractibility as found in previous studies for children with ADHD without systematic comorbid ODD. PMID:26688114

  16. Biological pattern and transcriptomic exploration and phylogenetic analysis in the odd floral architecture tree: Helwingia willd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Odd traits in few of plant species usually implicate potential biology significances in plant evolutions. The genus Helwingia Willd, a dioecious medical shrub in Aquifoliales order, has an odd floral architecture-epiphyllous inflorescence. The potential significances and possible evolutionary origin of this specie are not well understood due to poorly available data of biological and genetic studies. In addition, the advent of genomics-based technologies has widely revolutionized plant species with unknown genomic information. Results Morphological and biological pattern were detailed via anatomical and pollination analyses. An RNA sequencing based transcriptomic analysis were undertaken and a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on single-copy genes in more than 80 species of seed plants, including H. japonica. It is verified that a potential fusion of rachis to the leaf midvein facilitates insect pollination. RNA sequencing yielded a total of 111450 unigenes; half of them had significant similarity with proteins in the public database, and 20281 unigenes were mapped to 119 pathways. Deduced from the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy genes, the group of Helwingia is closer with Euasterids II and rather than Euasterids, congruent with previous reports using plastid sequences. Conclusions The odd flower architecture make H. Willd adapt to insect pollination by hosting those insects larger than the flower in size via leave, which has little common character that other insect pollination plants hold. Further the present transcriptome greatly riches genomics information of Helwingia species and nucleus genes based phylogenetic analysis also greatly improve the resolution and robustness of phylogenetic reconstruction in H. japonica. PMID:24969969

  17. Odd-Parity Superconductivity in the Vicinity of Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that, because of the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s -wave pairing. We show that Coulomb repulsion or an external Zeeman field suppresses the s -wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Our work provides a new mechanism for odd-parity pairing and opens a route to novel topological superconductivity.

  18. Electromagnetic and thermal responses of Z topological insulators and superconductors in odd spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Ken; Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2013-02-15

    The relation between bulk topological invariants and experimentally observable physical quantities is a fundamental property of topological insulators and superconductors. In the case of chiral symmetric systems in odd spatial dimensions such as time-reversal invariant topological superconductors and topological insulators with sublattice symmetry, this relation has not been well understood. We clarify that the winding number which characterizes the bulk Z nontriviality of these systems can appear in electromagnetic and thermal responses in a certain class of heterostructure systems. It is also found that the Z nontriviality can be detected in the bulk "chiral polarization," which is induced by magnetoelectric effects. PMID:25166392

  19. Chern-Simons topological Lagrangians in odd dimensions and their Kaluza-Klein reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.

    1984-08-01

    Clarifying the behavior of generic Chern-Simons secondary invariants under infinitesimal variation and finite gauge transformation, it is proved that they are eligible to be a candidate term in the Lagrangian in odd dimensions (2k-1 for gauge theories and 4k-1 for gravity). The coefficients in front of these terms may be quantized because of topological reasons. As a possible application, the dimensional reduction of such actions in Kaluza-Klein theory is discussed. The difficulty in defining the Chern-Simons action for topologically nontrivial field configurations is pointed out and resolved.

  20. Difference between even and odd 11-year cycles in cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaola, J. A.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray data for the period 1946-1984 are used to determine the run of the cosmic ray intensity over three complete solar cycles. The analysis shows a tendency towards a regular alternation of cosmic ray intensity cycles with double and single maxima. Whereas a saddle-like shape is characteristic of even cycles, odd cycles are characterized by a peak-like shape. The importance of this behavior is discussed in terms of different processes influencing cosmic ray transport in the heliosphere.

  1. Formation of collisionless high-beta plasmas by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A; Berlinger, B; Brunkhorst, C; Brooks, A; Ferraro, N; Lundberg, D P; Roach, A; Glasser, A H

    2007-04-01

    Odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFo) applied to mirror-configuration plasmas have produced average electron energies exceeding 200 eV at line-averaged electron densities of approximately 10(12) cm-3. These plasmas, sustained for over 10(3)tauAlfven, have low Coulomb collisionality, vc* triple bond L/lambdaC approximately 10(-3), where lambdaC is the Coulomb scattering mean free path and L is the plasma's characteristic half length. Divertors allow reduction of the electron-neutral collision frequency to values where the RMFo coupling indicates full penetration of the RMFo to the major axis. PMID:17501282

  2. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-06

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  3. The influence of quasineutron configurations on {sup 161}Ta and nearby odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Bianco, L.; O'Donnell, D.; Page, R. D.; Paul, E. S.; Sapple, P. J.; Wiseman, D. R.; Lagergren, K.; Appelbe, D. E.; Barton, C. J.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Labiche, M.; Simpson, J.; Warner, D. D.; Cederwall, B.; Hadinia, B.; Wyss, R.; Darby, I. G.; Grahn, T.; and others

    2011-11-30

    Several strongly coupled bands in the neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 161}Ta have been identified and quasiparticle configuration assignments have been made on the basis of rotational alignments and cranked shell model calculations. The level scheme elucidated for {sup 161}Ta highlights the competition between the {nu}(h{sub 9/2}) and {nu}(i{sub 13/2}) orbitals to form the yrast spectrum. The band structures in {sup 161}Ta also provide new insights into the structural features of other heavy odd-A nuclei populated with much lower reaction cross sections in this region at the proton drip line.

  4. Octupole correlations in neutron rich, odd-{ital A} lanthanum nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Phillips, W.R.; Durell, J.L.; Jones, M.A.; Leddy, M.; Pearson, C.J.; Smith, A.G.; Varley, B.J.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L.R.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Schulz, N.

    1996-08-01

    Neutron-rich, odd-{ital Z} nuclei {sup 145}La and {sup 147}La populated in spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm were studied using the EUROGAM array. The experiment indicates the presence of similar octupole correlations in the studied La isotopes as found in the barium core nuclei. Alternating-parity structures were found in {sup 145}La, indicating enhanced octupole correlations, as observed in {sup 144}Ba, while in {sup 147}La octupole effects are weakened by alignment phenomena, as seen in the core nucleus {sup 146}Ba. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. Projected quasiparticle calculations for the N =82 odd-proton isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Losano, L. ); Dias, H. )

    1991-12-01

    The structure of low-lying states in odd-mass {ital N}=82 isotones (135{le}{ital A}{le}145) is investigated in terms of a number-projected one- and three-quasiparticles Tamm-Dancoff approximation. A surface-delta interaction is taken as the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. Excitation energies, dipole and quadrupole moments, and {ital B}({ital M}1) and {ital B}({ital E}2) values are calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  6. Parallel FE Approximation of the Even/Odd Parity Form of the Linear Boltzmann Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, Clifton R.; Lorenz, Jens

    1999-07-21

    A novel solution method has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann equation on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the equation, this approach is based on the even/odd-parity form in conjunction with the conventional mdtigroup discrete-ordinates approximation. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, and the method is well suited for massively parallel computers.

  7. The early history of the integrable chiral Potts model and the odd-even problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perk, Jacques H. H.

    2016-04-01

    In the first part of this paper I shall discuss the round-about way of how the integrable chiral Potts model was discovered about 30 years ago. As there should be more higher-genus models to be discovered, this might be of interest. In the second part I shall discuss some quantum group aspects, especially issues of odd versus even N related to the Serre relations conjecture in our quantum loop subalgebra paper of 5 years ago and how we can make good use of coproducts, also borrowing ideas of Drinfeld, Jimbo, Deguchi, Fabricius, McCoy and Nishino.

  8. Low-lying odd-parity states of the nucleon in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahbub, M. Selim; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Moran, Peter J.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    The odd-parity nucleon spectrum is examined in the light quark-mass regime in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD. Configurations generated by the PACS-CS Collaboration and made available through the International Lattice Data Grid are used, with the lightest pion mass at 156 MeV. A novel method for tracking the individual energy eigenstates as the quark mass changes is introduced. The success of this approach reveals the flow of the states towards the physical masses. Using the correlation-matrix method, the two lowest-energy states revealed are found to be in accord with the physical spectrum of nature.

  9. GUE-type energy level statistics for spherical odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, H.

    2014-06-01

    The spectral statistics of spherical nuclei are steadily considered with emphasis on nearest-neighbor spacing statistics. Sequences are constructed by using all the available empirical data for the considered nuclei in different mass regions and analyzed via the generalized Brody distribution and the maximum likelihood estimation technique. Our results indicate an approach to chaotic dynamics for the nuclei considered in this work. Also, spherical odd-mass nuclei in the 50 A ≤ 100 mass region exhibit a slight deviation to the GUE spectral statistics rather than to the GOE.

  10. Development of odd-Z-projectile reactions for transactinide element synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, Charles Marvin

    2004-11-04

    The development of new odd-Z-projectile reactions leading to the production of transactinide elements is described. The cross section of the even-Z-projectile 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds reaction was measured at two new energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, seven decay chains attributable to 271Ds were observed. These data, combined with previous results, establish an excitation function for the production of 271Ds. The maximum cross section was 20 +15 -11 pb at a center-of-target energy of 311.5 MeV in the laboratory frame.The data from the 271Ds experiments were used to estimate the optimum beam energy for the new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(65Cu, n)272-111 reaction using the Fusion by Diffusion theory proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski. A cross section for this reaction was measured for the first time, at a center-of-target energy of 321.1 MeV in the laboratory frame. The excitation energy f or compound nuclei formed at the target center was 13.2 MeV. One decay chain was observed, resulting in a measured cross section of 1.7 +3.9 -1.4 pb. This decay chain is in good agreement with previously published data on the decay of 272-111.The new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(55Mn, n)262Bh reaction was studied at three different projectile energies, and 33 decay chains of 262Bh were observed. The existence of a previously reported alpha-decaying isomeric state in this nuclide was confirmed. Production of the ground state was preferred at all three beam energies. The maximum cross section was 540 +180 -150 pb at a projectile center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV. This cross section is much larger than that previously reported for the even-Z-projectile 209Bi(54Cr, n)262Bh reaction, which may be because the 54Cr projectile energies in the latter reaction were too high for optimum production of the 1n product. At the highest projectile energy of 268.0 MeV in the target center, two decay chains from 261Bh were observed as a result of the 208Pb(55Mn, 2n) reaction. In summary, this work shows that odd-Z-projectile reactions can have cross sections comparable to analogous even-Z-projectile reactions, and that the energy of the maximum cross section for 1n reactions can be estimated simply.

  11. Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2002-10-20

    We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals. PMID:12396200

  12. On the optimal sex ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Lessard, S

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium structures for various multiallele sex-determining genetic models of panmictic populations with sex expression depending on the genotypes of either the zygote or a parent are described. Even-sex-ratio equilibrium surfaces can exist apart from equilibrium points having coincident male and female allelic frequency sets. The latter (symmetric) equilibrium states entail biased sex ratios. A stable symmetric equilibrium and an even-sex-ratio equilibrium segregating the same alleles cannot coexist. The tendency to evolve toward an even-sex ratio is embodied by the following optimality property: starting from an equilibrium having a biased sex ratio, mutant sex-determining alleles can accumulate only in the case in which in the augmented system all attainable equilibrium states have a sex ratio closer to one to one. PMID:6577461

  13. A test for correction made to spin systematics for coupled band in doubly-odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vinod

    2015-12-15

    Systematic Spin Assignments were generally made by using the argument that the energy of levels is a function of neutron number. In the present systematics, the excitation energy of the levels incorporated the effect of nuclear deformation and signature splitting. The nuclear deformation changes toward the mid-shell, therefore a smooth variation in the excitation energy of the levels is observed towards the mid-shell, that intended to make systematics as a function of neutron number towards the mid-shell. Another term “signature splitting” that push the energy of levels for odd- and even-spin sequences up and down, caused the different energy variation pattern for odd- and even-spin sequences. The corrections made in the spin systematics were tested for the known spins of various isotopic chain. In addition, the inconsistency in spin assignments made by the spin systematics and other methods of the configuration πh{sub 11/2} ⊗ νh{sub 11/2} band belonging to {sup 112,114,116}Cs, {sup 126}Pr, and {sup 138}Pr, as an example, was resolved by the correctionmade in the present spin systematics.

  14. A test for correction made to spin systematics for coupled band in doubly-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod

    2015-12-01

    Systematic Spin Assignments were generally made by using the argument that the energy of levels is a function of neutron number. In the present systematics, the excitation energy of the levels incorporated the effect of nuclear deformation and signature splitting. The nuclear deformation changes toward the mid-shell, therefore a smooth variation in the excitation energy of the levels is observed towards the mid-shell, that intended to make systematics as a function of neutron number towards the mid-shell. Another term "signature splitting" that push the energy of levels for odd- and even-spin sequences up and down, caused the different energy variation pattern for odd- and even-spin sequences. The corrections made in the spin systematics were tested for the known spins of various isotopic chain. In addition, the inconsistency in spin assignments made by the spin systematics and other methods of the configuration π h 11/2 ⊗ νh 11/2 band belonging to 112,114,116Cs, 126Pr, and 138Pr, as an example, was resolved by the correctionmade in the present spin systematics.

  15. Benford's law and number selection in fixed-odds numbers game.

    PubMed

    Chou, Mabel C; Kong, Qingxia; Teo, Chung-Piaw; Wang, Zuozheng; Zheng, Huan

    2009-12-01

    In fixed-odds numbers games, the prizes and the odds of winning are known at the time of placement of the wager. Both players and operators are subject to the vagaries of luck in such games. Most game operators limit their liability exposure by imposing a sales limit on the bets received for each bet type, at the risk of losing the rejected bets to the underground operators. This raises a question--how should the game operator set the appropriate sales limit? We argue that the choice of the sales limit is intimately related to the ways players select numbers to bet on in the games. There are ample empirical evidences suggesting that players do not choose all numbers with equal probability, but have a tendency to bet on (small) numbers that are closely related to events around them (e.g., birth dates, addresses, etc.). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to quantify this phenomenon and examine its relation to the classical Benford's law. We use this connection to develop a choice model, and propose a method to set the appropriate sales limit in these games. PMID:19641983

  16. T-odd correlation in muon neutrino elastic scattering on polarized proton target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobków, W.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the elastic scattering of the muon neutrino (νμ) beam on the polarized proton target (PPT) in a presence of induced couplings, and predict how the existence of relative phases between the complex vector (weak magnetism) and axial (induced pseudoscalar) form factors of the proton with left-chirality νμ affects the azimuthal dependence of the differential cross section. The neutrinos are assumed to be Dirac fermions with non-zero mass and CPT symmetry is conserved. We show that the azimuthal asymmetry of recoil protons depends on the neutrino mass, but contributions are very tiny (˜10-5). Analysis of the differential cross section in the case of pure vector and axial couplings at zero νμ mass limit and zero momentum transfer shows that the T-violating phase βVA generates the T-odd, P-even triple correlation and it could be detected by measuring the asymmetry between the (0,π) and (π,2π) angles. It should be clearly stressed that the considered T-odd observable is not a genuine CP-violating quantity as it can also be produced by the T-invariant contributions due to the final state interactions (FSI). Their magnitude must be precisely estimated and subtracted from the measured observable to extract information on the possible time reversal violation (TRV). We also indicate the possibility of using the PPT in the neutrino telescope.

  17. Deformed rotational bands in the doubly odd nuclei [sup 134]Pr and [sup 132]Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R.M.; Hibbert, I.M. ); Beausang, C.W.; Forbes, S.A.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Wilson, J.N. ); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D. ); Simpson, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The nuclei [sup 132,134]Pr have been investigated using the [sup 100]Mo([sup 37]Cl,[ital xn]) reactions at a beam energy of 155 MeV. Gamma rays were detected with the Eurogam array. Analysis of the data has revealed the presence of two new weakly populated decoupled bands in [sup 134]Pr. One of these bands has been linked into the normal-deformed states and is thought to be built on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 2][direct product][nu]([ital f][sub 7/2],[ital h][sub 9/2]) configuration. The second band has been interpreted as being based on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 3][direct product][nu][ital i][sub 13/2] intruder configuration within the second [beta][sub 2][congruent]0.3 prolate minimum. The known decoupled band in [sup 132]Pr (5[ital n] reaction channel) and the highly deformed band in [sup 130]La A([alpha]3[ital n]) have also been extended. The structure of all of these bands is discussed together with similar bands in nieghboring odd-odd nuclei.

  18. The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct “BILD” (“Bayesian Integral Log-odds”) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  19. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; et al

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudesmore » for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.« less

  20. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; Lauritsen, T.; Pawłat, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudes for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.

  1. Technology diffusion in hospitals: a log odds random effects regression model.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the diffusion of technologies. We distinguish a number of determinants, such as service, physician, and environmental, financial and organizational characteristics of the 60 Dutch hospitals in our sample. On the basis of this data set on Dutch general hospitals over the period 1995-2002, we conclude that there is a relation between a number of determinants and the diffusion of innovations underlining conclusions from earlier research. Positive effects were found on the basis of the size of the hospitals, competition and a hospital's commitment to innovation. It appears that if a policy is developed to further diffuse innovations, the external effects of demand and market competition need to be examined, which would de facto lead to an efficient use of technology. For the individual hospital, instituting an innovations office appears to be the most prudent course of action. PMID:24323484

  2. The odd-even effect of 20Ne fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J. X.; Jiang, X.; Yan, S. W.; Zhang, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    Projectile fragmentation cross sections are calculated for reactions of 20Ne on the C, Al, Cu, Sn and Pb targets at 400 A MeV by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model together with the statistical model code GEMINI. The improved quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the dynamical process, and the GEMINI model is used to simulate the de-excitation process of excited primary fragments. It is found that the total cross sections increase as a function of the target mass, which is in good agreement with the experimental results and other theoretical predictions. The odd-even effect of the partial cross sections observed in experiments is well reproduced, which appears in the de-excitation process of the excited primary fragments as a result of pairing effect and is mainly formed in the grazing collisions. The results of isospin distributions demonstrate that the odd-even effect of partial cross sections mainly comes from the fragments with TZ = 0, ±0.5.

  3. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  4. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Paap, Muirne C. S.; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Frøydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with ADHD/ODD symptoms have the opportunity to practice their social skills in peer relationships, this is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in prosocial behavior. PMID:24286065

  5. Prognostic Value of Log Odds of Positive Lymph Nodes after Radical Surgery Followed by Adjuvant Treatment in High-Risk Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeanny; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, In Ah; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Kidong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the prognostic efficacy of the number and location of positive lymph nodes (LN), LN ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive LNs (LODDs) in high-risk cervical cancer treated with radical surgery and adjuvant treatment. Materials and Methods Fifty high-risk patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic node dissection followed by adjuvant treatment were analyzed retrospectively. The patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IA2-IIB. Upper LN is defined as common iliac or higher LN, and LNR is the ratio of positive LNs to harvested LNs. LODDs is log odds between positive LNs and negative LNs. Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis with median 50.4 Gy/28 Fx± to the para-aortic regions. Platinum-based chemotherapy was used in most patients (93%). The median follow-up duration was 80 months. Results The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 76.1%, and the overall survival (OS) rate was 86.4%. Treatment failure occurred in 11 patients, and distant failure (DF) was the dominant pattern (90.9%). In univariate analysis, significantly lower DFSwas observed in patients with perineural invasion, ≥ 2 LN metastases, LNR ≥ 10%, upper LN metastasis, and ≥ –1.05 LODDs. In multivariate analysis, ≥ –1.05 LODDs was the only significant factor for DFS (p=0.011). Of patients with LODDs ≥ –1.05, 40.9% experienced DF. LODDs was the only significant prognostic factor for OS as well (p=0.006). Conclusion LODDs ≥ –1.05 was the only significant prognostic factor for both DFS and OS. In patients with LODDs ≥ –1.05, intensified chemotherapy might be required, considering the high rate of DF. PMID:26194370

  6. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  7. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q¯ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result againstmore » multi-Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. As a result, we also provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.« less

  8. The Four-loop Six-gluon NMHV Ratio Function

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2015-09-29

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  9. Fully and partially coherent pathways in multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Sibert, Edwin L; Wright, John C

    2010-01-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relies on using multiple excitation pulses to create multiple quantum coherences that provide great specificity for chemical measurements. Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is the optical analogue of NMR. Current CMDS methods use three excitation pulses and phase matching to create zero, single, and double quantum coherences. In order to create higher order multiple quantum coherences, the number of interactions must be increased by raising the excitation intensities high enough to create Rabi frequencies that are comparable to the dephasing rates of vibrational coherences. The higher Rabi frequencies create multiple, odd-order coherence pathways. The coherence pathways that involve intermediate populations are partially coherent and are sensitive to population relaxation effects. Pathways that are fully coherent involve only coherences and measure the direct coupling between excited quantum states. The fully coherent pathways are related to the multiple quantum coherences created in multiple pulse NMR methods such as heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy with the important difference that HMQC NMR methods have a defined number of interactions and avoid dynamic Stark effects whereas the multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing pathways do not. The difference arises because CMDS methods use phase matching to define the interactions and at high intensities, multiple pathways obey the same phase matching conditions. The multiple pathways correspond to the pathways created by dynamic Stark effects. This paper uses rhodium dicarbonyl chelate (RDC) as a model to demonstrate the characteristics of multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing (MEOW) methods. Dynamic Stark effects excite vibrational ladders on the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretch modes and create a series of multiple quantum coherences and populations using partially and fully coherent pathways. Vibrational quantum states up to v = 6 are excited. A series of spectra provides different two-dimensional cross sections through the multidimensional parameter space involving two excitation frequencies, the frequency of the output coherence, and the excitation pulse time delays. The spectra allow the identification of 18 different overtone and combination band states. Comparison with a local mode model with two anharmonic Morse oscillators with interbond coupling shows excellent agreement. PMID:19950915

  10. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  11. The effect of large-scale magnetic field on outflow in ADAFs: an odd symmetry configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    We construct self-similar inflow-outflow solutions for a hot viscous-resistive accretion flow with large-scale magnetic fields that have odd symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane in Bθ and even symmetry in Br and Bφ. Following previous authors, we also assume that the polar velocity vθ is non-zero. We focus on four parameters: βr0, βφ0 (the plasma beta parameters associated with magnetic field components at the equatorial plane), the magnetic resistivity η0 and the density index n = -dln ρ/dln r. The resulting flow solutions are divided into two parts, consisting of an inflow region with a negative radial velocity (vr < 0) and an outflow region with vr > 0. Our results show that stronger outflows emerge for smaller βr0 (≤10-2 for n > 1) and larger values of βφ0, η0 and n.

  12. Odd nitrogen during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign - Theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Cariolle, Daniel; De Rudder, Anne; Gray, Lesley J.; Pyle, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews the chemical processes involved in the formation and destruction of active nitrogen in the stratosphere and indicates that transport processes play an important role in the behavior of these species. Vertical profiles measured during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign are compared to distributions calculated by a number of one-dimensional models. An intercomparison between six of these models shows that, if some quantitative differences attributed to different model input are noticeable, the same type of behavior is predicted for NO and NO2 by all models. Although the observed concentration of species belonging to the odd nitrogen family should be highly variable, as a result of dynamical disturbances, most data obtained during the campaign appear to be consistent with the chemical scheme currently used in photochemical models.

  13. Study of weakly-bound odd-A nuclei with quasiparticle blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Yu, Xiong; Jun-Chen, Pei; Yi-Nu, Zhang; Yi, Zhu

    2016-02-01

    The coordinate-space Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approach with quasiparticle blocking has been applied to study the odd-A weakly bound nuclei 17,19B and 37Mg, in which halo structures have been reported in experiments. The Skyrme nuclear forces SLy4 and UNEDF1 have been adopted in our calculations. The results with and without blocking have been compared to demonstrate the emergence of deformed halo structures due to blocking effects. In our calculations, 19B and 37Mg have remarkable features of deformed halos. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB83440), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375016, 11235001, 11320101004) and Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20130001110001)

  14. High spin states and isomeric decays in doubly-odd 208Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Saha, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Gehlot, J.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Jnaneswari, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron deficient isotopes of francium ( Z=87, N˜121-123) as excited nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction: 197Au( 16O, xn) 213 - xFr at 100 MeV. The γ rays from the residues were observed through the high sensitivity Germanium Clover detector array INGA. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric states of the doubly-odd 208Fr nuclei, identified from the known sequence of ground state transitions, were observed. The half-lives of the E=194(2) keV isomeric transition, known from earlier observations, was measured to be T=233(18) ns. A second isomeric transition at E=383(2) keV and T=33(7) ns was also found. The measured half-lives were compared with the corresponding single particle estimates, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  15. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  16. Methods for a quantitative evaluation of odd-even staggering effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, Alessandro; Piantelli, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Odd-even effects, also known as staggering effects, are a common feature observed in the yield distributions of fragments produced in different types of nuclear reactions. We review old methods, and we propose new ones, for a quantitative estimation of these effects as a function of proton or neutron number of the reaction products. All methods are compared on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that some are not well suited for the task, the most reliable ones being those based either on a non-linear fit with a properly oscillating function or on a third (or fourth) finite difference approach. In any case, high statistic is of paramount importance to avoid that spurious structures appear just because of statistical fluctuations in the data and of strong correlations among the yields of neighboring fragments.

  17. Odd-skipped related 2 is epigenetically regulated in cellular quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Shinji; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-06-11

    Cellular behavior and development are extensively altered during the transition from cell cycle into quiescence, though the mechanism involved in establishing and maintaining quiescence is largely unknown. We found that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) was up-regulated during cellular quiescence by serum starvation as well as culturing to confluence. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of Osr2 under these conditions, we characterized the mouse Osr2 promoter. CpG islands in the flanking region of the transcription start site were predominantly methylated in exponentially growing cells, resulting in silencing of Osr2 expression. In addition, CpG demethylation in quiescence caused activation of Osr2 expression, while acetylation of the H3 and H4 histones during quiescence also led to an increase in Osr2 expression. These results suggest that epigenetically regulated Osr2 plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation.

  18. Odd-skipped related 2 regulates genes related to proliferation and development

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Shinji; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-07-23

    Cell proliferation is a biological process in which chromosomes replicate in one cell and equally divide into two daughter cells. Our previous findings suggested that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation under epigenetic regulation. However, the mechanism used by Osr2 to establish and maintain proliferation is unknown. To examine the functional role of Osr2 in cell proliferation, we analyzed its downstream target genes using microarray analysis following adenovirus-induced overexpression of Osr2 as well as knockdown with Osr2 siRNA, which showed that Osr2 regulates a multitude of genes involved in proliferation and the cell cycle, as well as development. Additional proliferation assays also indicated that Osr2 likely functions to elicit cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that Osr2 plays important roles in proliferation and development.

  19. Pair production of the T-odd leptons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chong-Xing; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Lui, Wei; Ma, Wei

    2009-05-01

    The T-odd leptons predicted by the littlest Higgs model with T-parity can be pair produced via the subprocesses gg→ell+Hell-H, qbar q→ell+Hell-H, γγ→ell+Hell-H, and VV→ell+Hell-H (V=W or Z) at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC). We estimate the hadronic production cross-sections for all of these processes and give a simple phenomenology analysis. We find that the cross-sections for most of the above processes are very small. However, the value of the cross-section for the Drell-Yan process, qbar q→ell+Hell-H, can reach 270 fb.

  20. Can the new resonance at LHC be a CP-odd Higgs boson?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bečirević, D.; Bertuzzo, E.; Sumensari, O.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2016-06-01

    A plausible explanation of the recent experimental indication of a resonance in the two-photon spectrum at LHC is that it corresponds to the CP-odd Higgs boson. We explore such a possibility in a generic framework of the two Higgs doublet models (2HDM), and combine mA ≈ 750 GeV with the known mh = 125.7 (4) GeV to show that the charged Higgs boson and the other CP-even scalar masses become bounded from bellow and from above. We show that this possibility is also consistent with the electroweak precision data and the low energy observables, which we test in a few leptonic and semileptonic decay modes.

  1. Even-odd alternation in mass spectrum of thymine and uracil clusters: Evidence of intracluster photodimerization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Joon; Kang, Hyuk; Jeong, Gawoon; Kim, Yung Sam; Lee, Kang Taek; Kim, Seong Keun

    2001-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of thymine and uracil clusters generated by a supersonic molecular beam gave rise to a remarkable alternation of mass spectral intensities between even- and odd-numbered clusters. Such alternation was observed in clusters of up to 30 molecules. Excitation to the two lowest electronically excited states seemed to be a strong prerequisite. In view of the well known photodimerization reaction of thymine and uracil in the bulk phase, it is proposed that such alternation in the mass spectral intensity resulted from formation of photodimer units within the cluster on intense UV irradiation. Several analogues of thymine with no known propensity for photodimerization in the bulk phase did not exhibit any sign of such alternation in the cluster mass spectrum. The intrinsic UV window for photodimerization, and hence photoinduced mammalian mutagenesis, was estimated to be approximately 210–280 nm, significantly narrower than the previously reported bulk values of 150–300 nm. PMID:11296267

  2. Meissner effect probing of odd-frequency triplet pairing in superconducting spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus; Linder, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting correlations which are long ranged in magnetic systems have attracted much attention due to their spin-polarization properties and potential use in spintronic devices. Whereas experiments have demonstrated the slow decay of such correlations, it has proven more difficult to obtain a smoking gun signature of their odd-frequency character which is responsible, e.g., for their gapless behavior. Here we demonstrate that the magnetic susceptibility response of a normal metal in contact with a superconducting spin valve provides precisely this signature, namely, in the form of an anomalous positive Meissner effect, which may be tuned back to a conventional negative Meissner response simply by altering the magnetization configuration of the spin valve.

  3. Odd-frequency triplet superconductivity at the helical edge of a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crépin, François; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Nonlocal pairing processes at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator in proximity to an s -wave superconductor are usually suppressed by helicity. However, the additional proximity of a ferromagnetic insulator can substantially influence the helical constraint and therefore open a new conduction channel by allowing for crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) processes. We show a one-to-one correspondence between CAR and the emergence of odd-frequency triplet superconductivity. Hence, nonlocal transport experiments that identify CAR in helical liquids yield smoking-gun evidence for unconventional superconductivity. Interestingly, we identify a setup—composed of a superconductor flanked by two ferromagnetic insulators—that allows us to favor CAR over electron cotunneling, which is known to be a difficult but essential task to be able to measure CAR.

  4. Reflection-asymmetric rotor model of odd Aapprox. 219--229 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Leander, G.A.; Chen, Y.S.

    1988-06-01

    The low-energy spectroscopy of odd-A nuclei in the mass region Aapprox.219--229 is modeled by coupling states of a deformed shell model including octupole deformation to a reflection-asymmetric rotor core. Theory and experiment are compared for the nuclei in which data are available: /sup 219,221,223,225/Rn, /sup 221,223,225,227/Fr, /sup 219,221,223,225,227/Ra, /sup 219,223,225,227,229/Ac /sup 221,223,225,227,229/Th, and /sup 229/Pa. Overall agreement requires an octupole deformation ..beta../sub 3/approx.0.1. The results throughout the region are synthesized to evaluate the model.

  5. The even-odd systematics in R-process nuclide abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Suess, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses solar system N(R) abundances for nuclides A greater than 70, obtained as differences between measured solar system abundances and calculated S-process contributions. The abundance peak at A of about 163 in the rare earth element region reveals properties which are similar to those of the R-process peaks corresponding to magic neutron numbers N = 82 and N = 126. Systematic differences in the N(R) abundances of even-A and odd-A nuclides are restricted to specific mass regions. It is concluded that these differences are most probably related to the properties of nuclear species during beta(-) decay to the stability valley.

  6. Electromagnetic moments of odd-A Po193-203,211 isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    Hyperfine splitting parameters have been measured for the neutron-deficient odd-mass polonium isotopes and isomers Po193-203g,m, Po209,211. The measurement was performed at the ISOLDE (CERN) online mass separator using the in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy technique. The magnetic dipole moments μ and spectroscopic electric quadrupole moments QS have been deduced. Their implication for the understanding of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the closed proton shell at Z =82 and the neutron mid-shell at N =104 is discussed. For the most neutron-deficient nuclei (A =193,195,197), a deviation of μ and QS from the nearly constant values for heavier polonium nuclei was observed. Particle-plus-rotor calculations with static oblate deformation describe the electromagnetic moments for these nuclei well, provided a gradual increase of a mean deformation when going to lighter masses is assumed for the polonium nuclei with A <198.

  7. Limiting P-odd interactions of cosmic fields with electrons, protons, and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B M; Stadnik, Y V; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Leefer, N; Budker, D

    2014-08-22

    We propose methods for extracting limits on the strength of P-odd interactions of pseudoscalar and pseudovector cosmic fields with electrons, protons, and neutrons, by exploiting the static and dynamic parity-nonconserving amplitudes and electric dipole moments they induce in atoms. Candidates for such fields are dark matter (including axions) and dark energy, as well as several more exotic sources described by Lorentz-violating standard model extensions. Atomic calculations are performed for H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ba(+), Tl, Dy, Fr, and Ra(+). From these calculations and existing measurements in Dy, Cs, and Tl, we constrain the interaction strengths of the parity-violating static pseudovector cosmic field to be 7 × 10(-15) GeV with an electron, and 3 × 10(-8) GeV with a proton. PMID:25192086

  8. Signatures of shape transitions in odd-A neutron-rich rubidium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Robledo, L. M.

    2010-12-15

    The isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes and the systematics of one-quasiproton configurations are studied in odd-A Rubidium isotopes. We use a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism based on the Gogny energy density functional with two parametrizations, D1S and D1M, and implemented with the equal-filling approximation. We find clear signatures of a sharp shape transition at N=60 in both the charge radii and spin parity of the ground states, which are robust, consistent with each other, and in agreement with experiment. We point out that the combined analysis of these two observables could be used to predict unambiguously new regions where shape transitions might develop.

  9. Distinction between even and odd steps in the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Mertes, K. M.; Sarachik, M. P.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-03-01

    Data for the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal obtained for different sweep rates of a magnetic field applied along the anisotropy axis have been shown(K. M. Mertes, Y. Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E . Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 227205 (2001). to collapse onto the single scaled curve predicted by Chudnovsky and Garanin(E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 187203 (2001).) for the case when the dominant symmetry-breaking term that drives tunneling is a second order transverse anisotropy. A detailed analysis of the data indicates there is a clear distinction between even resonances, driven by transverse anisotropy, and odd resonances which require a contribution due to a transverse internal magnetic field. It will also be shown that scaling is not obtained if one assumes that the tunneling is driven solely by transverse fields.

  10. Odd-parity topological superconductor with nematic order: Application to CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    CuxBi2Se3 was recently proposed as a promising candidate for time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. In this work, we argue that the unusual anisotropy of the Knight shift observed by Zheng and co-workers (unpublished), taken together with specific heat measurements, provides strong support for an unconventional odd-parity pairing in the two-dimensional Eu representation of the D3d crystal point group, which spontaneously breaks the threefold rotational symmetry of the crystal, leading to a subsidiary nematic order. We predict that the spin-orbit interaction associated with hexagonal warping plays a crucial role in pinning the two-component order parameter and makes the superconducting state generically fully gapped, leading to a topological superconductor. Experimental signatures of the Eu pairing related to the nematic order are discussed.

  11. The influence of an external symbol system on number parity representation, or what's odd about 6?

    PubMed

    Iversen, Wiebke; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Jäger, Ludwig; Willmes, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether language-specific properties influence mental number processing. German Sign Language (DGS) numbers differ from those in spoken German not only in terms of modality but also in their basic language structure. A group of 20 congenitally deaf German signers participated in a number parity (odd/even) judgment task with DGS and printed German number words. The results indicated that two-handed DGS number signs are processed in a decomposed way. This language-specific effect also generalized to another linguistic number notation, German number words, but not to Arabic digit notation. These differences are discussed with respect to two possible routes to number parity. PMID:17201377

  12. Contribution of excited states to stellar weak-interaction rates in odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.

    2016-05-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including β decay and electron capture, are studied in several odd-A nuclei in the p f -shell region at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. In the range of densities and temperatures considered, it is found that the total rates do not differ much from the rates of the ground state fully populated. In any case, the changes are not larger than the uncertainties due to the nuclear-model dependence of the rates.

  13. Nonexistence of sharply covariant mutually unbiased bases in odd prime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-09-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are useful in a number of research areas. The symmetry of MUB is an elusive and interesting subject. A (complete set of) MUB in dimension d is sharply covariant if it can be generated by a group of order d (d +1 ) from a basis state. Such MUB, if they exist, would be most appealing to theoretical studies and practical applications. Unfortunately, they seem to be quite rare. Here we prove that no MUB in odd prime dimensions is sharply covariant, by virtue of clever applications of Mersenne primes, Galois fields, and Frobenius groups. This conclusion provides valuable insight about the symmetry of MUB and the geometry of quantum state space. It complements and strengthens the earlier result of the author that only two stabilizer MUB are sharply covariant. Our study leads to the conjecture that no MUB other than those in dimensions 2 and 4 is sharply covariant.

  14. The odd origin of Gerstenhaber brackets, Batalin-Vilkovisky operators, and master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ralph M.; Ward, Benjamin C.; Zúñiga, J. Javier

    2015-10-01

    Using five basic principles, we treat Gerstenhaber/Lie brackets, Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) operators, and master equations appearing in mathematical and physical contexts in a unified way. The different contexts for this are given by the different types of (Feynman) graphs that underlie the particular situation. Two of the maxims we bring forth are (1) that extending to the non-connected graphs gives a commutative multiplication forming a part of the BV structure and (2) that there is a universal odd twist that unifies and explains seemingly ad hoc choices of signs and is responsible for the BV operator being a differential. Our treatment results in uniform, general theorems. These allow us to prove new results and recover and connect many constructions that have appeared independently throughout the literature. The more general point of view also allows us to disentangle the necessary from the circumstantial.

  15. Isomers in three doubly odd Fr-At-Bi. alpha. -decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Huyse, M.; Decrock, P.; Dendooven, P.; Reusen, G.; Van Duppen, P.; Wauters, J. )

    1992-10-01

    The {sup 206}Fr{r arrow}{sup 202}At{r arrow}{sup 198}Bi, {sup 204}Fr{r arrow}{sup 200}At{r arrow}{sup 196}Bi, and {sup 202}Fr{r arrow}{sup 198}At{r arrow}{sup 194}Bi {ital a}-decay chains have been studied by standard spectroscopic techniques using an on-line isotope separator. All the studied doubly odd isotopes have at least two isomers, which decay by a combination of the following decay modes: {ital a} emission, {beta}{sup +}/EC (electron capture) decay, and internal transition (IT). The internal transition, a highly retarded {ital E}3, is the {ital j}-forbidden transition between the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}){sub 10}{sup {minus}} and the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}){sub 7}{sup +} states. The {ital B}({ital E}3) values of these IT's together with their energy behavior as a function of the neutron and proton number, compared to the energy difference between the 13/2{sup +}({nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}) and 5/2{sup {minus}}({nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}) states in the odd-mass Pb isotones, indicate that these proton-neutron-coupled states have a rather pure shell-model character.

  16. What are the Odds? The Neural Correlates of Active Choice during Gambling.

    PubMed

    Studer, Bettina; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Robbins, Trevor W; Clark, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Gambling is a widespread recreational activity and requires pitting the values of potential wins and losses against their probability of occurrence. Neuropsychological research showed that betting behavior on laboratory gambling tasks is highly sensitive to focal lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insula. In the current study, we assessed the neural basis of betting choices in healthy participants, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the Roulette Betting Task. In half of the trials, participants actively chose their bets; in the other half, the computer dictated the bet size. Our results highlight the impact of volitional choice upon gambling-related brain activity: Neural activity in a distributed network - including key structures of the reward circuitry (midbrain, striatum) - was higher during active compared to computer-dictated bet selection. In line with neuropsychological data, the anterior insula and vmPFC were more activated during self-directed bet selection, and responses in these areas were differentially modulated by the odds of winning in the two choice conditions. In addition, responses in the vmPFC and ventral striatum were modulated by the bet size. Convergent with electrophysiological research in macaques, our results further implicate the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in the processing of the likelihood of potential outcomes: Neural responses in the IPC bilaterally reflected the probability of winning during bet selection. Moreover, the IPC was particularly sensitive to the odds of winning in the active-choice condition, when the processing of this information was required to guide bet selection. Our results indicate an important role of the IPC in human decision-making under risk and help to integrate neuropsychological data of risk-taking following vmPFC and insula damage with models of choice derived from human neuroimaging and monkey electrophysiology. PMID:22529770

  17. Diminished ketosis and triglyceridemia during fasting in odd-carbon enriched pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1977-02-01

    The lipolysis, ketosis and hypertriglyceridemia of fasted rats in late pregnancy may be related to decreased insulin secretion geared to decreased glucose availability. In odd-carbon fatty acid enriched (OCE) rats, the odd-carbon fatty acids (OCFA) mobilized during fasting provide terminal three-carbon residues which are glucogenic, thereby permitting blood glucose and insulin to be maintained close to fed levels. The present study has used OCE rats to evaluate the role of insulin in the altered fat metabolism of the fasted rats in late pregnancy. The adipose tissue of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats was enriched to more than 25% undecanoate (c11:0) and higher OCFA by feeding them a complete diet high in triundecanoin content for six weeks. Twenty-four female controls were fed a similar diet except that the fat was exclusively corn oil. Both OCE and control rats were than mated and on day 18 of pregnancy were divided into four groups: one group was killed fed, one after a 24 h fast, and one after a 48 h fast; the fourth group was fed to day 20 of pregnancy and then killed. In the fed state, the concentrations of glucose, ketones, and cholesterol in serum, as well as that of glycogen in liver, were the same in control and OCE rats. Insulin and triglycerides were similarly elevated in the two groups. After two days of fasting, serum glucose, insulin, and liver glycogen concentrations were significantly higher in OCE than in control rats, while ketones and triglycerides were significantly lower. No significant changes occurred in serum cholesterol. The results are consistent with a predominantly insulin effect in the pregnant OCE rats in diminsihing the marked fasting lipolysis, hyperketonemia and hypertriglyceridemia observed in controls, but do not rule out inhibition of FFA release by in situ re-esterification to glycerol derived from glucose or propionic acid. PMID:832630

  18. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  19. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  20. Intensity ratios: a cautionary tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Claire-Elise; Cunningham, Maria; Green, Jimi; Dawson, Joanne; Jones, Paul; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Henkel, Christian; Baan, Willem; Martin, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Molecular line intensity ratios can be used as diagnostic tools to examine the effect of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) or central black hole on circum-nuclear gas. These intensity ratios allow the identification of X-ray dominated regions (XDRs) and photon-dominated regions (PDRs), which facilitates determination of whether the star formation or AGN has the dominant effect on the gas . The chemistry of these regions is dependent upon the type of radiation, thus they are differentiated by the relative intensity of their rotational molecular lines, HCO+/HCN and HNC/HCN (1-0). The ratio of the intensity of these molecular lines can be calculated in an unexpectedly large variety of ways. I present a cautionary tale regarding the calculation and interpretation of these ratios and a recommendation on how this calculation should be performed in the identification of XDRs and PDRs.

  1. Gamow-Teller strength in the exotic odd-odd nuclei 138La and 180Ta and its relevance for neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Byelikov, A; Adachi, T; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Fujita, Y; Hatanaka, K; Heger, A; Kalmykov, Y; Kawase, K; Langanke, K; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Nakanishi, K; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Neveling, R; Richter, A; Sakamoto, N; Sakemi, Y; Shevchenko, A; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Woosley, S E; Yosoi, M

    2007-02-23

    The Gamow-Teller strength distributions below the particle threshold in 138La and 180Ta, deduced from high-resolution measurements of the (3He,t) reaction at 0 degrees, allow us to evaluate the role of charged-current reactions for the production of these extremely rare nuclides in neutrino-nucleosynthesis models. The analysis suggests that essentially all 138La in the Universe can be made that way. Neutrino nucleosynthesis also contributes significantly to the abundance of 180Ta but the magnitude depends on the unknown branching ratio for population of the long-lived isomer. PMID:17359091

  2. Gamow-Teller Strength in the Exotic Odd-Odd Nuclei {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and Its Relevance for Neutrino Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Byelikov, A.; Kalmykov, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Shevchenko, A.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Heger, A.

    2007-02-23

    The Gamow-Teller strength distributions below the particle threshold in {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta, deduced from high-resolution measurements of the ({sup 3}He,t) reaction at 0 deg., allow us to evaluate the role of charged-current reactions for the production of these extremely rare nuclides in neutrino-nucleosynthesis models. The analysis suggests that essentially all {sup 138}La in the Universe can be made that way. Neutrino nucleosynthesis also contributes significantly to the abundance of {sup 180}Ta but the magnitude depends on the unknown branching ratio for population of the long-lived isomer.

  3. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  4. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  5. Continually variable transmission having fixed ratio and variable ratio mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moan, R.D

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a transmission for producing a stepless, continually variable range of ratios of the speed of its output to its input comprising: a fluid coupling having an impeller adapted for connection to a power source and a turbine hydrodynamically connected to the impeller; as planetary gearset having a ring gear, a sun gear, a first set of planet pinions meshing with the sun gear, a second set of planet pinions meshing with the first set of pinions and with the ring gear, and a pinion carrier on which the first and second sets of pinions are rotatably supported; first drive means drivable connecting the turbine and the sun gear for producing a variable speed ratio therebetween having a range between an underdrive ratio and an overdrive ratio; second drive means drivably connecting the impeller and the ring gear for producing a fixed speed ratio therebetween; a first clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the ring gear and the second drive means; and a second clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the first drive means and the pinion carrier.

  6. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  7. Glauber-based evaluations of the odd moments of the initial eccentricity relative to the even order participant plates

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, R.; Wei, R.; Ajitanand, N.; Alexander, J.; Taranenko, A.

    2011-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to compute the centrality dependence of the odd moments of the initial eccentricity {var_epsilon}{sub n+1}, relative to the even-order (n) participant planes {Psi}{sub n} in Au + Au collisions. The results obtained for two models of the eccentricity - the Glauber and the factorized Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (fKLN) models - indicate magnitudes which are essentially zero. They suggest that a possible correlation between the orientations of the odd and even participant planes ({Psi}{sub n+1} and {Psi}{sub n}, respectively) does not have a significant influence on the calculated eccentricities. An experimental verification test for correlations between the orientations of the odd and even participant planes is also proposed.

  8. Algebraic solutions for UB F(5 ) -OB F(6 ) quantum phase transition in odd-mass-number nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Ghapanvari, M.; Fouladi, N.

    2015-11-01

    The spherical to γ -unstable nuclei shape-phase transition in odd-A nuclei is investigated by using the dual algebraic structures and the affine SU (1 ,1 ) ̂ Lie algebra within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The new algebraic solution for odd-A nuclei is introduced. In this model, single j =1 /2 and 3/2 fermions are coupled with an even-even boson core. Energy spectra, quadrupole electromagnetic transitions, and an expectation value of the d -boson number operator are presented. Experimental evidence for the UB F(5 ) -OB F(6 ) transition in odd-A Ba and Rh isotopes is presented. The low-states energy spectra and B (E 2 ) values for these nuclei are also calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  9. New constraints on a light CP-odd Higgs boson and related NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Dermisek, Radovan; Gunion, John F.

    2010-04-01

    Recent BABAR limits on BR({Upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}a{yields}{gamma}{tau}{sup +{tau}-}) and BR({Upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}a{yields}{gamma}{mu}{sup +{mu}-}) provide increased constraints on the abb coupling of a CP-odd Higgs boson, a, with m{sub a}odd Higgs bosons, h{sub 1{yields}}a{sub 1}a{sub 1}, with m{sub a{sub 1}}<2m{sub B}. Most such scenarios with m{sub a{sub 1}}<2m{sub {tau}}are eliminated, but the bulk of the m{sub a{sub 1}}>7.5 GeV scenarios, which are theoretically the most favored, survive. We also outline the impact of the new ALEPH LEP results in the e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}Z+4{tau} channel. For tan{beta}{>=}3, only NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios with m{sub h{sub 1}} > or approx. 98 GeV and m{sub a{sub 1}} close to 2m{sub B} satisfy the ALEPH limits. For tan{beta} < or approx. 2, the ALEPH limits are easily satisfied for the most theoretically preferred NMSSM scenarios, which are those with m{sub a{sub 1}} close to 2m{sub B} and m{sub h{sub 1{approx}}}90-100 GeV.

  10. Identifying the Irritability Dimension of ODD: Application of a Modified Bifactor Model Across Five Large Community Samples of Children

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Boylan, Khrista; Rowe, Richard; Duku, Eric; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of irritability as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use data from five large community data sets with five different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each of the five data sets. The structure of the model included two correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In four of the five models, the best fit was obtained using the items of being touchy, angry and often losing temper as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. PMID:25314267

  11. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, John V.; Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts ; Chen, Ming-Hui; Mulkern, Robert V.; Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts ; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts ; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. Methods and Materials: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS {<=}7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. Results: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. Conclusions: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

  12. Isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    de Bergh, C

    1995-03-01

    Recent progress on measurements of isotopic ratios in planetary or satellite atmospheres include measurements of the D/H ratio in the methane of Uranus, Neptune and Titan and in the water of Mars and Venus. Implications of these measurements on our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets and satellite are discussed. Our current knowledge of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of these planets, as well as on Jupiter and Saturn, is also reviewed. We finally show what progress can be expected in the very near future due to some new ground-based instrumentation particularly well suited to such studies, and to forthcoming space missions. PMID:11539257

  13. Onset and Saturation of Ion Heating by Odd-parity Rotating-magnetic-fields in a Field-reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Landsman, S.A. Cohen, A.H. Glasser

    2005-11-01

    Heating of figure-8 ions by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFο) applied to an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is investigated. The largest energy gain occurs at resonances (s ≡ ω(sub)R/ω) of the RMFο frequency, ω(sub)R, with the figure-8 orbital frequency, ω, and is proportional to s^2 for s – even resonances and to s for s – odd resonances. The threshold for the transition from regular to stochastic orbits explains both the onset and saturation of heating. The FRC magnetic geometry lowers the threshold for heating below that in the tokamak by an order of magnitude.

  14. Assessments of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in Korean patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Suk; Shin, Dongyun; Lee, Min Seok; Kim, Hee Ju; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Soo Min; Lee, Min-Geol

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to assess neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as inflammatory markers in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A hundred and eleven psoriasis patients and 25 PsA patients were compared with 94 healthy controls. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information were collected and analyzed. NLR and PLR were calculated. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, eosinophils and NLR were increased in psoriasis patients compared with controls. WBC, neutrophils, NLR, monocytes, platelets and PLR were increased in PsA patients compared with both controls and psoriasis patients. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in PsA patients compared with psoriasis patients. Among psoriasis patients, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score correlated positively with platelets, NLR and PLR. These parameters were all significantly higher in moderate to severe psoriasis patients (PASI ≥ 10) compared with mild patients (PASI < 10). Elevated platelets, NLR and PLR were significantly associated with the increased PASI scores in multivariate analysis. NLR, PLR and ESR were statistically significant predictors for the presence of PsA in psoriasis patients. NLR was the strongest predictor (odds ratio = 3.351, P = 0.005). In conclusion, elevated NLR and PLR were significantly associated with psoriasis and PsA. Both NLR and PLR were strong predictors for the presence of PsA among psoriasis patients. PMID:26381893

  15. E-GOS plots for Odd-A Medium Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, Veronika; Fetea, Mirela; Regan, Paddy; Zamfir, Victor; Casten, Rick; Beausang, Cornelius

    2004-10-01

    Neutron rich nuclei are difficult to populate experimentally. One of the best mechanisms currently available is to use heavy-ion binary reactions to populate the medium-to-high spin states of the near-stable nuclei to investigate the role of specific orbitals in determining how the nuclear structure properties evolve as a function of angular momentum. A recently reported `E-Gamma Over Spin' (E-GOS) prescription [1,2] provides an intuitive graphical mechanism for viewing potential phase changes in the mechanism for angular momentum generation in transitional nuclei. Flat curves are associated with rotors, while hyperbolic loci are associated with vibrational structures - quite distinct from plots of excitation energy against the spin, where the trajectories for both a vibrator and a rotor gradually increase as a function of spin. The present work extends the previous EGOS analysis for even-even nuclei to odd-A medium mass nuclei. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811, Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494, US-DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council UK. PHR acknowledges support from the Yale University Flint and Science Development Funds. [1] Regan, P.H. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 152502 (2003) [2] Regan, P.H. et al., AIP Conferences Proceedings 656, New York, American Institute of Physics, 2003, pp 422-428.

  16. Insulating state in tetralayers reveals an even-odd interaction effect in multilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Grushina, Anya L; Ki, Dong-Keun; Koshino, Mikito; Nicolet, Aurelien A L; Faugeras, Clément; McCann, Edward; Potemski, Marek; Morpurgo, Alberto F

    2015-01-01

    Close to charge neutrality, the electronic properties of graphene and its multilayers are sensitive to electron-electron interactions. In bilayers, for instance, interactions are predicted to open a gap between valence and conduction bands, turning the system into an insulator. In mono and (Bernal-stacked) trilayers, which remain conducting at low temperature, interactions do not have equally drastic consequences. It is expected that interaction effects become weaker for thicker multilayers, whose behaviour should converge to that of graphite. Here we show that this expectation does not correspond to reality by revealing the occurrence of an insulating state close to charge neutrality in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. The phenomenology-incompatible with the behaviour expected from the single-particle band structure-resembles that observed in bilayers, but the insulating state in tetralayers is visible at higher temperature. We explain our findings, and the systematic even-odd effect of interactions in Bernal-stacked layers of different thickness that emerges from experiments, in terms of a generalization of the interaction-driven, symmetry-broken states proposed for bilayers. PMID:25732058

  17. A grossly warped nanographene and the consequences of multiple odd-membered-ring defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasumi, Katsuaki; Zhang, Qianyan; Segawa, Yasutomo; Scott, Lawrence T.; Itami, Kenichiro

    2013-09-01

    Graphite, the most stable form of elemental carbon, consists of pure carbon sheets stacked upon one another like reams of paper. Individual sheets, known as graphene, prefer planar geometries as a consequence of the hexagonal honeycomb-like arrangements of trigonal carbon atoms that comprise their two-dimensional networks. Defects in the form of non-hexagonal rings in such networks cause distortions away from planarity. Herein we report an extreme example of this phenomenon. A 26-ring C80H30 nanographene that incorporates five seven-membered rings and one five-membered ring embedded in a hexagonal lattice was synthesized by stepwise chemical methods, isolated, purified and fully characterized spectroscopically. Its grossly warped structure was revealed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. An independent synthetic route to a freely soluble derivative of this new type of ‘nanocarbon’ is also reported. Experimental data reveal how the properties of such a large graphene subunit are affected by multiple odd-membered-ring defects.

  18. Compositeness of the strange, charm, and beauty odd parity Λ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the dependence on the quark mass of the compositeness of the lowest-lying odd parity hyperon states. Thus, we pay attention to Λ -like states in the strange, charm, and beauty sectors which are dynamically generated using a unitarized meson-baryon model. In the strange sector we use a SU(6) extension of the Weinberg-Tomozawa meson-baryon interaction, and we further implement the heavy-quark spin symmetry to construct the meson-baryon interaction when charmed or beauty hadrons are involved. In the three examined flavor sectors, we obtain two JP=1 /2- and one JP=3 /2- Λ states. We find that the Λ states which are bound states (the three Λb) or narrow resonances [one Λ (1405 ) and one Λc(2595 )] are well described as molecular states composed of s -wave meson-baryon pairs. The 1/2- wide Λ (1405 ) and Λc(2595 ) as well as the 3/2- Λ (1520 ) and Λc(2625 ) states display smaller compositeness so they would require new mechanisms, such as d -wave interactions.

  19. Odd-parity magnetoresistance in pyrochlore iridate thin films with broken time-reversal symmetry.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T C; Kozuka, Y; Uchida, M; Tsukazaki, A; Arima, T; Kawasaki, M

    2015-01-01

    A new class of materials termed topological insulators have been intensively investigated due to their unique Dirac surface state carrying dissipationless edge spin currents. Recently, it has been theoretically proposed that the three dimensional analogue of this type of band structure, the Weyl Semimetal phase, is materialized in pyrochlore oxides with strong spin-orbit coupling, accompanied by all-in-all-out spin ordering. Here, we report on the fabrication and magnetotransport of Eu2Ir2O7 single crystalline thin films. We reveal that one of the two degenerate all-in-all-out domain structures, which are connected by time-reversal operation, can be selectively formed by the polarity of the cooling magnetic field. Once formed, the domain is robust against an oppositely polarised magnetic field, as evidenced by an unusual odd field dependent term in the magnetoresistance and an anomalous term in the Hall resistance. Our findings pave the way for exploring the predicted novel quantum transport phenomenon at the surfaces/interfaces or magnetic domain walls of pyrochlore iridates. PMID:25959576

  20. Search for a light C P -odd Higgs boson in radiative decays of J /ψ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. Y.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We search for a light Higgs boson A0 in the fully reconstructed decay chain of J /ψ →γ A0 , A0→μ+μ- using (225.0 ±2.8 )×106 J /ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment. The A0 is a hypothetical C P -odd light Higgs boson predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model including two spin-0 doublets plus an extra singlet. We find no evidence for A0 production and set 90% confidence-level upper limits on the product branching fraction B (J /ψ →γ A0)×B (A0→μ+μ-) in the range of (2.8 - 495.3 )×10-8 for 0.212 ≤mA0≤3.0 GeV /c2 . The new limits are five times below our previous results, and the nature of the A0 is constrained to be mostly singlet.

  1. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  2. Unique odd-chain polyenoic phospholipid fatty acids present in chytrid fungi.

    PubMed

    Akinwole, Philips O; Lefevre, Emilie; Powell, Martha J; Findlay, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Chytrid fungi are ubiquitous components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems yet they remain understudied. To investigate the use of phospholipid fatty acids as phenotypic characteristics in taxonomic studies and biomarkers for ecological studies, 18 chytrid fungi isolated from soil to freshwater samples were grown in defined media and their phospholipid fatty acid profile determined. Gas chromatographic/mass spectral analysis indicated the presence of fatty acids typically associated with fungi, such as 16:1(n-7), 16:0, 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3) 18:1(n-9), and 18:0, as well as, a number of odd-chain length fatty acids, including two polyunsaturated C-17 fatty acids. Conversion to their 3-pyridylcarbinol ester facilitated GC-MS determination of double-bond positions and these fatty acid were identified as 6,9-17:2 [17:2(n-8)] and 6,9,12-17:3 [17:3(n-5)]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of polyunsaturated C-17 fatty acids isolated from the phospholipids of chytrid fungi. Cluster analysis of PLFA profiles showed sufficient correlation with chytrid phylogeny to warrant inclusion of lipid analysis in species descriptions and the presence of several phospholipid fatty acids of restricted phylogenetic distributions suggests their usefulness as biomarkers for ecological studies. PMID:25119485

  3. 20 {mu}s isomeric state in doubly odd {sub 61}{sup 134}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R; Rigby, S. V.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Maentyniemi, K.; Nieminen, P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.

    2009-08-15

    Recoil-isomer tagging at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae has been used to establish the isomeric nature of a known (7{sup -}) excited state in the doubly odd nucleus {sup 134}Pm. The isomeric state was determined to have a half-life of 20(1) {mu}s and was populated from the decay of a {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} band using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,2{alpha}3pn) reaction at 305 and 315 MeV. The isomer decays by a 71-keV transition that provides an intermediate step in linking the established {sup 134}Pm high-spin level scheme to the lower-spin states observed from the {beta} decay of {sup 134}Sm. Electron-conversion analysis for the 71-keV {gamma}-ray transition reveals that it is of E1 character and its small reduced-transition probability suggests that {sup 134}Pm may have a nuclear shape more rigid than that of the neighboring nuclei.

  4. Collective band structures in the odd-proton nuclei /sup 135,137/Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Beausang, C.W.; Hildingsson, L.; Paul, E.S.; Piel W.F. Jr.; Weng, P.K.; Xu, N.; Fossan, D.B.

    1987-08-01

    Collective bands based on a low-K ..pi..h/sub 11/2/ orbital have been populated to high spins in the odd-proton nuclei /sup 135,137/Pm following the reactions /sup 116/Sn(/sup 24/Mg,p4n)/sup 135/Pm and /sup 114/Cd(/sup 27/Al,4n)/sup 137/Pm, respectively. Both nuclei exhibit a band crossing in the ..pi..h/sub 11/2/ band at a frequency of h-dash-bar..omega..--0.42 MeV. In /sup 135/Pm, an upbend is observed, while a weaker interaction backbend is observed in /sup 137/Pm. Cranked-shell model calculations, including triaxiality, imply that this crossing is due to the alignment of the second and third valence h/sub 11/2/ protons. The systematics of this alignment in the Pm isotopes will be discussed. In addition, positive parity three-quasiproton states were observed in both nuclei. These structures also contain a pair of aligned h/sub 11/2/ protons, in this case the first and second valence protons which align at a much lower frequency of h-dash-bar..omega..--0.28 MeV.

  5. A test of odd-oxygen photochemistry using Spacelab 3 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark; Delitsky, Mona L.

    1991-01-01

    The ozone profile calculated using a 1D time-dependent photochemical model, with recommended absorption cross sections and reaction rate constants, is systematically less than Spacelab 3 (May 1985) atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) observations at sunset, 30 deg N latitude, throughout the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Model results are about 9 percent smaller than the nominal ATMOS O3 value at 40 km and 50 percent less at 76 km. Given the uncertainties associated with the ATMOS profile, the model 'deficit' may be as large as 15 percent at 36 km, increasing to about 70 percent at 76 km. A similar model O3 deficit exists at sunrise, 47 deg S latitude, in the stratosphere: nominal differences of not more than 25 percent, increasing to not more than 45 percent when the ATMOS uncertainties are considered. Model results closely approximate ATMOS observations in both the upper stratosphere and mesosphere upon enhancing odd-oxygen production by increasing the O2 Schumann-Runge band and Herzberg-continuum cross section values used in the calculations.

  6. Odd-parity magnetoresistance in pyrochlore iridate thin films with broken time-reversal symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, T. C.; Kozuka, Y.; Uchida, M.; Tsukazaki, A.; Arima, T.; Kawasaki, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of materials termed topological insulators have been intensively investigated due to their unique Dirac surface state carrying dissipationless edge spin currents. Recently, it has been theoretically proposed that the three dimensional analogue of this type of band structure, the Weyl Semimetal phase, is materialized in pyrochlore oxides with strong spin-orbit coupling, accompanied by all-in-all-out spin ordering. Here, we report on the fabrication and magnetotransport of Eu2Ir2O7 single crystalline thin films. We reveal that one of the two degenerate all-in-all-out domain structures, which are connected by time-reversal operation, can be selectively formed by the polarity of the cooling magnetic field. Once formed, the domain is robust against an oppositely polarised magnetic field, as evidenced by an unusual odd field dependent term in the magnetoresistance and an anomalous term in the Hall resistance. Our findings pave the way for exploring the predicted novel quantum transport phenomenon at the surfaces/interfaces or magnetic domain walls of pyrochlore iridates. PMID:25959576

  7. [Gene-environment-interaction of ODD and Conduct Disorder Versus "Anethic Psychopathy"].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Schmeck, Klaus; Kölch, Michael; Schepker, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment-interaction of ODD and Conduct Disorder Versus »Anethic Psychopathy«. In 1934, Kramer and von der Leyen demonstrated in a sophisticated longitudinal study with eleven conduct disordered and neglected children labelled as »anethic psychopaths« that »anethic traits« subsided in a favourable educational setting. Sound prognoses, due to the diversity of environmental factors, were found to be impossible. On the contrary they stated that negative labelling led to an affirmation of a negative prognosis. In theory, they supposed a genetic predisposition resulting in a heightened sensitivity to the environment. This early theory of epigenetics radically contradicted the Nazi dogma of hereditability and ostracism and the selection procedures in mainstream psychiatry at that time. The debate ended with von der Leyen's suicide and the prohibition of medical work and publication towards Kramer. Even after the end of the Nazi policy of »eradication of the socially debased«, this early theory was not taken on again, nor dignified. PMID:25968413

  8. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  9. Predicting preference-based utility values using partial proportional odds models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of analyses on utility data have used ordinary least square (OLS) regressions to explore potential relationships. The aim of this paper is to explore the benefits of response mapping onto health dimension profiles to generate preference-based utility scores using partial proportional odds models (PPOM). Methods Models are estimated using EQ-5D data collected in the Health Survey for England and the predicted utility scores are compared with those obtained using OLS regressions. Explanatory variables include age, acute illness, educational level, general health, deprivation and survey year. The expected EQ-5D scores for the PPOMs are obtained by weighting the predicted probabilities of scoring one, two or three for the five health dimensions by the corresponding preference-weights. Results The EQ-5D scores obtained using the probabilities from the PPOMs characterise the actual distribution of EQ-5D preference-based utility scores more accurately than those obtained from the linear model. The mean absolute and mean squared errors in the individual predicted values are also reduced for the PPOM models. Conclusions The PPOM models characterise the underlying distributions of the EQ-5D data better than models obtained using OLS regressions. Additional research exploring the effect of modelling conditional responses and two part models could potentially improve the results further. PMID:25000846

  10. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G; Andreev, A; Gautier, J; Giannessi, L; Malka, V; Petralia, A; Sebban, S; Stremoukhov, S; Tissandier, F; Vodungbo, B; Zeitoun, Ph

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715

  11. Insulating state in tetralayers reveals an even–odd interaction effect in multilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Grushina, Anya L.; Ki, Dong-Keun; Koshino, Mikito; Nicolet, Aurelien A. L.; Faugeras, Clément; McCann, Edward; Potemski, Marek; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2015-01-01

    Close to charge neutrality, the electronic properties of graphene and its multilayers are sensitive to electron–electron interactions. In bilayers, for instance, interactions are predicted to open a gap between valence and conduction bands, turning the system into an insulator. In mono and (Bernal-stacked) trilayers, which remain conducting at low temperature, interactions do not have equally drastic consequences. It is expected that interaction effects become weaker for thicker multilayers, whose behaviour should converge to that of graphite. Here we show that this expectation does not correspond to reality by revealing the occurrence of an insulating state close to charge neutrality in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. The phenomenology—incompatible with the behaviour expected from the single-particle band structure—resembles that observed in bilayers, but the insulating state in tetralayers is visible at higher temperature. We explain our findings, and the systematic even–odd effect of interactions in Bernal-stacked layers of different thickness that emerges from experiments, in terms of a generalization of the interaction-driven, symmetry-broken states proposed for bilayers. PMID:25732058

  12. Transient even and odd order nonlinearity of a YBCO transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizen, Richard; Remillard, Stephen

    Second (IMD2) and third (IMD3) order intermodulation distortions were found to exhibit dependencies on temperature and magnetic field. A carrier wave at the 890 MHz resonant frequency of the type-II YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting resonator circuit, with TC = 89K, was introduced into the circuit via an electric coupling antenna. Two off-resonance probe signals were injected into the circuit via a separate magnetic coupling element. The combination of these three signals locally excited synchronous second and third order IMD. A static magnetic field was applied perpendicularly to the film which induced magnetic flux vortices in the sample. Upon removal of the static magnetic field, IMD2 and IMD3 exhibited distinct transient decay modes correlating to temperature. Between 85.0K and 87.5K, IMD3 decayed exponentially. Above 87.5K, IMD3 exhibited bounded exponential growth, while within a narrow temperature range around 87.5K, removal of a static magnetic field strongly suppressed IMD3. IMD2 exhibited exponential decay at all temperatures. Even and odd order microwave nonlinearities were thus shown to result from different, magnetically coupled, physical mechanisms. Funding for this project was provided by Award Number DMR-1206149 from the National Science Foundation.

  13. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, G.; Andreev, A.; Gautier, J.; Giannessi, L.; Malka, V.; Petralia, A.; Sebban, S.; Stremoukhov, S.; Tissandier, F.; Vodungbo, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715

  14. Data mining in bone marrow transplant records to identify patients with high odds of survival.

    PubMed

    Taati, Babak; Snoek, Jasper; Aleman, Dionne; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing a bone marrow stem cell transplant (BMT) face various risk factors. Analyzing data from past transplants could enhance the understanding of the factors influencing success. Records up to 120 measurements per transplant procedure from 1751 patients undergoing BMT were collected (Shariati Hospital). Collaborative filtering techniques allowed the processing of highly sparse records with 22.3% missing values. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of various classification algorithms trained on predicting the survival status. Modest accuracy levels were obtained in predicting the survival status (AUC = 0.69). More importantly, however, operations that had the highest chances of success were shown to be identifiable with high accuracy, e.g., 92% or 97% when identifying 74 or 31 recipients, respectively. Identifying the patients with the highest chances of survival has direct application in the prioritization of resources and in donor matching. For patients where high-confidence prediction is not achieved, assigning a probability to their survival odds has potential applications in probabilistic decision support systems and in combination with other sources of information. PMID:24403400

  15. Odd complaints and doubtful conditions: norms of hypochondria in Jane Austen and Catherine Belling.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Lindemann

    2014-06-01

    In her final fragmentary novel Sanditon, Jane Austen develops a theme that pervades her work from her juvenilia onward: illness, and in particular, illness imagined, invented, or self-inflicted. While the "invention of odd complaints" is characteristically a token of folly or weakness throughout her writing, in this last work imagined illness is also both a symbol and a cause of how selves and societies degenerate. In the shifting world of Sanditon, hypochondria is the lubricant for a society bent on turning health into a commodity. As a result, people's rationality and their moral character come under attack. Catherine Belling's recent subtle study, A Condition of Doubt: The Meanings of Hypochondria, unveils hypochondria's discursive and cultural character. Running sharply against the tenor of Austen's treatment, however, she argues in defense of the rationality of hypochondriacs; the notion that the condition may involve morally significant defects is not entertained; any connection to the commercialization of health care is muted. Here, I contrast Austen's morally and epistemically negative rendering of her hypochondriacal characters in Sanditon with Belling's efforts to create a sympathetic understanding of people with hypochondria. I will argue that, despite time gaps and genre differences, joint consideration of these texts can help bioethicists better appreciate how medicine can intensify, pathologize, and exploit anxieties about illness and death, thus adding to the challenges of living well in the face of mortality and morbidity. PMID:24796425

  16. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  17. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  18. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio.

    PubMed

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants' performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  19. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  20. Air/fuel ratio regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, A.

    1980-07-22

    A description is given of an air/fuel ratio regulator for use with the fuel injection control system of an internal combustion engine of the spark ignition type having an air and exhaust gas (gas) induction passage open at one end to air at ambient pressure level and connected at its other end to the engine combustion chamber to be subject to manifold vacuum changes therein, a throttle valve rotatably mounted for movement across the passage to control the gas flow therethrough, exhaust gas recirculation (egr) passage means connecting engine exhaust gases to the induction passage above the closed position of the throttle valve, an egr flow control valve mounted in the egr passage means for movement between open and closed postions to control the volume of egr gas flow, an engine speed responsive positive displacement type fuel injection pump having a fuel flow output to the engine that varies in direct proportion to changes in engines speed to match fuel flow and mass airflow through the induction system of the engine over the entire speed and load range of the engine to maintain the intake mixture ratio of air to fuel constant, the pump having a fuel flow control lever movable to vary the fuel rate of flow, the regulator being characterized by engine manifold vacuum responsive first servo means operably connected to the fuel control lever for maintaining a constant air/fuel (A/F) ratio by changing fuel output as a function of changing manifold vacuum and air flow upon opening of the throttle valve, a fuel enrichment control lever operably connected to the pump control lever and movable to modify the position of the pump lever dictated by the first servo means to change the A/F ratio, and further means responsive to engine operating conditions for moving the fuel enrichment control lever to provide the changed A/F ratio.

  1. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6-10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and…

  2. Beating the Odds: The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kathy; Griffin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    When the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards project began, there really was nowhere else to go but up. The project was up against great odds--a dearth of funding, a history of incivility amongst the disciplines within social studies, a knack for ending up in media battles over what should be taught in…

  3. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  4. How Methodology Decisions Affect the Variability of Schools Identified as Beating the Odds. REL 2015-071

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yasuyo; Weinstock, Phyllis; Chan, Vincent; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Brandt, W. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Schools that show better academic performance than would be expected given characteristics of the school and student populations are often described as "beating the odds" (BTO). State and local education agencies often attempt to identify such schools as a means of identifying strategies or practices that might be contributing to the…

  5. How Methodology Decisions Affect the Variability of Schools Identified as Beating the Odds. REL 2015-071.rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yasuyo; Weinstock, Phyllis; Chan, Vincent; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Brandt, W. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of states and school districts have identified schools that perform better than expected, given the populations they serve, in order to recognize school performance or to learn from local school practices and policies. These schools have been labeled "beating the odds," "high-performing/high-poverty,"…

  6. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6-10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and

  7. TAT-ODD-p53 enhances the radiosensitivity of hypoxic breast cancer cells by inhibiting Parkin-mediated mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shasha; Ren, Chen; Wang, Yuxia; Yuan, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. Dysfunction p53 and hypoxia are typical biological characteristics of breast cancer that constitute barriers to the efficacy of radiotherapy. Mitophagy plays a protective role in cellular homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, while mitophagy is inhibited by p53 in normal cells. We explored the effects of a p53 fusion protein, TAT-ODD-p53, on the radiosensitivity of hypoxic breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as investigating the related molecular mechanisms. We found that selective accumulation of TAT-ODD-p53 occurred under hypoxic conditions and significantly increased tumor cell radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. Mitophagy had an important role in maintaining hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Mitophagy was inhibited by TAT-ODD-p53 and this inhibition was suppressed by over-expression of Parkin in hypoxic irradiated breast cancer cells. In addition, mitophagy was induced by deletion of p53, with this effect being weakened by Parkin knockdown at a low oxygen tension. By interacting with Parkin, p53 inhibited the translocation of Parkin to the mitochondria, disrupting the protective mitophagy process. These results suggest that TAT-ODD-p53 has a significant and preferential radiosensitizing effect on hypoxic breast cancer cells by inhibition of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:26025927

  8. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. Summary. REL 2014-032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed…

  9. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. REL 2014-032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed…

  10. Fast-track attribution assessments based on pre-computed estimates of changes in the odds of warm extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Zwiers, Francis W.

    2015-09-01

    Regional warming due to anthropogenic influence on the climate is expected to increase the frequency of very warm years and seasons. The growing research area of extreme event attribution has provided pertinent scientific evidence for a number of such warm events for which the forced climate response rises above internal climatic variability. Although the demand for attribution assessments is higher shortly after an event occurs, most scientific studies become available several months later. A formal attribution methodology is employed here to pre-compute the changing odds of very warm years and seasons in regions across the world. Events are defined based on the exceedence of temperature thresholds and their changing odds are measured over a range of pre-specified thresholds, which means assessments can be made as soon as a new event happens. Optimal fingerprinting provides observationally constrained estimates of the global temperature response to external forcings from which regional information is extracted. This information is combined with estimates of internal variability to construct temperature distributions with and without the effect of anthropogenic influence. The likelihood of an event is computed for each distribution and the change in the odds estimated. Analyses are conducted with seven climate models to explore the model dependency of the results. Apart from colder regions and seasons, characterised by greater internal climate variability, the odds of warm events are found to have significantly increased and temperatures above the threshold of 1-in-10 year events during 1961-1990 have become at least twice as likely to occur.

  11. Reflections on Forty-Odd Years of Teaching History and on Training Prospective PhDs to Do So

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his own reflections on his forty-odd years of teaching history at the college level. He shares one of the most important things he learned during his career as a history teacher: Instructors should make clear to their students at the beginning of any survey course what it is that they expect their students to…

  12. CBCL Clinical Scales Discriminate ADHD Youth with Structured-Interview Derived Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the clinical scales of the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a large sample of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The sample consisted of 101 girls and 106 boys ages 6 to 17 with ADHD. Conditional…

  13. ADHD Preschoolers with and without ODD: Do They Act Differently Depending on Degree of Task Engagement/Reward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopin, Chaya B.; Berwid, Olga; Marks, David J.; Mlodnicka, Agnieska; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of reinforcement on reaction time (RT) and RT variability (RT standard deviation [RTSD]) in preschoolers with ADHD with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Method: Participants were administered a computerized task consisting of two conditions: simple…

  14. Should There Be Separate Parent and Teacher-Based Categories of ODD? Evidence from a General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkvold, Linda; Lundervold, Astri; Lie, Stein Atle; Manger, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a general population of boys and girls, as reported by parents and teachers, and to investigate differences in prevalence estimates, depending on how parents' and teachers' ratings were combined. Method: Data were collected from 7007 children (aged 7-9) who…

  15. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854502

  16. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and

  17. CBCL Clinical Scales Discriminate ADHD Youth with Structured-Interview Derived Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the clinical scales of the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a large sample of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The sample consisted of 101 girls and 106 boys ages 6 to 17 with ADHD. Conditional

  18. ADHD Preschoolers with and without ODD: Do They Act Differently Depending on Degree of Task Engagement/Reward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopin, Chaya B.; Berwid, Olga; Marks, David J.; Mlodnicka, Agnieska; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of reinforcement on reaction time (RT) and RT variability (RT standard deviation [RTSD]) in preschoolers with ADHD with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Method: Participants were administered a computerized task consisting of two conditions: simple

  19. Should There Be Separate Parent and Teacher-Based Categories of ODD? Evidence from a General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkvold, Linda; Lundervold, Astri; Lie, Stein Atle; Manger, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a general population of boys and girls, as reported by parents and teachers, and to investigate differences in prevalence estimates, depending on how parents' and teachers' ratings were combined. Method: Data were collected from 7007 children (aged 7-9) who

  20. Cyclic single-molecule magnets: from the odd-numbered heptanuclear to a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haiquan; Bao, Song-Song; Zheng, Li-Min

    2016-01-28

    A heptanuclear and a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters (Dy7 and Dy14) have been successfully synthesized by ingenious coalescence of the single and double pyrazinyl hydrazone as well as phosphonate ligands. The complexes feature the largest odd-numbered cyclic lanthanide clusters reported thus far. Both exhibit single molecule magnet behaviors at low temperature. PMID:26728975

  1. Beating the Odds: Analysis of Student Performance on State Assessments. Results from 2012-2013 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Renata; Fernandez, Jeannette; Palacios, Moses; Hart, Ray; Casserly, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools prepared this thirteenth edition of "Beating the Odds" to give the nation an in-depth look at how big-city schools are performing on the academic goals and standards set by the states. This analysis examines student achievement in mathematics and reading from spring 2010 through spring 2013; measures…

  2. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates’ conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water–land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods’ enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. PMID:26253316

  3. Testing the odds of inherent vs. observed overdispersion in neural spike counts.

    PubMed

    Taouali, Wahiba; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Wallisch, Pascal; Chavane, Frédéric; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2016-01-01

    The repeated presentation of an identical visual stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron may evoke different spiking patterns at each trial. Probabilistic methods are essential to understand the functional role of this variance within the neural activity. In that case, a Poisson process is the most common model of trial-to-trial variability. For a Poisson process, the variance of the spike count is constrained to be equal to the mean, irrespective of the duration of measurements. Numerous studies have shown that this relationship does not generally hold. Specifically, a majority of electrophysiological recordings show an "overdispersion" effect: responses that exhibit more intertrial variability than expected from a Poisson process alone. A model that is particularly well suited to quantify overdispersion is the Negative-Binomial distribution model. This model is well-studied and widely used but has only recently been applied to neuroscience. In this article, we address three main issues. First, we describe how the Negative-Binomial distribution provides a model apt to account for overdispersed spike counts. Second, we quantify the significance of this model for any neurophysiological data by proposing a statistical test, which quantifies the odds that overdispersion could be due to the limited number of repetitions (trials). We apply this test to three neurophysiological data sets along the visual pathway. Finally, we compare the performance of this model to the Poisson model on a population decoding task. We show that the decoding accuracy is improved when accounting for overdispersion, especially under the hypothesis of tuned overdispersion. PMID:26445864

  4. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates' conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water-land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods' enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. PMID:26253316

  5. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-11-12

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis. PMID:24167250

  6. Estimating diversity via frequency ratios.

    PubMed

    Willis, Amy; Bunge, John

    2015-12-01

    We wish to estimate the total number of classes in a population based on sample counts, especially in the presence of high latent diversity. Drawing on probability theory that characterizes distributions on the integers by ratios of consecutive probabilities, we construct a nonlinear regression model for the ratios of consecutive frequency counts. This allows us to predict the unobserved count and hence estimate the total diversity. We believe that this is the first approach to depart from the classical mixed Poisson model in this problem. Our method is geometrically intuitive and yields good fits to data with reasonable standard errors. It is especially well-suited to analyzing high diversity datasets derived from next-generation sequencing in microbial ecology. We demonstrate the method's performance in this context and via simulation, and we present a dataset for which our method outperforms all competitors. PMID:26038228

  7. Optomechanical Raman-ratio thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, T. P.; Yu, P.-L.; Kampel, N. S.; Peterson, R. W.; Cicak, K.; Simmonds, R. W.; Regal, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the asymmetry between Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering can be exploited for self-calibrating, optically based thermometry. In the context of cavity optomechanics, we observe the cavity-enhanced scattering of light interacting with the standing-wave drumhead modes of a Si3N4 membrane mechanical resonator. The ratio of the amplitude of Stokes to anti-Stokes scattered light is used to measure temperatures of optically cooled mechanical modes, down to the level of a few vibrational quanta. We demonstrate that the Raman-ratio technique allows the measurement of the physical temperature of our device over a range extending from cryogenic temperatures to within an order of magnitude of room temperature.

  8. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-10-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios yμ/ys, yτ/yb and yt/yb in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments.

  9. Gender ratios for reading difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analyzed data from 1,133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had a school-history of reading problems and from 684 twin pairs from a comparison sample with no reading difficulties. Although the difference between the average scores of males and females in these two samples was very small, the variance of reading performance was significantly greater for males in both groups. We suggest that a greater variance of reading performance measures in males may account at least in part for their higher prevalence of reading difficulties as well as for the higher gender ratios that are observed in more severely impaired samples. PMID:19367616

  10. Acute Alcohol Use Temporally Increases the Odds of Male Perpetrated Dating Violence: A 90-Day Diary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; McNulty, James K.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite an extensive theoretical literature on acute alcohol intoxication likely increasing the odds of aggression between intimate partners, there have been few temporal studies on the relation between alcohol use and increased odds of intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, the literature on the temporal relation between marijuana use and IPV is in its infancy. The existing temporal research has yet to examine in the same study the three distinct types of IPV that occur most often between partners: physical, psychological, and sexual. Thus, the present study examined the temporal relationship between acute alcohol use, marijuana use, and male perpetrated physical, psychological, and sexual dating violence. Method College men who had consumed alcohol in the previous month and were in a current dating relationship participated (N=67). Men completed daily surveys that assessed their alcohol use, marijuana use, and violence perpetration (psychological, physical, and sexual) for up to 90 consecutive days. Results On any alcohol use days, heavy alcohol use days (5 or more standard drinks), and as the number of drinks increased on a given day, the odds of physical and sexual aggression perpetration increased. The odds of psychological aggression increased on heavy alcohol use days only. Marijuana use days did not increase the odds of any type of aggression. Conclusions These findings contribute to a growing body of research on the temporal relation between acute alcohol use and IPV perpetration among college men. Combined with previous research, our findings suggest that dating violence intervention and prevention programs should target reductions in alcohol use. PMID:24199932

  11. Segregation Ratios in Alport's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    MacNeill, Elizabeth; Shaw, Richard F.

    1973-01-01

    Pooled data of 35 pedigrees for Alport's syndrome were analysed. Affected to normal ratios among the offspring of heterozgyous fathers and mothers were tabulated. Offspring of heterozygous mothers were tabulated separately where the mother showed symptoms of the disease and where she was asymptomatic. Three current theories on the inheritance of Alport's syndrome are considered and discussed. Each theory fails to account fully for the known facts. A non-chromosomal agent has not yet been excluded for this intriguing disease. PMID:4697851

  12. Breast Volume Asymmetry Value, Ratio, and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kayar, Ragıp; Çilengiroğlu, Özgül V.

    2015-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the criteria for determining the cancer risk of the breast asymmetry by comparing breast volume asymmetry levels between healthy women and women with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and one women with breast cancer (group 1) were compared with 446 healthy women (group 2) who had no pathologic findings in breast sonography and mammograpy repeated with one-year interval. Data were evaluated retrospectively. Each breast volume was measured twice by Grossman-Roudner Discs. The mean value has been recorded. The amounts of volume difference between two breasts (asymmetry value) and the rates of the volume difference to the breast volume of the smaller side (asymmetry ratio) were compared in both groups. RESULTS There was a statistically significant difference between two groups with regard to average age and body mass index (P < 0.01). This significance was decreased but not disappeared, when the comparison was made within the 40–69 age group (P > 0.01). The rate of cases with asymmetry value over 50 mL was significantly higher in the cancer group (P = 0.029). Unfortunately, it disappeared in the 40–69 age group (P = 0.201). The breast volume asymmetry ratio over 20% was significantly higher in the cancer group both in all ages and in the 40–69 age group (P < 0.01). Odds ratio was 2.18 in the entire (all) series and 2.01 in the 40–69 age group. Moreover, there was no significant difference with regard to the rate of tumor location between the smaller or larger side of breast. CONCLUSION Our data show that there is a positive correlation between breast asymmetry ratio over 20% and breast cancer risk. These results need to be confirmed by prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:26691819

  13. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsizing with variable compression ratio and use of the extended Atkinson cycle can provide large fuel economy gains that are exceptionally cost effective. Analysis indicates that a 2.2L supercharged Envera VCR engine can match the torque of a larger V8 engine at 2000 rpm. The VCR engine's high torque value at low engine speed is beneficial for maintaining the driving feel and responsiveness of the larger V8 engine. The Envera VCR engine will attain high efficiency at {approx}100 Nm primarily due to the combination of engine down-sizing and use of the Atkinson cycle. Qualitatively the fuel economy gain realized from down-sizing from a V8 to an Atkinson-cycle I-4 is about twice as large as the benefits from down-sizing from a V8 to a Turbo V6 when evaluated at 100 Nm 2000 rpm.

  14. Odd-skipped labels a group of distinct neurons associated with the mushroom body and optic lobe in the adult Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Peter; Larsen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory processing has been intensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster. However, we still know little about the descending neural pathways from the higher order processing centers and how these connect with other neural circuits. Here we describe, in detail, the adult projections patterns that arise from a cluster of 78 neurons, defined by the expression of the Odd-skipped transcription factor. We term these neurons Odd neurons. By using expression of genetically encoded axonal and dendritic markers, we show that a subset of the Odd neurons projects dendrites into the calyx of the mushroom body (MB) and axons into the inferior protocerebrum. We exclude the possibility that the Odd neurons are part of the well-known Kenyon cells whose projections form the MB and conclude that the Odd neurons belong to a previously not described class of extrinsic MB neurons. In addition, three of the Odd neurons project into the lobula plate of the optic lobe, and two of these cells extend axons ipsi- and contralaterally in the brain. Anatomically, these cells do not resemble any previously described lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs) in Drosophila. We show that the Odd neurons are predominantly cholinergic but also include a small number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that the Odd neurons are a hemilineage, suggesting they are born from a defined set of neuroblasts. Our anatomical analysis hints at the possibility that subgroups of Odd neurons could be involved in olfactory and visual processing. PMID:23749685

  15. Even/Odd Mode Resonance Frequency of Microstrip Ring Resonator with Proximity and Direct In-Plane Coupling by Partial Positional Dielectric Strip Overlay Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Hossein

    2009-08-01

    Effect of perturbation by flexible dielectric strip overlay on even and odd mode resonance frequency of microstrip ring resonator is reported. It is seen that change in even and odd mode resonance frequency for proximity coupling obeys cosine and sine like wave function respectively. Even mode resonance frequency tends to vary linearly with width and thickness of strip overlay while for odd mode it is independent of overlay thickness. Empirical equations for both even and odd mode resonance frequencies are reported. Obtained results are compared with the reported direct in-plane coupling.

  16. EVALUATION OF TRADITIONAL AND NOVEL RADIOGRAPHIC VERTEBRAL RATIOS IN GREAT DANES WITH VERSUS WITHOUT CERVICAL SPONDYLOMYELOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; Da Costa, Ronaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Great Danes are predisposed to osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (Wobbler syndrome). The first aim of this prospective study was to compare values measured using previously published intravertebral and intervertebral ratio methods and a novel ventrodorsal ratio method in radiographs of clinically normal and affected Great Danes. The second aim was to determine whether these ratios could be used as predictors of sites of spinal cord compression based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty dogs (15 normal, 15 affected) were prospectively enrolled. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were obtained and six measurements were recorded from C3-T1. For each vertebral location, intravertebral ratios and intervertebral ratios were calculated from lateral views, and the ratio of the distance between the articular process joints vs. vertebral body width (novel ventrodorsal ratio) was calculated from ventrodorsal views. Values for these three ratios were compared, by vertebral location and dog group. Intravertebral and intervertebral ratios did not differ between dog groups. The ventrodorsal ratio was significantly smaller in affected Great Danes at C5–6 (P = 0.005) and C6–7 (P <0.001). The ventrodorsal ratio was significantly associated with MRI presence of spinal cord compression. For each 0.1 unit increase in this ratio value, there was a 65% decrease in the odds of spinal cord compression being present at that site, independent of vertebral location (P = 0.002). Findings from this study supported use of the novel ventrodorsal ratio as an initial radiographic screening method for Great Danes with suspected cervical spondylomyelopathy. PMID:24698393

  17. Effect of Anesthesia Staffing Ratio on First-Case Surgical Start Time.

    PubMed

    Chen, York; Gabriel, Rodney A; Kodali, Bhavani S; Urman, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    On time start of the first case of the day is an important operating room (OR) efficiency metric, in which delays can have effects throughout the day. Although previous studies have identified various causes of first case start delays, none have attempted to evaluate the effect anesthesia staffing ratios have on first case start times. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis at an academic teaching hospital. Data was collected and analyzed over a period of 4 years and on more than 8,700 cases. We examined whether staffing ratios of attending only (solo staffing ratio), attending working with 1 resident/certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) (1 to 1), or attending covering 2 residents/CRNAs (1 to 2) had a significant effect on first patient in room time (FPIR) and first case on time start (FCOTS). In addition, we examined whether staffing ratios had an effect on start times in various surgical subspecialties. We performed a univariate logistic regression analysis to determine if age, anesthesia base units, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) classification score, and staffing ratio was associated with FPIR and FCOTS being on time. Then, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine if staffing ratio was associated with these outcomes, utilizing age, anesthesia base units, and ASA PS class as covariates. A decreased odds for FPIR being on time were seen in general and orthopedic surgeries when staffed 1 to 1, and cardiac surgery when staffed 1 to 2, when compared to solo staffing. FCOTS showed statistically significant differences when looking at all services with solo staffing having the highest odds for FCOTS being on time. This effect was seen also when analyzing only oncologic and orthopedic surgeries. Hospitals should consider using different staffing ratios in different surgical specialties to minimize delays and maximize OR efficiency. PMID:26995356

  18. U{sup BF}(5) to SU{sup BF}(3) shape phase transition in odd nuclei for j=1/2, 3/2, and 5/2 orbits: The role of the odd particle at the critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-01-15

    We investigate the phase transition in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model in correspondence with the transition from spherical to stable axially deformed shape. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the single-particle orbitals with angular momenta j=1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  19. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  20. Consistency and universality in odd and even dimensional space-time QFT perturbative calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, O. A.; Dallabona, G.

    2014-05-01

    The questions related to the consistent interpretation of QFT perturbative amplitudes are considered in light of a novel procedure, alternative to the traditional ones based on regularization prescriptions. A detailed discussion about the aspects associated to the space-time dimension is performed. For this purpose, it is considered a simple model having a fermionic vector current, coupled to a vector field, as well as a fermionic scalar current, coupled to a scalar field, both of them composed by different species of massive fermions. The referred currents are related in a precise way, which is reflected in the Ward identities for the perturbative physical amplitudes. The double vector two-point fermionic function, related to the vacuum polarization tensor of QED, as well as the amplitudes related to such quantity through relations among Green functions are explicit evaluated in space-time dimensions d = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the adopted procedure the perturbative amplitudes are not modified in intermediary steps of the calculations, as occurs in regularization procedures. Divergent Feynman integrals are not really solved. They appear only in standard objects, conveniently defined, where no physical parameter is present. Only very general properties for such quantities are assumed. For the finite parts, a set of functions is introduced which allows universal forms for the results. We show that scale independent, ambiguity free amplitudes are automatically obtained in a regularization independent way. As a consequence, interesting and, in certain way, surprising aspects are revealed in a clear and transparent way when the Ward identities and low-energy limits are verified for the simple amplitudes considered in the presently reported investigation. The obtained results suggest that the procedure can be considered as an advantageous tool to handle with the problem of divergences in perturbative solutions of QFT's, relative to the traditional regularization techniques, since the obtained results are so consistent as desirable and there are no limitations of applicability. In particular, the method can be applied in odd and even space-time dimensions having extra dimensions, which is not possible within the context of traditional regularization.

  1. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah L; Nelson, Sarah L

    2008-05-14

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35 ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" theory.

  2. Classical Odd-hydrogen Reservoir Species in the Marine Boundary Layer During the California Nexus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikes, B.; Herndon, S.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and formaldehyde were measured in the marine boundary layer from on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex program along with a suite of other photochemically active gas and aerosol species. The CalNex R/V Atlantis sub-program was focused on improving our understanding of aerosol and gas photochemistry under a variety of mixed maritime and urban air mass conditions. The cruise occurred between May 14 and June 8, 2010, and the ship's track was along the California coast from San Diego, to the Los Angeles bight, to San Francisco and inland up the Sacramento River to the 'turn-around basin'. Hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (0.02 ppb) to 2.1 ppb. Methylhydroperoxide mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (0.04 ppb) to 1.2 ppb. Measurements of peracetic were attempted, however, mixing ratios above the detection limit (0.2 ppb), were not encountered. Formaldehyde was measured using a wet chemical derivatization fluorescence method and by a quantum cascade laser spectral absorption method. The measurements ranged from below the detection limit, nominally 0.020 ppb (QCL) and 50 (WetChem), to greater than 15 ppb; with values typically between 0.2 and 2.0 ppb. A formaldehyde measurement comparison will be presented; the two systems agreed well. Hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and formaldehyde will be presented and interpreted in terms of photochemistry, air quality, and meteorological conditions.

  3. Fission-fragment charge yields: Variation of odd-even staggering with element number, energy, and charge asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Peter; Randrup, Jrgen; Iwamoto, Akira; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2014-07-01

    Background: Fission-fragment charge-yield distributions exhibit a pronounced odd-even staggering. For actinide nuclei the staggering decreases with increasing proton number and with increasing excitation energy. In our calculations of fission yields [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 132503 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.132503] we obtained charge-yield distributions for a number of actinide nuclides by means of random walks on tabulated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. However, because the potential-energy model treats the system as a single, compound system during all stages of the fission process, in which individual fragment properties do not appear, no odd-even staggering appeared in the calculated yield curves. Purpose: We have recently become aware that in the experimental data displayed in Fig. 1 in the above paper, there is a remarkable similarity in the odd-even staggering in fission of Pu240 at thermal neutron energy and fission of U234 in photon-induced fission at around 11 MeV. We discuss how this similarity and how the variation in the magnitude of the odd-even staggering for three Th isotopes with charge asymmetry and isotope can be qualitatively understood based on strongly damped shape evolution on our calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. Methods: We conduct random walks on our tabulated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces and study the difference between the total compound-nucleus energy and the potential energy for the different systems from saddle to scission. Under the strong-damping assumption this difference is the internal excitation energy. We also determine this quantity for different charge splits, symmetric and asymmetric. Results: We find that the magnitude of the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution in the several cases studied here correlates well, inversely, with the excitation energy above the potential-energy surface in the postsaddle region. Conclusions: Because the observed magnitude of the odd-even staggering correlates well with excitation energy over the region where the individual character of the fission fragments emerges, the Brownian shape-motion method can be expected to reproduce this feature, provided a potential-energy model is developed that accounts for how the nascent fragment properties are expressed in the calculated potential-energy surfaces.

  4. Spatial access to sterile syringes and the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe among injectors: a longitudinal multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah; Des Jarlais, Don; Ross, Zev; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian H; Friedman, Samuel R

    2012-08-01

    Despite the 2010 repeal of the ban on spending federal monies to fund syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the U.S.A., these interventions--and specifically SEP site locations--remain controversial. To further inform discussions about the location of SEP sites, this longitudinal multilevel study investigates the relationship between spatial access to sterile syringes distributed by SEPs in New York City (NYC) United Hospital Fund (UHF) districts and injecting with an unsterile syringe among injectors over time (1995-2006). Annual measures of spatial access to syringes in each UHF district (N = 42) were created using data on SEP site locations and site-specific syringe distribution data. Individual-level data on unsterile injecting among injectors (N = 4,067) living in these districts, and on individual-level covariates, were drawn from the Risk Factors study, an ongoing cross-sectional study of NYC drug users. We used multilevel models to explore the relationship of district-level access to syringes to the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe in >75% of injection events in the past 6 months, and to test whether this relationship varied by district-level arrest rates (per 1,000 residents) for drug and drug paraphernalia possession. The relationship between district-level access to syringes and the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe depended on district-level arrest rates. In districts with low baseline arrest rates, better syringe access was associated with a decline in the odds of frequently injecting with an unsterile syringe (AOR, 0.95). In districts with no baseline syringe access, higher arrest rates were associated with increased odds of frequently injecting with an unsterile syringe (AOR, 1.02) When both interventions were present, arrest rates eroded the protective effects of spatial access to syringes. Spatial access to syringes in small geographic areas appears to reduce the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe among local injectors, and arrest rates elevate these odds. Policies and practices that curtail syringe flow in geographic areas (e.g., restrictions on SEP locations or syringe distribution) or that make it difficult for injectors to use the sterile syringes they have acquired may damage local injectors' efforts to reduce HIV transmission and other injection-related harms. PMID:22585448

  5. High-aspect-ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    High-aspect-ratio aircraft include most transport aircraft such as commercial and military transports, business aircraft, and cargo aircraft. Generally, these types of aircraft are designed to cruise over a narrow range of lift coefficients and Mach numbers in the performance of their mission. Emphasis is therefore placed on the cruise performance of transport aircraft and every effort is made to obtain accurate wind-tunnel data to use as a basis for prediction of full-scale cruise performance. However, off-cruise performance is also important and methods were developed for extrapolating wind-tunnel data on buffet and flutter at transonic speed. Transport-type aircraft were tested extensively in various wind tunnels around the world and many different test techniques were developed to simulate higher Reynolds numbers. Methods developed for one tunnel may not be applicable to another tunnel because of differences in size, Reynolds number capability, running time, and test objectives. Many of the methods of boundary-layer control developed in two-dimensional airfoil testing can be applied in tests of transport configurations, but sometimes the three-dimensional flow fields that develop on tranpsort aircraft can make application of the two-dimensional methods difficult or impossible. The discussion is intended to be a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of the various methods of high Reynolds number simulation in the testing of high-aspect-ratio aircraft.

  6. Comparisons of the Odd-Even Staggering Patterns Between the Ba-Dy Region with 88 Neutrons and ra Isotopes with 88 Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mheemeed, Ahmed K.

    2013-09-01

    Useful information about the shape transitions of even-even isotones 144Ba, 146Ce, 148Nd, 150Sm, 152Gd, 154Dy with 88 neutrons and 218-226Ra isotopes with 88 protons are obtained from the ratios of E(4+1)/E(2^+_1) as a function of neutron number N or proton number Z and the relations E(I+1)/E(2^+_1) and r((I+2)/I) as a function of the angular momentum I. Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1), Bohr-Mottelson Model (BM) and Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) have been employed to study the energy levels for the ground and octupole bands of the above nuclei. The best input parameters for the above approaches which lead to the best fit to experimental data are determined. The ΔI = 1 staggering (odd-even staggering) in octupole bands of the studied nuclei is found to exhibit a "beat" behavior as a function of angular momentum I. Comparisons of the displacement energies δE(I) and the staggering factor ΔE1, γ(I) are presented between the Ba-Dy region with 88 neutrons and Ra isotopes with 88 protons.

  7. Odd q-state clock spin-glass models in three dimensions, asymmetric phase diagrams, and multiple algebraically ordered phases.

    PubMed

    Ilker, Efe; Berker, A Nihat

    2014-12-01

    Distinctive orderings and phase diagram structures are found, from renormalization-group theory, for odd q-state clock spin-glass models in d=3 dimensions. These models exhibit asymmetric phase diagrams, as is also the case for quantum Heisenberg spin-glass models. No finite-temperature spin-glass phase occurs. For all odd q≥5, algebraically ordered antiferromagnetic phases occur. One such phase is dominant and occurs for all q≥5. Other such phases occupy small low-temperature portions of the phase diagrams and occur for 5≤q≤15. All algebraically ordered phases have the same structure, determined by an attractive finite-temperature sink fixed point where a dominant and a subdominant pair states have the only nonzero Boltzmann weights. The phase transition critical exponents quickly saturate to the high q value. PMID:25615049

  8. Mechanisms of excitation of T-odd correlations for prescission gamma rays and structure of these correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G. Kadmensky, S. S.

    2009-08-15

    Conditions for the appearance and observation of prescission gamma rays emitted by a fissioning nucleus prior to its separation into fission fragments were investigated within quantum-mechanical fission theory. It is shown that these conditions are realizable in the gamma decay of isovector electric giant dipole resonances in a fissile nucleus that are excited because of nonadiabaticity of the collective deformation motion of the nucleus at the ultimate stages of its prefission evolution. Angular and energy distributions of prescission gamma rays emitted by unpolarized fissioning nuclei are analyzed. Features of T-odd correlations in angular distributions of gamma rays arising in the fission of unpolarized target nuclei that is induced by polarized cold neutrons are investigated, and it is shown that these correlations are similar in nature to T-odd ROT correlations discovered earlier for alpha particles emitted in the ternary fission of nuclei.

  9. T-odd correlations from the top-quark chromoelectric dipole moment in lepton plus jets top-pair events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayreter, Alper; Valencia, German

    2016-01-01

    There exist several recent studies of the top-quark chromoelectric dipole moment (CEDM) in the context of searching for charge parity violating signals in top-quark pair production at the LHC. Most of these studies constrain the CEDM either from deviations in the top-pair cross section from its standard model value, or from T-odd asymmetries in the dimuon channel. Motivated by ATLAS and CMS interest, we extend the study of T-odd asymmetries to the lepton plus jets channel. At the parton level, using madgraph5, we identify the most promising signals and their statistical sensitivity. We find that the signals with larger sensitivity to the CEDM require distinguishing between b and b ¯ jets and propose a simple way to address this.

  10. First excited states in doubly-odd {sup 110}Sb: Smooth band termination in the A {approx} 110 region

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, G.J.; Fossan, D.B.; Thorslund, I.

    1996-11-01

    Excited states have been identified for the first time in {sup 110}Sb in a comprehensive series of {gamma}-spectroscopy experiments, including recoil-mass and neutron-field measurements. Three high-spin decoupled bands with configurations based on 2p-2h excitations across the Z = 50 shell gap, are observed to show the features of smooth band termination, the first such observation in an odd-odd nucleus. The yrast intruder band has been connected to the low spin levels and is tentatively identified up to its predicred termination at I{sup {pi}} = (45{sup +}). Detailed configuration assignments are made through comparison with configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations; excellent agreement with experiment is obtained. The systematic occurrence of smoothly terminating bands in the neighboring isotopes is discussed.

  11. Stress Responsive Biochemical Anabolic/Catabolic Ratio and Telomere Length in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Cohen, Alan A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic psychological stress is associated with shorter telomere length; however, the mechanisms that link stress and telomere length are not well understood. To examine the interplay between biochemical factors related to stress arousal and cellular aging, we investigate the association between anabolic/catabolic (A/C) imbalance and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan (N=925). SEBAS participants age 54 and older (mean age 68.3) with values for two anabolic hormones (serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and insulin growth factor [IGF]-1), four catabolic hormones (cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and leukocyte telomere length were examined. We found that high IL-6 was associated with short LTL (≤0.88 T/S ratio; odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.92). Neither DHEAS/cortisol nor IGF-1/cortisol ratio was associated with telomere length; however, a high A/C imbalance summary score was associated with a greater odds of having a short LTL relative to long LTL (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05–1.35). These results indicate that our A/C imbalance score, defined by several anabolic and catabolic biochemical factors, may be one mechanism through which psychological stress is associated with short leukocyte telomere length and possibly cellular senescence. PMID:25343365

  12. How learn the branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.

    2014-10-01

    Enfant terrible of charmonium spectroscopy, the resonance X(3872), generated a stream of interpretations and ushered in a new exotic XYZ spectroscopy. In the meantime, many (if not all) characteristics of X(3872) are rather ambiguous. We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872) → π+π- J/ψ(1 S) decay. We next define the range of values of the coupling constant of the X(3872) resonance with the system. Finally, we show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872).

  13. Lorentz ratio of quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khalfaoui, A.; Bennaceur, D. )

    1994-06-01

    A quantum collective approach is developed to investigate linear transport properties of a system of highly degenerate weakly coupled electrons and strongly coupled semiclassical ions. The basic formalism rests upon suitable extention of the Boltzmann--Bloch quantum transport equation. The model considers electron--ion (e--i) and electron--electron (e--e) collisions in a unified scheme of both long- and short-range Coulomb interactions. The e--e collisions contribute to the thermal conductivity calculation in the low coupling regime. Even though they can be insignificant for strongly coupled systems, the extensively used Lorentz gas approximation cannot be justified for plasmas of astrophysical interests. It is shown that the Lorentz ratio of high-density plasma may exhibit substantial negative deviation from the ideal Sommerfeld value, due to some nonidealities, such as e--e interaction and quantum effects. Results are presented under analytical and compact forms allowing numerical applications, as well as comparisons with existing theories.

  14. Likelihood ratios for DNA identification.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A; Morton, N E

    1994-01-01

    Likelihood ratio (LR) tests are provided for the three alternatives to DNA identity: exclusion, coincidence, and kinship. The coincidence test uses the radius of coalescence to conserve the observed frequency of single band phenotypes. Genotype probabilities under kinship are derived for mating groups, specified relatives, and structured populations; and unbiased estimates of the genetic parameters are provided. The LR is made robust to gene frequency errors by specifying the mean matching probability, and the tolerable loss of information this entails is determined by LR theory. This straightforward application of the seminal work of Jerzy Neyman and Sewall Wright strongly supports the use of LRs and kinship for presentation of DNA evidence by expert witnesses and committees. PMID:8016106

  15. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  16. Quantity yields quality when it comes to creativity: a brain and behavioral test of the equal-odds rule

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Wertz, Christopher J.; Meadows, Christine A.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Flores, Ranee A.

    2015-01-01

    The creativity research community is in search of a viable cognitive measure providing support for behavioral observations that higher ideational output is often associated with higher creativity (known as the equal-odds rule). One such measure has included divergent thinking: the production of many examples or uses for a common or single object or image. We sought to test the equal-odds rule using a measure of divergent thinking, and applied the consensual assessment technique to determine creative responses as opposed to merely original responses. We also sought to determine structural brain correlates of both ideational fluency and ideational creativity. Two-hundred forty-six subjects were subjected to a broad battery of behavioral measures, including a core measure of divergent thinking (Foresight), and measures of intelligence, creative achievement, and personality (i.e., Openness to Experience). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes (e.g., thalamus) were measured using automated techniques (FreeSurfer). We found that higher number of responses on the divergent thinking task was significantly associated with higher creativity (r = 0.73) as independently assessed by three judges. Moreover, we found that creativity was predicted by cortical thickness in regions including the left frontal pole and left parahippocampal gyrus. These results support the equal-odds rule, and provide neuronal evidence implicating brain regions involved with “thinking about the future” and “extracting future prospects.” PMID:26161075

  17. Level structure of 141Ba and 139Xe and the level systematics of N=85 even-odd isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.X.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Beyer, C.J.; Zhu, S.J.; Kormicki, J.; Zhang, X.Q.; Jones, E.F.; Gore, P.M.; Ginter, T.N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Zielinski, P.; Folden III, C.M.; Fallon, P.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Daniel, A.V.; Stoyer, M.A.; Cole, J.D.; Donangelo, R.; Wu, S.C.; Asztalos, S.J.

    2002-01-31

    New level schemes of {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe are proposed from the analyses of spontaneous-fission gamma data from our {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission Gammasphere runs of 1995 and 2000. By analogy with the N = 85 even-odd isotones {sup 149}Gd, {sup 147}Sm, and {sup 145}Nd, spins and parities were assigned to the observed excited states in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe. It appears that spherical shell model neutron excitations plus octupolephonons are an appropriate basis at the lower end of the bands. Going to higher spins it is clear that the soft rotor involving valence protons as well as neutrons becomes increasingly important in the configurations. Level systematics in the N = 85 even-odd isotones from Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), are discussed. The excitation systematics and smooth trends of the analogous levels support the spin and parity assignment for excited levels observed in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe. The level systematics and the comparison with neighboring even-even isotopes indicate that quadrupole and octupole collectivity play roles in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}$Xe. From Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), increasing excitation energies of the 13/2{sup +} states and lowering relative intensities of the positive parity bands in the N = 85 even-odd isotones may indicate that the octupole strength is becoming weaker for the isotones when approaching the Z = 50 closed shell.

  18. QPNM calculation for the ground state magnetic moments of odd-mass deformed nuclei: 157-167Er isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, H.; Guliyev, E.; Guner, M.; Tabar, E.; Zenginerler, Z.

    2012-08-01

    A new microscopic method has been developed in the framework of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) in order to investigate spin polarization effects on the magnetic properties such as magnetic moment, intrinsic magnetic moment and effective gs factor of the ground state of odd-mass 157-167Er isotopes. The calculations were performed using both Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA) and Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA). Reasonably good agreement has been obtained between the QRPA results and the relevant experimental data. Furthermore the variation of the intrinsic magnetic moment gK values with the mass number A exhibits similar behavior for both theoretical and experimental results. From the compression of the calculated intrinsic magnetic moment values with the experimental data the spin-spin interaction parameter has been found as χ=(30/A) MeV for odd-mass 157-167Er isotopes. Our results clarify the possibility of using this new method to describe the magnetic properties of odd-mass deformed nuclei.

  19. Quantity yields quality when it comes to creativity: a brain and behavioral test of the equal-odds rule.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Wertz, Christopher J; Meadows, Christine A; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Flores, Ranee A

    2015-01-01

    The creativity research community is in search of a viable cognitive measure providing support for behavioral observations that higher ideational output is often associated with higher creativity (known as the equal-odds rule). One such measure has included divergent thinking: the production of many examples or uses for a common or single object or image. We sought to test the equal-odds rule using a measure of divergent thinking, and applied the consensual assessment technique to determine creative responses as opposed to merely original responses. We also sought to determine structural brain correlates of both ideational fluency and ideational creativity. Two-hundred forty-six subjects were subjected to a broad battery of behavioral measures, including a core measure of divergent thinking (Foresight), and measures of intelligence, creative achievement, and personality (i.e., Openness to Experience). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes (e.g., thalamus) were measured using automated techniques (FreeSurfer). We found that higher number of responses on the divergent thinking task was significantly associated with higher creativity (r = 0.73) as independently assessed by three judges. Moreover, we found that creativity was predicted by cortical thickness in regions including the left frontal pole and left parahippocampal gyrus. These results support the equal-odds rule, and provide neuronal evidence implicating brain regions involved with "thinking about the future" and "extracting future prospects." PMID:26161075

  20. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development. PMID:22507611