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1

Uncertainty principle and uncertainty relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally believed that the uncertainty relation q p1\\/2, where q and p are standard deviations, is the precise mathematical expression of the uncertainty principle for position and momentum in quantum mechanics. We show that actually it is not possible to derive from this relation two central claims of the uncertainty principle, namely, the impossibility of an arbitrarily sharp

J. B. M. Uffink; J. Hilgevoord

1985-01-01

2

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations,

Paul Busch; Teiko Heinonen; Pekka Lahti

2007-01-01

3

Generalized uncertainty principles  

E-print Network

The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reasonable weights $w_1(x)$ and $w_2(\\omega)$, we introduced a three dimensional set in $R^3$ that is in the essence of many uncertainty principles. The set is called "possibility body". We showed that classical uncertainty principles (such as the Heiseneberg-Pauli-Weyl uncertainty principle) stem from lower bounds for different functions defined on the possibility body. We investigated qualitative properties of general uncertainty principles and possibility bodies. Using this approach we derived new (quantitative) uncertainty principles for Landau-Pollak-Slepian weights. We found the general uncertainty principles related to homogeneous weights, $w_1(x)=w_2(x)=x^k$, $k\\in N$, up to a constant.

Ronny Machluf

2008-07-14

4

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin  

E-print Network

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin This preliminary paper presents a qualitative description of the economic principle of (hidden, latent) uncertainty. Mathematical expressions of principle. ....................................................................... 2 1. Economic uncertainty principle ........................................... 2 1.1. General

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

A new uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

By examining two counterexamples to the existing theory, it is shown, with mathematical rigor, that as far as scattered particles are concerned the true distribution function is in principle not determinable (indeterminacy principle or uncertainty principle) while the average distribution function over each predetermined finite velocity solid-angle element can be calculated.

C. Y. Chen

2008-12-23

6

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and momentum distributions in any quantum state; for the inaccuracies of any joint measurement of these quantities; and for the inaccuracy of a measurement of one of the quantities and the ensuing disturbance in the distribution of the other quantity. Whilst conceptually distinct, these three kinds of uncertainty relations are shown to be closely related formally. Finally, we survey models and experimental implementations of joint measurements of position and momentum and comment briefly on the status of experimental tests of the uncertainty principle.

P. Busch; T. Heinonen; P. Lahti

2007-10-30

7

Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries  

E-print Network

Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries Uncertainty Principles November 8, 2007 Matthew J. Hirn Uncertainty Principles in Sparse Representation and Compressed Sensing #12;Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries Outline 1 Uncertainty Principles

Hirn, Matthew

8

Uncertainty principles and vector quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. An abstract form of the Uncertainty Principle set forth by Candes and Tao has found remarkable applications in the sparse approximation theory. This pa- per demonstates a new connection between the Uncertainty Principle and the vector quantization theory. We show that for frames in C, that satisfy the Uncertainty Principle, one can quickly convert every frame representation into a

Yurii Lyubarskii; Roman Vershynin

2010-01-01

9

On Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We study generalized uncertainty principle through the basic concepts of limit and Fourier transformation and analyze both the quantum theory of gravity and string theory from the perspective of complex function theory. Motivated from the noncommutative nature of string theory, we have proposed a UV/IR mixing dependent function $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $. For a given $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $, we arrived at the string uncertainty principle from the analyticity condition of a complex function, which depends upon UV cut-off of the theory. This non trivially modifies the quantum measurements, black hole physics and short distance geometries. The present analysis is based on the postulate that the Planck scale is the minimal length scale in nature. Furthermore, our consideration is in perfect agreement with the existence of the maximum length scale in nature. Both of the above length scales rely only upon the analysis of $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $ and do not directly make use of any specific structure of the theory or Hamiltonian. The Regge behavior of the string spectrum and the quantization of the horizon area of a black hole are natural consequences of the function $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $. It is hereby anticipated that $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $ contains all possible corrections operating in nature, and thus a promising possibility to reveal important clues towards the geometric origin of $M$-theory.

Bhupendra Nath Tiwari

2011-09-20

10

Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality  

E-print Network

The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting, and the same bound exists classically which indicates that nonlocality does not capture the essence of quantum and then distinguish quantum mechanics and classical mechanics properly. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one, as the result, the physical foundation for the existence of nonlocality is falsified. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.

Dongsheng Wang

2013-03-21

11

Uncertainty principle quantum estimation theory  

E-print Network

Uncertainty principle in view of quantum estimation theory Keiji Matsumoto METR 97-08 October 1997 #12;Uncertainty principle in view of quantum estimation theory Keiji Matsumoto 1 Abstract Position-momentum uncertainty relation is examined in the light of quantum estimation theory, and some counterintuitive results

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

12

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON CERTAIN LIE GROUPS  

E-print Network

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON CERTAIN LIE. 1. Introduction The Uncertainty Principle states, roughly speaking, that a nonzero function f, considerable attention has been devoted to discovering forms of the* * Uncertainty Principle on Lie groups

Cowling, Michael

13

Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

Jie Gu

2013-11-01

14

Uncertainty Relation from Holography Principle  

E-print Network

We propose that the information and entropy of an isolated system are two sides of one coin in the sense that they can convert into each other by measurement and evolution of the system while the sum of them is identically conserved. The holographic principle is reformulated in the way that this conserved sum is bounded by a quarter of the area A of system boundary. Uncertainty relation is derived from the holographic principle.

Jia-Zhong Chen; Duoje Jia

2006-11-18

15

Gerbes and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We prove that a gerbe with a connection can be defined on classical phase space, taking the U(1)-valued phase of certain Feynman path integrals as Cech 2-cocycles. A quantisation condition on the corresponding 3-form field strength is proved to be equivalent to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

J. M. Isidro

2006-03-31

16

Entropy and the uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

We generalize, improve and unify theorems of Rumin, and Maassen--Uffink about classical entropies associated to quantum density matrices. These theorems refer to the classical entropies of the diagonals of a density matrix in two different bases. Thus they provide a kind of uncertainty principle. Our inequalities are sharp because they are exact in the high-temperature or semi-classical limit.

Rupert L. Frank; Elliott H. Lieb

2011-09-06

17

Uncertainty principle and kinetic equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of mathematical studies on the Boltzmann equation are based on the Grad's angular cutoff assumption. However, for particle interaction with inverse power law potentials, the associated cross-sections have a non-integrable singularity corresponding to the grazing collisions. Smoothing properties of solutions are then expected. On the other hand, the uncertainty principle, established by Heisenberg in 1927, has been

R. Alexandre; Y. Morimoto; S. Ukai; C.-J. Xu; T. Yang

2008-01-01

18

On Gravity and the Uncertainty Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heisenberg showed in the early days of quantum theory that the uncertainty principle follows as a direct consequence of the quantization of electromagnetic radiation in the form of photons. As we show here the gravitational interaction of the photon and the particle being observed modifies the uncertainty principle with an additional term. From the modified or gravitational uncertainty principle it

Ronald J. Adler; David I. Santiago

1999-01-01

19

Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles  

E-print Network

Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles SIAM Deanna Needell Joint work with Roman Vershynin UC Davis, July 2008 Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles ­ p.1/27 #12;Outline · Empirical Results · Improvements Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles ­ p.2/27 #12

Needell, Deanna

20

Directional Uncertainty Principle for Quaternion Fourier Transform  

E-print Network

This paper derives a new directional uncertainty principle for quaternion valued functions subject to the quaternion Fourier transformation. This can be generalized to establish directional uncertainty principles in Clifford geometric algebras with quaternion subalgebras. We demonstrate this with the example of a directional spacetime algebra function uncertainty principle related to multivector wave packets.

Eckhard Hitzer

2013-06-06

21

Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles  

E-print Network

Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles SPIE - IE 2008 Deanna Needell Joint work with Roman Vershynin UC Davis, January 2008 Greedy Signal Recovery and Uniform Uncertainty Principles ­ p.1 Uncertainty Principles ­ p.3/24 #12;Setup · Consider v Rd , v 0 := | supp v| n d. · We call such signals n

Needell, Deanna

22

The uncertainty principle: A mathematical survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey various mathematical aspects of the uncertainty principle, including Heisenbergs inequality and its variants, local\\u000a uncertainty inequalities, logarithmic uncertainty inequalities, results relating to Wigner distributions, qualitative uncertainty\\u000a principles, theorems on approximate concentration, and decompositions of phase space.

Gerald B. Folland; Alladi Sitaram

1997-01-01

23

The Donoho-Stark Uncertainty Principle An Uncertainty Principle for Cyclic Groups of Prime Order  

E-print Network

The Donoho-Stark Uncertainty Principle An Uncertainty Principle for Cyclic Groups of Prime Order Uncertainty Principles for Finite Abelian Groups Matthew J. Hirn Norbert Wiener Center University of Maryland September 20, 2007 Matthew J. Hirn Uncertainty Principles for Finite Abelian Groups #12;The Donoho

Hirn, Matthew

24

Uncertainty Principles for Compact Groups  

E-print Network

We establish an operator-theoretic uncertainty principle over arbitrary compact groups, generalizing several previous results. As a consequence, we show that if f is in L^2(G), then the product of the measures of the supports of f and its Fourier transform ^f is at least 1; here, the dual measure is given by the sum, over all irreducible representations V, of d_V rank(^f(V)). For finite groups, our principle implies the following: if P and R are projection operators on the group algebra C[G] such that P commutes with projection onto each group element, and R commutes with left multiplication, then the squared operator norm of PR is at most rank(P)rank(R)/|G|.

Gorjan Alagic; Alexander Russell

2008-08-29

25

Quantum Mechanics and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

Jang Young Bang; Micheal S. Berger

2006-11-30

26

Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S. [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

2006-12-15

27

The Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes two contributions to software engineering research. First, we observe that uncertainty permeates software development but is rarely captured explicitly in software models. We remedy this situation by presenting the Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering (UPSE), which states that uncertainty is inherent and inevitable in software development processes and products. We substantiate UPSE by providing examples of uncertainty

Hadar Ziv; Debra J. Richardson; Ren Klsch

1996-01-01

28

Uncertainty Principles and Sum Complexes Roy Meshulam  

E-print Network

Uncertainty Principles and Sum Complexes Roy Meshulam March 28, 2014 Abstract Let p be a prime@math.technion.ac.il . Supported by an ISF grant. 1 #12;of the Heisenberg quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle: If f L2 (R of the uncertainty principle. Let G be a finite abelian group and let F[G] be the group algebra of G over the field F

Meshulam, Roy

29

Disturbance, the uncertainty principle and quantum optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown how a disturbance-type uncertainty principle can be derived from an uncertainty principle for joint measurements. To achieve this, we first clarify the meaning of 'inaccuracy' and 'disturbance' in quantum mechanical measurements. The case of photon number and phase is treated as an example, and it is applied to a quantum non-demolition measurement using the optical Kerr effect.

Martens, Hans; Demuynck, Willem M.

1993-01-01

30

The Species Delimitation Uncertainty Principle  

PubMed Central

If, as Einstein said, "it is the theory which decides what we can observe," then "the species problem" could be solved by simply improving our theoretical definition of what a species is. However, because delimiting species entails predicting the historical fate of evolutionary lineages, species appear to behave according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states that the most philosophically satisfying definitions of species are the least operational, and as species concepts are modified to become more operational they tend to lose their philosophical integrity. Can species be delimited operationally without losing their philosophical rigor? To mitigate the contingent properties of species that tend to make them difficult for us to delimit, I advocate a set of operations that takes into account the prospective nature of delimiting species. Given the fundamental role of species in studies of evolution and biodiversity, I also suggest that species delimitation proceed within the context of explicit hypothesis testing, like other scientific endeavors. The real challenge is not so much the inherent fallibility of predicting the future but rather adequately sampling and interpreting the evidence available to us in the present. PMID:19265874

Adams, Byron J.

2001-01-01

31

Extrapolation, uncertainty factors, and the precautionary principle.  

PubMed

This essay examines the relationship between the precautionary principle and uncertainty factors used by toxicologists to estimate acceptable exposure levels for toxic chemicals from animal experiments. It shows that the adoption of uncertainty factors in the United States in the 1950s can be understood by reference to the precautionary principle, but not by cost-benefit analysis because of a lack of relevant quantitative data at that time. In addition, it argues that uncertainty factors continue to be relevant to efforts to implement the precautionary principle and that the precautionary principle should not be restricted to cases involving unquantifiable hazards. PMID:21802639

Steel, Daniel

2011-09-01

32

The Uncertainty Principle in Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty principle is recognized as one of the fundamental results in signal processing. Its role in inference is, however, less well known outside of quantum mechanics. It is the aim of this paper to provide a unified approach to the problem of uncertainty in image processing. It is shown that uncertainty can be derived from the fundamental constraints on

Roland Wilson; Goesta H. Granlund

1984-01-01

33

Schrodinger equation from an exact uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact uncertainty principle, formulated as the assumption that a classical\\u000aensemble is subject to random momentum fluctuations of a strength which is\\u000adetermined by and scales inversely with uncertainty in position, leads from the\\u000aclassical equations of motion to the Schrodinger equation. Thus there is an\\u000aexact formulation of the uncertainty principle which precisely captures the\\u000aessence of what

Michael J. W. Hall; Marcel Reginatto

2001-01-01

34

Uncertainty Principle and the Standard Quantum Limits  

E-print Network

The role of the Uncertainty Principle is examined through the examples of squeezing, information capacity, and position monitoring. It is suggested that more attention should be directed to conceptual considerations in quantum information science and technology.

Horace P. Yuen

2005-10-10

35

Noncommutativity, generalized uncertainty principle and FRW cosmology  

E-print Network

We consider the effects of noncommutativity and the generalized uncertainty principle on the FRW cosmology with a scalar field. We show that, the cosmological constant problem and removability of initial curvature singularity find natural solutions in this scenarios.

A. Bina; K. Atazadeh; S. Jalalzadeh

2007-09-23

36

Uncertainty principle and quantum Fisher information. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heisenberg and Schrdinger uncertainty principles give lower bounds for the product of variances Varrho(A)Varrho(B) if the observables A,B are not compatible, namely, if the commutator [A,B] is not zero. In this paper, we prove an uncertainty principle in Schrdinger form where the bound for the product of variances Varrho(A)Varrho(B) depends on the area spanned by the commutators i[rho,A] and i[rho,B

Paolo Gibilisco; Daniele Imparato; Tommaso Isola

2007-01-01

37

Uncertainty principles on certain Lie groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several ways of formulating the uncertainty principle for the Fourier transform on ?\\u000a n\\u000a . Roughly speaking, the uncertainty principle says that if a functionf is concentrated then its Fourier transform\\u000a $$\\\\tilde f$$\\u000a cannot be concentrated unlessf is identically zero. Of course, in the above, we should be precise about what we mean by concentration. There are several

A. Sitaram; M. Sundari; S. Thangavelu

1995-01-01

38

On the uncertainty principle in discrete signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been shown that the uncertainty principle holds true by appropriate definitions of the durations even if discrete signals are considered. A basic inequality was derived in the particular case where the Fourier transform is real. As an extension to this work, the authors prove the uncertainty relation in the general case of a complex Fourier transform and

L. C. Calves; P. Vilbe

1992-01-01

39

Curriculum in Art Education: The Uncertainty Principle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies curriculum as the pivotal link between theory and practice, noting that all stages of curriculum research and development are characterized by elements of uncertainty. States that this uncertainty principle reflects the reality of practice as it mirrors the contradictory nature of art, the pluralism of schools and society, and the

Sullivan, Graeme

1989-01-01

40

Naturalistic Misunderstanding of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which concerns the effect of observation upon what is observed, is proper to the field of quantum physics, but has been mistakenly adopted and wrongly applied in the realm of naturalistic observation. Discusses the misuse of the principle in the current literature on naturalistic research. (DM)

McKerrow, K. Kelly; McKerrow, Joan E.

1991-01-01

41

Uncertainty Principles and Optimality on Circles and Spheres  

E-print Network

Uncertainty Principles and Optimality on Circles and Spheres Tim N. T. Goodman and Say Song Goh Abstract. From a general uncertainty principle we derive uncertainty principles on spheres in any dimension which extend, for real-valued functions, known uncertainty principles on spheres in two and three

Martin, Ralph R.

42

A revision of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle arises from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle when gravity is taken into account, so the leading order correction to the standard formula is expected to be proportional to the gravitational constant $G_N = L_{Pl}^2$. On the other hand, the emerging picture suggests a set of departures from the standard theory which demand a revision of all the arguments used to deduce heuristically the new rule. In particular, one can now argue that the leading order correction to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is proportional to the first power of the Planck length $L_{Pl}$. If so, the departures from ordinary quantum mechanics would be much less suppressed than what is commonly thought.

Cosimo Bambi

2008-04-30

43

An uncertainty principle for unimodular quantum groups  

E-print Network

We present a generalization of Hirschman's entropic uncertainty principle for locally compact abelian groups to unimodular locally compact quantum groups. As a corollary, we strengthen a well-known uncertainty principle for compact groups, and generalize the relation to compact quantum groups of Kac type. We also establish the complementarity of finite-dimensional quantum group algebras. In the non-unimodular setting, we obtain an uncertainty relation for arbitrary locally compact groups using the relative entropy with respect to the Haar weight as the measure of uncertainty. We also show that when restricted to normal central states of discrete quantum groups, the relative entropy with respect to the Haar weight reduces to the canonical entropy of the random walk generated by the central state.

Jason Crann; Mehrdad Kalantar

2014-11-02

44

An uncertainty principle for unimodular quantum groups  

SciTech Connect

We present a generalization of Hirschman's entropic uncertainty principle for locally compact Abelian groups to unimodular locally compact quantum groups. As a corollary, we strengthen a well-known uncertainty principle for compact groups, and generalize the relation to compact quantum groups of Kac type. We also establish the complementarity of finite-dimensional quantum group algebras. In the non-unimodular setting, we obtain an uncertainty relation for arbitrary locally compact groups using the relative entropy with respect to the Haar weight as the measure of uncertainty. We also show that when restricted to q-traces of discrete quantum groups, the relative entropy with respect to the Haar weight reduces to the canonical entropy of the random walk generated by the state.

Crann, Jason [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Universit Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies, UFR de Mathmatiques, Laboratoire de Mathmatiques Paul Painlev - UMR CNRS 8524, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cdex (France); Kalantar, Mehrdad, E-mail: jason-crann@carleton.ca, E-mail: mkalanta@math.carleton.ca [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2014-08-15

45

An Uncertainty Principle for Ultraspherical Expansions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by HeisenbergWeyl type uncertainty principles for the torusTand the sphereS2due to Breitenberger, Narowich, Ward, and others, we derive an uncertainty relation for radial functions on the spheresSn?Rn+1and, more generally, for ultraspherical expansions on [0,?]. In this setting, the frequency variance of aL2-function on [0,?] is defined by means of the ultraspherical differential operator, which plays the role of a

Margit Rsler; Michael Voit

1997-01-01

46

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter  

SciTech Connect

There have been proposals that primordial black hole remnants (BHRs) are the dark matter, but the idea is somewhat vague. Recently we argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent black holes from evaporating completely, in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from collapsing. We further noted that the hybrid inflation model provides a plausible mechanism for production of large numbers of small black holes. Combining these we suggested that the dark matter might be composed of Planck-size BHRs. In this paper we briefly review these arguments, and discuss the reheating temperature as a result of black hole evaporation.

Chen, P

2004-01-13

47

Harmonic Analysis and Qualitative Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the mathematical nature of qualitative uncertainty principle (QUP), which plays an important role in mathematics, physics and engineering fields. Consider a 3-tuple (K, H1, H2) that K: H1 -> H2 is an integral operator. Suppose a signal f in H1, {\\Omega}1 and {\\Omega}2 are domains on which f, Kf define respectively. Does this signal f vanish if |{\\Sigma}(f)|uncertainty principle, nonlinear method and sparse representation, are thus suggested. The notion of operator family is developed and is applied to understand remarkable performances of recent sparse representation.

Ji King

2010-08-09

48

Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information - II  

E-print Network

Heisenberg and Schr{\\"o}dinger uncertainty principles give lower bounds for the product of variances $Var_{\\rho}(A)\\cdot Var_{\\rho}(B)$, in a state $\\rho$, if the observables $A,B$ are not compatible, namely if the commutator $[A,B]$ is not zero. In this paper we prove an uncertainty principle in Schr{\\"o}dinger form where the bound for the product of variances $Var_{\\rho}(A)\\cdot Var_{\\rho}(B)$ depends on the area spanned by the commutators $[\\rho,A]$ and $[\\rho,B]$ with respect to an arbitrary quantum version of the Fisher information.

P. Gibilisco; D. Imparato; T. Isola

2007-05-21

49

Uncertainty principles as embeddings of modulation spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of new uncertainty principles is derived in the form of embeddings of FourierLebesgue spaces into modulation spaces. These embeddings provide practical, sufficient conditions for a function to belong to a modulation space. Counterexamples based on the properties of Gabor expansions demonstrate that the embeddings are optimal.

Yevgeniy V. Galperin; Karlheinz Grchenig

2002-01-01

50

Interpretation of Electron Tunneling from Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

Beginners studying quantum mechanics are often baffled with electron tunneling.Hence an easy approach for comprehension of the topic is presented here on the basis of uncertainty principle.An estimate of the tunneling time is also derived from the same method.

Angik Sarkar; T. K. Bhattacharyya

2005-07-25

51

A Principle of Uncertainty for Information Seeking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an uncertainty principle for information seeking based on the results of a series of studies that investigated the user's perspective of the information search process. Constructivist theory is discussed as a conceptual framework for studying the user's perspective, and areas for further research are suggested. (Contains 44 references.)

Kuhlthau, Carol C.

1993-01-01

52

A generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a Gedanken experiment for the measurement of the area of the apparent horizon of a black hole in quantum gravity. Using rather general and model-independent considerations we find a generalized uncertainty principle which agrees with a similar result obtained in the framework of string theories. The result indicates that a minimum length of the order of the Planck

Michele Maggiore

1993-01-01

53

Wave-particle Duality and the Uncertainty Principle Frank Rioux  

E-print Network

Wave-particle Duality and the Uncertainty Principle Frank Rioux CSB/SJU Nick Herbert, author) is shown below in atomic units (h = 2). It clearly illustrates the uncertainty principle because the wave of the uncertainty principle, the particle-like character of a quon is revealed only when there is uncertainty

Rioux, Frank

54

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE: A BRIEF SURVEY MATTHEW BEGUE  

E-print Network

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE: A BRIEF SURVEY MATTHEW BEGU´E Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. L2 (R The uncertainty principle is a cornerstone in quantum phsysics. However, its principles play an equally monumental of the uncertainty principle in harmonic analysis (Heisenberg's inequality). We then extend Heisenberg's inequality

Johnson, Raymond L.

55

HEISENBERG'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN THE SENSE OF BEURLING  

E-print Network

HEISENBERG'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN THE SENSE OF BEURLING By HAAKAN HEDENMALM In memory of Boris Korenblum Abstract. We shed new light on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the sense of Beurling principle. In general terms, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle asserts that a function and its Fourier

Hedenmalm, Håkan

56

HEISENBERG'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN THE SENSE OF BEURLING HAAKAN HEDENMALM  

E-print Network

HEISENBERG'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN THE SENSE OF BEURLING HAAKAN HEDENMALM In memory of Boris Korenblum ABSTRACT. We shed new light on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the sense of Beurling principle. In general terms, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle asserts that a function and its Fourier

Hedenmalm, Håkan

57

A geometric formulation of uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

A geometric approach to formulate the uncertainty principle between quantum observables acting on an $N$-dimensional Hilbert space is proposed. We consider the fidelity between a density operator associated with a quantum system and a projector associated with an observable, and interpret it as the probability of obtaining the outcome corresponding to that projector. We make use of fidelity-based metrics such as angle, Bures and root-infidelity ones, to propose a measure of uncertainty. The triangle inequality allows us to derive a family of uncertainty relations. In the case of the angle metric, we re-obtain the Landau--Pollak inequality for pure states and show, in a natural way, how to extend it to the case of mixed states in arbitrary dimension. In addition, we derive and compare novel uncertainty relations when using other known fidelity-based metrics.

G. M. Bosyk; T. M. Osn; P. W. Lamberti; M. Portesi

2013-10-11

58

Phenomenological Implications of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

Various theories of Quantum Gravity argue that near the Planck scale, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle should be replaced by the so called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). We show that the GUP gives rise to two additional terms in any quantum mechanical Hamiltonian, proportional to \\beta p^4 and \\beta^2 p^6 respectively, where \\beta \\sim 1/(M_{Pl}c)^2 is the GUP parameter. These terms become important at or above the Planck energy. Considering only the first of these, and treating it as a perturbation, we show that the GUP affects the Lamb shift, Landau levels, reflection and transmission coefficients of a potential step and potential barrier, and the current in a Scanning Tunnel Microscope (STM). Although these are too small to be measurable at present, we speculate on the possibility of extracting measurable predictions in the future.

Saurya Das; Elias C. Vagenas

2009-01-13

59

Uncertainty principle and quantum Fisher information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of inequalities, related to the uncertainty principle, has been recently proved by S. Luo, Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, H.\\u000a Kosaki, K. Yanagi, S. Furuichi and K. Kuriyama. We show that the inequalities have a geometric interpretation in terms of\\u000a quantum Fisher information. Using this formulation one may naturally ask if this family of inequalities can be further extendend,

Paolo Gibilisco; Tommaso Isola

2007-01-01

60

On a principle of cosmological uncertainty  

E-print Network

We show that cosmological observations are subject to an intrinsic uncertainty which can be expressed in the form of an uncertainty relation similar to the Heisenberg principle. This is a consequence of the fact that the four dimensional space-time metric information is projected into the one-dimensional observational red-shift space, implying a limit on the amount of information which can be extracted about the underlying geometry. Since multiple space-time configurations can lead to the same red-shift, there is an unavoidable uncertainty about the determination of the space-time geometry. This suggests the existence of a limit about of the amount of information that cosmological observations can reveal about our Universe that no experiment could ever overcame, conceptually similar to what happens in quantum mechanics.

Antonio Enea Romano

2012-07-18

61

"Moral Uncertainty and the Principle of Equity among Moral Theories"  

E-print Network

Moral Uncertainty and the Principle of Equity among MoralUncertainty and Its Consequences, Ted Lockhart argues that intertheoretic comparisons of value differences are possible if we adopt a principle

Sepielli, Andrew

2008-01-01

62

Generalized uncertainty principle: Approaches and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review some highlights from the String theory, the black hole physics and the doubly special relativity and some thought experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distances and/or maximum momentum at the Planck scale. Furthermore, all models developed in order to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analyzed and compared. They entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) assuming modified dispersion relation, and therefore are allowed for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. A second one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.

Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.

2014-11-01

63

Generalized Uncertainty Principle: Approaches and Applications  

E-print Network

We review highlights from string theory, black hole physics and doubly special relativity and some "thought" experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distance and/or the maximum momentum at the Planck scale. The models which are designed to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analysed entered the literature as the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). We compare between them. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. Furthermore, assuming modified dispersion relation allows for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of the gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. Another one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.

Abdel Nasser Tawfik; Abdel Magied Diab

2014-11-23

64

Quantitative Robust Uncertainty Principles and Optimally Sparse Decompositions  

E-print Network

Quantitative Robust Uncertainty Principles and Optimally Sparse Decompositions Emmanuel J. Cand Abstract In this paper, we develop a robust uncertainty principle for finite signals in CN which states uncertainty principle quantitative in the sense that if f is supported on T, then only a small percentage

Soatto, Stefano

65

Quantitative Robust Uncertainty Principles and Optimally Sparse Decompositions  

E-print Network

Quantitative Robust Uncertainty Principles and Optimally Sparse Decompositions Emmanuel J. Cand June 2005 & July 2006 Abstract In this paper, we develop a robust uncertainty principle for finite on . In fact, we can make the above uncertainty principle quantitative in the sense that if f is supported on T

Candes, Emmanuel J.

66

Optimal Functions for a Periodic Uncertainty Principle and Multiresolution Analysisy  

E-print Network

Optimal Functions for a Periodic Uncertainty Principle and Multiresolution Analysisy Dedicated frequency uncertainty principle described by Breitenberger in 3]. These extremal functions give rise by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and it is well known that the Gaussian functions serve as extremal

Prestin, Jürgen

67

An Uncertainty Principle for Discrete Signals Sangnam Nam  

E-print Network

An Uncertainty Principle for Discrete Signals Sangnam Nam Aix Marseille Universit´e, CNRS, Centrale-established by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle when the time-frequency spread is measured in terms of the variance interpretation cannot become a reality; the well-known uncertainty principles expresse the idea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

An uncertainty principle for the Dunkl transform Margit Rosler  

E-print Network

An uncertainty principle for the Dunkl transform Margit R¨osler Zentrum Mathematik, Technische@mathematik.tu­muenchen.de Abstract This note presents an analogue of the classical Heisenberg­Weyl uncertainty principle. Analogues of the classical variance­based Weyl­Heisenberg uncertainty principle for the Dunkl transform have

Roesler, Margit

69

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE AND QUANTUM FISHER INFORMATION PAOLO GIBILISCO1  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE AND QUANTUM FISHER INFORMATION PAOLO GIBILISCO1 AND TOMMASO ISOLA2 1. A family of inequalities, related to the uncertainty principle, has been recently proved by S. Luo, Z: Uncertainty principle, monotone metrics, quantum Fisher information, Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information. 1 #12

Isola, Tommaso

70

Quantitative Robust Uncertainty Principles and Optimally Sparse Decompositions  

E-print Network

Quantitative Robust Uncertainty Principles and Optimally Sparse Decompositions Emmanuel J. Cand In this paper, we develop a robust uncertainty principle for finite signals in CN which states that for nearly (less than half, say) of ^f is concentrated on . As an application of this robust uncertainty principle

Candes, Emmanuel J.

71

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle for the q-Bessel Fourier transform  

E-print Network

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle for the q-Bessel Fourier transform Lazhar Dhaouadi Abstract further variant of Heisen- bergs uncertainty principle. Let f be the Fourier transform of f defined by f is defined by V [g] = R x2 g(x)dx. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle can be stated as follows V [|f|2 ]V

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information -II Paolo Gibilisco  

E-print Network

Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information - II Paolo Gibilisco , Daniele Imparato and Tommaso Isola May 21, 2007 Abstract Heisenberg and Schr¨odinger uncertainty principles give lower bounds [A, B] is not zero. In this paper we prove an uncertainty principle in Schr¨odinger form where

Isola, Tommaso

73

AN UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR ULTRASPHERICAL EXPANSIONS Margit Rosler  

E-print Network

AN UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR ULTRASPHERICAL EXPANSIONS Margit R¨osler Mathematisches Institut. Abstract Motivated by Heisenberg­Weyl type uncertainty principles for the torus T and the sphere S 2 due'' on [0; ?] with the time t tending to 0 , we show that the bound of our uncertainty principle is optimal

Roesler, Margit

74

EQUALITY CASES FOR THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN FINITE ABELIAN GROUPS  

E-print Network

EQUALITY CASES FOR THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN FINITE ABELIAN GROUPS ALINE BONAMI & SAIFALLAH notation. Uncertainty principles show how small the support and the spectrum of a nonzero function f may by Matolcsi and Sz¨ucs in [6]. It is usually referred to as Stark-Donoho Uncertainty Principle and deals 1991

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

AN ENTROPIC UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR POSITIVE OPERATOR VALUED MEASURES  

E-print Network

AN ENTROPIC UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR POSITIVE OPERATOR VALUED MEASURES MICHEL RUMIN Abstract. Extending a recent result by Frank and Lieb, we show an entropic uncertainty principle for mixed states, uncertainty principle, homogeneous spaces, log-Sobolev. 1 #12;2 MICHEL RUMIN We shall see that when

Rumin, Michel

76

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN HARMONIC ANALYSIS BLAINE TALBUT  

E-print Network

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN HARMONIC ANALYSIS BLAINE TALBUT Abstract. We present several uncertainty principle results from Fourier anal- ysis. The results we present are formally unrelated to one transform simultaneously. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle 2 3. Complex

May, J. Peter

77

Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information -II Paolo Gibilisco  

E-print Network

Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information - II Paolo Gibilisco , Daniele Imparato and Tommaso Isola April 20, 2007 Abstract Heisenberg and Schr¨odinger uncertainty principles give lower bounds [A, B] is not zero. In this paper we prove an uncertainty principle in Schr¨odinger form where

Ceragioli, Francesca

78

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR INTEGRAL OPERATORS SAIFALLAH GHOBBER AND PHILIPPE JAMING  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR INTEGRAL OPERATORS SAIFALLAH GHOBBER AND PHILIPPE JAMING Abstract. The aim of this paper is to prove new uncertainty principles for an integral operator T with a bounded's local uncertainty principle which states that if a nonzero function f L2(Rd, µ) is highly localized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES AND ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR SAY SONG GOH yz  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES AND ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR SAY SONG GOH yz DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS NATIONAL AND TIM N. T. GOODMAN Abstract Various uncertainty principles for univariate functions are studied also establish a general uncertainty principle for n pairs of operators on a Hilbert space, n = 2; 3

Martin, Ralph R.

80

The Uncertainty Principle: Group Theoretic Approach, Possible Minimizers  

E-print Network

The Uncertainty Principle: Group Theoretic Approach, Possible Minimizers and Scale-Space Properties@ee.technion.ac.il Abstract. The uncertainty principle is a fundamental concept in the context of signal and image processing a formalism for finding functions which are the minimizers of the uncertainty principles. A general theorem

Sochen, Nir

81

EQUALITY CASES FOR THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN FINITE ABELIAN GROUPS  

E-print Network

EQUALITY CASES FOR THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN FINITE ABELIAN GROUPS ALINE BONAMI & SAIFALLAH will write Zn := Z/nZ to simplify notation. Uncertainty principles show how small the support]. It is usually referred to as Donoho-Stark Uncertainty Principle and deals 1991 Mathematics Subject

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

A Robertson-type Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information  

E-print Network

A Robertson-type Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information Paolo Gibilisco , Daniele and let be a density matrix. The Robertson uncertainty principle det {Cov(Ah, Aj)} det - i 2 Tr([Ah, Aj, uncertainty principle, operator monotone functions, matrix means, quantum Fisher information. 1 Introduction

Isola, Tommaso

83

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR FOURIER TRANSFORMS ON THE REAL LINE  

E-print Network

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR FOURIER TRANSFORMS ON THE REAL LINE MITCH HILL Abstract. This paper inversion theorem and use this to prove the classical uncertainty principle which shows that the spread. Fourier Inversion 8 5. The Uncertainty Principle 13 6. The Amrein-Berthier Theorem 15 Acknowledgments 17

May, J. Peter

84

Generalized Uncertainty Principle: Approaches and Applications  

E-print Network

We review some highlights from the String theory, the black hole physics and the doubly special relativity and some thought experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distances and/or maximum momentum at the Planck scale. Furthermore, all models developed in order to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analysed. We compare between them. They entered the literature as the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) assuming modified dispersion relation, and therefore are allowed for a wide range of Applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker--Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high--energy collisions. One of the higher--order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. A second one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length unc...

Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

2014-01-01

85

Quantum randomness certified by the uncertainty principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an efficient method to extract the amount of true randomness that can be obtained by a quantum random number generator (QRNG). By repeating the measurements of a quantum system and by swapping between two mutually unbiased bases, a lower bound of the achievable true randomness can be evaluated. The bound is obtained thanks to the uncertainty principle of complementary measurements applied to min-entropy and max-entropy. We tested our method with two different QRNGs by using a train of qubits or ququart and demonstrated the scalability toward practical applications.

Vallone, Giuseppe; Marangon, Davide G.; Tomasin, Marco; Villoresi, Paolo

2014-11-01

86

Least uncertainty principle in deformation quantization  

SciTech Connect

Deformation quantization generally produces families of cohomologically equivalent quantizations of a single physical system. We conjecture that the physically meaningful ones (i) allow enough observable energy distributions, i.e., ones for which no pure quantum state has negative probability, and (ii) reduce the uncertainty in the probability distribution of the resulting quantum states. For the simple harmonic oscillator this principle selects the classic Groenewold-Moyal (or Weyl) product on phase space while for the free particle, in which there is no real quantization, all cohomologically equivalent quantizations are equally good.

Gerstenhaber, Murray [Department of Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6395 (United States)

2007-02-15

87

Quantum Randomness Certified by the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We present an efficient method to extract the amount of true randomness that can be obtained by a Quantum Random Number Generator (QRNG). By repeating the measurements of a quantum system and by swapping between two mutually unbiased bases, a lower bound of the achievable true randomness can be evaluated. The bound is obtained thanks to the uncertainty principle of complementary measurements applied to min- and max- entropies. We tested our method with two different QRNGs, using a train of qubits or ququart, demonstrating the scalability toward practical applications.

G. Vallone; D. Marangon; M. Tomasin; P. Villoresi

2014-12-22

88

The uncertainty principle and quantum chaos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conception of quantum chaos is described in some detail. The most striking feature of this novel phenomenon is that all the properties of classical dynamical chaos persist here but, typically, on the finite and different time scales only. The ultimate origin of such a universal quantum stability is in the fundamental uncertainty principle which makes discrete the phase space and, hence, the spectrum of bounded quantum motion. Reformulation of the ergodic theory, as a part of the general theory of dynamical systems, is briefly discussed.

Chirikov, Boris V.

1993-01-01

89

Dilaton cosmology, noncommutativity, and generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

The effects of noncommutativity and of the existence of a minimal length on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model are investigated. The existence of a minimum length results in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a deformed Heisenberg algebra between the minisuperspace variables and their momenta operators. I extend these deformed commutating relations to the corresponding deformed Poisson algebra. For an exponential dilaton potential, the exact classical and quantum solutions in the commutative and noncommutative cases, and some approximate analytical solutions in the case of GUP, are presented and compared.

Vakili, Babak [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-02-15

90

Black Holes and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new way in which black holes connect macrophysics and microphysics. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle suggests corrections to the Uncertainty Principle as the energy increases towards the Planck value. It also provides a natural transition between the expressions for the Compton wavelength below the Planck mass and the black hole event horizon size above it. This suggests corrections to the the event horizon size as the black hole mass falls towards the Planck value, leading to the concept of a Generalized Event Horizon. Extrapolating this expression below the Planck mass suggests the existence of a new kind of black hole, whose size is of order its Compton wavelength. Recently it has been found that such a black hole solution is permitted by loop quantum gravity, its unusual properties deriving from the fact that it is hidden behind the throat of a wormhole. This has important implications for the formation and evaporation of black holes in the early Universe, especially if there are extra spatial dimensions.

Carr, B. J.

2013-12-01

91

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES IN HILBERT SPACES SAY SONG GOH y  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES IN HILBERT SPACES SAY SONG GOH y DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS NATIONAL identi#12;ed. The third idea that we explore here is rooted in the uncertainty principles arising from the commutator of two linear operators acting on a Hilbert space which relate to the Heisenberg uncertainty

Martin, Ralph R.

92

Robertson-Schrdinger formulation of Ozawa's Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

A more general measurement disturbance uncertainty principle is presented in a Robertson-Schr\\"odinger formulation. It is shown that it is stronger and having nicer properties than Ozawa's uncertainty relations. In particular is invariant under symplectic transformations. One shows also that there are states of the probe (measuring device) that saturate the matrix formulation of measurement disturbance uncertainty principle.

Catarina Bastos; A. E. Bernardini; O. Bertolami; N. C. Dias; J. N. Prata

2014-11-08

93

Experimental investigation of the entanglement-assisted entropic uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

The uncertainty principle, which bounds the uncertainties involved in obtaining precise outcomes for two complementary variables defining a quantum particle, is a crucial aspect in quantum mechanics. Recently, the uncertainty principle in terms of entropy has been extended to the case involving quantum entanglement. With previously obtained quantum information for the particle of interest, the outcomes of both non-commuting observables can be predicted precisely, which greatly generalises the uncertainty relation. Here, we experimentally investigated the entanglement-assisted entropic uncertainty principle for an entirely optical setup. The uncertainty is shown to be near zero in the presence of quasi-maximal entanglement. The new uncertainty relation is further used to witness entanglement. The verified entropic uncertainty relation provides an intriguing perspective in that it implies the uncertainty principle is not only observable-dependent but is also observer-dependent.

Chuan-Feng Li; Jin-Shi Xu; Xiao-Ye Xu; Ke Li; Guang-Can Guo

2012-04-23

94

Greedy signal recovery and uncertainty principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to bridge the two major algorithmic approaches to sparse signal recovery from an incomplete set of linear measurements - L I-minimization methods and iterative methods (Matching Pursuits). We find a simple regularized version of the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (ROMP) which has advantages of both approaches: the speed and transparency of OMP and the strong uniform guarantees of the L I-minimization. Our algorithm ROMP reconstructs a sparse signal in a number of iterations linear in the sparsity, and the reconstruction is exact provided the linear measurements satisfy the Uniform Uncertainty Principle. In the case of inaccurate measurements and approximately sparse signals, the noise level of the recovery is proportional to ?log n parallel e parallel II where e is the error vector.

Needell, Deanna; Vershynin, Roman

2008-02-01

95

Black hole thermodynamics with generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

In the standard viewpoint, the temperature of a stationary black hole is proportional to its surface gravity, $T_H=\\hbar\\kappa/2\\pi$. This is a semiclassical result and the quantum gravity effects are not taken into consideration. This Letter explores a unified expression for the black hole temperature in the sense of a generalized uncertainty principle(GUP). Our discussion involves a heuristic analysis of a particle which is absorbed by the black hole. Besides a class of static and spherically symmetric black holes, an axially symmetric Kerr-Newman black hole is considered. Different from the existing literature, we suggest that the black hole's irreducible mass represent the characteristic size in the absorption process. The information capacity of a remnant is also discussed by Bousso's D-bound in de Sitter spacetime.

Li Xiang; X. Q. Wen

2009-03-18

96

Uncertainty Principle Consequences at Thermal Equilibrium  

E-print Network

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that deviations from standard thermodynamics originate from the strong coupling to the bath, it is shown that these deviations are intimately linked to the power spectrum of the thermal bath. Specifically, it is shown that the lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system, imposed by the uncertainty principle, is dominated by the bath power spectrum and therefore, quantum mechanics inhibits the system thermal-equilibrium-state from being described by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution. This is in sharp contrast to the classical case, for which the thermal equilibrium distribution of a system interacting via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, irrespective of the interaction strength, is shown to be \\emph{exactly} characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis, we define an \\emph{effective coupling} to the environment that depends on all energy scales in the system and reservoir interactio...

Pachon, Leonardo A; Zueco, David; Brumer, Paul

2014-01-01

97

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1993-01-01

98

Incorporation of Generalized Uncertainty Principle into Lifshitz Field Theories  

E-print Network

In this paper, we will incorporation the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bososnic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporation the generalized uncertainty principle into an non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations.

Mir Faizal; Barun Majumder

2014-08-17

99

Some Implications of Two Forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which leads to the modification of the standard uncertainty principle to the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). In this paper, we study two forms of the GUP and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the Hydrogen atom more accurately than previous studies. In addition, we show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law and the time-energy uncertainty principle.

Mohammed M. Khalil

2014-02-12

100

The Power Principle and Tail-Fatness Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

When insurance claims are governed by fat-tailed distributions, gross uncertainty about the value of the tail-fatness index is virtually inescapable. In this paper a new premium principle (the power principle) analogous to the exponential principle for thin-tailed claims, is discussed. Pareto premiums determined under the principle have a transparent ratio structure, cater convincingly for uncertainty in the tail-fatness index, and

Roger Gay

2004-01-01

101

Nondivergent classical response functions from uncertainty principle: Quasiperiodic systems  

E-print Network

Nondivergent classical response functions from uncertainty principle: Quasiperiodic systems Maksym the quantized uncertainty volume O( n ) around the microcanonical energy surface. For a quasiperiodic system's correspondence principle: each matrix element u (t) v corresponds to the (u v)th Fourier component of (t

Cao, Jianshu

102

An entropic uncertainty principle for positive operator valued measures  

E-print Network

Extending a recent result by Frank and Lieb, we show an entropic uncertainty principle for mixed states in a Hilbert space relatively to pairs of positive operator valued measures that are independent in some sense. This yields spatial-spectral uncertainty principles and log-Sobolev inequalities for invariant operators on homogeneous spaces, which are sharp in the compact case.

Michel Rumin

2011-10-25

103

Quantum groups, gravity, and the generalized uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relationship between the generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity and the quantum deformation of the Poincar algebra. We find that a deformed Newton-Wigner position operator and the generators of spatial translations and rotations of the deformed Poincar algebra obey a deformed Heisenberg algebra from which the generalized uncertainty principle follows. The result indicates that in the kappa-deformed

Michele Maggiore

1994-01-01

104

The algebraic structure of the generalized uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra which depends on a dimensionful parameter kappa is the algebraic structure which underlies the generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity. The deformed algebra and therefore the form of the generalized uncertainty principle are fixed uniquely by rather simple assumptions. The string theory result is reproduced expanding our result at first order

Michele Maggiore

1993-01-01

105

Lorentz Invariance Violation and Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

Recent approaches for quantum gravity are conjectured to give predictions for a minimum measurable length, a maximum observable momentum and an essential generalization for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (GUP). The latter is based on a momentum-dependent modification in the standard dispersion relation and leads to Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). The main features of the controversial OPERA measurements on the faster-than-light muon neutrino anomaly are used to calculate the time of flight delays $\\Delta t$ and the relative change $\\Delta v$ in the speed of neutrino in dependence on the redshift $z$. The results are compared with the OPERA measurements. We find that the measurements are too large to be interpreted as LIV. Depending on the rest mass, the propagation of high-energy muon neutrino can be superluminal. The comparison with the ultra high energy cosmic rays seems to reveals an essential ingredient of the approach combining string theory, loop quantum gravity, black hole physics and doubly spacial relativity and the one assuming a pertubative departure from exact Lorentz invariance.

A. Tawfik; H. Magdy; A. Farag Ali

2012-05-27

106

Uncertainty Principle Consequences at Thermal Equilibrium  

E-print Network

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that deviations from standard thermodynamics originate from the strong coupling to the bath, it is shown that these deviations are intimately linked to the power spectrum of the thermal bath. Specifically, it is shown that the lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system, imposed by the uncertainty principle, is dominated by the bath power spectrum and therefore, quantum mechanics inhibits the system thermal-equilibrium-state from being described by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution. This is in sharp contrast to the classical case, for which the thermal equilibrium distribution of a system interacting via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, irrespective of the interaction strength, is shown to be \\emph{exactly} characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis, we define an \\emph{effective coupling} to the environment that depends on all energy scales in the system and reservoir interaction. Sample computations in regimes predicted by this effective coupling are demonstrated. For example, for the case of strong effective coupling, deviations from standard thermodynamics are present and, for the case of weak effective coupling, quantum features such as stationary entanglement are possible at high temperatures.

Leonardo A. Pachon; Johan F. Triana; David Zueco; Paul Brumer

2014-01-07

107

Privacy Amplification, Private States, and the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We show that three principle means of treating privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, private state distillation, classical privacy amplification, and via the uncertainty principle, are equivalent and interchangeable. By adapting the security proof based on the uncertainty principle, we construct a new protocol for private state distillation which we prove is identical to standard classical privacy amplification. Underlying this approach is a new characterization of private states, related to their standard formulation by the uncertainty principle, which gives a more physical understanding of security in quantum key distribution.

Joseph M. Renes; Jean-Christian Boileau

2007-02-19

108

Thermodynamics of black holes and the symmetric generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

In this paper, we have investigated the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild black holes using the symmetric generalized uncertainty principle which contains correction terms involving momentum and position uncertainty. We obtain the mass-temperature relation and the heat capacity of the black hole using which we compute the critical and remnant masses. The entropy is found to satisfy the area law upto leading order corrections from the symmetric generalized uncertainty principle.

Abhijit Dutta; Sunandan Gangopadhyay

2014-08-23

109

String Theory and Space-Time Uncertainty Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of a space-time uncertainty principle in string theory is clarified and further developed. The motivation and the derivation of the principle are first reviewed in a reasonably self-contained way. It is then shown that the nonperturbative (Borel summed) high-energy and high-momentum transfer behavior of string scattering is consistent with the space-time uncertainty principle. It is also shown that,

Tamiaki Yoneya

2000-01-01

110

Chemical Principles Revisited: Perspectives on the Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicates an approach that not only makes the uncertainty seem more useful to introductory students but also helps convey the real meaning of the term "uncertainty." General topic areas addressed include probability amplitudes, rationale behind the uncertainty principle, applications of uncertainty relations, and quantum processes. (JN)

Bartell, Lawrence S.

1985-01-01

111

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON SEMISIMPLE GROUPS M. COWLING, A. SITARAM, AND M. SUNDARI  

E-print Network

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON SEMISIMPLE GROUPS M. COWLING, A described in the abstract is due* * to Hardy [3]; we call it Hardy's Uncertainty Principle. Considerable] generalis* *ed Hardy's Uncertainty Principle to connected semisimple Lie groups with one conjugacy cla

Cowling, Michael

112

An uncertainty principle, Wegner estimates and localization near fluctuation boundaries  

E-print Network

We prove a simple uncertainty principle and show that it can be applied to prove Wegner estimates near fluctuation boundaries. This gives new classes of models for which localization at low energies can be proven.

Anne Boutet de Monvel; Daniel Lenz; Peter Stollmann

2009-05-18

113

Tests of Quantum Gravity via Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

In this paper we propose a way of determining the subleading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy by considering a modified generalized uncertainty principle with two parameters. In the context of modified generalized uncertainty principle, coefficients of the correction terms of black hole entropy are written in terms of combination of the parameters. We also calculate corrections to the Stefan-Boltzman law of Hawking radiation corresponding to modified generalized uncertainty principle. By comparing the entropy with one from black holes in string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, we point out that the topological information of the compactified space can not easily be related to the parameters in modified generalized uncertainty principle.

Yumi Ko; Sunggeun Lee; Soonkeon Nam

2006-08-03

114

Quantization of fields based on Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We construct a quantum theory of free scalar field in 1+1 dimensions based on a `Generalized Uncertainty Principle'. Both canonical and path integral formalism are employed. Higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.

Toshihiro Matsuo; Yuuichirou Shibusa

2006-06-14

115

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

E-print Network

In this article we examine a Generalized Uncertainty Principle which differs from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle by terms linear and quadratic in particle momenta, as proposed by the authors in an earlier paper. We show that this affects all Hamiltonians, and in particular those which describe low energy experiments. We discuss possible observational consequences. Further, we also show that this indicates that space may be discrete at the fundamental level.

Ahmed Farag Ali; Saurya Das; Elias C. Vagenas

2010-01-18

116

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONTINUOUS SHEARLET TRANSFORM  

E-print Network

of coherent states of quantum systems. In the seminal work of Gabor in 1946 the information uncertainty for the infinitesimal generators of the Shearlet group: scaling, shear and translations. We further discuss methods, uncertainty principles, minimizing states. AMS Subject Classification: 22D10, 47B25, 94A08 1. Introduction

Teschke, Gerd

117

Supersymmetric Field Theory Based on Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We construct a quantum theory of free fermion field based on the generalized uncertainty principle using supersymmetry as a guiding principle. A supersymmetric field theory with a real scalar field and a Majorana fermion field is given explicitly and we also find that the supersymmetry algebra is deformed from an usual one.

Yuuichirou Shibusa

2007-04-12

118

Microscopic black hole stabilization via the uncertainty principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, gravitational confinement of two- or three-rotating particle systems can lead to microscopic Planckian or sub-Planckian black holes with a size of order their Compton wavelength. Some properties of such states are discussed in terms of the Schwarzschild geodesics of general relativity and compared with properties computed via the combination of special relativity, equivalence principle, Newton's gravitational law and Compton wavelength. It is shown that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) provides a satisfactory fit of the Schwarzschild radius and Compton wavelength of such microscopic, particle-like, black holes.

Vayenas, Constantinos G.; Grigoriou, Dimitrios

2015-01-01

119

The Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Quantum Memory  

E-print Network

The uncertainty principle, originally formulated by Heisenberg, dramatically illustrates the difference between classical and quantum mechanics. The principle bounds the uncertainties about the outcomes of two incompatible measurements, such as position and momentum, on a particle. It implies that one cannot predict the outcomes for both possible choices of measurement to arbitrary precision, even if information about the preparation of the particle is available in a classical memory. However, if the particle is prepared entangled with a quantum memory, a device which is likely to soon be available, it is possible to predict the outcomes for both measurement choices precisely. In this work we strengthen the uncertainty principle to incorporate this case, providing a lower bound on the uncertainties which depends on the amount of entanglement between the particle and the quantum memory. We detail the application of our result to witnessing entanglement and to quantum key distribution.

Mario Berta; Matthias Christandl; Roger Colbeck; Joseph M. Renes; Renato Renner

2011-03-01

120

The Entropic Uncertainty Principle for Decaying Systems and CP violation  

E-print Network

Employing an effective formalism for decaying system we are able to investigate Heisenberg's uncertainty relation for observables measured at accelerator facilities. In particular we investigate the neutral K--meson system and show that, firstly, due to the time evolution an uncertainty between strangeness measurements at different times is introduced and, secondly, due to the imbalance of matter and antimatter (CP violation) an uncertainty in the evolution of the eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian of the system. Consequently, the existence of CP violation is linked to uncertainties of observables, i.e. the outcomes cannot be predicted even in principle to arbitrary precisions.

Beatrix C. Hiesmayr

2011-03-17

121

Path detection and the uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

QUANTUM mechanics predicts that any detector capable of determining the path taken by a particle through a double slit will destroy the interference. This follows from the principle of complementarity formulated by Niels Bohr: simultaneous observation of wave and particle behaviour is prohibited. But such a description makes no reference to the physical mechanism by which the interference is lost.

Pippa Storey; Sze Tan; Matthew Collett; Daniel Walls

1994-01-01

122

Applications of the uncertainty principle for finite abelian groups to communications engineering  

E-print Network

Applications of the uncertainty principle for finite abelian groups to communications engineering, Germany We obtain uncertainty principles for finite abelian groups relating the cardinality of the support their applications. These uncertainty principles are based on well-established uncertainty principles for the Fourier

Pfander, Götz

123

The uncertainty threshold principle: Some fundamental limitations of optimal decision making under dynamic uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note shows that the optimal control of dynamic systems with uncertain parameters has certain limitations. In particular, by means of a simple scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example, it is shown that the infinite horizon solution does not exist if the parameter uncertainty exceeds a certain quantifiable threshold; we call this the uncertainty threshold principle. The philosophical and design implications

M. Athans; R. Ku; S. Gershwin

1977-01-01

124

Uniform Uncertainty Principle for Bernoulli and Subgaussian Ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers random matrices with independent subgaussian columns and provides a new elementary proof of the Uniform\\u000a Uncertainty Principle for such matrices. The Principle was introduced by Candes, Romberg and Tao in 2004; for subgaussian\\u000a random matrices it was carlier proved by the present authors, as a consequence of a general result based on a generic chaining\\u000a method of

Shahar Mendelson; Alain Pajor; Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann

2008-01-01

125

Uncertainty principles on two step nilpotent Lie groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical\\u000a theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

S. K. Ray

2001-01-01

126

Non-commutative spacetime and the uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full algebra of relativistic quantum mechanics (Lorentz plus Heisenberg) is unstable. Stabilization by deformation leads to a new deformation parameter ??2, ? being a length and ? a sign. The implications of the deformed algebras for the uncertainty principle and the density of states are worked out and compared with the results of past analysis following from gravity

Eric Carlen; R. Vilela Mendesb

2001-01-01

127

Single-Slit Diffraction and the Uncertainty Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical analysis of single-slit diffraction based on the Fourier transform between coordinate and momentum space is presented. The transform between position and momentum is used to illuminate the intimate relationship between single-slit diffraction and uncertainty principle.

Rioux, Frank

2005-01-01

128

Uniform uncertainty principle for Bernoulli and subgaussian ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple solution to a question posed by Candes, Romberg and Tao on the uniform uncertainty principle for Bernoulli random matrices. More precisely, we show that a rectangular k*n random subgaussian matrix (with k < n) has the property that by arbitrarily extracting any m (with m < k) columns, the resulting submatrices are arbitrarily close to (multiples

Shahar Mendelson; Alain Pajor; Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann

2006-01-01

129

Effects of the Modified Uncertainty Principle on the Inflation Parameters  

E-print Network

In this Letter we study the effects of the Modified Uncertainty Principle as proposed in [8] on the inflationary dynamics of the early universe in both standard and Randall-Sundrum type II scenarios. We find that the quantum gravitational effect increase the amplitude of density fluctuation, which is oscillatory in nature, with an increase in the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Barun Majumder

2012-02-24

130

The generalized uncertainty principle as quantum gravitational friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present a dissipative Schrodinger-Langevin-like Hamiltonian which incorporates implicitly the deformed commutation relations which are linear in particle momenta due to a generalized uncertainty principle. This result is based on interpreting the deformation parameter as quantum gravitational friction on the configuration space.

Bargueo, Pedro

2015-01-01

131

Uncertainty Principles for the Fourier Transforms in Quantum Calculus  

E-print Network

Some properties of the $q$-Fourier-sine transform are studied and $q$-analogues of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is derived for the $q$-Fourier-cosine transform studied in \\cite{FB} and for the $q$-Fourier-sine transform.

Neji Bettaibi; Ahmed Fitouhi; Wafa Binous

2006-02-28

132

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the sense of Beurling  

E-print Network

We shed new light on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the sense of Beurling, by offering an essentially different proof which permits us to weaken the assumptions substantially, and examples show that the result is sharp. The proof involves Fourier and Mellin transforms. We alo extend to a setting of two functions. A higher-dimensional analogue is considered as well.

Haakan Hedenmalm

2012-04-05

133

The Uncertainty Principle, Virtual Particles and Real Forces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a simple practical introduction to wave-particle duality, including the energy-time version of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. It has been successful in leading students to an intuitive appreciation of "virtual particles" and the role they play in describing the way ordinary particles, like electrons and protons, exert

Jones, Goronwy Tudor

2002-01-01

134

The optimal transform for the discrete Hirschman uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine all signals giving equality for the discrete Hirschman uncertainty principle. We single out the case where the entropies of the time signal and its Fourier transform are equal. These signals (up to scalar multiples) form an orthonormal basis giving an orthogonal transform that optimally packs a finite-duration discrete-time signal. The transform may be computed via a fast algorithm

Tomasz Przebinda; Victor E. Debrunner; Murad zaydin

2001-01-01

135

Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Modified Dispersion Relations and Early Universe Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the effects of Generalized Uncertainty Principle(GUP) and Modified Dispersion Relations(MDRs) on the thermodynamics of ultra-relativistic particles in early universe. We show that limitations imposed by GUP and particle horizon on the measurement processes, lead to certain modifications of early universe thermodynamics.

Kourosh Nozari; Behnaz Fazlpour

2006-06-17

136

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and the Ramsauer-Townsend Effect  

E-print Network

The scattering cross section of electrons in noble gas atoms exhibits a minimum value at electron energies of approximately 1eV. This is the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. In this letter, we study the Ramsauer-Townsend effect in the framework of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle.

J. Vahedi; Kourosh Nozari; P. Pedram

2012-08-08

137

Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

Kober, Martin [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2010-10-15

138

Gauge Theories under Incorporation of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

Martin Kober

2011-12-05

139

The Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering Hadar Ziv Debra J. Richardson  

E-print Network

The Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering Hadar Ziv Debra J. Richardson Information the Uncertainty Principle in Software En­ gineering (UPSE), which states that uncertainty is in­ herent principles, software testing, uncertainty mod­ eling, Bayesian networks INTRODUCTION Today's software

Ziv, Hadar

140

A volume inequality for quantum Fisher information and the uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

A volume inequality for quantum Fisher information and the uncertainty principle Paolo Gibilisco-adjoint matrices and let be a density matrix. The Robertson uncertainty principle det {Cov(Ah, Aj)} det - i 2 Tr.2) the "standard" uncertainty principle to distinguish it from other inequalities like the "entropic" uncertainty

Isola, Tommaso

141

arXiv:math.FA/0701207v17Jan2007 WEAK UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR FRACTALS, GRAPHS  

E-print Network

arXiv:math.FA/0701207v17Jan2007 WEAK UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR FRACTALS, GRAPHS AND METRIC MEASURE and manifolds. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Main results 3 2.1. Weak uncertainty principle and effective resistance metric 3 2.2. Weak uncertainty principle and Poincar´e-type inequality 5 2.3. Weak uncertainty

Teplyaev, Alexander

142

Archives of Inequalities and Applications 1 (2003) 451-462 AN UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR A MODIFIED  

E-print Network

Archives of Inequalities and Applications 1 (2003) 451-462 AN UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR A MODIFIED@mcs.sci.kuniv.edu.kw ABSTRACT. An uncertainty principle is obtained for a modified Y-transform of order . The principle is similar to the classical Heisenberg-Weyl uncertainty principle for the Fourier transform on R. Keywords

Tuan, Vu

143

The uncertainty threshold principle - Some fundamental limitations of optimal decision making under dynamic uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note shows that the optimal control of dynamic systems with uncertain parameters has certain limitations. In particular, by means of a simple scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example, it is shown that the infinite horizon solution does not exist if the parameter uncertainty exceeds a certain quantifiable threshold; we call this the uncertainty threshold principle. The philosophical and design implications of this result are discussed.

Athans, M.; Ku, R.; Gershwin, S. B.

1977-01-01

144

Coherent States of Harmonic Oscillator and Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

In this paper dynamics and quantum mechanical coherent states of a simple harmonic oscillator are considered in the framework of Generalized Uncertainty Principle(GUP). Equations of motion for simple harmonic oscillator are derived and some of their new implications are discussed. Then coherent states of harmonic oscillator in the case of GUP are compared with relative situation in ordinary quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the framework of GUP there is no considerable difference in definition of coherent states relative to ordinary quantum mechanics. But, considering expectation values and variances of some operators, based on quantum gravitational arguments one concludes that although it is possible to have complete coherency and vanishing broadening in usual quantum mechanics, gravitational induced uncertainty destroys complete coherency in quantum gravity and it is not possible to have a monochromatic ray in principle.

Kourosh Nozari; Tahereh Azizi

2005-04-20

145

Quantum black hole in the generalized uncertainty principle framework  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on canonical quantum gravity of black holes. Through the use of modified partition function that involves the effects of the GUP, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. We also calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy for the modification of the Schwarzschild black hole in the presence of the GUP.

Bina, A.; Moslehi, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 879 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalzadeh, S. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM) Maragha, Iran, P. O. Box: 55134-441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-01-15

146

New agegraphic dark energy model with generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

We investigate the new agegraphic dark energy models with generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). It turns out that although the GUP affects the early universe, it does not change the current and future dark energy-dominated universe significantly. Furthermore, this model could describe the matter-dominated universe in the past only when the parameter $n$ is chosen to be $n>n_c$, where the critical value determined to be $n_c=2.799531478$.

Yong-Wan Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung; Mu-In Park

2008-08-07

147

Generalized uncertainty principle and Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity  

E-print Network

We explore a connection between generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and modified Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. The GUP density function may be replaced by the cutoff function for the renormalization group of modified Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. We find the GUP-corrected graviton propagators and compare these with tensor propagators in the HL gravity. Two are qualitatively similar, but the $p^5$-term arisen from Cotton tensor is missed in the GUP-corrected graviton propagator.

Yun Soo Myung

2009-08-13

148

Simple security proof of quantum key distribution via uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

We present an approach to the unconditional security of quantum key distribution protocols based on the uncertainty principle. The approach applies to every case that has been treated via the argument by Shor and Preskill, and relieve them from the constraints of finding quantum error correcting codes. It can also treat the cases with uncharacterized apparatuses. We derive a secure key rate for the Bennett-Brassard-1984 protocol with an arbitrary source characterized only by a single parameter representing the basis dependence.

Masato Koashi

2005-05-14

149

Born-Jordan Quantization and the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

The Weyl correspondence and the related Wigner formalism lie at the core of traditional quantum mechanics. We discuss here an alternative quantization scheme, whose idea goes back to Born and Jordan, and which has recently been revived in another context, namely time-frequency analysis. We show that in particular the uncertainty principle does not enjoy full symplectic covariance properties in the Born and Jordan scheme, as opposed to what happens in the Weyl quantization.

Maurice A. de Gosson

2013-03-11

150

Uncertainty principles for magnetic structures on certain coadjoint orbits  

E-print Network

By building on our earlier work, we establish uncertainty principles in terms of Heisenberg inequalities and of the ambiguity functions associated with magnetic structures on certain coadjoint orbits of infinite-dimensional Lie groups. These infinite-dimensional Lie groups are semidirect products of nilpotent Lie groups and invariant function spaces thereon. The recently developed magnetic Weyl calculus is recovered in the special case of function spaces on abelian Lie groups.

Ingrid Beltita; Daniel Beltita

2009-06-08

151

Optimal Functions for a Periodic Uncertainty Principle and Multiresolution Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In this paper, it is shown that certain Theta functions are asymptoticallyoptimal for the periodic time frequency uncertainty principle described by Breitenbergerin [3]. These extremal functions give rise to a periodic multiresolution analysis wherethe corresponding wavelets also show similar localization properties.Subject Classification. Primary 42A16, Secondary 26D05, 26D10, 26D15.x1. IntroductionA fundamental result on time and frequency localization of square-integrable functions...

Ewald Quak; Jurgen Prestin

1995-01-01

152

Uncertainty principle for Gabor systems and the Zak transform  

SciTech Connect

We show that if g(set-membership sign)L{sup 2}(R) is a generator of a Gabor orthonormal basis with the lattice ZxZ, then its Zak transform Z(g) satisfies {nabla}Z(g)(negated-set-membership sign)L{sup 2}([0,1){sup 2}). This is a generalization and extension of the Balian-Low uncertainty principle.

Czaja, Wojciech; Zienkiewicz, Jacek [Institute of Mathematics, University of Wrodaw, Plac Grunwaldzki 2/4, 50-384 Wrodaw (Poland)

2006-12-15

153

"Stringy" Coherent States Inspired By Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

In this Letter we have explicitly constructed Generalized Coherent States for the Non-Commutative Harmonic Oscillator that directly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). Our results have a smooth commutative limit. The states show fractional revival which provides an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissionian.

Subir Ghosh; Pinaki Roy

2012-04-16

154

Generalized uncertainty principle: implications for black hole complementarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the heart of the black hole information loss paradox and the firewall controversy lies the conflict between quantum mechanics and general relativity. Much has been said about quantum corrections to general relativity, but much less in the opposite direction. It is therefore crucial to examine possible corrections to quantum mechanics due to gravity. Indeed, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is one profound feature of quantum mechanics, which nevertheless may receive correction when gravitational effects become important. Such generalized uncertainty principle [GUP] has been motivated from not only quite general considerations of quantum mechanics and gravity, but also string theoretic arguments. We examine the role of GUP in the context of black hole complementarity. We find that while complementarity can be violated by large N rescaling if one assumes only the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, the application of GUP may save complementarity, but only if certain N -dependence is also assumed. This raises two important questions beyond the scope of this work, i.e., whether GUP really has the proposed form of N -dependence, and whether black hole complementarity is indeed correct.

Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Yeom, Dong-han

2014-12-01

155

WEAK UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES ON FRACTALS KASSO A. OKOUDJOU AND ROBERT S. STRICHARTZ  

E-print Network

WEAK UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES ON FRACTALS KASSO A. OKOUDJOU AND ROBERT S. STRICHARTZ #3; Abstract. We eigenfunctions on some of these fractals precludes an uncertainty principle in the vein of Heisenberg's in of pcf fractals, thereby obtaining an uncertainty principle on a particular type of non-pcf fractal. 1

Okoudjou, Kasso A.

156

ccsd-00005822,version1-4Jul2005 HERMITE FUNCTIONS AND UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR THE  

E-print Network

ccsd-00005822,version1-4Jul2005 HERMITE FUNCTIONS AND UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR THE FOURIER an uncertainty principle due to Beurling into a characterization of Hermite functions. More precisely, all for this transform. 1. Introduction and Notations. Uncertainty principles state that a function and its Fourier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

ON UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES IN THE FINITE DIMENSIONAL SAIFALLAH GHOBBER AND PHILIPPE JAMING  

E-print Network

ON UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES IN THE FINITE DIMENSIONAL SETTING SAIFALLAH GHOBBER AND PHILIPPE JAMING Abstract. The aim of this paper is to prove an uncertainty principle for the representation of a vector in two bases. Our result extends previously known "qualitative" uncertainty principles into more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

PostDoc position available: Uncertainty Principles in Signal Processing, and Applications to  

E-print Network

PostDoc position available: Uncertainty Principles in Signal Processing, and Applications to Audio Commission within the FET programme), whose aim is to investigate Uncertainty Principles and their impact. In the framework of the UNLocX project2 , these problems are addressed in connection with uncertainty principles

Feichtinger, Hans Georg

159

[BDJam] Revista Matematica Iberoamericana 19 (2003) 2355. Hermite functions and uncertainty principles for the Fourier  

E-print Network

Abstract : We extend an uncertainty principle due to Beurling into a char- acterization of Hermite with a sharp version of Heisenberg's inequality for this transform. Keywords : Uncertainty principles; short; spectrogramm. AMS subject class : 42B10;32A15;94A12. 1. Introduction and Notations. Uncertainty principles

d'Orléans, Université

160

HARDY-POINCARE, RELLICH AND UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE INEQUALITIES ON RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS  

E-print Network

HARDY-POINCAR´E, RELLICH AND UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE INEQUALITIES ON RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS ISMAIL and Uncertainty principle inequalities on a Riemannian manifold M, started in [16]. In the present paper we prove new weighted Hardy-Poincar´e, Rellich and Uncertainty principle inequalities and their improved

161

A Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Singleslit Diffraction Or, Using Diffration Phenomena to Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

to Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle Frank Rioux Diffraction has a simple quantum mechanical interpretation the uncertainty principle. A screen with a single slit of width, w, is illuminated with a coherent photon position, it localizes the incident beam in the xdirection. According to the uncertainty principle, because

Rioux, Frank

162

hal-00080459,version2-13Dec2006 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR RADAR AMBIGUITY FUNCTIONS AND  

E-print Network

hal-00080459,version2-13Dec2006 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR RADAR AMBIGUITY FUNCTIONS AND MOMENTS is not achievable because of the so-called "ambiguity uncertainty principle", that is the constraint R2 |A(u)(x, y are given by various versions of the uncertainty principle for the ambiguity function, see e.g. [BDJ, De, Gr

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

Hydrogen Atom and Helium Ion Spatial and Momentum Distribution Functions Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

the Uncertainty Principle Frank Rioux|SJU The uncertainty principle is revealed by a comparison of the coordinate and momentum wave functions for the hydrogen atom (z=1) and helium ion (z=2) clearly illustrate the uncertainty principle. 0 2 4 6 r 2 1 r

Rioux, Frank

164

Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 14 The Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 14 The Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Now we are ready to find out what the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle really is, in all its glory.15) Equation (14.15) is called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This equation suggests that one cannot

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

165

UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE By reanalysing the experiment on Heisenberg Gamma-Ray  

E-print Network

1 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IS UNTENABLE By reanalysing the experiment on Heisenberg Gamma-Ray Microscope and one of ideal experiment from which uncertainty principle is derived , it is found that actually uncertainty principle can not be obtained from these two ideal experiments . And it is found

Groppi, Christopher

166

The Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Quantum Memory Mario Berta,1, 2  

E-print Network

The Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Quantum Memory Mario Berta,1, 2 Matthias Christandl,1: 26th July 2010) The uncertainty principle [1] lies at the heart of quantum theory, illuminating a dramatic dif- ference with classical mechanics. The principle bounds the uncertainties of the outcomes

167

arXiv:0801.3402v2 On Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

########### arXiv:0801.3402v2 [hep­th] 20 Sep 2011 On Generalized Uncertainty Principle Bhupendra We study generalized uncertainty principle through the basic concepts of limit and Fourier at the string uncertainty principle from the analytic- ity condition of a complex function, which depends upon

168

The Multi-Dimensional Hardy Uncertainty Principle and its Interpretation in Terms of the  

E-print Network

The Multi-Dimensional Hardy Uncertainty Principle and its Interpretation in Terms of the Wigner 15, AT-1090 Wien February 1, 2008 Abstract We extend Hardy's uncertainty principle for a square. We use this extension to show that Hardy's uncertainty principle is equivalent to a statement

Feichtinger, Hans Georg

169

A dynamical uncertainty principle in von Neumann algebras by operator monotone functions  

E-print Network

A dynamical uncertainty principle in von Neumann algebras by operator monotone functions Paolo matrices) and is a state (density matrix). In this case the standard uncertainty principle, provedL30, 46L60. Key words and phrases. Uncertainty principle, operator monotone function, quantum Fisher

Isola, Tommaso

170

Optimal Functions for a Periodic Uncertainty Principle and Multiresolution Analysis y  

E-print Network

Optimal Functions for a Periodic Uncertainty Principle and Multiresolution Analysis y Dedicated frequency uncertainty principle described by Breitenberger in [3]. These extremal functions give rise by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and it is well known that the Gaussian functions serve as extremal

Prestin, Jürgen

171

Is the Equivalence Principle violated by Generalized Uncertainty Principles and Holography in a brane-world?  

E-print Network

It has been recently debated whether a class of generalized uncertainty principles that include gravitational sources of error are compatible with the holographic principle in models with extra spatial dimensions. We had in fact shown elsewhere that the holographic scaling is lost when more than four space-time dimensions are present. However, we shall show here that the validity of the holographic counting can be maintained also in models with extra spatial dimensions, but at the intriguing price that the equivalence principle for a point-like source be violated and the inertial mass differ from the gravitational mass in a specific non-trivial way.

Fabio Scardigli; Roberto Casadio

2007-11-23

172

The uncertainty threshold principle - Fundamental limitations of optimal decision making under dynamic uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental limitations of the optimal control of dynamic systems with random parameters are analyzed by studying a scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example. It is demonstrated that optimum long-range decision making is possible only if the dynamic uncertainty (quantified by the means and covariances of the random parameters) is below a certain threshold. If this threshold is exceeded, there do not exist optimum decision rules. This phenomenon is called the 'uncertainty threshold principle'. The implications of this phenomenon to the field of modelling, identification, and adaptive control are discussed.

Athans, M.; Ku, R.; Gershwin, S. B.

1976-01-01

173

Universal Uncertainty Principle in the Measurement Operator Formalism  

E-print Network

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has been understood to set a limitation on measurements; however, the long-standing mathematical formulation established by Heisenberg, Kennard, and Robertson does not allow such an interpretation. Recently, a new relation was found to give a universally valid relation between noise and disturbance in general quantum measurements, and it has become clear that the new relation plays a role of the first principle to derive various quantum limits on measurement and information processing in a unified treatment. This paper examines the above development on the noise-disturbance uncertainty principle in the model-independent approach based on the measurement operator formalism, which is widely accepted to describe a class of generalized measurements in the field of quantum information. We obtain explicit formulas for the noise and disturbance of measurements given by the measurement operators, and show that projective measurements do not satisfy the Heisenberg-type noise-disturbance relation that is typical in the gamma-ray microscope thought experiments. We also show that the disturbance on a Pauli operator of a projective measurement of another Pauli operator constantly equals the square root of 2, and examine how this measurement violates the Heisenberg-type relation but satisfies the new noise-disturbance relation.

Masanao Ozawa

2005-10-27

174

Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation inequality and nonequilibrium uncertainty principle.  

PubMed

The fluctuation-dissipation relation is usually formulated for a system interacting with a heat bath at finite temperature, and often in the context of linear response theory, where only small deviations from the mean are considered. We show that for an open quantum system interacting with a nonequilibrium environment, where temperature is no longer a valid notion, a fluctuation-dissipation inequality exists. Instead of being proportional, quantum fluctuations are bounded below by quantum dissipation, whereas classically the fluctuations vanish at zero temperature. The lower bound of this inequality is exactly satisfied by (zero-temperature) quantum noise and is in accord with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, in both its microscopic origins and its influence upon systems. Moreover, it is shown that there is a coupling-dependent nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation that determines the nonequilibrium uncertainty relation of linear systems in the weak-damping limit. PMID:23944409

Fleming, C H; Hu, B L; Roura, Albert

2013-07-01

175

Experimental realization of Popper's Experiment: Violation of the Uncertainty Principle?  

E-print Network

An entangled pair of photons (1 and 2) are emitted to opposite directions. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 to provide precise knowledge of its position on the $y$ axis and this also determines the precise $y$ position of its twin, photon 2, due to quantum entanglement. Is photon 2 going to experience a greater uncertainty in momentum, i.e., a greater $\\Delta p_{y}$, due to the precise knowledge of its position $y$? The experimental data shows $\\Delta y\\Delta p_{y}<\\hbar $ for photon 2. Can this recent realization of the historical thought experiment of Karl Popper signal a violation of the uncertainty principle?

Yoon-Ho Kim; Yanhua Shih

1999-10-19

176

Effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on the Inflation Parameters  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle on the inflationary dynamics of the early universe in both standard and braneworld viewpoint. We choose the Randall-Sundrum II model as our underlying braneworld scenario. We find that the quantum gravitational effects lead to a spectral index which is not scale invariant. Also, the amplitude of density fluctuations is reduced by increasing the strength of quantum gravitational corrections. However, the tensor-to-scalar ratio increases by incorporation of these quantum gravity effects. We outline possible manifestations of these quantum gravity effects in the recent and future observations.

Kourosh Nozari; Siamak Akhshabi

2009-10-19

177

An inequality related to uncertainty principle in von Neumann algebras  

E-print Network

Recently Kosaki proved an inequality for matrices that can be seen as a kind of new uncertainty principle. Independently, the same result was proved by Yanagi, Furuichi and Kuriyama. The new bound is given in terms of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson informations. Kosaki himself asked if this inequality can be proved in the setting of von Neumann algebras. In this paper we provide a positive answer to that question and moreover we show how the inequality can be generalized to an arbitrary operator monotone function.

Paolo Gibilisco; Tommaso Isola

2008-04-16

178

Minisuperspace dynamics in a generalized uncertainty principle framework  

SciTech Connect

The minisuperspace dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) and of the Taub Universes in the context of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle is analyzed in detail. In particular, the motion of the wave packets is investigated and, in both the models, the classical singularity appear to be probabilistic suppressed. Moreover, the FRW wave packets approach the Planckian region in a stationary way and no evidences for a Big-Bounce, as predicted in Loop Quantum Cosmology, appear. On the other hand, the Taub wave packets provide the right behavior in predicting an isotropic Universe.

Battisti, Marco Valerio [ICRA-International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Dipartimento di Fisica (G9), Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Montani, Giovanni [ICRA-International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Dipartimento di Fisica (G9), Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); ENEA C.R. Frascati (Dipartimento F.P.N.), Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); ICRANET C.C. Pescara, P.le della Repubblica 10, 65100 Pescara (Italy)

2008-01-03

179

The Uncertainty Principle: Group Theoretic Approach, Possible Minimizers and Scale-Space Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty principle is a fundamental concept in the context of signal and image processing, just as much as it has been in the framework of physics and more recently in harmonic analysis. Uncertainty principles can be derived by using a group theoretic approach. This approach yields also a formalism for finding functions which are the minimizers of the uncertainty

Chen Sagiv; Nir A. Sochen; Yehoshua Y. Zeevi

2006-01-01

180

Hawking temperature for various kinds of black holes from Heisenberg uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

Hawking temperature is computed for a large class of black holes (with spherical, toroidal and hyperboloidal topologies) using only laws of classical physics plus the "classical" Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. This principle is shown to be fully sufficient to get the result, and there is no need to this scope of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle.

Fabio Scardigli

2006-07-04

181

A Robertson-type Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information  

E-print Network

Let $A_1,...,A_N$ be complex selfadjoint matrices and let $\\rho$ be a density matrix. The Robertson uncertainty principle $$ det (Cov_\\rho(A_h,A_j)) \\geq det (- \\frac{i}{2} Tr (\\rho [A_h,A_j])) $$ gives a bound for the quantum generalized covariance in terms of the commutators $ [A_h,A_j]$. The right side matrix is antisymmetric and therefore the bound is trivial (equal to zero) in the odd case $N=2m+1$. Let $f$ be an arbitrary normalized symmetric operator monotone function and let $_{\\rho,f}$ be the associated quantum Fisher information. In this paper we prove the inequality $$ det (Cov_\\rho (A_h,A_j)) \\geq det (\\frac{f(0)}{2} _{\\rho,f}) $$ that gives a non-trivial bound for any $N \\in {\\mathbb N}$ using the commutators $[\\rho,A_h]$.

Paolo Gibilisco; Daniele Imparato; Tommaso Isola

2007-07-09

182

Constraints on the Generalized Uncertainty Principle from Black Hole Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we calculate the modification to the thermodynamics of a Schwarzschild black hole in higher dimensions because of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). We use the fact that the leading order corrections to the entropy of a black hole has to be logarithmic in nature to restrict the form of GUP. We observe that in six dimensions, the usual GUP produces the correct form for the leading order corrections to the entropy of a black hole. However, in five and seven dimensions a linear GUP, which is obtained by a combination of DSR with the usual GUP, is needed to produce the correct form of the corrections to the entropy of a black hole. Finally, we demonstrate that in five dimensions, a new form of GUP containing quadratic and cubic powers of the momentum also produces the correct form for the leading order corrections to the entropy of a black hole.

Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Faizal, Mir

2015-01-01

183

The generalized uncertainty principle in the presence of extra dimensions  

E-print Network

We argue that in the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) model, the parameter $\\beta_0$ whose square root, multiplied by Planck length $\\ell_p$, approximates the minimum measurable distance, varies with energy scales. Since minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories, we investigate models based on GUP and one extra dimension, compactified with radius $\\rho$. We obtain an inspiring relation $\\sqrt{\\beta_0} \\ell_p/\\rho \\sim {\\cal O}(1)$. This relation is also consistent with predictions at Planck scale and usual quantum mechanics scale. We also make estimations on the application range of the GUP model. It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactification radius of the extra dimension.

Benrong Mu; Houwen Wu; Haitang Yang

2009-09-24

184

Extended uncertainty principle and the geometry of (anti)-de Sitter space  

E-print Network

It has been proposed that on (anti)-de Sitter background, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle should be modified by the introduction of a term proportional to the cosmological constant. We show that this modification of the uncertainty principle can be derived straightforwardly from the geometric properties of (anti)-de Sitter spacetime. We also discuss the connection between the so-called extended generalized uncertainty principle and triply special relativity.

S. Mignemi

2009-10-12

185

Linear and nonlinear response functions of the Morse oscillator: Classical divergence and the uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

and the uncertainty principle Jianlan Wu and Jianshu Caoa) Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute the linear divergence in the corresponding classical response function. On the basis of the uncertainty principle, the classical divergence is removed by phase-space averaging around the microcanonical energy

Cao, Jianshu

186

Uncertainty principle for Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information in semifinite von Neumann algebras  

E-print Network

Recently Kosaki proved an uncertainty principle for matrices, related to Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information, and asked if a similar inequality could be proved in the von Neumann algebra setting. In this paper we prove such an uncertainty principle in the semifinite case.

Paolo Gibilisco; Tommaso Isola

2008-04-16

187

Effect of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Post-Inflation Preheating  

E-print Network

We examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, predicted by various theories of quantum gravity to replace the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale, on post inflation preheating in cosmology, and show that it can predict either an increase or a decrease in parametric resonance and a corresponding change in particle production. Possible implications are considered.

Wissam Chemissany; Saurya Das; Ahmed Farag Ali; Elias C. Vagenas

2011-12-20

188

Effect of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on post-inflation preheating  

SciTech Connect

We examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, predicted by various theories of quantum gravity to replace the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale, on post inflation preheating in cosmology, and show that it can predict either an increase or a decrease in parametric resonance and a corresponding change in particle production. Possible implications are considered.

Chemissany, Wissam [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Das, Saurya; Ali, Ahmed Farag [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 Canada (Canada); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: wissam@itf.fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca, E-mail: ahmed.ali@uleth.ca, E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)

2011-12-01

189

Remarks on the Fact that the Uncertainty Principle Does Not Determine the Quantum State  

E-print Network

We discuss the relation between density matrices and the uncertainty principle; this allows us to justify and explain a recent statement by Man'ko et al. We thereafter use Hardy's uncertainty principle to prove a new result for Wigner distributions dominated by a Gaussian and we relate this result to the coarse-graining of phase-space by "quantum blobs".

Maurice de Gosson; Franz Luef

2007-03-07

190

Corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde formula from the generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, we compute the corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde formula of the d-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. These corrections stem from the generalized uncertainty principle. Then we show one can take into account the generalized uncertainty principle corrections of the Cardy-Verlinde entropy formula by just redefining the Virasoro operator L{sub 0} and the central charge c.

Setare, M.R. [Physics Department, Institute for Studies in Theological Physics and Mathematics (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2004-10-15

191

Weak values, 'negative probability' and the uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

A quantum transition can be seen as a result of interference between various pathways(e.g. Feynman paths) which can be labelled by a variable $f$. An attempt to determine the value of f without destroying the coherence between the pathways produces a weak value of $\\bar{f}$. We show $\\bar{f}$ to be an average obtained with amplitude distribution which can, in general, take negative values which, in accordance with the uncertainty principle, need not contain information about the actual range of the values $f$ which contribute to the transition. It is also demonstrated that the moments of such alternating distributions have a number of unusual properties which may lead to misinterpretation of the weak measurement results.We provide a detailed analysis of weak measurements with and without post-selection. Examples include the double slit diffraction experiment,weak von Neumann and von Neumann-like measurements, traversal time for an elastic collision, the phase time, the local angular momentum(LAM) and the 'thr...

Sokolovski, D

2009-01-01

192

Verification of the Uncertainty Principle by Using Diffraction of Light Waves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We described a simple idea for experimental verification of the uncertainty principle for light waves. We used a single-slit diffraction of a laser beam for measuring the angular width of zero-order diffraction maximum and obtained the corresponding wave number uncertainty. We will assume that the uncertainty in position is the slit width. For the

Nikolic, D.; Nesic, Lj

2011-01-01

193

Scientific and technological uncertainty, the precautionary principle, scenarios and risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty, the precautionary principle and scenario are three important concepts in current regulatory debates concerned with risk management. In this paper, each concept is described in relation to its regulatory context and a linkage between the three concepts is established. Three scenarios relating to increasing scientific and technical uncertainty are presented. The most obvious regulatory approach to uncertainty is to

Michael D. Rogers

2001-01-01

194

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Recent Cosmic Inflation Observations  

E-print Network

The recent background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization (BICEP2) observations are believed as an evidence for the cosmic inflation. BICEP2 provided a first direct evidence for the inflation, determined its energy scale and debriefed witnesses for the quantum gravitational processes. The ratio of scalar-to-tensor fluctuations $r$ which is the canonical measurement of the gravitational waves, was estimated as $r=0.2_{-0.05}^{+0.07}$. Apparently, this value agrees well with the upper bound value corresponding to PLANCK $r\\leq 0.012$ and to WMAP9 experiment $r=0.2$. It is believed that the existence of a minimal length is one of the greatest predictions leading to modifications in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle or a GUP at the Planck scale. In the present work, we investigate the possibility of interpreting recent BICEP2 observations through quantum gravity or GUP. We estimate the slow-roll parameters, the tensorial and the scalar density fluctuations which are characterized by the scalar field $\\phi$. Taking into account the background (matter and radiation) energy density, $\\phi$ is assumed to interact with the gravity and with itself. We first review the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe and then suggest modification in the Friedmann equation due to GUP. By using a single potential for a chaotic inflation model, various inflationary parameters are estimated and compared with the PLANCK and BICEP2 observations. While GUP is conjectured to break down the expansion of the early Universe (Hubble parameter and scale factor), two inflation potentials based on certain minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model result in $r$ and spectral index matching well with the observations. Corresponding to BICEP2 observations, our estimation for $r$ depends on the inflation potential and the scalar field. A power-law inflation potential does not.

Abdel Nasser Tawfik; Abdel Magied Diab

2014-10-29

195

Violation of the Robertson-Schrdinger uncertainty principle and non-commutative quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

We show that a possible violation of the Robertson-Schr\\"odinger uncertainty principle may signal the existence of a deformation of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra. More precisely, we prove that any Gaussian in phase-space (even if it violates the Robertson-Schr\\"odinger uncertainty principle) is always a quantum state of an appropriate non-commutative extension of quantum mechanics. Conversely, all canonical non-commutative extensions of quantum mechanics display states that violate the Robertson-Schr\\"odinger uncertainty principle.

Catarina Bastos; Orfeu Bertolami; Nuno Costa Dias; Joo Nuno Prata

2012-11-26

196

Relative entropy derivation of the uncertainty principle with quantum side information  

E-print Network

We give a simple proof of the uncertainty principle with quantum side information, as in [Berta et al. Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)], invoking the monotonicity of the relative entropy. Our proof shows that the entropic uncertainty principle can be viewed as a data-processing inequality, a special case of the notion that information cannot increase due to evolution in time. This leads to a systematic method for finding the minimum uncertainty states of various entropic uncertainty relations; interestingly such states are intimately connected with the reversibility of time evolution.

Patrick J. Coles; Li Yu; Michael Zwolak

2011-12-07

197

[Jam7] Seminaire Equations aux Derivees Partielles, Ecole Polytechnique, fevrier 2006, expose no XV. Uncertainty principles for orthonormal bases  

E-print Network

´e no XV. Uncertainty principles for orthonormal bases Philippe JAMING Abstract : In this survey, we interpretation of the uncertainty principles as a statement about the time-frequency localiza- tion of elements dissipation property. Keywords : Uncertainty principles; orthonormal bases AMS subject class : 42B10 1

d'Orléans, Université

198

A Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Single-slit Diffraction Or, Using Diffration Phenomena to Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

to Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle Frank Rioux Department of chemistry College of St. Benedict and St. John. Or we could say diffraction is an excellent way to illustrate the uncertainty principle. A screen, it localizes the incident beam in the x-direction. Accoring to the uncertainty principle, because position

Rioux, Frank

199

CONCENTRATION UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR SIGNALS ON THE UNIT SPHERE Zubair Khalid, Salman Durrani, Parastoo Sadeghi and Rodney A. Kennedy  

E-print Network

CONCENTRATION UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES FOR SIGNALS ON THE UNIT SPHERE Zubair Khalid, Salman Durrani.kennedy}@anu.edu.au ABSTRACT The uncertainty principle is an important and powerful tool, with many applications in signal processing. This paper presents two concentration uncertainty principles for signals on the sphere which

Durrani, Salman

200

DOI 10.1007/s00209-010-0756-8 Mathematische Zeitschrift An uncertainty principle, Wegner estimates  

E-print Network

Math. Z. DOI 10.1007/s00209-010-0756-8 Mathematische Zeitschrift An uncertainty principle, Wegner uncertainty principle and show that it can be applied to prove Wegner estimates near fluctuation boundaries call "uncertainty principle" (see below for further discussion). The solution to the above mentioned

Stollmann, P.

201

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 25 JULY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1734 The uncertainty principle in the presence of  

E-print Network

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 25 JULY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1734 The uncertainty principle and Renato Renner1 The uncertainty principle, originally formulated by Heisenberg1 , clearly illustrates the difference between classical and quan- tum mechanics. The principle bounds the uncertainties about

Loss, Daniel

202

Corrections to the Fine Structure Constant in D-dimensional Space from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

In this letter we compute the corrections to the fine structure constant in D-dimensional space. These corrections stem from the generalized uncertainty principle. We also discuss in three-space dimension.

Forough Nasseri

2005-06-15

203

Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty principle under noise  

E-print Network

The measurement outcomes of two incompatible observables on a particle can be precisely predicted when it is maximally entangled with a quantum memory, as quantified recently [Nature Phys. 6, 659 (2010)]. We explore the behavior of the uncertainty relation under the influence of local unital and nonunital noisy channels. While the unital noises only increase the amount of uncertainty, the amplitude-damping nonunital noises may amazingly reduce the amount of uncertainty in the long-time limit. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be justified by different competitive mechanisms between quantum correlations and the minimal missing information after local measurement.

Z. Y. Xu; W. L. Yang; M. Feng

2012-03-15

204

Semiclassical corrections to black hole entropy and the generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

In this paper, employing the path integral method in the framework of a canonical description of a Schwarzschild black hole, we obtain the corrected inverse temperature and entropy of the black hole. The corrections are those coming from the quantum effects as well as from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle effects. Furthermore, an equivalence between the polymer quantization and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle description is shown provided the parameters characterizing these two descriptions are proportional.

Bargueo, Pedro

2015-01-01

205

Semiclassical corrections to black hole entropy and the generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

In this paper, employing the path integral method in the framework of a canonical description of a Schwarzschild black hole, we obtain the corrected inverse temperature and entropy of the black hole. The corrections are those coming from the quantum effects as well as from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle effects. Furthermore, an equivalence between the polymer quantization and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle description is shown provided the parameters characterizing these two descriptions are proportional.

Pedro Bargueo; Elias C. Vagenas

2015-01-14

206

Entropy of the Randall-Sundrum brane world with the generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle, we calculate the entropy of the bulk scalar field on the Randall-Sundrum brane background without any cutoff. We obtain the entropy of the massive scalar field proportional to the horizon area. Here, we observe that the mass contribution to the entropy exists in contrast to all previous results of the usual black hole cases with the generalized uncertainty principle.

Kim, Wontae; Park, Young-Jai [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Wan [National Creative Research Initiative Center for Controlling Optical Chaos, Pai-Chai University, Daejeon 302-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-11-15

207

Hermite functions and uncertainty principles for the Fourier and the windowed Fourier transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend an uncertainty principle due to Beurling into a characterization of Hermite functions. More precisely, all functions $f$ on $\\\\R^d$ which may be written as $P(x)\\\\exp (Ax,x)$, with $A$ a real symmetric definite positive matrix, are characterized by integrability conditions on the product $f(x)\\\\hat{f}(y)$. We also give the best constant in uncertainty principles of Gelf'and Shilov type. We then

Aline Bonami; Bruno Demange; Philippe Jaming

2001-01-01

208

Entropy of the Randall-Sundrum brane world with the generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle, we calculate the entropy of the bulk scalar field on the Randall-Sundrum brane background without any cutoff. We obtain the entropy of the massive scalar field proportional to the horizon area. Here, we observe that the mass contribution to the entropy exists in contrast to all previous results, which is independent of the mass of the scalar field, of the usual black hole cases with the generalized uncertainty principle.

Wontae Kim; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2006-11-02

209

Entropy bound of local quantum field theory with generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

We study the entropy bound for local quantum field theory (LQFT) with generalized uncertainty principle. The generalized uncertainty principle provides naturally a UV cutoff to the LQFT as gravity effects. Imposing the non-gravitational collapse condition as the UV-IR relation, we find that the maximal entropy of a bosonic field is limited by the entropy bound $A^{3/4}$ rather than $A$ with $A$ the boundary area.

Yong-Wan Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung

2009-02-25

210

The Affine uncertainty principle in one and two dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we construct families of wavelets that minimize an uncertainty relation associated with square integrable representations of some canonical groups. Especially, we obtain a new interpretation of the Mexican hat function.

P. Maass

1995-01-01

211

A Discussion on Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in the Picture of Special Relativity  

E-print Network

In this note the formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (HUP) in the picture of the special relativity is given. The inequality shows that the product of quantum conjugate variables uncertainties is greater than an amount that is not more a constant but depends on the speed of the system on which the measurement is taken.

Luca Nanni

2015-01-09

212

The precautionary principle in times of intermingled uncertainty and risk: some regulatory complexities.  

PubMed

This article explores the use of the precautionary principle in situations of intermingled uncertainty and risk. It analyses how the so-called uncertainty paradox works out by examining the Pfizer case. It reveals regulatory complexities that result from contradictions in precautionary thinking. In conclusion, a plea is made for embedment of uncertainty information, while stressing the need to rethink regulatory reform in the broader sense. PMID:16304932

van Asselt, M B A; Vos, E

2005-01-01

213

Uncertainty Principle--Limited Experiments: Fact or Academic Pipe-Dream?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether modern experiments are limited by the uncertainty principle or by the instruments used to perform the experiments is discussed. Several key experiments show that the instruments limit our knowledge and the principle remains of strictly academic concern. (DF)

Albergotti, J. Clifton

1973-01-01

214

Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty principle, teleportation and entanglement witness in structured reservoirs  

E-print Network

We relate the principle of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty to quantum teleportation and show geometrically that any two-qubit state which lowers the upper bound of this uncertainty relation is useful for teleportation. We also explore the efficiency of this entropic uncertainty principle on witnessing entanglement in a general class of bosonic structured reservoirs. The entanglement regions witnessed by different estimates are determined, which may have no relation with the explicit form of the spectral density of the reservoir for certain special chosen sets of the initial states.

Ming-Liang Hu; Heng Fan

2012-09-24

215

The uncertainty principle determines the non-locality of quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

Two central concepts of quantum mechanics are Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and a subtle form of non-locality that Einstein famously called ``spooky action at a distance''. These two fundamental features have thus far been distinct concepts. Here we show that they are inextricably and quantitatively linked. Quantum mechanics cannot be more non-local with measurements that respect the uncertainty principle. In fact, the link between uncertainty and non-locality holds for all physical theories.More specifically, the degree of non-locality of any theory is determined by two factors -- the strength of the uncertainty principle, and the strength of a property called ``steering'', which determines which states can be prepared at one location given a measurement at another.

Jonathan Oppenheim; Stephanie Wehner

2010-11-19

216

Noncommutative spacetime, stringy spacetime uncertainty principle, and density fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a variation of spacetime noncommutative field theory to realize the stringy spacetime uncertainty relation without breaking any of the global symmetries of the homogeneous isotropic universe. We study the spectrum of metric perturbations in this model for a wide class of accelerating background cosmologies. Spacetime noncommutativity leads to a coupling between the fluctuation modes and the background cosmology

Robert Brandenberger; Pei-Ming Ho

2002-01-01

217

Experimental Realization of Popper's Experiment: Violation of the Uncertainty Principle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An entangled pair of photons (1 and 2) are emitted in opposite directions. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 to provide the precise knowledge of its position on the y-axis and this also determines the precise y-position of its twin, photon 2, due to quantum entanglement. Is photon 2 going to experience a greater uncertainty

Yoon-Ho Kim; Yanhua Shih

1999-01-01

218

Quantum covariance, quantum Fisher information and the uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

In this paper the relation between quantum covariances and quantum Fisher informations are studied. This study is applied to generalize a recently proved uncertainty relation based on quantum Fisher information. The proof given hereconsiderably simplifies the previously proposed proofs and leads to more general inequalities.

Paolo Gibilisco; Fumio Hiai; Denes Petz

2007-12-07

219

Path Integral for Dirac oscillator with generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

The propagator for Dirac oscillator in (1+1) dimension, with deformed commutation relation of the Heisenberg principle, is calculated using path integral in quadri-momentum representation. As the mass is related to momentum, we then adapt the space-time transformation method to evaluate quantum corrections and this latter is dependent from the point discretization interval.

Benzair, H. [Laboratoire LRPPS, Universite de Kasdi Merbah-Ouargla, BP 511, Route Ghardaia, 30000 Ouargla (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Jijel BP98 Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Boudjedaa, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Jijel BP98 Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Merad, M. [Laboratoire (L.S.D.C), Universite de Oum El Bouaghi, 04000 Oum El Bouaghi (Algeria)

2012-12-15

220

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 45, NUMBER 7 15 FEBRUARY 1992-I Uncertainty-principle noise in vacuum-tunneling transducers  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 45, NUMBER 7 15 FEBRUARY 1992-I Uncertainty-principle noise in vacuum uncertainty principle for the position and momen- tum of a test mass monitored by the transducer through-quantized description of electron tunneling through a barrier to find an expression for the uncertainty in the width

Presilla, Carlo

221

Explicit and Implicit Uncertainties and the Uncertainty Principle in the Special Theory of Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A macroscopic object equipped with synchronized clocks is examined. General physical relations are directly derived from Lorentz transformations for the case of one-dimensional motion (along the X axis) - the uncertainty relation of the object's x coordinate and the projection of its impulse along the X axis, px, and the uncertainty relation of the object's observation time, t, and its energy, E. The uncertainty relations take the form dpxdx > H and dEdt > H. The H value in the relation has action dimensions and is dependent upon the precision of the rod's clocks and its mass. It is shown that if the macroscopic object in and of itself performs the function of an ideal physical clock, the uncertainty relations derived in the limiting case then take the usual form of dpxdx ? h and dEdt ? h, where h is the Planck constant.

Matvejev, Oleg V.; Matveev, Vadim N.

2013-09-01

222

Wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle: Phenomenographic categories of description of tertiary physics students depictions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, this paper's findings are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

2012-05-21

223

Wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle: Phenomenographic categories of description of tertiary physics students' depictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, the findings presented in this paper are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

2011-12-01

224

First considerations on the generalized uncertainty principle for finite-dimensional discrete phase spaces  

E-print Network

Generalized uncertainty principle and breakdown of the spacetime continuum certainly represent two important results derived of various approaches related to quantum gravity and black hole physics near the well-known Planck scale. The discreteness of space suggests, in particular, that all measurable lengths are quantized in units of a fundamental scale (in this case, the Planck length). Here, we propose a self-consistent theoretical framework for an important class of physical systems characterized by a finite space of states, and show that such a framework enlarges previous knowledge about generalized uncertainty principles, as topological effects in finite-dimensional discrete phase spaces come into play. Besides, we also investigate under what circumstances the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) works out well and its inherent limitations.

Marcelo A Marchiolli; Maurizio Ruzzi

2011-06-13

225

The Uncertainty Threshold Principle: Some Fundamental Limitations of Optimal Decision Making Under Dynamic Uncertainity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note shows that the optimal control of dynamic systems with uncertain parameters has certain limitations. In particular, by means of a simple scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example, it is shown that the infinite horizon solution does not exist if the parameter uncertainty exceeds a certain quantifiable threshold; we call this the uncertainty threshold principle. The philosophical and design implications of this result are discussed.

Athans, M.; Ku, R.; Gershwin, S. B.

1977-01-01

226

Removing the Big Bang Singularity: The role of the generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity  

E-print Network

The possibility of avoiding the big bang singularity by means of a generalized uncertainty principle is investigated. In relation with this matter, the statistical mechanics of a free-particle system obeying the generalized uncertainty principle is studied and it is shown that the entropy of the system has a finite value in the infinite temperature limit. It is then argued that negative temperatures and negative pressures are possible in this system. Finally, it is shown that this model can remove the big bang singularity.

Reza Rashidi

2012-09-11

227

Removing the Big Bang Singularity: The role of the generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity  

E-print Network

The possibility of avoiding the big bang singularity by means of a generalized uncertainty principle is investigated. In relation with this matter, the statistical mechanics of a free-particle system obeying the generalized uncertainty principle is studied and it is shown that the entropy of the system has a finite value in the infinite temperature limit. It is then argued that negative temperatures and negative pressures are possible in this system. Finally, it is shown that this model can remove the big bang singularity.

Rashidi, Reza

2012-01-01

228

Zero-point energies, the uncertainty principle and positivity of the quantum Brownian density operator  

E-print Network

High temperature and white noise approximations are frequently invoked when deriving the quantum Brownian equation for an oscillator. Even if this white noise approximation is avoided, it is shown that if the zero point energies of the environment are neglected, as they often are, the resultant equation will violate not only the basic tenet of quantum mechanics that requires the density operator to be positive, but also the uncertainty principle. When the zero-point energies are included, asymptotic results describing the evolution of the oscillator are obtained that preserve positivity and, therefore, the uncertainty principle.

Allan Tameshtit

2012-04-09

229

Quantum-mechanical histories and the uncertainty principle: Information-theoretic inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is generally concerned with understanding how the uncertainty principle arises in formulations of quantum mechanics, such as the decoherent histories approach, whose central goal is the assignment of probabilities to histories. We first consider histories characterized by position or momentum projections at two moments of time. Both exact and approximate (Gaussian) projections are studied. Shannon's information is used

J. J. Halliwell

1993-01-01

230

Quantum States and Hardy's Formulation of the Uncertainty Principle : a Symplectic Approach  

E-print Network

We express the condition for a phase space Gaussian to be the Wigner distribution of a mixed quantum state in terms of the symplectic capacity of the associated Wigner ellipsoid. Our results are motivated by Hardy's formulation of the uncertainty principle for a function and its Fourier transform. As a consequence we are able to state a more general form of Hardy's theorem.

Maurice de Gosson; Franz Luef

2007-03-07

231

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Harmonic Interaction in Three Spatial Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In three spatial dimensions, the generalized uncertainty principle is considered under an isotropic harmonic oscillator interaction in both non-relativistic and relativistic regions. By using novel transformations and separations of variables, the exact analytical solution of energy eigenvalues as well as the wave functions is obtained. Time evolution of the non-relativistic region is also reported.

Hassanabadi, H.; Hooshmand, P.; Zarrinkamar, S.

2015-01-01

232

Uncertainty Principle for Real Signals in the Linear Canonical Transform Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear canonical transform (LCT) is a generalization of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) having applications in several areas of signal processing and optics. In this paper, we extend the uncertainty principle for real signals in the fractional Fourier domains to the linear canonical transform domains, giving us the tighter lower bound on the product of the spreads of the

Kamalesh Kumar Sharma; Shiv Dutt Joshi

2008-01-01

233

Minimum physical length and the generalized uncertainty principle in string theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible definition of path integrals for string theory is studied, based on a discretized version of Polyakov's generating functional. The finite resolution of string theory, as opposed to the infinite resolution in particle theory, clearly emerges from a renormalization group type analysis. We derive the existence of a minimum physical length (~10-33cm) and generalized form of the uncertainty principle,

Kenichi Konishi; Giampiero Paffuti; Paolo Provero

1990-01-01

234

New Uncertainty Principles for the Continuous Gabor Transform and the Continuous Wavelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabor and wavelet methods are preferred to classical Fourier methods, whenever the time dependence of the analyzed sig- nal is of the same importance as its frequency dependence. However, there exist strict limits to the maximal time-frequency resolution of these both transforms, similar to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in Fourier analysis. Results of this type are the subject of the following

Elke Wilczok

2000-01-01

235

Fast identification n-widths and uncertainty principles for LTI and slowly varying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal worst-case uncertainty that can be achieved by identification depends on the observation time. In the first part of the paper, this dependence is evaluated for selected linear time invariant systems in the l1 and H? norms and shown to be derivable from a monotonicity principle. The minimal time required is shown to depend on the metric complexity of

George Zames; Lin Lin; Le Yi Wang

1994-01-01

236

A generalized uncertainty principle and sparse representation in pairs of bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elementary proof of a basic uncertainty principle concerning pairs of representations of vectors in different orthonormal bases is provided. The result, slightly stronger than stated before, has a direct impact on the uniqueness property of the sparse representation of such vectors using pairs of orthonormal bases as overcomplete dictionaries. The main contribution in this paper is the improvement of

Michael Elad; Alfred M. Bruckstein

2002-01-01

237

The Uncertainty Principle derived by the finite transmission of light and information  

E-print Network

This work shows that in the frame of the stochastic generalization of the quantum hydrodynamic analogy (QHA) the uncertainty principle can be derived by the postulate of finite transmission speed of light and information . The theory shows that the measurement process performed in the large scale classical limit of stochastic QHA (SQHA), cannot have a duration smaller than the time need to the light to travel the distance up to which the quantum non-local interaction extend itself. The product of the minimum measuring time multiplied by the variance of energy fluctuation due to presence of stochastic noise shows to lead to the minimum uncertainty principle. The paper also shows that the uncertainty relations can be also derived if applied to the indetermination of position and momentum of a particle of mass m in a quantum fluctuating environment.

Piero Chiarelli

2013-09-26

238

Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron

Harbola, Varun

2011-01-01

239

Impacts of generalized uncertainty principle on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible.

Tawfik, A., E-mail: a.tawfik@eng.mti.edu.eg [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, 11571 Cairo (Egypt)

2013-07-01

240

Integrating Leonardo da Vinci's principles of demonstration, uncertainty, and cultivation in contemporary nursing education.  

PubMed

Nurses today are facing an ever changing health care system. Stimulated by health care reform and limited resources, nursing education is being challenged to prepare nurses for this uncertain environment. Looking to the past can offer possible solutions to the issues nursing education is confronting. Seven principles of da Vincian thinking have been identified (Gelb, 2004). As a follow-up to an exploration of the curiosit principle (Butts & Story, 2013), this article will explore the three principles of dimostrazione, sfumato, and corporalita. Nursing faculty can set the stage for a meaningful educational experience through these principles of demonstration (dimostrazione), uncertainty (sfumato), and cultivation (corporalita). Preparing nurses not only to manage but also to flourish in the current health care environment that will enhance the nurse's and patient's experience. PMID:23830068

Story, Lachel; Butts, Janie

2014-03-01

241

Path Integral for non-relativistic Generalized Uncertainty Principle corrected Hamiltonian  

E-print Network

Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) has brought the idea of existence of minimum measurable length in Quantum physics. Depending on this GUP, non-relativistic Hamiltonian at the Planck scale is modified. In this article, we construct the kernel for this GUP corrected Hamiltonian for free particle by applying the Hamiltonian path integral approach and check the validity conditions for this kernel thoroughly. Interestingly, the probabilistic interpretation of this kernel induces a momentum upper bound in the theory which is comparable with GUP induced maximum momentum uncertainty.

Sudipta das; Souvik Pramanik

2012-09-12

242

Experimental investigation of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory  

E-print Network

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle provides a fundamental limitation on an observer's ability to simultaneously predict the outcome when one of two measurements is performed on a quantum system. However, if the observer has access to a particle (stored in a quantum memory) which is entangled with the system, his uncertainty is generally reduced. This effect has recently been quantified by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)] in a new, more general uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of entropies. Using entangled photon pairs, an optical delay line serving as a quantum memory and fast, active feed-forward we experimentally probe the validity of this new relation. The behaviour we find agrees with the predictions of quantum theory and satisfies the new uncertainty relation. In particular, we find lower uncertainties about the measurement outcomes than would be possible without the entangled particle. This shows not only that the reduction in uncertainty enabled by entanglement can be significant in practice, but also demonstrates the use of the inequality to witness entanglement.

Robert Prevedel; Deny R. Hamel; Roger Colbeck; Kent Fisher; Kevin J. Resch

2010-12-01

243

Influence of Generalized and Extended Uncertainty Principle on Thermodynamics of FRW universe  

E-print Network

The influence of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and extended uncertainty principle (EUP) on the thermodynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe has been investigated. It is shown that the entropy of the apparent horizon of the FRW universe gets a correction if one considers the effect of the GUP or EUP. Moreover, starting with the modified entropy and applying the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=TdS$, to the apparent horizon of the FRW universe, we obtain the modified Friedmann equations. The influence of the GUP or EUP on the thermodynamics of the FRW universe provides a deep insight into the understanding of the quantum gravity or large length scale corrections to the dynamics of the FRW universe.

Tao Zhu; Ji-Rong Ren; Ming-Fan Li

2009-03-25

244

Doubly Special Relativity with a minimum speed and the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

The present work aims to search for an implementation of a new symmetry in the space-time by introducing the idea of an invariant minimum speed scale ($V$). Such a lowest limit $V$, being unattainable by the particles, represents a fundamental and preferred reference frame connected to a universal background field (a vacuum energy) that breaks Lorentz symmetry. So there emerges a new principle of symmetry in the space-time at the subatomic level for very low energies close to the background frame ($v\\approx V$), providing a fundamental understanding for the uncertainty principle, i.e., the uncertainty relations should emerge from the space-time with an invariant minimum speed.

Cludio Nassif

2012-03-08

245

Quantum dynamics of the Taub universe in a generalized uncertainty principle framework  

SciTech Connect

The implications of a generalized Uncertainty principle on the Taub cosmological model are investigated. The model is studied in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner reduction of the dynamics and therefore a time variable is ruled out. Such a variable is quantized in a canonical way and the only physical degree of freedom of the system (related to the universe anisotropy) is quantized by means of a modified Heisenberg algebra. The analysis is performed at both the classical and quantum level. In particular, at quantum level, the motion of wave packets is investigated. The two main results obtained are as follows: (i) The classical singularity is probabilistically suppressed. The universe exhibits a stationary behavior and the probability amplitude is peaked in a determinate region. (ii) The generalized uncertainty principle wave packets provide the right behavior in the establishment of a quasi-isotropic configuration for the universe.

Battisti, Marco Valerio [ICRA-International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica (G9), Universita di Roma, 'La Sapienza' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Montani, Giovanni [ICRA-International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica (G9), Universita di Roma, 'La Sapienza' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); ENEA C.R. Frascati (Dipartimento F.P.N.), Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); ICRANET C.C. Pescara, P.le della Repubblica 10, 65100 Pescara (Italy)

2008-01-15

246

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle in (A)dS Space and the Modification of Hawking Temperature from the Minimal Length  

E-print Network

Recently, the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has been extended to incorporate the existence of a large (cut-off) length scale in de Sitter or anti-de Sitter space, and the Hawking temperatures of the Schwarzshild-(anti) de Sitter black holes have been reproduced by using the extended uncertainty principle. I generalize the extended uncertainty to the case with an absolute minimum length and compute its modification to the Hawking temperature. I obtain a general trend that the generalized uncertainty principle due to the absolute minimum length ``always'' increases the Hawking temperature, implying ``faster'' decay, which is in conformity with the result in the asymptotically flat space. I also revisit the ``black hole-string'' phase transition, in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle.

Mu-in Park

2007-12-05

247

Thermodynamics of (2+1)-dimensional acoustic black hole based on the generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

We study thermodynamic quantities of an acoustic black hole and its thermodynamic stability in a cavity based on the generalized uncertainty principle. It can be shown that there is a minimal black hole which can be a stable remnant after black hole evaporation. Moreover, the behavior of the free energy shows that the large black hole is stable too. Therefore, the acoustic black hole can decay into the remnant or the large black hole.

Wontae Kim; Edwin J. Son; Myungseok Yoon

2008-01-09

248

Schild Action and Space-Time Uncertainty Principle in String Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the meaning of the Schild action from the viewpoint of a possible space-time uncertainty principle in string theory and present an interpretation of the Schild action which points toward a derivation of superstring theory as a theory of quantized space-time where the squared string scale, l(2}_{s) ~ alpha', plays the role of the minimum quantum for space-time areas.

Tamiaki Yoneya

1997-01-01

249

Space-time uncertainty principle and conformal symmetry in D-particle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the space-time uncertainty principle, we establish a conformal symmetry in the dynamics of D-particles. The conformal symmetry, combined with the supersymmetric non-renormalization theorem, uniquely determines the classical form of the effective action for a probe D-particle in the background of a heavy D-particle source, previously constructed by Becker-Becker-Polchinski-Tseytlin. Our results strengthen the conjecture proposed by Maldacena on the

Antal Jevicki; Tamiaki Yoneya

1998-01-01

250

Generalized uncertainty principle and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in tunneling rate of Kerr black hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle in the tunneling formalism for Hawking radiation to evaluate the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy for a Kerr black hole. By assumption of a spatially flat universe accompanied with expansion of metric, the modified area and entropy of Kerr black hole are calculated and we could obtain an expression for entropy of black hole that is changing with respect to time and Bekenstein-Hawking temperature.

Darvishi, M. T.; Baghbani, R.; Khani, F.

2013-07-01

251

Energy distribution of massless particles on black hole backgrounds with generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

We derive new formulas for the spectral energy density and total energy density of massless particles in a general spherically symmetric static metric from a generalized uncertainty principle. Compared with blackbody radiation, the spectral energy density is strongly damped at high frequencies. For large values of r, the spectral energy density diminishes when r grows, but at the event horizon, the spectral energy density vanishes and therefore thermodynamic quantities near a black hole, calculated via the generalized uncertainty principle, do not require any cutoff parameter. We find that the total energy density can be expressed in terms of Hurwitz zeta functions. It should be noted that at large r (low local temperature), the difference between the total energy density and the Stefan-Boltzmann law is too small to be observed. However, as r approaches an event horizon, the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle becomes more and more important, which may be observable. As examples, the spectral energy densities in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole and of a Schwarzschild black hole plus quintessence are discussed. It is interesting to note that the maximum of the distribution shifts to higher frequencies when the quintessence equation of state parameter w decreases.

Li Zhongheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

2009-10-15

252

Generalized uncertainty principle and correction value to the black hole entropy  

E-print Network

Recently, there has been much attention devoted to resolving the quantum corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole. In particular, many researchers have expressed a vested interest in the coefficient of the logarithmic term of the black hole entropy correction term. In this paper, we calculate the correction value of the black hole entropy by utilizing the generalized uncertainty principle and obtain the correction term caused by the generalized uncertainty principle. Because in our calculation we think that the Bekenstein-Hawking area theorem is still valid after considering the generalized uncertainty principle, we derive that the coefficient of the logarithmic term of the black hole entropy correction term is negative. This result is different from the known result at present. Our method is valid not only for single horizon spacetime but also for double horizons spacetime. In the whole process, the physics idea is clear and calculation is simple. It offers a new way for studying the condition that Bekenstein-Hawking area theorem is valid.

Zhao Hai-Xia; Li Huai-Fan; Hu Shuang-Qi; Zhao Ren

2006-08-04

253

Geodesics, Mass and the Uncertainty Principle in a Warped de Sitter Space-time  

E-print Network

We present the explicit solution to the geodesic equations in a warped de Sitter space-time proposed by Randall-Sundrum. We find that a test particle moves in the bulk and is not restricted on a 3-brane (to be taken as our universe). On the 3-brane, the test particle moves with uniform velocity, giving the appearance that it is not subject to a force. But computing the particle's energy using the energy-momentum tensor yields a time-dependent energy that suggests a time-dependent mass. Thus, the extra force, which is the effect of the warped extra dimension on the particle's motion on the 3-brane, does not change the velocity but the mass of the particle. The particle's motion in the bulk also results in a time-dependent modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as viewed on the 3-brane. These two results show that the classical physics along the extra dimension results in the time-dependence of particle masses and the uncertainty principle. If the particle masses are time-independent and the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is to remain unchanged, then there must be a non-gravitational force that will restrict all particles on the 3-brane. Finally, we just note that although classically, these time-dependent corrections on the 3-brane can be removed, quantum mechanical corrections along the extra dimension will restore back the problem.

Jose A. Magpantay

2011-08-03

254

The uncertainty principle enables non-classical dynamics in an interferometer.  

PubMed

The quantum uncertainty principle stipulates that when one observable is predictable there must be some other observables that are unpredictable. The principle is viewed as holding the key to many quantum phenomena and understanding it deeper is of great interest in the study of the foundations of quantum theory. Here we show that apart from being restrictive, the principle also plays a positive role as the enabler of non-classical dynamics in an interferometer. First we note that instantaneous action at a distance should not be possible. We show that for general probabilistic theories this heavily curtails the non-classical dynamics. We prove that there is a trade-off with the uncertainty principle that allows theories to evade this restriction. On one extreme, non-classical theories with maximal certainty have their non-classical dynamics absolutely restricted to only the identity operation. On the other extreme, quantum theory minimizes certainty in return for maximal non-classical dynamics. PMID:25105741

Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Garner, Andrew J P; Vedral, Vlatko

2014-01-01

255

arXiv:1105.4865v1[quant-ph]24May2011 Relative entropy derivation of the uncertainty principle with quantum side  

E-print Network

arXiv:1105.4865v1[quant-ph]24May2011 Relative entropy derivation of the uncertainty principle Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 We give a simple proof of the uncertainty principle with quantum side entropy. Our proof shows that the entropic uncertainty principle can be viewed as a data

Zwolak, Michael

256

The Harmonic Oscillator and the Uncertainty Principle In atomic units the wave function in coordinate space for an harmonic oscillator with reduced mass, ,  

E-print Network

The Harmonic Oscillator and the Uncertainty Principle In atomic units the wave function of the Uncertainty Principle: the more sharply defined position is, the greater the uncertainty in momentum. Conversely, the greater the uncertainty in position, the more sharply the momentum is defined. Tunneling

Rioux, Frank

257

Harmonic Oscillators, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Simultaneous Measurement Precision for Position and Momentum  

E-print Network

There is no question as to the validity of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which follows from an abstract analysis of the tenets of quantum mechanics. Herein, however, we reconsider the implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for the simultaneous measurement of position and momentum. We show that one can, with a suitable modification of the Fourier transform (which reflects the specifics of the system mass and force constant), obtain a data analysis kernel that enables one to improve significantly the simultaneous measurement precision for position and momentum for the particular harmonic oscillator under study. Our results show that 1) the simultaneous precision for measuring the position and the corresponding momentum depends on the physical parameters of the harmonic oscillator under study 2) one can simultaneously squeeze coherent states by the same amount in both x and wave number, k. The results also suggest that each physical system may, in fact, determine its own optimum transform between representations of non-commuting observables so as to decrease their simultaneous measurement uncertainty limit.

Donald J. Kouri

2014-09-16

258

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem  

E-print Network

The derivation of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP) from the Uncertainty Theorem of Fourier Transform theory demonstrates that the HUP arises from the dependency of momentum on wave number that exists at the quantum level. It also establishes that the HUP is purely a relationship between the effective widths of Fourier transform pairs of variables (i.e. conjugate variables). We note that the HUP is not a quantum mechanical measurement principle per se. We introduce the Quantum Mechanical equivalent of the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem of Fourier Transform theory, and show that it is a better principle to describe the measurement limitations of Quantum Mechanics. We show that Brillouin zones in Solid State physics are a manifestation of the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem at the quantum level. By comparison with other fields where Fourier Transform theory is used, we propose that we need to discern between measurement limitations and inherent limitations when interpreting the impact of the HUP on the nature of the quantum level. We further propose that while measurement limitations result in our perception of indeterminism at the quantum level, there is no evidence that there are any inherent limitations at the quantum level, based on the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem.

Pierre A. Millette

2011-08-16

259

Remnant mass and entropy of black holes and modified uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the thermodynamics of black holes using a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) with a correction term linear order in the momentum uncertainty. The mass-temperature relation and heat capacity are calculated from which critical and remnant masses are obtained. The results are exact and are found to be identical. The entropy expression gives the famous area theorem upto leading order corrections from GUP. In particular, the linear order term in GUP leads to a $\\sqrt{A}$ correction to the area theorem. Finally, the area theorem can be expressed in terms of a new variable termed as reduced horizon area only when the calculation is done to the next higher order correction from GUP.

Abhijit Dutta; Sunandan Gangopadhyay

2014-05-01

260

The Effect of Uncertainty Principle on the Thermodynamics of Early Universe  

E-print Network

We discuss the concept of measurement in cosmology from the relativistic and quantum mechanical points of view. The uncertainty principle within the particle horizon, excludes the momentum of particles to be less than $\\pi\\hbar H/c$. This effect modifies the standard thermodynamics of early universe for the ultra-relativistic particles such that the equation of state as well as dependence of energy density and pressure to the temperature. We show that this modification to the thermodynamics of early universe is important for energies $E>10^{17} GeV$. During the inflation, the particle horizon inflates to a huge size and makes the uncertainty in the momentum to be negligible.

S. Rahvar; M. Sadegh Movahed; M Saadat

2005-08-15

261

The QCD Coupling Parameter Derived from the Uncertainty Principle and a Model for Quark Vacuum Fluctuations  

E-print Network

The magnitude of the strong interaction is characterized by $\\alpha_s$, the coupling parameter in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a parameter with an unexplained value in the Standard Model. In this paper, a candidate explanation for $\\alpha_s$ is derived from (1) the lifetime of quark-antiquark pairs in vacuum fluctuations given by the Uncertainty Principle, (2) the variation of $\\alpha_s$ as a function of energy in QCD, and (3) classical relativistic dynamics of the quarks and antiquarks. A semiclassical model for heavy quark-antiquark vacuum fluctuations is described herein, based on (2) and (3). The model in this paper predicts the measured value of $\\alpha_s(M_{Z^0})$ to be 0.121, which is in agreement with recent measurements within statistical uncertainties.

David Batchelor

2010-07-30

262

Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Inequality and Non-Equilibrium Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

The fluctuation-dissipation relation is usually formulated for a system interacting with a heat bath at finite temperature in the context of linear response theory, where only small deviations from the mean are considered. We show that for an open quantum system interacting with a non-equilibrium environment, where temperature is no longer a valid notion, a fluctuation-dissipation inequality exists. Clearly stated, quantum fluctuations are bounded below by quantum dissipation, whereas classically the fluctuations can be made to vanish. The lower bound of this inequality is exactly satisfied by (zero-temperature) quantum noise and is in accord with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, both in its microscopic origins and its influence upon systems. Moreover, it is shown that the non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation determines the non-equilibrium uncertainty relation in the weak-damping limit.

C. H. Fleming; B. L. Hu; Albert Roura

2010-12-03

263

Using the uncertainty principle to design simple interactions for targeted self-assembly.  

PubMed

We present a method that systematically simplifies isotropic interactions designed for targeted self-assembly. The uncertainty principle is used to show that an optimal simplification is achieved by a combination of heat kernel smoothing and Gaussian screening of the interaction potential in real and reciprocal space. We use this method to analytically design isotropic interactions for self-assembly of complex lattices and of materials with functional properties. The derived interactions are simple enough to narrow the gap between theory and experimental implementation of theory based designed self-assembling materials. PMID:23862929

Edlund, E; Lindgren, O; Jacobi, M Nilsson

2013-07-14

264

Determining the Minimal Length Scale of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle from the Entropy-Area Relationship  

E-print Network

We derive the formula of the black hole entropy with a minimal length of the Planck size by counting quantum modes of scalar fields in the vicinity of the black hole horizon, taking into account the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). This formula is applied to some intriguing examples of black holes - the Schwarzschild black hole, the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, and the magnetically charged dilatonic black hole. As a result, it is shown that the GUP parameter can be determined by imposing the black hole entropy-area relationship, which has a Planck length scale and a universal form within the near-horizon expansion.

Wontae Kim; John J. Oh

2008-01-11

265

On the stability of the dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

The new agegraphic Dark Energy (NADE) model (based on generalized uncertainty principle) interacting with Dark Matter (DM) is considered in this study via power-law form of the scale factor $a(t)$. The equation of state (EoS) parameter $\\omega_{G}$ is observed to have a phantom-like behaviour. The stability of this model is investigated through the squared speed of sound $v_{s}^{2}$: it is found that $v_{s}^{2}$ always stays at negative level, which indicates instability of the considered model.

Antonio Pasqua; Surajit Chattopadhyay; Iuliia Khomenko

2012-11-29

266

Generalized uncertainty principle, quantum gravity and Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity  

E-print Network

We investigate a close connection between generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and deformed Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. The GUP commutation relations correspond to the UV-quantum theory, while the canonical commutation relations represent the IR-quantum theory. Inspired by this UV/IR quantum mechanics, we obtain the GUP-corrected graviton propagator by introducing UV-momentum $p_i=p_{0i}(1+\\beta p_{0}^2)$ and compare this with tensor propagators in the HL gravity. Two are the same up to $p_0^4$-order.

Yun Soo Myung

2009-09-29

267

Using the uncertainty principle to design simple interactions for targeted self-assembly  

E-print Network

We present a method that systematically simplifies isotropic interactions designed for targeted self-assembly. The uncertainty principle is used to show that an optimal simplification is achieved by a combination of heat kernel smoothing and Gaussian screening. We use this method to design isotropic interactions for self-assembly of complex lattices and of materials with functional properties. The interactions we derive are significantly simpler than those previously published, and it is realistic to discuss explicit experimental implementation of the designed self-assembling components.

Erik Edlund; Oskar Lindgren; Martin Nilsson Jacobi

2012-11-23

268

Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole  

SciTech Connect

Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

Said, Jackson Levi [Physics Department, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Adami, Kristian Zarb [Physics Department, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

269

Uncertainty Principle for Control of Ensembles of Oscillators Driven by Common Noise  

E-print Network

We discuss control techniques for noisy self-sustained oscillators with a focus on reliability, stability of the response to noisy driving, and oscillation coherence understood in the sense of constancy of oscillation frequency. For any kind of linear feedback control--single and multiple delay feedback, linear frequency filter, etc.--the phase diffusion constant, quantifying coherence, and the Lyapunov exponent, quantifying reliability, can be efficiently controlled but their ratio remains constant. Thus, an "uncertainty principle" can be formulated: the loss of reliability occurs when coherence is enhanced and, vice versa, coherence is weakened when reliability is enhanced. Treatment of this principle for ensembles of oscillators synchronized by common noise or global coupling reveals a substantial difference between the cases of slightly non-identical oscillators and identical ones with intrinsic noise.

Denis S. Goldobin

2014-04-28

270

Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law  

SciTech Connect

The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

Tallacchini, Mariachiara [Bioethics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 10, 20100 Milan (Italy) and Science Technology and Law, Law Faculty, University of Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

2005-09-01

271

Covariant energymomentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energymomentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energymomentum. -- Highlights: We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energymomentum. Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energymomentum in strong gravity extreme.

Cooperstock, F.I., E-mail: cooperst@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dupre, M.J., E-mail: mdupre@tulane.edu [Department of Mathematics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

2013-12-15

272

The Harmonic Oscillator and the Uncertainty Principle Schroedinger's equation in atomic units (h = 2) for the harmonic oscillator has an exact analytical  

E-print Network

The Harmonic Oscillator and the Uncertainty Principle Schroedinger's equation in atomic units (h 4 e 1- 2 k 1 2 µ 1 2 p 2 k 1 8 µ 1 8 := #12;The uncertainty principle can now be illustrated of vibration (CTP =0.841)· and therefore the uncertainty in position. Consequently there is an increase

Rioux, Frank

273

Corrections to entropy and thermodynamics of charged black hole using generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

Recently, there has been much attention devoted to resolving the quantum corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking (black hole) entropy, which relates the entropy to the cross-sectional area of the black hole horizon. Using generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), corrections to the geometric entropy and thermodynamics of black hole will be introduced. The impact of GUP on the entropy near the horizon of three types of black holes; Schwarzschild, Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om is determined. It is found that the logarithmic divergence in the entropy-area relation turns to be positive. The entropy $S$, which is assumed to be related to horizon's two-dimensional area, gets an additional terms, for instance $2\\, \\sqrt{\\pi}\\, \\alpha\\, \\sqrt{S}$, where $\\alpha$ is the GUP parameter.

Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

2015-01-01

274

Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Modified Dispersion Relation and Barrier penetration by a Dirac particle  

E-print Network

We have studied the energy band structure of a Dirac particle in presence of a generalised uncertainty principle (GUP). We start from defining a modified momentum operator and derive corresponding modified dispersion relation (MDR) and GUP. Apart from the forbidden band within the range $\\pm m$, $m$ being the mass of the particle, we find the existence of additional forbidden bands at the both ends of the spectrum. Such band structure forbids a Dirac particle to penetrate a potential step of sufficient height ($\\sim E_P$, $E_P$ being Planck energy). This is also true for massless particle. Unlike the relativistic case, a massless particle also can reflect from a barrier of sufficient height. Finally we discuss about the Klein's paradox in presence of the GUP.

Sumit Ghosh

2014-03-27

275

Completeness, special functions and uncertainty principles over q-linear grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive completeness criteria for sequences of functions of the form f(x?n), where ?n is the nth zero of a suitably chosen entire function. Using these criteria, we construct complete nonorthogonal systems of Fourier-Bessel functions and their q-analogues, as well as other complete sets of q-special functions. We discuss connections with uncertainty principles over q-linear grids and the completeness of certain sets of q-Bessel functions is used to prove that, if a function f and its q-Hankel transform both vanish at the points {q-n}?n=1, 0 < q < 1, then f must vanish on the whole q-linear grid {qn}?n=-?.

Abreu, Lus Daniel

2006-11-01

276

An uncertainty principle underlying the pinwheel structure in the primary visual cortex  

E-print Network

The visual information in V1 is processed by an array of modules called orientation preference columns. In some species including humans, orientation columns are radially arranged around singular points like the spokes of a wheel, that are called pinwheels. The pinwheel structure has been observed first with optical imaging techniques and more recently by in vivo two-photon imaging proving their organization with single cell precision. In this research we provide evidence that pinwheels are de facto optimal distributions for coding at the best angular position and momentum. In the last years many authors have recognized that the functional architecture of V1 is locally invariant with respect to the symmetry group of rotations and translations SE(2). In the present study we show that the orientation cortical maps used to construct pinwheels can be modeled as coherent states, i.e. the configurations best localized both in angular position and angular momentum. The theory we adopt is based on the well known uncertainty principle, introduced by Heisenberg in quantum mechanics and later extended to many other groups of invariance. Here we state a corresponding principle in the cortical geometry with SE(2) symmetry, and by computing its minimizers we obtain a model of orientation activity maps in the cortex. As it is well known the pinwheels configuration is directly constructed from these activity maps, and we will be able to formally reproduce their structure starting from the group symmetries of the functional architecture of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is then modeled as an integrated system in which the set of simple cells implements the SE(2) group, the horizontal connectivity implements its Lie algebra and the pinwheels implement its minimal uncertainty states.

Davide Barbieri; Giovanna Citti; Gonzalo Sanguinetti; Alessandro Sarti

2010-07-08

277

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde Formula in $SAdS_5$ Black Holes  

E-print Network

In this letter, we investigate a possible modification to the temperature and entropy of $5-$dimensional Schwarzschild anti de Sitter black holes due to incorporating stringy corrections to the modified uncertainty principle. Then we subsequently argue for corrections to the Cardy-Verlinde formula in order to account for the corrected entropy. Then we show, one can taking into account the generalized uncertainty principle corrections of the Cardy-Verlinde entropy formula by just redefining the Virasoro operator $L_0$ and the central charge $c$.

M R Setare

2005-04-21

278

Corrections to the Fine Structure Constant in the Spacetime of a Cosmic String from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We calculate the corrections to the Fine Structure Constant in the spacetime of a cosmic string. These corrections stem from the generalized uncertainty principle. In the absence of a cosmic string our result here is in agreement with our previous result.

Forough Nasseri

2005-10-25

279

Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

MY exuberant friend Prof. Armstrong (NATURE, Feb. 6, p. 195) seems uncertain about many things for which there is good evidence, and to glory in his uncertainty; but there is no merit in uncertainty in itself: it is just as much a sign of crankiness to reject good evidence as it is to accept bad. His attitude prevents his own

Oliver Lodge

1926-01-01

280

Principle and Uncertainty Quantification of an Experiment Designed to Infer Actinide Neutron Capture Cross-Sections  

SciTech Connect

An integral reactor physics experiment devoted to infer higher actinide (Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) neutron cross sections will take place in the US. This report presents the principle of the planned experiment as well as a first exercise aiming at quantifying the uncertainties related to the inferred quantities. It has been funded in part by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act and has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation. The principle is to irradiate different pure actinide samples in a test reactor like INLs Advanced Test Reactor, and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation allows the energy integrated neutron cross-sections to be inferred since the relation between the two are the well-known neutron-induced transmutation equations. This approach has been used in the past and the principal novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined with the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) facility located at ANL. While AMS facilities traditionally have been limited to the assay of low-to-medium atomic mass materials, i.e., A < 100, there has been recent progress in extending AMS to heavier isotopes even to A > 200. The detection limit of AMS being orders of magnitude lower than that of standard mass spectroscopy techniques, more transmutation products could be measured and, potentially, more cross-sections could be inferred from the irradiation of a single sample. Furthermore, measurements will be carried out at the INL using more standard methods in order to have another set of totally uncorrelated information.

G. Youinou; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatorre; G. Imel; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Paul

2010-01-01

281

A volume inequality for quantum Fisher information and the uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

Let $A_1,...,A_N$ be complex self-adjoint matrices and let $\\rho$ be a density matrix. The Robertson uncertainty principle $$ det(Cov_\\rho(A_h,A_j)) \\geq det(- \\frac{i}{2} Tr(\\rho [A_h,A_j])) $$ gives a bound for the quantum generalized covariance in terms of the commutators $[A_h,A_j]$. The right side matrix is antisymmetric and therefore the bound is trivial (equal to zero) in the odd case $N=2m+1$. Let $f$ be an arbitrary normalized symmetric operator monotone function and let $_{\\rho,f}$ be the associated quantum Fisher information. In this paper we conjecture the inequality $$ det (Cov_\\rho(A_h,A_j)) \\geq det (\\frac{f(0)}{2} _{\\rho,f}) $$ that gives a non-trivial bound for any natural number $N$ using the commutators $i[\\rho, A_h]$. The inequality has been proved in the cases $N=1,2$ by the joint efforts of many authors. In this paper we prove the case N=3 for real matrices.

P. Gibilisco; D. Imparato; T. Isola

2007-06-06

282

Black-hole thermodynamics with modified dispersion relations and generalized uncertainty principles  

E-print Network

In several approaches to the quantum-gravity problem evidence has emerged of the validity of a "GUP" (a Generalized position-momentum Uncertainty Principle) and/or a "MDR" (a modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation), but very little is known about the implications of GUPs and MDRs for black-hole thermodynamics, another key topic for quantum-gravity research. We investigate an apparent link, already suggested in an earlier exploratory study involving two of us, between the possibility of a GUP and/or a MDR and the possibility of a log term in the area-entropy black-hole formula. We then obtain, from that same perspective, a modified relation between the mass of a black hole and its temperature, and we examine the validity of the "Generalized Second Law of black-hole thermodynamics" in theories with a GUP and/or a MDR. After an analysis of GUP- and MDR-modifications of the black-body radiation spectrum, we conclude the study with a description of the black-hole evaporation process.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Michele Arzano; Yi Ling; Gianluca Mandanici

2005-06-22

283

Revisiting the Calculation of I/V Profiles in Molecular Junctions Using the Uncertainty Principle.  

PubMed

Ortiz and Seminario (J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 127, 111106/1-3) proposed some years ago a simple and direct approach to obtain I/V profiles from the combination of ab initio equilibrium electronic structure calculations and the uncertainty principle as an alternative or complementary tool to more sophisticated nonequilibrium Green's functions methods. In this work, we revisit the fundamentals of this approach and reformulate accordingly the expression of the electric current. By analogy to the spontaneous electron decay process in electron transitions, in our revision, the current is calculated upon the relaxing process from the "polarized" state induced by the external electric field to the electronic ground state. The electric current is obtained from the total charge transferred through the molecule and the corresponding electronic energy relaxation. The electric current expression proposed is more general compared with the previous expression employed by Ortiz and Seminario, where the charge variation must be tested among different slabs of atoms at the contact. This new approach has been tested on benzene-1,4-dithiolate attached to different gold clusters that represent the contact with the electrodes. Analysis of the total electron deformation density induced by the external electric voltage and properties associated with the electron deformation orbitals supports the conclusions obtained from the I/V profiles. PMID:24689867

Ramos-Berdullas, Nicols; Mandado, Marcos

2014-04-17

284

The optimisation approach of ALARA in nuclear practice: an early application of the precautionary principle. Scientific uncertainty versus legal uncertainty.  

PubMed

The late health effects of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are subject to scientific controversy: one view finds threats of high cancer incidence exaggerated, while the other view thinks the effects are underestimated. Both views have good scientific arguments in favour of them. Since the nuclear field, both industry and medicine have had to deal with this controversy for many decades. One can argue that the optimisation approach to keep the effective doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking economic and social factors into account (ALARA), is a precautionary approach. However, because of these stochastic effects, no scientific proof can be provided. This paper explores how ALARA and the Precautionary Principle are influential in the legal field and in particular in tort law, because liability should be a strong incentive for safer behaviour. This so-called "deterrence effect" of liability seems to evaporate in today's technical and highly complex society, in particular when dealing with the late health effects of low doses of ionising radiation. Two main issues will be dealt with in the paper: 1. How are the health risks attributable to "low doses" of radiation regulated in nuclear law and what lessons can be learned from the field of radiation protection? 2. What does ALARA have to inform the discussion of the Precautionary Principle and vice-versa, in particular, as far as legal sanctions and liability are concerned? It will be shown that the Precautionary Principle has not yet been sufficiently implemented into nuclear law. PMID:16304938

Lierman, S; Veuchelen, L

2005-01-01

285

Quantum Statistical Entropy and Minimal Length of 5D Ricci-flat Black String with Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cut-off and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position $\\Delta x$ which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.

Molin Liu; Yuanxing Gui; Hongya Liu

2008-12-04

286

Quantum statistical entropy and minimal length of 5D Ricci-flat black string with generalized uncertainty principle  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.

Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

2008-12-15

287

A Dark Energy Model with Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Emergent, Intermediate and Logamediate Scenarios of the Universe  

E-print Network

This work is motivated by the work of Kim et al (2008), which considered the equation of state parameter for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle coexisting with dark matter without interaction. In this work, we have considered the same dark energy inter- acting with dark matter in emergent, intermediate and logamediate scenarios of the universe. Also, we have investigated the statefinder, kerk and lerk parameters in all three scenarios under this inter- action. The energy density and pressure for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle have been calculated and their behaviors have been investigated. The evolu- tion of the equation of state parameter has been analyzed in the interacting and non-interacting situations in all the three scenarios. The graphical analysis shows that the dark energy behaves like quintessence era for logamediate expansion and phantom era for emergent and intermediate expansions of the universe.

Rahul Ghosh; Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2011-10-22

288

Constructive approximation and numerical methods in geodetic research today an attempt at a categorization based on an uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Current activities and recent progress on constructive approximation and numerical analysis in physical geodesy are reported\\u000a upon. Two major topics of interest are focused upon, namely trial systems for purposes of global and local approximation and\\u000a methods for adequate geodetic application. A fundamental tool is an uncertainty principle, which gives appropriate bounds\\u000a for the quantification of space and momentum

W. Freeden; V. Michel

1999-01-01

289

Temperature for the (2+1)-dimensional Black Hole with Non Linear Electrodynamics from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the thermodynamical properties of the (2+1) dimensional black hole with a non-linear electrodynamics and with a negative cosmological constant, using the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). This approach shows that there is a minimum mass or remnant for the black hole, corresponding to the minimum radius of the event horizon that has a size of the order of the Planck scale. We also show that the heat capacity for this black hole is always positive.

Alexis Larranaga; Hector J. Hortua

2009-01-23

290

A violation of the uncertainty principle implies a violation of the second law of thermodynamics  

E-print Network

Uncertainty relations state that there exist certain incompatible measurements, to which the outcomes cannot be simultaneously predicted. While the exact incompatibility of quantum measurements dictated by such uncertainty relations can be inferred from the mathematical formalism of quantum theory, the question remains whether there is any more fundamental reason for the uncertainty relations to have this exact form. What, if any, would be the operational consequences if we were able to go beyond any of these uncertainty relations? We give a strong argument that justifies uncertainty relations in quantum theory by showing that violating them implies that it is also possible to violate the second law of thermodynamics. More precisely, we show that violating the uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics leads to a thermodynamic cycle with positive net work gain, which is very unlikely to exist in nature.

Esther Hnggi; Stephanie Wehner

2012-05-31

291

The Multi-Dimensional Hardy Uncertainty Principle and its Interpretation in Terms of the Wigner Distribution; Relation With the Notion of Symplectic Capacity  

E-print Network

We extend Hardy's uncertainty principle for a square integrable function and its Fourier transform to the multidimensional case using a symplectic diagonalization. We use this extension to show that Hardy's uncertainty principle is equivalent to a statement on the Wigner distribution of the function. We give a geometric interpretation of our results in terms of the notion of symplectic capacity of an ellipsoid. Furthermore, we show that Hardy's uncertainty principle is valid for a general Lagrangian frame of the phase space. Finally, we discuss an extension of Hardy's theorem for the Wigner distribution for exponentials with convex exponents.

Maurice de Gosson; Franz Luef

2008-03-06

292

Entropic formulation of the uncertainty principle for the number and annihilation operators  

E-print Network

An entropic approach to formulating uncertainty relations for the number-annihilation pair is considered. We construct some normal operator that traces the annihilation operator as well as commuting quadratures with a complete system of common eigenfunctions. Expanding the measured wave function with respect to them, one obtains a relevant probability distribution. Another distribution is naturally generated by measuring the number operator. Due to the Riesz-Thorin theorem, there exists a nontrivial inequality between corresponding functionals of the above distributions. We find the bound in this inequality and further derive uncertainty relations in terms of both the Renyi and Tsallis entropies. Entropic uncertainty relations for continuous distribution as well as relations for discretized one are presented.

Alexey E. Rastegin

2012-01-09

293

The effect of generalized uncertainty principle on square well, a case study  

SciTech Connect

According to a special case (? = 0) of the generalized uncertainty relation we derive the energy eigenvalues of the infinite potential well. It is shown that the obtained energy levels are different from the usual result with some correction terms. And the correction terms of the energy eigenvalues are independent of other parameters except ?. But the eigenstates will depend on another two parameters besides ?.

Ma, Meng-Sen, E-mail: mengsenma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shanxi Datong University, 037009 Datong (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi Datong University, 037009 Datong (China); Zhao, Ren [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi Datong University, 037009 Datong (China)

2014-08-15

294

Theoretical formulation of finite-dimensional discrete phase spaces: II. On the uncertainty principle for Schwinger unitary operators  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a self-consistent theoretical framework associated with the Schwinger unitary operators whose basic mathematical rules embrace a new uncertainty principle that generalizes and strengthens the MassarSpindel inequality. Among other remarkable virtues, this quantum-algebraic approach exhibits a sound connection with the WienerKhinchin theorem for signal processing, which permits us to determine an effective tighter bound that not only imposes a new subtle set of restrictions upon the selective process of signals and wavelet bases, but also represents an important complement for property testing of unitary operators. Moreover, we establish a hierarchy of tighter bounds, which interpolates between the tightest bound and the MassarSpindel inequality, as well as its respective link with the discrete Weyl function and tomographic reconstructions of finite quantum states. We also show how the Harper Hamiltonian and discrete Fourier operators can be combined to construct finite ground states which yield the tightest bound of a given finite-dimensional state vector space. Such results touch on some fundamental questions inherent to quantum mechanics and their implications in quantum information theory. -- Highlights: Conception of a quantum-algebraic framework embracing a new uncertainty principle for unitary operators. Determination of new restrictions upon the selective process of signals and wavelet bases. Demonstration of looser bounds interpolating between the tightest bound and the MassarSpindel inequality. Construction of finite ground states properly describing the tightest bound. Establishment of an important connection with the discrete Weyl function.

Marchiolli, M.A., E-mail: marcelo_march@bol.com.br [Avenida General Osrio 414, Centro, 14.870-100 Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Mendona, P.E.M.F., E-mail: pmendonca@gmail.com [Academia da Fora Area, C.P. 970, 13.643-970 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)] [Academia da Fora Area, C.P. 970, 13.643-970 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

2013-09-15

295

Reverse-reconciliation continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on the uncertainty principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A big challenge in continuous-variable quantum key distribution is to prove security against arbitrary coherent attacks including realistic assumptions such as finite-size effects. Recently, such a proof has been presented in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 100502 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.100502] for a two-mode squeezed state protocol based on a novel uncertainty relation with quantum memories. But the transmission distances were fairly limited due to a direct reconciliation protocol. We prove here security against coherent attacks of a reverse-reconciliation protocol under similar assumptions but allowing distances of over 16 km for experimentally feasible parameters. We further clarify the limitations when using the uncertainty relation with quantum memories in security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

Furrer, Fabian

2014-10-01

296

Uncertainty Principles and Identification n-Widths for LTI and Slowly Varying Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the identification of LTI systems, the optimal worst-case uncertainty depends on the observation time. This dependence is characterized via two notions of n-width, which are computed in the l1 and H norms. The results are then applied to systems in which the law governing the evolution of the uncertain elements is not time invariant. Such systems can not be

Lin; Le Yi Wang; George Zames

1992-01-01

297

An uncertainty principle for real signals in the fractional Fourier transform domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) can be thought of as a generalization of the Fourier transform to rotate a signal representation by an arbitrary angle ? in the time-frequency plane. A lower bound on the uncertainty product of signal representations in two FrFT domains for real signals is obtained, and it is shown that a Gaussian signal achieves the lower

Sudarshan Shinde; Vikram M. Gadre

2001-01-01

298

Maximally localized states and quantum corrections of black hole thermodynamics in the framework of a new generalized uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

As a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) leads to the effects of the minimal length of the order of the Planck scale and UV/IR mixing, some significant physical concepts and quantities are modified or corrected correspondingly. On the one hand, we derive the maximally localized states --- the physical states displaying the minimal length uncertainty associated with a new GUP proposed in our previous work. On the other hand, in the framework of this new GUP we calculate quantum corrections to the thermodynamic quantities of the Schwardzschild black hole, such as the Hawking temperature, the entropy, and the heat capacity, and give a remnant mass of the black hole at the end of the evaporation process. Moreover, we compare our results with that obtained in the frameworks of several other GUPs. In particular, we observe a significant difference between the situations with and without the consideration of the UV/IR mixing effect in the quantum corrections to the evaporation rate and the decay time. That is, the decay time can greatly be prolonged and even the Hawking radiation can stop in some sense in the former case, which implies that the quantum correction from the UV/IR mixing effect may give rise to a radical rather than a tiny influence to the Hawking radiation.

Yan-Gang Miao; Ying-Jie Zhao; Shao-Jun Zhang

2014-11-23

299

Our Electron Model vindicates Schr"odinger's Incomplete Results and Require Restatement of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron model used in our other joint paper here requires revision of some foundational physics. That electron model followed from comparing the experimentally proved results of human vision models using spatial Fourier transformations, SFTs, of pincushion and Hermann grids. Visual systems detect ``negative'' electric field values for darker so-called ``illusory'' diagonals that are physical consequences of the lens SFT of the Hermann grid, distinguishing this from light ``illusory'' diagonals. This indicates that oppositely directed vectors of the separate illusions are discretely observable, constituting another foundational fault in quantum mechanics, QM. The SFT of human vision is merely the scaled SFT of QM. Reciprocal space results of wavelength and momentum mimic reciprocal relationships between space variable x and spatial frequency variable p, by the experiment mentioned. Nobel laureate physicist von B'ek'esey, physiology of hearing, 1961, performed pressure input Rect x inputs that the brain always reports as truncated Sinc p, showing again that the brain is an adjunct built by sight, preserves sign sense of EMF vectors, and is hard wired as an inverse SFT. These require vindication of Schr"odinger's actual, but incomplete, wave model of the electron as having physical extent over the wave, and question Heisenberg's uncertainty proposal.

McLeod, David; McLeod, Roger

2008-04-01

300

Reply to:``Comment to:`Corrections to the fine structure constant in the spacetime of a cosmic string from the generalized uncertainty principle'''  

E-print Network

In this Reply, using G.de.A.Marques' comment, we correct calculations and results presented in [Phys.Lett.B 632(2006) 151-154] about corrections to the fine structure constant in the spacetime of a cosmic string from the generalized uncertainty principle.

Forough Nasseri

2006-12-14

301

Femtoscopic scales in p+p and p+Pb collisions in view of the uncertainty principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for quantum corrections of Hanbury-Brown/Twiss (HBT) interferometric radii produced by semi-classical event generators is proposed. These corrections account for the basic indistinguishability and mutual coherence of closely located emitters caused by the uncertainty principle. A detailed analysis is presented for pion interferometry in p+p collisions at LHC energy (?{s}=7 TeV). A prediction is also presented of pion interferometric radii for p+Pb collisions at ?{s}=5.02 TeV. The hydrodynamic/hydrokinetic model with UrQMD cascade as afterburner is utilized for this aim. It is found that quantum corrections to the interferometry radii improve significantly the event generator results which typically overestimate the experimental radii of small systems. A successful description of the interferometry structure of p+p collisions within the corrected hydrodynamic model requires the study of the problem of thermalization mechanism, still a fundamental issue for ultrarelativistic A+A collisions, also for high multiplicity p+p and p+Pb events.

Shapoval, V. M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Karpenko, Iu. A.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.

2013-08-01

302

Theoretical formulation of finite-dimensional discrete phase spaces: II. On the uncertainty principle for Schwinger unitary operators  

E-print Network

We introduce a self-consistent theoretical framework associated with the Schwinger unitary operators whose basic mathematical rules embrace a new uncertainty principle that generalizes and strengthens the Massar-Spindel inequality. Among other remarkable virtues, this quantum-algebraic approach exhibits a sound connection with the Wiener-Kinchin theorem for signal processing, which permits us to determine an effective tighter bound that not only imposes a new subtle set of restrictions upon the selective process of signals and wavelets bases, but also represents an important complement for property testing of unitary operators. Moreover, we establish a hierarchy of tighter bounds, which interpolates between the tightest bound and the Massar-Spindel inequality, as well as its respective link with the discrete Weyl function and tomographic reconstructions of finite quantum states. We also show how the Harper Hamiltonian and discrete Fourier operators can be combined to construct finite ground states which yield the tightest bound of a given finite-dimensional state vector space. Such results touch on some fundamental questions inherent to quantum mechanics and their implications in quantum information theory.

Marcelo A. Marchiolli; Paulo E. M. F. Mendonca

2013-03-31

303

The energy-time uncertainty principle and the EPR paradox: Experiments involving correlated two-photon emission in parametric down-conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-time uncertainty principle is on a different footing than the momentum position uncertainty principle: in contrast to position, time is a c-number parameter, and not an operator. As Aharonov and Bohm have pointed out, this leads to different interpretations of the two uncertainty principles. In particular, one must distinguish between an inner and an outer time in the definition of the spread in time, delta t. It is the inner time which enters the energy-time uncertainty principle. We have checked this by means of a correlated two-photon light source in which the individual energies of the two photons are broad in spectra, but in which their sum is sharp. In other words, the pair of photons is in an entangled state of energy. By passing one member of the photon pair through a filter with width delta E, it is observed that the other member's wave packet collapses upon coincidence detection to a duration delta t, such that delta E(delta t) is approximately equal to planks constant/2 pi, where this duration delta t is an inner time, in the sense of Aharonov and Bohm. We have measured delta t by means of a Michelson interferometer by monitoring the visibility of the fringes seen in coincidence detection. This is a nonlocal effect, in the sense that the two photons are far away from each other when the collapse occurs. We have excluded classical-wave explanations of this effect by means of triple coincidence measurements in conjunction with a beam splitter which follows the Michelson interferometer. Since Bell's inequalities are known to be violated, we believe that it is also incorrect to interpret this experimental outcome as if energy were a local hidden variable, i.e., as if each photon, viewed as a particle, possessed some definite but unknown energy before its detection.

Chiao, Raymond Y.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

1992-01-01

304

On the action of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in discrete linear methods for calculating the components of the deflection of the vertical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of discrete linear transformations that can be implemented through the algorithms of the Standard Fourier Transform (SFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) or Wavelet transform (WT) is effective for calculating the components of the deflection of the vertical from discrete values of gravity anomaly. The SFT due to the action of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle indicates weak spatial localization that manifests in the following: firstly, it is necessary to know the initial digital signal on the complete number line (in case of one-dimensional transform) or in the whole two-dimensional space (if a two-dimensional transform is performed) in order to find the SFT. Secondly, the localization and values of the "peaks" of the initial function cannot be derived from its Fourier transform as the coefficients of the Fourier transform are formed by taking into account all the values of the initial function. Thus, the SFT gives the global information on all frequencies available in the digital signal throughout the whole time period. To overcome this peculiarity it is necessary to localize the signal in time and apply the Fourier transform only to a small portion of the signal; the STFT that differs from the SFT only by the presence of an additional factor (window) is used for this purpose. A narrow enough window is chosen to localize the signal in time and, according to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it results in have significant enough uncertainty in frequency. If one chooses a wide enough window it, according to the same principle, will increase time uncertainty. Thus, if the signal is narrowly localized in time its spectrum, on the contrary, is spread on the complete axis of frequencies, and vice versa. The STFT makes it possible to improve spatial localization, that is, it allows one to define the presence of any frequency in the signal and the interval of its presence. However, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to tell precisely, what frequency is present in the signal at the current moment of time: it is possible to speak only about the range of frequencies. Besides, it is impossible to specify precisely the time moment of the presence of this or that frequency: it is possible to speak only about the time frame. It is this feature that imposes major constrains on the applicability of the STFT. In spite of the fact that the problems of resolution in time and frequency result from a physical phenomenon (Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) and exist independent of the transform applied, there is a possibility to analyze any signal, using the alternative approach - the multiresolutional analysis (MRA). The wavelet-transform is one of the methods for making a MRA-type analysis. Thanks to it, low frequencies can be shown in a more detailed form with respect to time, and high ones - with respect to frequency. The paper presents the results of calculating of the components of the deflection of the vertical, done by the SFT, STFT and WT. The results are presented in the form of 3-d models that visually show the action of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the specified algorithms. The research conducted allows us to recommend the application of wavelet-transform to calculate of the components of the deflection of the vertical in the near-field zone. Keywords: Standard Fourier Transform, Short-Time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

Mazurova, Elena; Lapshin, Aleksey

2013-04-01

305

Adding a strategic edge to human factors/ergonomics: principles for the management of uncertainty as cornerstones for system design.  

PubMed

It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that incorporates both business and design concerns. The management of uncertainty is presented as a viable candidate for such a framework. A case is described where human factors/ergonomics experts in a railway company have used the management of uncertainty perspective to address strategic concerns at firm level. Furthermore, system design is discussed in view of the relationship between organization and technology more broadly. System designers need to be supported in better understanding this relationship in order to cope with the uncertainties this relationship brings to the design process itself. Finally, the emphasis on uncertainty embedded in the recent surge of introducing risk management across all business sectors is suggested as another opportunity for bringing human factors and ergonomics expertise to the fore. PMID:23622735

Grote, Gudela

2014-01-01

306

Adopting the Uncertainty Principle for the Entropy Estimation of Black Holes, de Sitter Space and Rindler Space  

E-print Network

By a simple physical consideration and uncertain principle, we derive that temperature is proportional to the surface gravity and entropy is proportional to the surface area of the black hole. We apply the same consideration to de Sitter space and estimate the temperature and entropy of the space, then we deduce that the entropy is proportional to the boundary surface area. By the same consideration, we estimate the temperature and entropy in the uniformly accelerated system (Rindler coordinate). The cases in higher dimensions are considered.

Tetsuya Hara; Keita Sakai; Daigo Kajiura

2006-08-14

307

Planck Constant Deduced from Metrical Results of Doppler Effect of Moving Particle Uncertainty Principle Caused byCollision of a Particle with CMB Photons and Virtual Photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Put two counters at origin O and particle P respectively, the wave-number difference counted by two counters at same moment is the length x between P and O (as a rod). The metrical result of known Doppler effect is: x(?) = x0 (1+ ? cos ?) (1). ?= v/c, v is the velocity of counter to light-source, c = c+ = c -is the metrical one-way velocity of light, v n = v cos ?, ? is the angle between v and unit-vector n of light-beam pointing to counter from light-source, x0 is the metrical length when v = 0. The result counted by a counter in one second is the light-wave frequency: f(?) = f0 (1 -? cos ?) (2). f0 is the metrical frequency when v = 0. From Eq.(1) and Eq (2): x 2 (?) = x0 2 (1+2 ? cos ? + ? 2 cos2 ?); f 2 (?) = f 0 2 (1-2 ? cos ? + ? 2 cos2 ?). Define the square-difference root of the metrical results in two contrary directions: ?x = (x 2 (0) -x 2 (?)) 1/2 = 2 x0 ? 1/2 (3); ?f = (f 2 (0) -f 2 (?))1/2 = i 2 f0 ? 1/2 (4); ?x ?f = i 4 x0 f0 ? (5). From p = m v and the variance in absolute average value of Eq.(2) ?f= 2 f0 ?v/? c, Eq.(5) changes into: ?x?p= 2 ? x0 p (6). Once a particle collides with CMB photon, its velocity will change as in a quasi-Brownian motion. Let S be the average space-distance between CMB photons, the time-interval between two collisions is S / v, v is the velocity of particle. Because x0 is the length of an imaginary resting rod, i.e., after every collision the origin O must be reset jumpily at a new position and the jumpy distance (S/v) ?v is just the displacement of particle x0 , ?v is the variance in velocity caused by each collision. The variance in momentum of particle ?p in each collision is the average momentum p0 of CMB photon, then we obtain: x0 = S ?v / v = S ?p /p = S p0 /p and Eq.(6) changes into: ?x?p= 2 ? p0 S (7). The average energy and average momentum of CMB photon in 2.7K are: e0 = k T= 3.7210-16 erg; p0 = e0 /c =1.2410 -26 g cm s -1 . The average number density of CMB photons is about 200/cm3 (or 5.9/cm) measured on U2 airplane. The reciprocal 0.17cm of 5.9/cm is just the average freedom path S of the particle impacting with CMB photons. The virtual photons possess e0 and p0 of CMB photons owing to the energy-exchange in long-time coexist. The metrical value of Casimir force shows that the number density of virtual photons is far larger than that of CMB photons. The most collisions of virtual photons with particle have no measurable effect (self-counteracting momentum-balance). The residual virtual photons in imbalanced collisions with CMB photons are again in a dynamical balance and both number and both average freedom paths will be equal when a particle has no macro-displacement. In the cosmic space the virtual photons and CMB photons gather together, the total valid average freedom path of a particle will be equal to 0.085cm. The action-quantity p0 S on a particle by CMB photons and virtual photons is: p0 S =1.2410-26 g cm s-1 0.085cm =1.05410-27 erg s. The metrical Planck constant is: h / 2? =1.054610-27 erg s. It is worth thinking that both p0 S and h /2 ? have the same dimension and their magnitudes are also very approaching. If we think that the quantum effect comes from the action on the particle by the vacuum virtual photons and CMB photons, then the action-quantity 2 ? p0 S is just the Planck constant h and ?x?p= h (8). It is just the uncertainty principle, now it is the metrical results of Doppler effects in two contrary directions. The wave-particle duality is likely a quasi-Brownian motion of a particle in vacuum. The nonzero time in measuring course and the particle's quasi-Brownian motion make it impossible to measure accurately the position x and the momentum p of a particle. Then the uncertainty principle becomes a metrical theorem of the generalized Newton mechanics.

Chen, Shao-Guang

308

Measurement Uncertainty and Probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Principles: 1. Introduction; 2. Foundational ideas in measurement; 3. Components of error or uncertainty; 4. Foundational ideas in probability and statistics; 5. The randomization of systematic errors; 6. Beyond the standard confidence interval; Part II. Evaluation of Uncertainty: 7. Final preparation; 8. Evaluation using the linear approximation; 9. Evaluation without the linear approximations; 10. Uncertainty information fit for purpose; Part III. Related Topics: 11. Measurement of vectors and functions; 12. Why take part in a measurement comparison?; 13. Other philosophies; 14. An assessment of objective Bayesian methods; 15. A guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement; 16. Measurement near a limit - an insoluble problem?; References; Index.

Willink, Robin

2013-02-01

309

Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management of nanotechnology is challenged by the enormous uncertainties about the risks, benefits, properties, and future\\u000a direction of nanotechnology applications. Because of these uncertainties, traditional risk management principles such as acceptable\\u000a risk, costbenefit analysis, and feasibility are unworkable, as is the newest risk management principle, the precautionary\\u000a principle. Yet, simply waiting for these uncertainties to be resolved before undertaking

Gary E. Marchant; Douglas J. Sylvester; Kenneth W. Abbott

2008-01-01

310

Two new kinds of uncertainty relations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review a statistical-geometrical and a generalized entropic approach to the uncertainty principle. Both approaches provide a strengthening and generalization of the standard Heisenberg uncertainty relations, but in different directions.

Uffink, Jos

1994-01-01

311

Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

2003-01-01

312

Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons are made for the particle-in-a-box, the harmonic oscillator, and the one-electron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantum-mechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)

Peslak, John, Jr.

1979-01-01

313

Uncertainty and complementarity in axiomatic quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work an investigation of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle is carried through. A study of the physical content of these principles and their representation in the conventional Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics forms a natural starting point for this analysis. Thereafter is presented more general axiomatic framework for quantum mechanics, namely, a probability function formulation

Pekka J. Lahti

1980-01-01

314

Measurement Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

Koch, Michael

315

Interpreting uncertainty terms.  

PubMed

Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

Holtgraves, Thomas

2014-08-01

316

Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Fisher Information  

E-print Network

We show that an inequality recently proved by Kosaki and Yanagi-Furuichi-Kuriyama [arXiv:quant-ph/0501152] has a natural geometric interpretation in terms of monotone metrics associated to Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information. Moreover we give a counterexample showing that the inequality does not hold for every monotone metric of this type.

P. Gibilisco; T. Isola

2006-02-10

317

Further results on the uncertainty threshold principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional quantitative results are presented for the existence of optimal decision rules and stochastic stability for linear systems with white random parameters with respect to quadratic performance criteria by examining a specific version of a multivariable optimization problem.

R. Ku; M. Athans

1977-01-01

318

An uncertainty principle in chromosome positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomes are non-randomly positioned in the mammalian interphase nucleus. It is not known how patterns of chromosome positions are established or to what degree spatial arrangements of chromosomes change during the cell cycle, especially during mitosis. Two reports have applied in vivo microscopy to track chromosomes in space and time. The results highlight the inherently imperfect and probabilistic nature of

Luis A Parada; Jeffrey J Roix; Tom Misteli

2003-01-01

319

Uncertainty principle with quantum Fisher information  

E-print Network

In this paper we prove a nontrivial lower bound for the determinant of the covariance matrix of quantum mechanical observables, which was conjectured by Gibilisco, Isola and Imparato. The lower bound is given in terms of the commutator of the state and the observables and their scalar product, which is generated by an arbitrary symmetric operator monotone function.

Attila Andai

2007-10-11

320

Uncertainty principles and ideal atomic decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose a discrete-time signal S(t), 0⩽t

David L. Donoho; Xiaoming Huo

2001-01-01

321

An Uncertainty Principle For Hankel Transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

. There exists a generalized Hankel transform of order ff \\\\Gamma1=2 onR, which is based on the eigenfunctions of the Dunkl operatorT ff f(x) = f0(x) +\\\\Gammaff +12\\\\Delta f(x) \\\\Gamma f(\\\\Gammax)x; f 2 C1(R):For ff = \\\\Gamma1=2 this transform coincides with the usual Fourier transform onR. In this paper the operator T ff replaces the usual first derivative in order

Margit R Osler; Michael Voit

322

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON SEMISIMPLE GROUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 for all in R, where >0, >0, and > 1=4, then f =0 . Sitaram and Sundari generalised this theorem to semisimple groups with one conjugacy class of Cartan subgroups and to the K-invariant case for general semisimple groups. We ex- tend the theorem to all semisimple groups.

M. Cowling; A. Sitaram; M. Sundari

2000-01-01

323

Uncertainty Principle Estimates for Vector Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive weighted norm estimates for integral operators of potential type and for their related maximal operators. These operators are generalizations of the classical fractional integrals and fractional maximal functions. The norm estimates are derived in the context of a space of homogeneous type. The conditions required of the weight functions involve generalizations of the FeffermanPhong r-bump condition. The results

Carlos Prez; Richard L. Wheeden

2001-01-01

324

Conservation law for Uncertainty relations and quantum correlations  

E-print Network

Uncertainty principle, a fundamental principle in quantum physics, has been studied intensively via various uncertainty inequalities. Here we derive an uncertainty equality in terms of linear entropy, and show that the sum of uncertainty in complementary local bases is equal to a fixed quantity. We also introduce a measure of correlation in a bipartite state, and show that the sum of correlations revealed in a full set of complementary bases is equal to the total correlation in the bipartite state. The surprising simple equality relations we obtain imply that the study on uncertainty principle and correlations can rely on the use of linear entropy, a simple quantity that is very convenient for calculation.

Zhihao Ma; Shengjun Wu; Zhihua Chen

2014-09-01

325

Majorization formulation of uncertainty in quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is formulated for a set of generalized measurements within the framework of majorization theory, resulting in a partial uncertainty order on probability vectors that is stronger than those based on quasientropic measures. The theorem that emerges from this formulation guarantees that the uncertainty of the results of a set of generalized measurements without a common eigenstate has an inviolable lower bound which depends on the measurement set but not the state. A corollary to this theorem yields a parallel formulation of the uncertainty principle for generalized measurements corresponding to the entire class of quasientropic measures. Optimal majorization bounds for two and three mutually unbiased bases in two dimensions are calculated. Similarly, the leading term of the majorization bound for position and momentum measurements is calculated which provides a strong statement of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in direct operational terms. Another theorem provides a majorization condition for the least-uncertain generalized measurement of a given state with interesting physical implications.

Partovi, M. Hossein [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Sacramento, California 95819-6041 (United States)

2011-11-15

326

Measuring Uncertainty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, authored by P.G. Moore for the Royal Statistical Society's website, provides well-defined exercises to assess the probabilities of decision-making and the degree of uncertainty. The author states the focus of the article as: "When analyzing situations which involve decisions to be made as between alternative courses of action under conditions of uncertainty, decision makers and their advisers are often called upon to assess judgmental probability distributions of quantities whose true values are unknown to them. How can this judgment be taught?" Moore provides five different exercises and even external reference for those interested in further study of the topic.

Moore, P. G.

2009-04-08

327

Generalized Entropic Uncertainty Relations with Tsallis' Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalization of the entropic formulation of the Uncertainty Principle of Quantum Mechanics is considered with the introduction of the q-entropies recently proposed by Tsallis. The concomitant generalized measure is illustrated for the case of phase and number operators in quantum optics. Interesting results are obtained when making use of q-entropies as the basis for constructing generalized entropic uncertainty measures.

Portesi, M.; Plastino, A.

1996-01-01

328

Uncertainty Probabilistic  

E-print Network

parameters) are constantly changing. Applications of Probabilistic Learning #15; Automatic speech recognition & speaker veri#12;cation #15; Printed and handwritten text parsing #15; Face location and identi#12;cation both utility and uncertainty optimally, e.g. in uence diagrams #15; Adaptive software agents / auctions

Roweis, Sam

329

Uncertainty in the Classroom--Teaching Quantum Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle provides one of those rare moments when science appears to contradict everyday life experiences, sparking the curiosity of the interested student. Written at a level appropriate for an able high school student, this article provides ideas for introducing the uncertainty principle and showing how

Johansson, K. E.; Milstead, D.

2008-01-01

330

Heisenberg, uncertainty, and the scanning tunneling microscope  

E-print Network

We show by a statistical analysis of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments, that the interpretation of the density of electron charge as a statistical quantity leads to a conflict with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Given the precision in these experiments we find that the uncertainty principle would be violated by close to two orders of magnitude, if this interpretation were correct. We are thus forced to conclude that the density of electron charge is a physically real, i.e., in principle precisely measurable quantity.

Werner A Hofer

2012-03-06

331

Entropic uncertainty relation in de Sitter space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty principle restricts our ability to simultaneously predict the measurement outcomes of two incompatible observables of a quantum particle. However, this uncertainty could be reduced and quantified by a new Entropic Uncertainty Relation (EUR). By the open quantum system approach, we explore how the nature of de Sitter space affects the EUR. When the quantum memory A freely falls in the de Sitter space, we demonstrate that the entropic uncertainty acquires an increase resulting from a thermal bath with the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. And for the static case, we find that the temperature coming from both the intrinsic thermal nature of the de Sitter space and the Unruh effect associated with the proper acceleration of A also brings effect on entropic uncertainty, and the higher the temperature, the greater the uncertainty and the quicker the uncertainty reaches the maximal value. And finally the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is also explored.

Jia, Lijuan; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang

2015-02-01

332

Entropic uncertainty relation in de Sitter space  

E-print Network

The uncertainty principle restricts our ability to simultaneously predict the measurement outcomes of two incompatible observables of a quantum particle. However, this uncertainty could be reduced and quantified by a new Entropic Uncertainty Relation (EUR). By the open quantum system approach, we explore how the nature of de Sitter space affects the EUR. When the quantum memory $A$ freely falls in the de Sitter space, we demonstrate that the entropic uncertainty acquires an increase resulting from a thermal bath with the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. And for the static case, we find that the temperature coming from both the intrinsic thermal nature of the de Sitter space and the Unruh effect associated with the proper acceleration of $A$ also brings effect on entropic uncertainty, and the higher temperature, the greater uncertainty and the quicker the uncertainty reaches the maxima value. And finally the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is also explored.

Jia, Lijuan; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

333

Entropic uncertainty relations in multidimensional position and momentum spaces  

SciTech Connect

Commutator-based entropic uncertainty relations in multidimensional position and momentum spaces are derived, twofold generalizing previous entropic uncertainty relations for one-mode states. They provide optimal lower bounds and imply the multidimensional variance-based uncertainty principle. The article concludes with an open conjecture.

Huang Yichen [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-05-15

334

Machs Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machs Principle, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this principle. The general ambiguity of Machs Principle, and Einsteins interpretations of it are also presented.

Uchii, Soshichi

2007-10-10

335

Uncertainty analysis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation is made of the suitability of analytical and statistical sampling methods for making uncertainty analyses. The adjoint method is found to be well-suited for obtaining sensitivity coefficients for computer programs involving large numbers of equations and input parameters. For this purpose the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is found to be inferior to conventional experimental designs. The Latin hypercube method can be used to estimate output probability density functions, but requires supplementary rank transformations followed by stepwise regression to obtain uncertainty information on individual input parameters. A simple Cork and Bottle problem is used to illustrate the efficiency of the adjoint method relative to certain statistical sampling methods. For linear models of the form Ax=b it is shown that a complete adjoint sensitivity analysis can be made without formulating and solving the adjoint problem. This can be done either by using a special type of statistical sampling or by reformulating the primal problem and using suitable linear programming software.

Thomas, R.E.

1982-03-01

336

Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty  

E-print Network

NVLAP Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty #12;Assessor Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 3 Measurement Uncertainty ·Calibration and testing labs performing Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 4 Measurement Uncertainty ·When the nature of the test precludes

337

Design Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Design Principles for Interactive Texts is a fun-to-use interactive text on the effective design of interactive texts for education. It summarizes basic principles of interface design from studies in psychology, skills-training, education, art & design, and other sources, illustrating the principles with many examples. The text should be of interest to anyone designing presentations, computer-based reading materials, student computer labs, or educational Web sites.

Jacobs, Julie

338

Correspondence Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correspondence principle is due to Niels Bohr (18851962). According to Bohr, the principle justifies the use of formal\\u000a classical expressions in quantum theory and a physical interpretation of quantum theory in terms of classical concepts. The\\u000a principle emerged from his use of classical concepts and formal analogies in ? Bohr's atomic model of 1913. Before the rise of quantum

Brigitte Falkenburg

339

Principled Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,

MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

2009-01-01

340

Pascal's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

341

Angular performance measure for tighter uncertainty relations  

SciTech Connect

The uncertainty principle places a fundamental limit on the accuracy with which we can measure conjugate quantities. However, the fluctuations of these variables can be assessed in terms of different estimators. We propose an angular performance that allows for tighter uncertainty relations for angle and angular momentum. The differences with previous bounds can be significant for particular states and indeed may be amenable to experimental measurement with the present technology.

Hradil, Z.; Rehacek, J. [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 772 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Klimov, A. B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2010-01-15

342

Messaging climate change uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is full of uncertainty and the messengers of climate science are not getting the uncertainty narrative right. To communicate uncertainty one must first understand it, and then avoid repeating the mistakes of the past.

Cooke, Roger M.

2015-01-01

343

The physical origins of the uncertainty theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty principle is an important element of quantum mechanics. It deals with certain pairs of physical parameters which cannot be determined to an arbitrary level of precision at the same time. According to the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, this uncertainty is an intrinsic property of the physical world. - This paper intends to show that there are good reasons for adopting a different view. According to the author, the uncertainty is not a property of the physical world but rather a limitation of our knowledge about the actual state of a physical process. This view conforms to the quantum theory of Louis de Broglie and to Albert Einstein's interpretation.

Giese, Albrecht

2013-10-01

344

Alternative Approaches to Uncertainty Calculations for TIMS Isotopic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of estimating uncertainty for TIMS U isotopic ratio measurements were evaluated. Although these methods represent fundamentally different approaches both are consistent with the principles outlined in the ISO \\

R. B. Thomas; R. M. Essex; S. A. Goldberg

2006-01-01

345

Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty  

E-print Network

Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.

Faizal, Mir; Das, Saurya

2015-01-01

346

Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty  

E-print Network

Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.

Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das

2014-12-29

347

Uncertainty relation for mutual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting that the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

2014-12-01

348

Uncertainty Relation for Mutual Information  

E-print Network

We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

James Schneeloch; Curtis J. Broadbent; John C. Howell

2014-12-17

349

Hybrid Simulation and Experimental Method of Uncertainty Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the scope of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) (1), the general rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty that are established in the GUM are for various fields and levels of accuracy. The GUM specifically states that its principles are designed to cover a broad range of measurements including shop floor and production measurements,

James G. Salsbury

350

Meaning of delayed choice experiment and quantum uncertainty  

E-print Network

By slight modifying of the delayed-choice experiment, it is argued that the quantum wave function must be interpreted as real physical entity; With this interpretation in mind, multiple least action paths due to uncertainty leads us to new perspective on the Compton wavelength and the uncertainty principle itself.

Zinkoo Yun

2014-04-22

351

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

352

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

353

The uncertainty of valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuation is often said to be an art not a science but this relates to the techniques employed to calculate value not to the underlying concept itself. Valuation is the process of estimating price in the market place. Yet, such an estimation will be affected by uncertainties. These input uncertainties will translate into an uncertainty with the output figure, the

Nick French; Laura Gabrielli

2004-01-01

354

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

355

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

2008-01-15

356

Creativity, probability and uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keynesian concepts of probability and uncertainty emphasize the basis of knowledge available to economic decision makers. Conditions of uncertainty, which involve missing evidence or doubtful arguments, are distinguished from probable risk. Beyond this, on the basis of the claim that the future is yet to be created, some authors argue for further distinctions among different kinds of uncertainty. The paper

Matthew C. Wilson

2009-01-01

357

Software Support for Metrology Best Practice Guide No. 6 Uncertainty Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This guide provides best practice in the evaluation of uncertainty within metrology, and in the support to this topic given by statistical modelling. It is motivated by two principle considerations. The first is that although the primary guide on uncertainty evaluation, the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM), published by ISO, can be expected to be very

M G Cox; P M Harris

358

Applications of Symplectic Topology to Orbit Uncertainty and Spacecraft Navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gromov's symplectic nonsqueezing theorem, a fundamental property from symplectic topology, is applied to the study of uncertainty analysis in Hamiltonian Dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on spacecraft trajectory uncertainty. Previous results published in the literature are rederived and shown to be similar to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. The application of Gromov's Theorem to uncertainty distributions in Hamiltonian Dynamical systems are discussed, including the effect of time mapping and measurement updates. Finally, we provide constraint relations on the phase volume of a distribution and the Gromov width.

Scheeres, Daniel J.; de Gosson, Maurice A.; Maruskin, J. M.

2012-06-01

359

Uncertainty in audiometer calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to present a metrology study necessary for the accreditation of audiometer calibration procedures at the National Brazilian Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial QualityINMETRO. A model for the calculation of measurement uncertainty was developed. Metrological aspects relating to audiometer calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty were quantified through comparison between results obtained at the Industrial Noise LaboratoryLARI of the Federal University of Santa CatarinaUFSC and the Laboratory of Electric/acousticsLAETA of INMETRO. Similar metrological performance of the measurement system used in both laboratories was obtained, indicating that the interlaboratory results are compatible with the expected values. The uncertainty calculation was based on the documents: EA-4/02 Expression of the Uncertainty of Measurement in Calibration (European Co-operation for Accreditation 1999 EA-4/02 p 79) and Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization 1993 1st edn, corrected and reprinted in 1995, Geneva, Switzerland). Some sources of uncertainty were calculated theoretically (uncertainty type B) and other sources were measured experimentally (uncertainty type A). The global value of uncertainty calculated for the sound pressure levels (SPLs) is similar to that given by other calibration institutions. The results of uncertainty related to measurements of SPL were compared with the maximum uncertainties Umax given in the standard IEC 60645-1: 2001 (International Electrotechnical Commission 2001 IEC 60645-1 ElectroacousticsAudiological EquipmentPart 1:Pure-Tone Audiometers).

Aurlio Pedroso, Marcos; Gerges, Samir N. Y.; Gonalves, Armando A., Jr.

2004-02-01

360

Uncertainties in Gapped Graphene  

E-print Network

Motivated by graphene-based quantum computer we examine the time-dependence of the position-momentum and position-velocity uncertainties in the monolayer gapped graphene. The effect of the energy gap to the uncertainties is shown to appear via the Compton-like wavelength $\\lambda_c$. The uncertainties in the graphene are mainly contributed by two phenomena, spreading and zitterbewegung. While the former determines the uncertainties in the long-range of time, the latter gives the highly oscillation to the uncertainties in the short-range of time. The uncertainties in the graphene are compared with the corresponding values for the usual free Hamiltonian $\\hat{H}_{free} = (p_1^2 + p_2^2) / 2 M$. It is shown that the uncertainties can be under control within the quantum mechanical law if one can choose the gap parameter $\\lambda_c$ freely.

Eylee Jung; Kwang S. Kim; DaeKil Park

2011-07-27

361

Uncertainty and Cognitive Control  

PubMed Central

A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioral, and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1) There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2) There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3) The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4) Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders. PMID:22007181

Mushtaq, Faisal; Bland, Amy R.; Schaefer, Alexandre

2011-01-01

362

[The precautionary principle and the environment].  

PubMed

The precautionary principle is a response to uncertainty in the face of risks to health or the environment. In general, it involves taking measures to avoid potential harm, despite lack of scientific certainty. In recent years it has been applied, not without difficulties, as a legal and political principle in many countries, particularly on the European and International level. In spite of the controversy, the precautionary principle has become an integral component of a new paradigm for the creation of public policies needed to meet today's challenges and those of the future. PMID:15913050

de Czar Escalante, Jos Manuel

2005-01-01

363

The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, pro- posed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking pre- ventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of

David Kriebel; Joel Tickner; Paul Epstein; John Lemons; Richard Levins; Edward L. Loechler; Margaret Quinn; Ruthann Rudel; Ted Schettler; Michael Stoto

364

ADAPTIVE FRAMEWORK FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS.  

PubMed

Misinterpretation of uncertainty in the measurement of the electromagnetic field (EMF) strength may lead to an underestimation of exposure risk or an overestimation of required measurements. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has internationally been adopted as a de facto standard for uncertainty assessment. However, analyses under such an approach commonly assume unrealistic static models or neglect relevant prior information, resulting in non-robust uncertainties. This study proposes a principled and systematic framework for uncertainty analysis that fuses information from current measurements and prior knowledge. Such a framework dynamically adapts to data by exploiting a likelihood function based on kernel mixtures and incorporates flexible choices of prior information by applying importance sampling. The validity of the proposed techniques is assessed from measurements performed with a broadband radiation meter and an isotropic field probe. The developed framework significantly outperforms GUM approach, achieving a reduction of 28 % in measurement uncertainty. PMID:25143178

Prieto, Javier; Alonso, Alonso A; de la Rosa, Ramn; Carrera, Albano

2014-08-19

365

The 1993 ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Applied to NAA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of the expression of uncertainty in measurements are briefly reviewed and special aspects of the uncertainty quantification in NAA are discussed in detail regarding the relative and k\\u000a0-standardization in both modes of the technique, i.e., INAA and RNAA. A survey of uncertainty sources is presented and calculation of the combined uncertainty is demonstrated by an example of manganese

J. Ku?era; P. Bode; V. Stvpnek

2000-01-01

366

Uncertainty in audiometer calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to present a metrology study necessary for the accreditation of audiometer calibration procedures at the National Brazilian Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial QualityINMETRO. A model for the calculation of measurement uncertainty was developed. Metrological aspects relating to audiometer calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty were quantified through comparison between results obtained at the Industrial

Marcos Aurlio Pedroso; Samir N Y Gerges; Armando A Gonalves Jr

2004-01-01

367

Uncertainty in audiometer calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to present a metrology study necessary for the accreditation of audiometer calibration procedures at the National Brazilian Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality---INMETRO. A model for the calculation of measurement uncertainty was developed. Metrological aspects relating to audiometer calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty were quantified through comparison between results obtained at the Industrial

Marcos Aurlio Pedroso; Samir N. Y. Gerges; Armando A. Gonalves Jr.

2004-01-01

368

Assessing uncertainty in measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), in cooperation with several other international organizations, issued Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement in order to establish, and standardize for international use, a set of general rules for evaluation and expressing uncertainty in measurement. The ISO recommendation has been of concern to many statisticians because it appears to combine

Leon Jay Gleser

1998-01-01

369

MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

370

Economic uncertainty and econophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to provide a methodological link between econophysics and economics. I will study a key notion of both fields: uncertainty and the ways of thinking about it developed by the two disciplines. After having presented the main economic theories of uncertainty (provided by Knight, Keynes and Hayek), I show how this notion is paradoxically excluded from the economic field. In economics, uncertainty is totally reduced by an a priori Gaussian framework-in contrast to econophysics, which does not use a priori models because it works directly on data. Uncertainty is then not shaped by a specific model, and is partially and temporally reduced as models improve. This way of thinking about uncertainty has echoes in the economic literature. By presenting econophysics as a Knightian method, and a complementary approach to a Hayekian framework, this paper shows that econophysics can be methodologically justified from an economic point of view.

Schinckus, Christophe

2009-10-01

371

Annals of Mathematics, 165 (2007), 143 An uncertainty principle  

E-print Network

the limitations to the equidistribution of in- teresting "arithmetic sequences" in arithmetic progressions, there exists N x and an arithmetic progression a (mod q) with q x such that nA, nN na (mod q) 1 - 1 q nA n be an arithmetic progression in which the number of elements of A is a little different from the average. Following

Granville, Andrew

372

UNIFORM UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE AND SIGNAL RECOVERY VIA REGULARIZED ORTHOGONAL MATCHING  

E-print Network

Sensing, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, signal recovery, sparse approximation. Partially supported]). A necessary and sufficient condition of exact sparse recovery is that the map be one-to-one on the set of n-sparse approaches to sparse signal recovery from an incomplete set of linear measurements ­ L1-mini- mization

Vershynin, Roman

373

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Self-Adjoint Operators  

E-print Network

In this work we explore the self-adjointness of the GUP-modified momentum and Hamiltonian operators over different domains. In particular, we utilize the theorem by von-Newmann for symmetric operators in order to determine whether the momentum and Hamiltonian operators are self-adjoint or not, or they have self-adjoint extensions over the given domain. In addition, a simple example of the Hamiltonian operator describing a particle in a box is given. The solutions of the boundary conditions that describe the self-adjoint extensions of the specific Hamiltonian operator are obtained.

Venkat Balasubramanian; Saurya Das; Elias C. Vagenas

2014-04-15

374

A Geometric Uncertainty Principle with an Application to Pleijel's Estimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider partitions of an open, bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^n$. Then an average element of the partition has either its Fraenkel asymmetry or its deviation from the smallest element in the partition bounded away from 0 by a universal constant. As an application, we give an (unspecified) improvement of Pleijel's estimate on the number of nodal domains of a Laplacian eigenfunction similar to recent work of Bourgain and improve a bound coming from spectral partition problems.

Steinerberger, Stefan

2014-12-01

375

Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities  

E-print Network

From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

2011-11-10

376

A no-pure-boost uncertainty principle from spacetime noncommutativity  

E-print Network

We study boost and space-rotation transformations in kappa-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime, using the techniques that some of us had previously developed (hep-th/0607221) for a description of translations in kappa-Minkowski, which in particular led to the introduction of translation transformation parameters that do not commute with the spacetime coordinates. We find a similar description of boosts and space rotations, which allows us to identify some associated conserved charges, but the form of the commutators between transformation parameters and spacetime coordinates is incompatible with the possibility of a pure boost.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Giulia Gubitosi; Antonino Marcian; Pierre Martinetti; Flavio Mercati

2007-07-12

377

Uncertainty principle and minimal energy dissipation in the computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible computation is briefly reviewed, utilizing a refined version of the Bennett-Fredkin-Turing machine, invoked in an earlier paper. A dissipationless classical version of this machine, which has no internal frietion, and where the computational velocity is determined by the initial kinetic energy, is also described. Such a machine requires perfect parts and also requires the unrealisstic assumption that the many

Rolf Landauer

1982-01-01

378

The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Black Hole Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current standard viewpoint small black holes are believed to emit radiation as black bodies at the Hawking temperature, at least until they reach Planck size, after which their fate is open to conjecture. A cogent argument against the existence of remnants is that, since no evident quantum number prevents it, black holes should radiate completely away to photons

Ronald J. Adler; Pisin Chen; David I. Santiago

2001-01-01

379

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Demonstrated with An Electron Diffraction Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment analogous to the classical diffraction of light from a circular aperture has been realized with electrons. The results are used to introduce undergraduate students to the wave behaviour of electrons. The diffraction fringes produced by the circular aperture are compared to those predicted by quantum mechanics and are exploited to

Matteucci, Giorgio; Ferrari, Loris; Migliori, Andrea

2010-01-01

380

An uncertainty principle for fermions with generalized kinetic energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive semiclassical upper bounds for the number of bound states and the sum of negative eigenvalues of the one-particle Hamiltoniansh=f(?i?)+V(x) acting onL2(?n). These bounds are then used to derive a lower bound on the kinetic energy\\u000a

Ingrid Daubechies

1983-01-01

381

THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONTINUOUS SHEARLET TRANSFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding optimal representations of signals in higher dimensions, in particular directional representations, is currently the subject of intensive research. Since the classical wavelet transform does not provide precise directional information in the sense of resolving the wavefront set, several new representation systems were proposed in the past, including ridgelets, curvelets and, more recently, shearlets. In this paper we study and

STEPHAN DAHLKE; GITTA KUTYNIOK; PETER MAASS; CHEN SAGIV; HANS-GEORG STARK; GERD TESCHKE

2008-01-01

382

Uncertainty Principles, Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the literature, the prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) are often regarded as mysterious set of functions of L\\u000a 2(?), with no explicit or standard representation and too difficult to compute numerically. Nonetheless, the PSWFs exhibit the\\u000a unique properties to form an orthogonal basis of L\\u000a 2([ ? 1, 1]), an orthonormal system of L\\u000a 2(R) and an orthonormal basis

Abderrazek Karoui

383

Equivalence principles and electromagnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

Ni, W.-T.

1977-01-01

384

Living With Radical Uncertainty. The Exemplary case of Folding Protein  

E-print Network

Laplace's demon still makes strong impact on contemporary science, in spite of the fact that Logical Mathematics outcomes, Quantum Physics advent and more recently Complexity Science have pointed out the crucial role of uncertainty in the World's descriptions. We focus here on the typical problem of folding protein as an example of uncertainty, radical emergence and a guide to the "simple" principles for studying complex systems.

Ignazio Licata

2010-04-21

385

Uncertainty Analysis in Biofuel Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis article evaluates the implications of uncertainty in the life cycle (LC) energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of rapeseed oil (RO) as an energy carrier displacing fossil diesel (FD). Uncertainties addressed include parameter uncertainty as well as scenario uncertainty concerning how RO coproduct credits are accounted for (uncertainty due to modeling choices). We have carried out an extensive

Joo Mala; Fausto Freire

2010-01-01

386

Archimedes' Principle, Pascal's Law and Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle. Fundamental definitions, equations, practice problems and engineering applications are supplied. A PowerPoint® presentation, practice problems and grading rubric are provided.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

387

Communicating scientific uncertainty.  

PubMed

All science has uncertainty. Unless that uncertainty is communicated effectively, decision makers may put too much or too little faith in it. The information that needs to be communicated depends on the decisions that people face. Are they (i) looking for a signal (e.g., whether to evacuate before a hurricane), (ii) choosing among fixed options (e.g., which medical treatment is best), or (iii) learning to create options (e.g., how to regulate nanotechnology)? We examine these three classes of decisions in terms of how to characterize, assess, and convey the uncertainties relevant to each. We then offer a protocol for summarizing the many possible sources of uncertainty in standard terms, designed to impose a minimal burden on scientists, while gradually educating those whose decisions depend on their work. Its goals are better decisions, better science, and better support for science. PMID:25225390

Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alex L

2014-09-16

388

Uncertainty Analysis Economic Evaluations  

E-print Network

uncertainties in typical oil and gas projects: 1. The oil price, 2. The investments (capex) and operating 4.1 Oil Prices...............................................................................................14 4.1.1 Analysis of historical oil prices........................................................15

Bhulai, Sandjai

389

Uncertainty: Medicine's Frequent Companion  

MedlinePLUS

... no means rare. Back to top The Elusive Gold Standard The "gold standard" is a concept commonly embraced by doctors ... one or the other. The biopsy is the gold standard, and there is generally little uncertainty about ...

390

Measurement Uncertainty Estimation in Amperometric Sensors: A Tutorial Review  

PubMed Central

This tutorial focuses on measurement uncertainty estimation in amperometric sensors (both for liquid and gas-phase measurements). The main uncertainty sources are reviewed and their contributions are discussed with relation to the principles of operation of the sensors, measurement conditions and properties of the measured samples. The discussion is illustrated by case studies based on the two major approaches for uncertainty evaluationthe ISO GUM modeling approach and the Nordtest approach. This tutorial is expected to be of interest to workers in different fields of science who use measurements with amperometric sensors and need to evaluate the uncertainty of the obtained results but are new to the concept of measurement uncertainty. The tutorial is also expected to be educative in order to make measurement results more accurate. PMID:22399887

Helm, Irja; Jalukse, Lauri; Leito, Ivo

2010-01-01

391

Dasymetric Modeling and Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Dasymetric models increase the spatial resolution of population data by incorporating related ancillary data layers. The role of uncertainty in dasymetric modeling has not been fully addressed as of yet. Uncertainty is usually present because most population data are themselves uncertain, and/or the geographic processes that connect population and the ancillary data layers are not precisely known. A new dasymetric methodology - the Penalized Maximum Entropy Dasymetric Model (P-MEDM) - is presented that enables these sources of uncertainty to be represented and modeled. The P-MEDM propagates uncertainty through the model and yields fine-resolution population estimates with associated measures of uncertainty. This methodology contains a number of other benefits of theoretical and practical interest. In dasymetric modeling, researchers often struggle with identifying a relationship between population and ancillary data layers. The PEDM model simplifies this step by unifying how ancillary data are included. The P-MEDM also allows a rich array of data to be included, with disparate spatial resolutions, attribute resolutions, and uncertainties. While the P-MEDM does not necessarily produce more precise estimates than do existing approaches, it does help to unify how data enter the dasymetric model, it increases the types of data that may be used, and it allows geographers to characterize the quality of their dasymetric estimates. We present an application of the P-MEDM that includes household-level survey data combined with higher spatial resolution data such as from census tracts, block groups, and land cover classifications. PMID:25067846

Nagle, Nicholas N.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Leyk, Stefan; Speilman, Seth

2014-01-01

392

Principles and Methods Chromatography  

E-print Network

Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

Lebendiker, Mario

393

Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

394

Visualization of Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output of a simulation is best comprehended through the agency and methods of visualization, but a vital component of good science is knowledge of uncertainty. While great strides have been made in the quantification of uncertainty, especially in simulation, there is still a notable gap: there is no widely accepted means of simultaneously viewing the data and the associated uncertainty in one pane. Visualization saturates the screen, using the full range of color, shadow, opacity and tricks of perspective to display even a single variable. There is no room in the visualization expert's repertoire left for uncertainty. We present a method of visualizing uncertainty without sacrificing the clarity and power of the underlying visualization that works as well in 3-D and time-varying visualizations as it does in 2-D. At its heart, it relies on a principal tenet of continuum mechanics, replacing the notion of value at a point with a more diffuse notion of density as a measure of content in a region. First, the uncertainties calculated or tabulated at each point are transformed into a piecewise continuous field of uncertainty density . We next compute a weighted Voronoi tessellation of a user specified N convex polygonal/polyhedral cells such that each cell contains the same amount of uncertainty as defined by . The problem thus devolves into minimizing . Computation of such a spatial decomposition is O(N*N ), and can be computed iteratively making it possible to update easily over time as well as faster. The polygonal mesh does not interfere with the visualization of the data and can be easily toggled on or off. In this representation, a small cell implies a great concentration of uncertainty, and conversely. The content weighted polygons are identical to the cartogram familiar to the information visualization community in the depiction of things voting results per stat. Furthermore, one can dispense with the mesh or edges entirely to be replaced by symbols or glyphs at the generating points (effectively the center of the polygon). This methodology readily admits to rigorous statistical analysis using standard components found in R and thus entirely compatible with the visualization package we use (Visit and/or ParaView), the language we use (Python) and the UVCDAT environment that provides the programmer and analyst workbench. We will demonstrate the power and effectiveness of this methodology in climate studies. We will further argue that our method of defining (or predicting) values in a region has many advantages over the traditional visualization notion of value at a point.

Jones, P. W.; Strelitz, R. A.

2012-12-01

395

Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

Pinier, Jeremy T

2012-01-01

396

Uncertainty and the convenience yield in crude oil price backwardations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines why firms hold stocks of crude oil, particularly during price backwardations when spot prices exceed prices for forward delivery. Using a stochastic control model, this paper shows that the equilibrium value of inventories contains: the conventional Hotelling principle; the convenience yield from the classical theory of storage; and an option value related to price uncertainty. Our empirical

Timothy J. Considine; Donald F. Larson

2001-01-01

397

The 4P Approach to Dealing with Scientific Uncertainty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a new approach to environmental protection that requires users of environmental resources to post a bond adequate to cover uncertain future environmental damages. Summarized as the "precautionary polluter pays principle," or the 4P approach, it shifts the burden of proof and the cost of uncertainty from the public to the resource user.

Costanza, Robert; Cornwell, Laura

1992-01-01

398

Precautionary risk assessment of Bt maize: what uncertainties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

GM crops have become a test case for the conflicting slogans of the precautionary principle versus sound science. The issues can be illustrated by developments in regulatory science for Bt maize in the European Union. As this case study suggests, risk assessment is always framed by some account of the relevant uncertainties. These in turn depend upon how the environment

Les Levidow

2003-01-01

399

Separability conditions from the Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation  

SciTech Connect

We obtain a collection of necessary (sufficient) conditions for a bipartite system of qubits to be separable (entangled), which are based on the Landau-Pollak formulation of the uncertainty principle. These conditions are tested and compared with previously stated criteria by applying them to states whose separability limits are already known. Our results are also extended to multipartite and higher-dimensional systems.

Vicente, Julio I. de [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Ruiz, Jorge [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

2005-05-15

400

Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M{sub 4{+-}}C{sub 4} with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.

Amoroso, Richard L. [Noetic Advanced Studies Institute, Oakland, CA 94610-1422 (United States)

2010-12-22

401

[Stereotactic body radiation therapy: uncertainties and margins].  

PubMed

The principles governing stereotactic body radiation therapy are tight margins and large dose gradients around targets. Every step of treatment preparation and delivery must be evaluated before applying this technique in the clinic. Uncertainties remain in each of these steps: delineation, prescription with the biological equivalent dose, treatment planning, patient set-up taking into account movements, the machine accuracy. The calculation of margins to take into account uncertainties differs from conventional radiotherapy because of the delivery of few fractions and large dose gradients around the target. The quest of high accuracy is complicated by the difficulty to reach it and the lack of consensus regarding the prescription. Many schemes dose/number of fractions are described in clinical studies and there are differences in the way describing the delivered doses. While waiting for the ICRU report dedicated to this technique, it seems desirable to use the quantities proposed in ICRU Report 83 (IMRT) to report the dose distribution. PMID:25023588

Lacornerie, T; Marchesi, V; Reynaert, N

2014-01-01

402

Measurement uncertainty relations  

SciTech Connect

Measurement uncertainty relations are quantitative bounds on the errors in an approximate joint measurement of two observables. They can be seen as a generalization of the error/disturbance tradeoff first discussed heuristically by Heisenberg. Here we prove such relations for the case of two canonically conjugate observables like position and momentum, and establish a close connection with the more familiar preparation uncertainty relations constraining the sharpness of the distributions of the two observables in the same state. Both sets of relations are generalized to means of order ? rather than the usual quadratic means, and we show that the optimal constants are the same for preparation and for measurement uncertainty. The constants are determined numerically and compared with some bounds in the literature. In both cases, the near-saturation of the inequalities entails that the state (resp. observable) is uniformly close to a minimizing one.

Busch, Paul, E-mail: paul.busch@york.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of York, York (United Kingdom)] [Department of Mathematics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Lahti, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.lahti@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)] [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Werner, Reinhard F., E-mail: reinhard.werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitt, Hannover (Germany)

2014-04-15

403

Serenity in political uncertainty.  

PubMed

College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence. PMID:25658930

Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

2015-01-01

404

Equivalence of wave-particle duality to entropic uncertainty.  

PubMed

Interferometers capture a basic mystery of quantum mechanics: a single particle can exhibit wave behaviour, yet that wave behaviour disappears when one tries to determine the particle's path inside the interferometer. This idea has been formulated quantitatively as an inequality, for example, by Englert and Jaeger, Shimony and Vaidman, which upper bounds the sum of the interference visibility and the path distinguishability. Such wave-particle duality relations (WPDRs) are often thought to be conceptually inequivalent to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, although this has been debated. Here we show that WPDRs correspond precisely to a modern formulation of the uncertainty principle in terms of entropies, namely, the min- and max-entropies. This observation unifies two fundamental concepts in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it leads to a robust framework for deriving novel WPDRs by applying entropic uncertainty relations to interferometric models. As an illustration, we derive a novel relation that captures the coherence in a quantum beam splitter. PMID:25524138

Coles, Patrick J; Kaniewski, Jedrzej; Wehner, Stephanie

2014-01-01

405

Equivalence of waveparticle duality to entropic uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometers capture a basic mystery of quantum mechanics: a single particle can exhibit wave behaviour, yet that wave behaviour disappears when one tries to determine the particles path inside the interferometer. This idea has been formulated quantitatively as an inequality, for example, by Englert and Jaeger, Shimony and Vaidman, which upper bounds the sum of the interference visibility and the path distinguishability. Such waveparticle duality relations (WPDRs) are often thought to be conceptually inequivalent to Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, although this has been debated. Here we show that WPDRs correspond precisely to a modern formulation of the uncertainty principle in terms of entropies, namely, the min- and max-entropies. This observation unifies two fundamental concepts in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it leads to a robust framework for deriving novel WPDRs by applying entropic uncertainty relations to interferometric models. As an illustration, we derive a novel relation that captures the coherence in a quantum beam splitter.

Coles, Patrick J.; Kaniewski, Jedrzej; Wehner, Stephanie

2014-12-01

406

The legacy of uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An historical account is given of the circumstances whereby the uncertainty relations were introduced into physics by Heisenberg. The criticisms of QED on measurement-theoretical grounds by Landau and Peierls are then discussed, as well as the response to them by Bohr and Rosenfeld. Finally, some examples are given of how the new freedom to advance radical proposals, in part the result of the revolution brought about by 'uncertainty,' was implemented in dealing with the new phenomena encountered in elementary particle physics in the 1930's.

Brown, Laurie M.

1993-01-01

407

A Certain Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Tools of the trade; 2. The 'fundamental problem' of a practical physicist; 3. Mother of all randomness I: the random disintegration of matter; 4. Mother of all randomness II: the random creation of light; 5. A certain uncertainty; 6. Doing the numbers: nuclear physics and the stock market; 7. On target: uncertainties of projectile flight; 8. The guesses of groups; 9. The random flow of energy I: power to the people; 10. The random flow of energy II: warning from the weather underground; Index.

Silverman, Mark P.

2014-07-01

408

Uncertainty relation for photons.  

PubMed

The uncertainty relation for the photons in three dimensions that overcomes the difficulties caused by the nonexistence of the photon position operator is derived in quantum electrodynamics. The photon energy density plays the role of the probability density in configuration space. It is shown that the measure of the spatial extension based on the energy distribution in space leads to an inequality that is a natural counterpart of the standard Heisenberg relation. The equation satisfied by the photon wave function in momentum space which saturates the uncertainty relations has the form of the Schrdinger equation in coordinate space in the presence of electric and magnetic charges. PMID:22540772

Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

2012-04-01

409

Comment on "Uncertainty in measurements of distance"  

E-print Network

We have argued that quantum mechanics and general relativity give a lower bound $\\delta l \\gtrsim l^{1/3} l_P^{2/3}$ on the measurement uncertainty of any distance $l$ much greater than the Planck length $l_P$. Recently Baez and Olson have claimed that one can go below this bound by attaching the measuring device to a massive elastic rod. Here we refute their claim. We also reiterate (and invite our critics to ponder on) the intimate relationship and consistency between black hole physics (including the holographic principle) and our bound on distance measurements.

Y. Jack Ng; H. van Dam

2002-09-06

410

Multiresolutional models of uncertainty generation and reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kolmogorov's axiomatic principles of the probability theory, are reconsidered in the scope of their applicability to the processes of knowledge acquisition and interpretation. The model of uncertainty generation is modified in order to reflect the reality of engineering problems, particularly in the area of intelligent control. This model implies algorithms of learning which are organized in three groups which reflect the degree of conceptualization of the knowledge the system is dealing with. It is essential that these algorithms are motivated by and consistent with the multiresolutional model of knowledge representation which is reflected in the structure of models and the algorithms of learning.

Meystel, A.

1989-01-01

411

Mass Uncertainty and Application For Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expected development maturity under contract (spec) should correlate with Project/Program Approved MGA Depletion Schedule in Mass Properties Control Plan. If specification NTE, MGA is inclusive of Actual MGA (A5 & A6). If specification is not an NTE Actual MGA (e.g. nominal), then MGA values are reduced by A5 values and A5 is representative of remaining uncertainty. Basic Mass = Engineering Estimate based on design and construction principles with NO embedded margin MGA Mass = Basic Mass * assessed % from approved MGA schedule. Predicted Mass = Basic + MGA. Aggregate MGA % = (Aggregate Predicted - Aggregate Basic) /Aggregate Basic.

Beech, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

412

CORRELATION IN UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT - A DISCUSSION OF STATE OF THE ART TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Guide to the expression of uncertainty has been around for 15 years and has been widely adopted by science and industry. Over time more and more complex measurements are evaluated based on these principles. As a consequence the correlation between quantities has become an important issue in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. In this paper we will give an

Rdiger Kessel; Raghu Kacker

413

Position-momentum uncertainty relations based on moments of arbitrary order  

SciTech Connect

The position-momentum uncertainty-like inequality based on moments of arbitrary order for d-dimensional quantum systems, which is a generalization of the celebrated Heisenberg formulation of the uncertainty principle, is improved here by use of the Renyi-entropy-based uncertainty relation. The accuracy of the resulting lower bound is physico-computationally analyzed for the two main prototypes in d-dimensional physics: the hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems.

Zozor, Steeve [Laboratoire Grenoblois d'Image, Parole, Signal et Automatique (GIPSA-Lab, CNRS), 961 rue de la Houille Blanche, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Portesi, Mariela [Instituto de Fisica La Plata (CONICET), and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Dehesa, Jesus S. [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

2011-05-15

414

Uncertainties and Error Propagation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a tutorial on Uncertainties and Error Propagation. Topics covered include Systematic versus Random Error, Determining Random Errors, Relative and Absolute error, Propagation of errors, Rounding answers properly, and Significant figures. A list of well illustrated problems are embedded throughout the tutorial.

Lindberg, Vern

2008-07-22

415

Uncertainties and recommendations.  

PubMed

An assessment of the impacts of changes in climate and UV-B radiation on Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, made within the Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment (ACIA), highlighted the profound implications of projected warming in particular for future ecosystem services, biodiversity and feedbacks to climate. However, although our current understanding of ecological processes and changes driven by climate and UV-B is strong in some geographical areas and in some disciplines, it is weak in others. Even though recently the strength of our predictions has increased dramatically with increased research effort in the Arctic and the introduction of new technologies, our current understanding is still constrained by various uncertainties. The assessment is based on a range of approaches that each have uncertainties, and on data sets that are often far from complete. Uncertainties arise from methodologies and conceptual frameworks, from unpredictable surprises, from lack of validation of models, and from the use of particular scenarios, rather than predictions, of future greenhouse gas emissions and climates. Recommendations to reduce the uncertainties are wide-ranging and relate to all disciplines within the assessment. However, a repeated theme is the critical importance of achieving an adequate spatial and long-term coverage of experiments, observations and monitoring of environmental changes and their impacts throughout the sparsely populated and remote region that is the Arctic. PMID:15573575

Callaghan, Terry V; Bjrn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus

2004-11-01

416

Coping with Uncertainty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws conclusions on the scientific uncertainty surrounding most chemical use regulatory decisions, examining the evolution of law and science, benefit analysis, and improving information. Suggests: (1) rapid development of knowledge of chemical risks and (2) a regulatory system which is flexible to new scientific knowledge. (DH)

Wargo, John

1985-01-01

417

Chemical Principls Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

Plumb, Robert C.

1973-01-01

418

Inflation Uncertainty, Output Growth Uncertainty and Macroeconomic Performance: Comparing Alternative  

E-print Network

Inflation Uncertainty, Output Growth Uncertainty and Macroeconomic Performance: Comparing severe financial and economic crisis, accompanied by inflation and exchange rate instability, Eastern and Inflation targeting). The task of our study is to compare econometrically the performance of these two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Principles of Forest Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of Forest Hydrology has been written to accompany class lectures for students pursuing training in forestry, wildland resources, environmental sciences, and geography. The book introduces basic principles and concepts of hydrology and it does this quite well.Principles of Forest Hydrology is a revision of an earlier book, An Outline of Forest Hydrology, coauthored with Wade L. Nutter. The new

Edwin T. Engman

1983-01-01

420

Reconsidering Archimedes' Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archimedes' principle as stated originally by Archimedes and in modern texts can lead to an incorrect prediction if the submerged object is in contact with a solid surface. In this paper we look experimentally at a submerged object and show that though the theoretical explanations of the principle are valid, the statement of the principle needs clarification.

Jeffrey Bierman; Eric Kincanon

2003-01-01

421

Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy  

E-print Network

It is shown that action naturally leads to define a base (radix) in which physical quantities are most efficiently expressed. This leads to formulate a new variational method which includes and generalizes the least action principle, unifying classical and quantum physics. The Schr\\"odinger and Klein-Gordon equations and Heisenberg uncertainty relationships are derived from this principle and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry is elucidated.

Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

2014-01-01

422

Copulas for uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying the Monte Carlo method for propagation of measurement uncertainty described in the Supplement 1 to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), when the input quantities are correlated, involves the specification of a joint probability distribution for these quantities. This applies equally whether the output quantity is a scalar or a vector. In practice, however, all that typically is available are probability distributions for the individual input quantities (their marginal distributions) and estimates of the correlations between them. Even though there are infinitely many joint distributions that are consistent with given marginal distributions and correlations, a method is needed to manufacture a particular one that may reasonably be used in practice. This paper explains how copulas may be used to this effect, illustrates their use in examples, including example H.2 from the GUM, discusses the choice of copula and provides an algorithm to delineate minimum volume coverage regions for vectorial measurands.

Possolo, Antonio

2010-06-01

423

Essays on uncertainty in economics  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of four essays about "uncertainty" and how markets deal with it. Uncertainty is about subjective beliefs, and thus it often comes with heterogeneous beliefs that may be present temporarily or even ...

Simsek, Alp

2010-01-01

424

Uncertainty of Measurements. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for estimating the precision (uncertainty) of measurements which is based on a combination of the approaches of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and the State Standard R ISO 5725.

. A. Golubev; A. Golubev

2003-01-01

425

Predicting System Performance with Uncertainty  

E-print Network

The main purpose of this research is to include uncertainty that lies in modeling process and that arises from input values when predicting system performance, and to incorporate uncertainty related to system controls in a computationally...

Yan, B.; Malkawi, A.

2012-01-01

426

Nonequivalence of equivalence principles  

E-print Network

Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle", is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.

Eolo Di Casola; Stefano Liberati; Sebastiano Sonego

2013-10-28

427

Nonequivalence of equivalence principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle," is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper, we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.

Di Casola, Eolo; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano

2015-01-01

428

Calibration Under Uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

2005-03-01

429

Participatory Development Principles and Practice: Reflections of a Western Development Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principles for participatory community development are as follows: humility and respect; power of local knowledge; democratic practice; diverse ways of knowing; sustainability; reality before theory; uncertainty; relativity of time and efficiency; holistic approach; and decisions rooted in the community. (SK)

Keough, Noel

1998-01-01

430

Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporting Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health and Safety Decisions  

E-print Network

The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because (1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing and (2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more "rational" ...

Ashford, Nicholas

2005-01-01

431

Using Models that Incorporate Uncertainty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the use in policy analysis of models that incorporate uncertainty. He believes that all models should consider incorporating uncertainty, but that at the same time it is important to understand that sampling variability is not usually the dominant driver of uncertainty in policy analyses. He also argues that

Caulkins, Jonathan P.

2002-01-01

432

Uncertainty relations as Hilbert space geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision measurements involve the accurate determination of parameters through repeated measurements of identically prepared experimental setups. For many parameters there is a 'natural' choice for the quantum observable which is expected to give optimal information; and from this observable one can construct an Heinsenberg uncertainty principle (HUP) bound on the precision attainable for the parameter. However, the classical statistics of multiple sampling directly gives us tools to construct bounds for the precision available for the parameters of interest (even when no obvious natural quantum observable exists, such as for phase, or time); it is found that these direct bounds are more restrictive than those of the HUP. The implication is that the natural quantum observables typically do not encode the optimal information (even for observables such as position, and momentum); we show how this can be understood simply in terms of the Hilbert space geometry. Another striking feature of these bounds to parameter uncertainty is that for a large enough number of repetitions of the measurements all V quantum states are 'minimum uncertainty' states - not just Gaussian wave-packets. Thus, these bounds tell us what precision is achievable as well as merely what is allowed.

Braunstein, Samuel L.

1994-01-01

433

Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

1994-01-01

434

Direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations: what it takes  

E-print Network

The uncertainty principle being a cornerstone of quantum mechanics, it is surprising that in nearly 90 years there have been no direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations. This lacuna was due to the absence of two essential ingredients: appropriate measures of measurement error (and disturbance), and precise formulations of such relations that are {\\em universally valid}and {\\em directly testable}. We formulate two distinct forms of direct tests, based on different measures of error. We present a prototype protocol for a direct test of measurement uncertainty relations in terms of {\\em value deviation errors} (hitherto considered nonfeasible), highlighting the lack of universality of these relations. This shows that the formulation of universal, directly testable measurement uncertainty relations for {\\em state-dependent} error measures remains an important open problem. Recent experiments that were claimed to constitute invalidations of Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation are shown to conform with the spirit of Heisenberg's principle if interpreted as direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations for error measures that quantify {\\em distances between observables}.

Paul Busch; Neil Stevens

2015-01-17

435

Uncertainty Quantification in Lattice QCD Calculations for Nuclear Physics  

E-print Network

The numerical technique of Lattice QCD holds the promise of connecting the nuclear forces, nuclei, the spectrum and structure of hadrons, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions with the underlying theory of the strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics. A distinguishing, and thus far unique, feature of this formulation is that all of the associated uncertainties, both statistical and systematic can, in principle, be systematically reduced to any desired precision with sufficient computational and human resources. We review the sources of uncertainty inherent in Lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics, and discuss how each is quantified in current efforts.

Silas R. Beane; William Detmold; Kostas Orginos; Martin J. Savage

2014-10-11

436

Uncertainty Quantification in Lattice QCD Calculations for Nuclear Physics  

E-print Network

The numerical technique of Lattice QCD holds the promise of connecting the nuclear forces, nuclei, the spectrum and structure of hadrons, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions with the underlying theory of the strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics. A distinguishing, and thus far unique, feature of this formulation is that all of the associated uncertainties, both statistical and systematic can, in principle, be systematically reduced to any desired precision with sufficient computational and human resources. We review the sources of uncertainty inherent in Lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics, and discuss how each is quantified in current efforts.

Beane, Silas R; Orginos, Kostas; Savage, Martin J

2014-01-01

437

Group environmental preference aggregation: the principle of environmental justice  

SciTech Connect

The aggregation of group environmental preference presents a challenge of principle that has not, as yet, been satisfactorily met. One such principle, referred to as an environmental justice, is established based on a concept of social justice and axioms for rational choice under uncertainty. It requires that individual environmental choices be so decided that their supporters will least mind being anyone at random in the new environment. The application of the principle is also discussed. Its only information requirement is a ranking of alternative choices by each interested party. 25 references.

Davos, C.A.

1986-01-01

438

Schwarzschild mass uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying Dirac's procedure to -dependent constrained systems, we derive a reduced total Hamiltonian, resembling an upside down harmonic oscillator, which generates the Schwarzschild solution in the mini super-spacetime. Associated with the now -dependent Schrodinger equation is a tower of localized Guth-Pi-Barton wave packets, orthonormal and non-singular, admitting equally spaced average-`energy' levels. Our approach is characterized by a universal quantum mechanical uncertainty structure which enters the game already at the flat spacetime level, and accompanies the massive Schwarzschild sector for any arbitrary mean mass. The average black hole horizon surface area is linearly quantized.

Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

2014-02-01

439

Picturing Data With Uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is in the business of creating maps for scientific purposes to represent important biophysical or geophysical quantities over space and time. For example, maps of surface temperature over the globe tell scientists where and when the Earth is heating up; regional maps of the greenness of vegetation tell scientists where and when plants are photosynthesizing. There is always uncertainty associated with each value in any such map due to various factors. When uncertainty is fully modeled, instead of a single value at each map location, there is a distribution expressing a set of possible outcomes at each location. We consider such distribution data as multi-valued data since it consists of a collection of values about a single variable. Thus, a multi-valued data represents both the map and its uncertainty. We have been working on ways to visualize spatial multi-valued data sets effectively for fields with regularly spaced units or grid cells such as those in NASA's Earth science applications. A new way to display distributions at multiple grid locations is to project the distributions from an individual row, column or other user-selectable straight transect from the 2D domain. First at each grid cell in a given slice (row, column or transect), we compute a smooth density estimate from the underlying data. Such a density estimate for the probability density function (PDF) is generally more useful than a histogram, which is a classic density estimate. Then, the collection of PDFs along a given slice are presented vertically above the slice and form a wall. To minimize occlusion of intersecting slices, the corresponding walls are positioned at the far edges of the boundary. The PDF wall depicts the shapes of the distributions very dearly since peaks represent the modes (or bumps) in the PDFs. We've defined roughness as the number of peaks in the distribution. Roughness is another useful summary information for multimodal distributions. The uncertainty of the multi-valued data can also be interpreted by the number of peaks and the widths of the peaks as shown by the PDF walls.

Kao, David; Love, Alison; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Pang, Alex

2004-01-01

440

Physical principles of hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

Martin, Pascal

2015-10-01

441

Probabilistic Mass Growth Uncertainties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass has been widely used as a variable input parameter for Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) for space systems. As these space systems progress from early concept studies and drawing boards to the launch pad, their masses tend to grow substantially, hence adversely affecting a primary input to most modeling CERs. Modeling and predicting mass uncertainty, based on historical and analogous data, is therefore critical and is an integral part of modeling cost risk. This paper presents the results of a NASA on-going effort to publish mass growth datasheet for adjusting single-point Technical Baseline Estimates (TBE) of masses of space instruments as well as spacecraft, for both earth orbiting and deep space missions at various stages of a project's lifecycle. This paper will also discusses the long term strategy of NASA Headquarters in publishing similar results, using a variety of cost driving metrics, on an annual basis. This paper provides quantitative results that show decreasing mass growth uncertainties as mass estimate maturity increases. This paper's analysis is based on historical data obtained from the NASA Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) database.

Plumer, Eric; Elliott, Darren

2013-01-01

442

Uncertainty management in telecommunications uninterruptible power supply systems and on their network by utilizing human reasoning methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study to find the essential and important matters which can effect the reliable uninterrupted operation of telecommunications power supply systems and to suggest an optimal uncertainty management scheme is reported. The main goal was to find simple and practical but effective methods on which the uncertainty management and the implementation of its tool can be based. Uncertainty management ensures that there is enough reserve energy and minimizes additional uncertainties. It turned out that an optimal solution can be obtained by means of intelligent supervision, control and alarm facilities by utilizing human reasoning methodology, and minimize-uncertainty principles.

Suntio, Teuvo

1992-01-01

443

Disturbance trade-off principle for quantum measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a fundamental principle of disturbance tradeoff for quantum measurements, along the lines of the celebrated uncertainty principle: The disturbances associated with measurements performed on distinct yet identically prepared ensembles of systems in a pure state cannot all be made arbitrarily small. Indeed, we show that the average of the disturbances associated with a set of projective measurements is strictly greater than zero whenever the associated observables do not have a common eigenvector. For such measurements, we show an equivalence between disturbance tradeoff measured in terms of fidelity and the entropic uncertainty tradeoff formulated in terms of the Tsallis entropy (T2). We also investigate the disturbances associated with the class of nonprojective measurements, where the difference between the disturbance tradeoff and the uncertainty tradeoff manifests quite clearly.

Mandayam, Prabha; Srinivas, M. D.

2014-12-01

444

Alternative Approaches to Uncertainty Calculations for TIMS Isotopic Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two methods of estimating uncertainty for TIMS U isotopic ratio measurements were evaluated. Although these methods represent fundamentally different approaches both are consistent with the principles outlined in the ISO "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements" (GUM). In the "Discrete Component" approach all of the identifiable sources of random variability associated with the mass spectrometer (gain variability, baseline variability, cup efficiency variability, Schottky noise, counting statistics) are individually assessed to estimate measurement reproducibility. The second approach is an "Integrated" method, which uses observed reproducibility of repeated identical sample measurements to confound the various components of random variability. Evaluation of the uncertainty budgets for the two methods shows that the relative importance of an uncertainty component in a measurement is highly dependent on the measurement technique and the isotopic ratio of the measured value. For example, the uncertainty of the ^{235}U/^{238}U ratio of the material analyzed in this study will generally be dominated by the uncertainty of the CRM used to determine the mass fractionation factor. The more extreme 234U/^{238}U and ^{236}U/^{238}U ratios are often dominated by other factors such as internal and external reproducibility. Although both methods are consistent with the GUM principles, there are many instrumental factors that can produce measurement variability but are not readily quantifiable (i.e., small differences in run conditions, filament geometry, sample loading, etc). Accordingly, the Discrete Component determination can accurately estimate internal reproducibility of an isotopic measurement but will not sufficiently characterize analysis-to- analysis variability that is inherent in all measurements. The Integrated approach to uncertainty evaluation has the advantage of not requiring the quantification of an extensive set of variables and also greatly simplifies the calculation of a combined standard uncertainty. This method, however, has the distinct disadvantage of requiring a statistically significant number of replicate analyses and does not allow for the determination of primary contributors to internal variability. Replicate measurements are not practical or possible for many analytical situations but it is still necessary to assess the uncertainty associated with external reproducibility. A straightforward method for estimating an external reproducibility factor for isotopic measurements is to incorporate the standard uncertainty of repeated measurements of a matrix-matched reference material or even an isotopic CRM if a matrix-matched material is unavailable.

Thomas, R. B.; Essex, R. M.; Goldberg, S. A.

2006-12-01

445

Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find

Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

2002-01-01

446

Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity to assessing the damage to different elements at risk, of the databases on different elements at risk, such as population and building stock distribution, as well critical facilities characteristics, on the reliability of expected loss estimations at regional and global scale.

Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

2013-04-01

447

Uncertainties in electron probe microanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined uncertainties for WDS-EPMA (wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy - electron probe microanalysis) data using the globally accepted ISO/GUM (International Standards Organization/Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). For each calculation, such as the current drift correction and deadtime correction that precede the calculation of a k-value (net corrected X-ray counts of unknown/net corrected X-ray counts of standard), uncertainties were calculated from contributing factors and combined until a final combined standard uncertainty for the k-value was calculated. Our example used data from the analysis of the Ge L? X-ray line in a SiGe alloy. Additional contributions to uncertainties in EPMA results, such as the matrix correction procedure and mass absorption coefficients (MACs) are considered. All statistical calculations used in the process of arriving at the combined uncertainty are included, and the basic steps of the ISO/GUM are described.

Marinenko, R. B.; Leigh, S.

2010-02-01

448

ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR INFORMATION  

E-print Network

June 2001 ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECURITY By Gary Stoneburner, Computer Security Division, Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology In June 2001, ITL released NIST Spe cial Publication (SP) 800-27, Engineer ing Principles for Information

449

Basic principle of superconductivity  

E-print Network

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2007-08-23

450

Hamilton's Principle for Beginners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a

Brun, J. L.

2007-01-01

451

Pauli Exclusion Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion principle, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the principle, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.

Dr. Rod Nave

452

Assessment Principles and Tools  

PubMed Central

The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

Golnik, Karl C.

2014-01-01

453

Competency Testing: Emerging Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five legal principles (and cases establishing them) on the use of competency testing in student placement or for graduation are discussed. The principles address the constitutionality of appropriate use, adequate notice to students, prohibition of effects of past racial discrimination, graduation test validity, and requirements for handicapped

Citron, Christiane Hyde

1982-01-01

454

Joint measurements of spin, operational locality and uncertainty  

E-print Network

Joint, or simultaneous, measurements of non-commuting observables are possible within quantum mechanics, if one accepts an increase in the variances of the jointly measured observables. In this paper, we discuss joint measurements of a spin 1/2 particle along any two directions. Starting from an operational locality principle, it is shown how to obtain a bound on how sharp the joint measurement can be. We give a direct interpretation of this bound in terms of an uncertainty relation.

Erika Andersson; Stephen M. Barnett; Alain Aspect

2005-09-21

455

How uncertainty bounds the shape index of simple cells.  

PubMed

We propose a theoretical motivation to quantify actual physiological features, such as the shape index distributions measured by Jones and Palmer in cats and by Ringach in macaque monkeys. We will adopt the uncertainty principle associated to the task of detection of position and orientation as the main tool to provide quantitative bounds on the family of simple cells concretely implemented in primary visual cortex.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)2010: 62P10, 43A32, 81R15. PMID:24742044

Barbieri, D; Citti, G; Sarti, A

2014-01-01

456

How Uncertainty Bounds the Shape Index of Simple Cells  

PubMed Central

We propose a theoretical motivation to quantify actual physiological features, such as the shape index distributions measured by Jones and Palmer in cats and by Ringach in macaque monkeys. We will adopt the uncertainty principle associated to the task of detection of position and orientation as the main tool to provide quantitative bounds on the family of simple cells concretely implemented in primary visual cortex. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)2010: 62P10, 43A32, 81R15. PMID:24742044

2014-01-01

457

Uncertainty as Certaint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am trying to make money in the biotech industry from complexity science. And I am doing it with inspiration that I picked up on the edge of Appalachia spending time with June Holley and ACEnet when I was a Wall Street Journal reporter. I took some of those ideas to Pittsburgh, in biotechnology, in a completely private setting with an economic development focus, but also with a mission t o return profit to private capital. And we are doing that. I submit as a hypothesis, something we are figuring out in the post- industrial era, that business evolves. It is not the definition of business, but business critically involves the design of systems in which uncertainty is treated as a certainty. That is what I have seen and what I have tried to put into practice.

Petzinger, Tom

458

Uncertainty of testing methods--what do we (want to) know?  

PubMed

It is important to stimulate innovation for regulatory testing methods. Scrutinizing the knowledge of (un)certainty of data from actual standard in vivo methods could foster the interest in new testing approaches. Since standard in vivo data often are used as reference data for model development, improved uncertainty accountability also would support the validation of new in vitro and in silico methods, as well as the definition of acceptance criteria for the new methods. Hazard and risk estimates, transparent for their uncertainty, could further support the 3Rs, since they may help focus additional information requirements on aspects of highest uncertainty. Here we provide an overview on the various types of uncertainties in quantitative and qualitative terms and suggest improving this knowledge base. We also reference principle concepts on how to use uncertainty information for improved hazard characterization and development of new testing methods. PMID:23665803

Paparella, Martin; Daneshian, Mardas; Hornek-Gausterer, Romana; Kinzl, Maximilian; Mauritz, Ilse; Mhlegger, Simone

2013-01-01

459

Uncertainty and Anticipation in Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Uncertainty about a possible future threat disrupts our ability to avoid it or to mitigate its negative impact, and thus results in anxiety. Here, we focus the broad literature on the neurobiology of anxiety through the lens of uncertainty. We identify five processes essential for adaptive anticipatory responses to future threat uncertainty, and propose that alterations to the neural instantiation of these processes results in maladaptive responses to uncertainty in pathological anxiety. This framework has the potential to advance the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of clinical anxiety. PMID:23783199

Grupe, Dan W.; Nitschke, Jack B.

2014-01-01

460

Editorial: The Principle of Personhood: The Field's Transcendent Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the names of these principles that come immediately to mind are such principles as person involvement, growth orientation, hope, self-determination and choice. My next problem was I could not perfectly recall the definitions of the several principles that I could remember! If I could not remember all these important principles and their definitions, then how could these principles

William A. Anthony

461

Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

Summhammer, Johann

1994-01-01

462

Aspects of modeling uncertainty and prediction  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic assessment of variability in model prediction considers input uncertainty and structural uncertainty. For input uncertainty, understanding of practical origins of probabilistic treatments as well as restrictions and limitations of methodology is much more developed than for structural uncertainty. There is a simple basis for structural uncertainty that parallels that for input uncertainty. Although methodologies for assessing structural uncertainty for models in general are very limited, more options are available for submodels.

McKay, M.D.

1993-12-31

463

Principles of Forest Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of Forest Hydrology has been written to accompany class lectures for students pursuing training in forestry, wildland resources, environmental sciences, and geography. The book introduces basic principles and concepts of hydrology and it does this quite well.Principles of Forest Hydrology is a revision of an earlier book, An Outline of Forest Hydrology, coauthored with Wade L. Nutter. The new version is quite similar to the original with some important additions in the areas of precipitation, subsurface water, and evapotranspiration. Metric units are used in the examples and problems, and the soil water potential terminology has been updated.

Engman, Edwin T.

464

Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

465

Uncertainty of Measurements. Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proofs are given of the coincidence of the concepts of precision and uncertainty and also of the absence of a problem in choosing between the corresponding concepts of measurement accuracy. It is shown that an estimate of the quality of measurements using the approach of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is inferior in accuracy and universality

. A. Golubev

2003-01-01

466

Uncertainty relation in Schwarzschild spacetime  

E-print Network

We explore the entropic uncertainty relation in the curved background outside a Schwarzschild black hole, and find that Hawking radiation introduce a nontrivial modification on the uncertainty bound for particular observer, therefore could be witnessed by proper uncertainty game experimentally. We first investigate an uncertainty game between a free falling observer and his static partner holding a quantum memory initially entangled with the quantum system to be measured. Due to the information loss from Hawking decoherence, we find an inevitably increase of the uncertainty on the outcome of measurements in the view of static observer, which is dependent on the mass of the black hole, the distance of observer from event horizon, and the mode frequency of quantum memory. In an alternative game between two static players, we show that quantum information of qubit can be transferred to quantum memory through a bath of fluctuating quantum fields outside the black hole, which triggers an effectively reduced uncertainty bound that violate the intrinsic limit $-\\log_2c$. Numerically estimation for a proper choice of initial state shows that the analysis is comparable with possible real experiments. Moreover, the relation between our results and other uncertainty probe, e.g., time-energy uncertainty, is also discussed.

Jun Feng; Yao-Zhong Zhang; Mark D. Gould; Heng Fan

2015-01-08

467

Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty and Collaboration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students that scientific knowledge is fundamentally uncertain. Students manipulate sealed mystery boxes and attempt to determine the inner structure of the boxes which contain a moving ball and a fixed barrier or two. The nature and sources of uncertainty inherent in the process of problem-solving are experienced. The uncertainty of the conclusions is reduced by student collaboration.

Beard, Jean

468

Uncertainty in Seismic Hazard Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty is a part of our life, and society has to deal with it, even though it is sometimes difficult to estimate. This is particularly true in seismic hazard assessment for large events, such as the mega-tsunami in Southeast Asia and the great New Madrid earthquakes in the central United States. There are two types of uncertainty in seismic hazard

Z. Wang

2006-01-01

469

Uncertainty relation in Schwarzschild spacetime  

E-print Network

We explore the entropic uncertainty relation in the curved background outside a Schwarzschild black hole, and find that Hawking radiation introduce a nontrivial modification on the uncertainty bound for particular observer, therefore could be witnessed by proper uncertainty game experimentally. We first investigate an uncertainty game between a free falling observer and his static partner holding a quantum memory initially entangled with the quantum system to be measured. Due to the information loss from Hawking decoherence, we find an inevitably increase of the uncertainty on the outcome of measurements in the view of static observer, which is dependent on the mass of the black hole, the distance of observer from event horizon, and the mode frequency of quantum memory. In an alternative game between two static players, we show that quantum information of qubit can be transferred to quantum memory through a bath of fluctuating quantum fields outside the black hole, which triggers an effectively reduced uncert...

Feng, Jun; Gould, Mark D; Fan, Heng

2015-01-01

470

Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, wave patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

2011-01-01

471

Chemical Principles Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

Plumb, Robert C.

1972-01-01

472

Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary Buoyancy is based on Archimedes' Principle which states that the buoyant force acting upward on an object completely or partially immersed in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the ...

473

Archimedes' Principle in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

Kires, Marian

2007-01-01

474

Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives  

E-print Network

Lab 9 Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives: Upon successful completion of this exercise you will have ... 1. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density and specific gravity of a variety of substances. 2. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density

Yu, Jaehoon

475

Buoyancy: Archimedes Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes bouyancy (the difference between the upward and downward forces acting on the bottom and the top of an object) and the Archimedes Principle, which states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by it. It consists of text descriptions of these principles, using the examples of metal cubes suspended in water and hot air baloons in the atmosphere. Mathematical word problems are included.

476

Principles of Forecasting Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Directed by J. Scott Armstrong at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, the Principles of Forecasting Project seeks to "develop a comprehensive and structured review of the state of knowledge in the field of forecasting" in order to aid future research. The project will lead to a book entitled Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, and sample chapters, contact information, updates, and links to forecasting resources add value to this expanding compilation.

477

Principles of Information Assurance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on the Principles of Information Assurance is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course includes introductory security principles and gives students "an understanding of the current threats and vulnerabilities of the cyber landscape, plus other topics relating to the information assurance field." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

478

A variational principle in optics.  

PubMed

We derive a new variational principle in optics. We first formulate the principle for paraxial waves and then generalize it to arbitrary waves. The new principle, unlike the Fermat principle, concerns both the phase and the intensity of the wave. In particular, the principle provides a method for finding the ray mapping between two surfaces in space from information on the wave's intensity there. We show how to apply the new principle to the problem of phase reconstruction from intensity measurements. PMID:15535374

Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

2004-11-01

479

PIV uncertainty quantification by image matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is presented to quantify the uncertainty of PIV data. The approach is a posteriori, i.e. the unknown actual error of the measured velocity field is estimated using the velocity field itself as input along with the original images. The principle of the method relies on the concept of super-resolution: the image pair is matched according to the cross-correlation analysis and the residual distance between matched particle image pairs (particle disparity vector) due to incomplete match between the two exposures is measured. The ensemble of disparity vectors within the interrogation window is analyzed statistically. The dispersion of the disparity vector returns the estimate of the random error, whereas the mean value of the disparity indicates the occurrence of a systematic error. The validity of the working principle is first demonstrated via Monte Carlo simulations. Two different interrogation algorithms are considered, namely the cross-correlation with discrete window offset and the multi-pass with window deformation. In the simulated recordings, the effects of particle image displacement, its gradient, out-of-plane motion, seeding density and particle image diameter are considered. In all cases good agreement is retrieved, indicating that the error estimator is able to follow the trend of the actual error with satisfactory precision. Experiments where time-resolved PIV data are available are used to prove the concept under realistic measurement conditions. In this case the exact velocity field is unknown; however a high accuracy estimate is obtained with an advanced interrogation algorithm that exploits the redundant information of highly temporally oversampled data (pyramid correlation, Sciacchitano et al (2012 Exp. Fluids 53 1087-105)). The image-matching estimator returns the instantaneous distribution of the estimated velocity measurement error. The spatial distribution compares very well with that of the actual error with maxima in the highly sheared regions and in the 3D turbulent regions. The high level of correlation between the estimated error and the actual error indicates that this new approach can be utilized to directly infer the measurement uncertainty from PIV data. A procedure is shown where the results of the error estimation are employed to minimize the measurement uncertainty by selecting the optimal interrogation window size.

Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio

2013-04-01

480

Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Uncertainties: Basic Concepts and Documentation  

SciTech Connect

This paper has been written to provide experimental nuclear data researchers and data compilers with practical guidance on dealing with experimental nuclear reaction data uncertainties. It outlines some of the properties of random variables as well as principles of data uncertainty estimation, and illustrates them by means of simple examples which are relevant to the field of nuclear data. Emphasis is placed on the importance of generating mathematical models (or algorithms) that can adequately represent individual experiments for the purpose of estimating uncertainties in their results. Several types of uncertainties typically encountered in nuclear data experiments are discussed. The requirements and procedures for reporting information on measurement uncertainties for neutron reaction data, so that they will be useful in practical applications, are addressed. Consideration is given to the challenges and opportunities offered by reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and computer libraries as vehicles for reporting and documenting numerical experimental data. Finally, contemporary formats used to compile reported experimental covariance data in the widely used library EXFOR are discussed, and several samples of EXFOR files are presented to demonstrate their use.

Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida Del Mundo 1506, Coronado, CA 92118 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida Del Mundo 1506, Coronado, CA 92118 (United States); Otuka, N. [Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Wien (Austria)] [Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Wien (Austria)

2012-12-15

481

Uncertainty in perception and the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter  

PubMed Central

In its full sense, perception rests on an agent's model of how its sensory input comes about and the inferences it draws based on this model. These inferences are necessarily uncertain. Here, we illustrate how the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter (HGF) offers a principled and generic way to deal with the several forms that uncertainty in perception takes. The HGF is a recent derivation of one-step update equations from Bayesian principles that rests on a hierarchical generative model of the environment and its (in)stability. It is computationally highly efficient, allows for online estimates of hidden states, and has found numerous applications to experimental data from human subjects. In this paper, we generalize previous descriptions of the HGF and its account of perceptual uncertainty. First, we explicitly formulate the extension of the HGF's hierarchy to any number of levels; second, we discuss how various forms of uncertainty are accommodated by the minimization of variational free energy as encoded in the update equations; third, we combine the HGF with decision models and demonstrate the inversion of this combination; finally, we report a simulation study that compared four optimization methods for inverting the HGF/decision model combination at different noise levels. These four methods (NelderMead simplex algorithm, Gaussian process-based global optimization, variational Bayes and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling) all performed well even under considerable noise, with variational Bayes offering the best combination of efficiency and informativeness of inference. Our results demonstrate that the HGF provides a principled, flexible, and efficientbut at the same time intuitiveframework for the resolution of perceptual uncertainty in behaving agents. PMID:25477800

Mathys, Christoph D.; Lomakina, Ekaterina I.; Daunizeau, Jean; Iglesias, Sandra; Brodersen, Kay H.; Friston, Karl J.; Stephan, Klaas E.

2014-01-01

482

Inflation uncertainty, output growth uncertainty and macroeconomic performance  

E-print Network

We use a bivariate generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic (GARCH) model of inflation and output growth to examine the causality relationship among nominal uncertainty, real uncertainty and macroeconomic performance measured by the inflation and output growth rates. The application of the constant conditional correlation GARCH(1,1) model leads to a number of interesting conclusions. First, inflation does cause negative welfare effects, both directly and indirectly, i.e. via the inflation uncertainty channel. Secondly, in some countries, more inflation uncertainty provides an incentive to Central Banks to surprise the public by raising inflation unexpectedly. Thirdly, in contrast to the assumptions of some macroeconomic models, business cycle variability and the rate of economic growth are related. More variability in the business cycle leads to more output growth. I.

Stilianos Fountas; Menelaos Karanasos; Jinki Kim

2006-01-01

483

Credible Computations: Standard and Uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is at a crossroad. Most of the significant advances related to computational methods have taken place. The emphasis is now shifting from methods to results. Significant efforts are made in applying CFD to solve design problems. The value of CFD results in design depends on the credibility of computed results for the intended use. The process of establishing credibility requires a standard so that there is a consistency and uniformity in this process and in the interpretation of its outcome. The key element for establishing the credibility is the quantification of uncertainty. This paper presents salient features of a proposed standard and a procedure for determining the uncertainty. A customer of CFD products - computer codes and computed results - expects the following: A computer code in terms of its logic, numerics, and fluid dynamics and the results generated by this code are in compliance with specified requirements. This expectation is fulfilling by verification and validation of these requirements. The verification process assesses whether the problem is solved correctly and the validation process determines whether the right problem is solved. Standards for these processes are recommended. There is always some uncertainty, even if one uses validated models and verified computed results. The value of this uncertainty is important in the design process. This value is obtained by conducting a sensitivity-uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity analysis is generally defined as the procedure for determining the sensitivities of output parameters to input parameters. This analysis is a necessary step in the uncertainty analysis, and the results of this analysis highlight which computed quantities and integrated quantities in computations need to be determined accurately and which quantities do not require such attention. Uncertainty analysis is generally defined as the analysis of the effect of the uncertainties involved in all stages of a process on the final responses. There are two approaches for conducting the uncertainty analysis: experimental and computational. These analyses and approaches are briefly described.

Mehta, Unmeel B.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

484

Uncertainties in large space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uncertainties of a large space system (LSS) can be deterministic or stochastic in nature. The former may result in, for example, an energy spillover problem by which the interaction between unmodeled modes and controls may cause system instability. The stochastic uncertainties are responsible for mode localization and estimation errors, etc. We will address the effects of uncertainties on structural model formulation, use of available test data to verify and modify analytical models before orbiting, and how the system model can be further improved in the on-orbit environment.

Fuh, Jon-Shen

1988-01-01

485

Applying Calibration to Improve Uncertainty Assessment  

E-print Network

Uncertainty has a large effect on projects in the oil and gas industry, because most aspects of project evaluation rely on estimates. Industry routinely underestimates uncertainty, often significantly. The tendency to underestimate uncertainty...

Fondren, Mark Edward

2013-08-02

486

The traveltime holographic principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes ?pq from exterior transmission traveltimes ?sp and ?sq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times ?pq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes ?pq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes ?pq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

2015-01-01

487

Visualizing uncertainty about the future.  

PubMed

We are all faced with uncertainty about the future, but we can get the measure of some uncertainties in terms of probabilities. Probabilities are notoriously difficult to communicate effectively to lay audiences, and in this review we examine current practice for communicating uncertainties visually, using examples drawn from sport, weather, climate, health, economics, and politics. Despite the burgeoning interest in infographics, there is limited experimental evidence on how different types of visualizations are processed and understood, although the effectiveness of some graphics clearly depends on the relative numeracy of an audience. Fortunately, it is increasingly easy to present data in the form of interactive visualizations and in multiple types of representation that can be adjusted to user needs and capabilities. Nonetheless, communicating deeper uncertainties resulting from incomplete or disputed knowledge--or from essential indeterminacy about the future--remains a challenge. PMID:21903802

Spiegelhalter, David; Pearson, Mike; Short, Ian

2011-09-01

488

Firms In Markets Under Uncertainty  

E-print Network

We analyze a rational-expectations model of price formation in an intermediate-good market under uncertainty. There is a continuum of dyads, each consisting of an upstream party and a downstream party. Both parties can ...

Gibbons, Robert

489

Policy Uncertainty and Household Savings  

E-print Network

Using German microdata and a quasi-natural experiment, we provide evidence on how households respond to an increase in uncertainty. We find that household saving increases significantly following the increase in political ...

Giavazzi, Francesco

490

Uncertainty Quantification in Fluid Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter addresses the topic of uncertainty quantification in fluid flow computations. The relevance and utility of this\\u000a pursuit are discussed, outlining highlights of available methodologies. Particular attention is focused on spectral polynomial\\u000a chaos methods for uncertainty quantification that have seen significant development over the past two decades. The fundamental\\u000a structure of these methods is presented, along with associated challenges.

Habib N. Najm

491

Core Principles Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly published document from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank of International Settlements considers the methodology used in determining The Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision, "a global standard for prudential regulation and supervision," which has been endorsed by many countries worldwide. There are three sections to the report. The first chapter looks at the background for the core principles and "the preconditions for effective banking supervision." The second chapter "raises a few basic considerations regarding the conduct of an assessment and the compilation and presentation of the results," and the last chapter discusses each core principle individually. The 56-page document is available in .pdf format. A thumbnail map of each page, shown on the left, is the best way to navigate the report.

492

Inclusion-exclusion principle for belief functions F. Aguirrea, S. Desterckeb,, D. Duboisc, M. Sallakb, C. Jacobc,d  

E-print Network

in probability theory, and is instrumental in some computational problems such as the evaluation of system relia of uncertainty theories more general than probability theory, this prin- ciple no longer holds in general for the principle to hold, we illustrate its use on the uncertainty analysis of Boolean and non-Boolean systems

Boyer, Edmond

493

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of MetrologyBasic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

494

Wildfire Decision Making Under Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.

Thompson, M.

2013-12-01

495

Clocks, computers, black holes, spacetime foam, and holographic principle  

E-print Network

What do simple clocks, simple computers, black holes, space-time foam, and holographic principle have in common? I will show that the physics behind them is inter-related, linking together our concepts of information, gravity, and quantum uncertainty. Thus, the physics that sets the limits to computation and clock precision also yields Hawking radiation of black holes and the holographic principle. Moreover, the latter two strongly imply that space-time undergoes much larger quantum fluctuations than what the folklore suggests --- large enough to be detected with modern gravitational-wave interferometers through future refinements.

Y. Jack Ng

2000-10-25

496

Clocks, Computers, Black Holes, Spacetime Foam, and Holographic Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do simple clocks, simple computers, black holes, space-time foam, and holographic principle have in common? I will show that the physics behind them is inter-related, linking together our concepts of information, gravity, and quantum uncertainty. Thus, the physics that sets the limits to computation and clock precision also yields Hawking radiation of black holes and the holographic principle. Moreover, the latter two strongly imply that space-time undergoes much larger quantum fluctuations than what the folklore suggests -- large enough to be detected with modern gravitational-wave interferometers through future refinements.

Ng, Y. Jack

2002-08-01

497

Teaching/learning principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

498

Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles  

E-print Network

It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed. The Post Scriptum shows that several basic features of modern cosmology naturally appear in a SU(2) spinorial description of space-time without any need for matter, relativity or standard gravitation. New possible effects related to the spinorial space-time structure can also be foreseen. Similarly, the existence of spin-1/2 particles can be naturally related to physics beyond Planck scale and to a possible pre-Big Bang era.

Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

2010-11-22

499

HF system design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder/decoder, channel encoder/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

Darnell, M.

1983-05-01

500

HF system design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder\\/decoder, channel encoder\\/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

M. Darnell

1983-01-01