Sample records for underlying file system

  1. File Systems File System Overview

    E-print Network

    Hamey, Len

    Pig Cat Cow Dog Goat Owl Ox Hen Ibis Lion Tree After T fig 5.2 Abstract view - properties System file (reposition) Open Close #12;File Creation Find space in the file system Make a new entry in appropriate storage space used by the file Truncate: Empty file Rename: Modify/move directory entry #12;Other

  2. Accessing Files in an Internet: The Jade File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman C. Rao; Larry L. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the Jade File System, which provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where by heterogeneous we mean that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Because ofautonomy, Jade is designed under the restriction that the

  3. Enhancing file data security in linux operating system by integrating secure file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Kumar Pal; Indranil Sengupta

    2009-01-01

    In today's world securing file data is very important. The proposed Secure File System (SFS), we have designed, provides file data security using cryptographic techniques in a transparent and convenient way. The proposed SFS pushes encryption services into the Linux kernel space, mounting it between the virtual file system layer and underlying file system. After SFS is integrated with the

  4. Accessing files in an internet - The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Herman C.; Peterson, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  5. Accessing files in an Internet: The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Larry L.; Rao, Herman C.

    1991-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  6. The Google file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Ghemawat; Howard Gobioff; Shun-Tak Leung

    2003-01-01

    We have designed and implemented the Google File Sys- tem, a scalable distributed file system for large distributed data-intensive applications. It provides fault tolerance while running on inexpensive commodity hardware, and it delivers high aggregate performance to a large number of clients. While sharing many of the same goals as previous dis- tributed file systems, our design has been driven

  7. ----Google File System Windows IT

    E-print Network

    Essential ---- Google File System web Windows IT Google IT Google Google File System Google File System Datebase Google Google " " Goolge Goolge Google Google Goolge Google ()(,) Google ...... Google IT Google Google Google Google Google "Google " Google 10

  8. Unifying File System Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Stein; John H. Howard; Margo I. Seltzer

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and elegant architec- ture for unifying the meta-data protection of journaling file systems with the data integrity protection of colli- sion-resistant cryptographic hashes. Traditional file sys- tem journaling protects the ordering of meta-data operations to maintain consistency in the presence of crashes. However, journaling does not protect important system meta-data and application data from modifica-

  9. The Global File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  10. A Survey on Distributed File System Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomer, J.

    2015-05-01

    Distributed file systems provide a fundamental abstraction to location-transparent, permanent storage. They allow distributed processes to co-operate on hierarchically organized data beyond the life-time of each individual process. The great power of the file system interface lies in the fact that applications do not need to be modified in order to use distributed storage. On the other hand, the general and simple file system interface makes it notoriously difficult for a distributed file system to perform well under a variety of different workloads. This has lead to today's landscape with a number of popular distributed file systems, each tailored to a specific use case. Early distributed file systems merely execute file system calls on a remote server, which limits scalability and resilience to failures. Such limitations have been greatly reduced by modern techniques such as distributed hash tables, content-addressable storage, distributed consensus algorithms, or erasure codes. In the light of upcoming scientific data volumes at the exabyte scale, two trends are emerging. First, the previously monolithic design of distributed file systems is decomposed into services that independently provide a hierarchical namespace, data access, and distributed coordination. Secondly, the segregation of storage and computing resources yields to a storage architecture in which every compute node also participates in providing persistent storage.

  11. Don't Give Up on Distributed File Systems

    E-print Network

    this layer once? Reinventing the Storage Wheel BLAST #12;What About a File System? · A FS enables quick under the rug: ­ Security ­ Atomic renames across dirs ­ Storage load-balancing ­ Unreferenced files #12

  12. NASA work unit system file maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The NASA Work Unit System is a management information system for research tasks (i.e., work units) performed under NASA grants and contracts. It supplies profiles on research efforts and statistics on fund distribution. The file maintenance operator can add, delete and change records at a remote terminal or can submit punched cards to the computer room for batch update. The system is designed for file maintenance by a person with little or no knowledge of data processing techniques.

  13. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    Most current multiprocessor file systems are designed to use multiple disks in parallel, using the high aggregate bandwidth to meet the growing I/0 requirements of parallel scientific applications. Many multiprocessor file systems provide applications with a conventional Unix-like interface, allowing the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, increasing the ease of programmability, but making it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. In addition to providing an insufficient interface, most current multiprocessor file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic scientific multiprocessor workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as the performance advantages offered by that interface.

  14. A File System for Information Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Dharap; Bill Camargo; C. Mic Bowman; Mrinal Baruah; Sunil Potti

    1994-01-01

    Nebula is a file system that explicitly supports informationmanagement. It differs from traditional systems in threeimportant ways. First, Nebula implements files as sets of attributes.Each attribute describes some property of the filesuch as owner, protection, functions defined, sections specified,project, or file type. The content of the file is representedby a special text attribute. Second, Nebula supportsassociative access of files within

  15. The Jade File System. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Herman Chung-Hwa

    1991-01-01

    File systems have long been the most important and most widely used form of shared permanent storage. File systems in traditional time-sharing systems, such as Unix, support a coherent sharing model for multiple users. Distributed file systems implement this sharing model in local area networks. However, most distributed file systems fail to scale from local area networks to an internet. Four characteristics of scalability were recognized: size, wide area, autonomy, and heterogeneity. Owing to size and wide area, techniques such as broadcasting, central control, and central resources, which are widely adopted by local area network file systems, are not adequate for an internet file system. An internet file system must also support the notion of autonomy because an internet is made up by a collection of independent organizations. Finally, heterogeneity is the nature of an internet file system, not only because of its size, but also because of the autonomy of the organizations in an internet. The Jade File System, which provides a uniform way to name and access files in the internet environment, is presented. Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Because of autonomy, Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file systems may not be modified. In order to avoid the complexity of maintaining an internet-wide, global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. In Jade's design, we pay careful attention to avoiding unnecessary network messages between clients and file servers in order to achieve acceptable performance. Jade's name space supports two novel features: (1) it allows multiple file systems to be mounted under one direction; and (2) it permits one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of Jade was implemented to examine and validate its design. The prototype consists of interfaces to the Unix File System, the Sun Network File System, and the File Transfer Protocol.

  16. File System Overview In this note, we introduce a simple file system implementation,

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    30 File System Overview In this note, we introduce a simple file system implementation, known as vsfs (the Very Simple File System). This file system is a simplified version of a typical UNIX file system and thus serves to introduce some of the basic on-disk structures, access methods, and policies

  17. A Cached WORM File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Quinlan

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a general-purpos e file system that uses a write-once-rea d-many (WORM) optical disk accessed via a magnetic disk cache. The cache enables blocks to be modified a number of times before they are written to the WORM and increases performance. Snapshots of the file system can be made at any time without limiting the users' access

  18. An Overview of the Internet File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman Chung-hwa Rao; Ming-feng Chen; Feng-jian Wang

    1997-01-01

    The Internet File System (IFS) extends the scope of file systems from LANs to the Internet, encouraging collaboration and information dissemination on a much broader scale. In addition, Internet resources (e.g. Web pages, Gopher Information, and Network News) become files in IFS, allowing file system APIs and existing tools and commands to be used to manipulate Internet resources just like

  19. Hiding Data Accesses in Steganographic File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuan Zhou; Hweehwa Pang; Kian-lee Tan

    2004-01-01

    To support ubiquitous computing, the underlying data have to be persistent and available anywhere-anytime. The data thus have to migrate from devices local to individ- ual computers, to shared storage volumes that are acces- sible over open network. This potentially exposes the data to heightened security risks. We propose two mechanisms, in the context of a steganographic file system, to

  20. The Future of the Andrew File System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    The talk will discuss the ten operational capabilities that have made AFS unique in the distributed file system space and how these capabilities are being expanded upon to meet the needs of the 21st century. Derrick Brashear and Jeffrey Altman will present a technical road map of new features and technical innovations that are under development by the OpenAFS community and Your File System, Inc. funded by a U.S. Department of Energy Small Business Innovative Research grant. The talk will end with a comparison of AFS to its modern days competitors.

  1. Design of a multi-level file management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward W. Ver Hoef

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes the file handling system developed and being implemented as a part of INTIPS, (INTe- grated Information Processing System) under the aegis of Rome Air Development Center. This file system addresses itself to the physical problem of the storage and retrieval of fixed length blocks and their organization into higher-order structures. It does not concern itself with the

  2. Measurements of a Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary G. Baker; John H. Hartman; Michael D. Kupfer; Ken W. Shirriff; John K. Ousterhout

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the user-level file access patterns and caching behavior of the Sprite distributed file system. The first part of our analysis repeated a study done in 1985 of the: BSD UNIX file system. We found that file throughput has increased by a factor of 20 to an average of 8 Kbytes per second per active user over 10-minute intervals,

  3. Replication in the Harp File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Liskov; Sanjay Ghemawat; Robert Gruber; Paul Johnson; Liuba Shrira; Michael Williams

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of the Harp file system. Harp is a replicated Unix file system accessible via the VFS interface. It provides highly available and reliable storage for files and guarantees that file operations are executed atomically in spite of concurrency and failures. It uses a novel variation of the primary copy replication technique that provides

  4. Texas Natural Resources Information System. File Description Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Council on Natural Resources and the Environment, Austin, TX. Texas Natural Resources Information System.

    Descriptions are given for the 164 computerized files that comprise the Texas Natural Resources Information System (TNRIS). The system provides natural resources information to federal, state, regional, and local and private entities. File descriptions are organized under the following data and information content areas: (1) base data, (2)…

  5. Operation Shipping for Mobile File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yui-wah Lee; Kwong-sak Leung; Mahadev Satyanarayanan

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses a bottleneck problem in mobile file systems: the propagation of updated large files from a weakly- connected client to its servers. It proposes an efficient mechanism called operation shipping or operation-based update propagation .I n the new mechanism, the client ships the user operation that updated the large files, rather than the files themselves, across the weak

  6. Bachelorarbeit Evaluation of File Systems

    E-print Network

    performance. Three I/O interfaces, POSIX I/O, MPI-I/O and ADIOS (the ADaptable I/O System), will be examined, NFS and the parallel file system PVFS, in a real application. The results will show that ADIOS, espe-I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3 ADIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5 I/O Optimization

  7. Remote file inquiry (RFI) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    System interrogates and maintains user-definable data files from remote terminals, using English-like, free-form query language easily learned by persons not proficient in computer programming. System operates in asynchronous mode, allowing any number of inquiries within limitation of available core to be active concurrently.

  8. The Computerized File Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buginas, Scott J.; Crow, Neil B.

    1973-01-01

    A file management system provides a powerful search tool for library reference groups. The system described produces current awareness and retrospective searches from diverse data bases. The same query language is used to interrogate all data bases in on-line or batch mode searches. (4 references) (Author/DH)

  9. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  10. Metadata Efficiency in Versioning File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. N. Soules; Garth R. Goodson; John D. Strunk; Gregory R. Ganger

    2003-01-01

    Versioning file systems retain earlier versions of modi- fied files, allowing recovery from user mistakes or sys- tem corruption. Unfortunately, conventional versioning systems do not efficiently record large numbers of ver- sions. In particular, versioned metadata can consume as much space as versioned data. This paper examines two space-efficient metadata structures for versioning file systems and describes their integration into

  11. Web Based UNIX File Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gufran Mohammed; Heru Xue; Jiang Guo

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a web based UNIX file management system to facilitate different background users to use UNIX system. It is a cross-platform UNIX file management system that can be used from any web browser to execute file management operations on a UNIX server. Any user with a valid account on a UNIX server will be able to login to

  12. A Metadata-Rich File System

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2009-01-07

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  13. Deceit: A flexible distributed file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Alex; Birman, Kenneth; Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Deceit, a distributed file system (DFS) being developed at Cornell, focuses on flexible file semantics in relation to efficiency, scalability, and reliability. Deceit servers are interchangeable and collectively provide the illusion of a single, large server machine to any clients of the Deceit service. Non-volatile replicas of each file are stored on a subset of the file servers. The user is able to set parameters on a file to achieve different levels of availability, performance, and one-copy serializability. Deceit also supports a file version control mechanism. In contrast with many recent DFS efforts, Deceit can behave like a plain Sun Network File System (NFS) server and can be used by any NFS client without modifying any client software. The current Deceit prototype uses the ISIS Distributed Programming Environment for all communication and process group management, an approach that reduces system complexity and increases system robustness.

  14. File System Aging--Increasing the Relevance of File System Benchmarks

    E-print Network

    systems and different system architectures. The field of file system design is no different from other workload to be applied to multiple versions of the same file system, allowing scientific evaluation demonstrate their use by applying them to evaluate two enhancements to the file lay- out policies of the UNIX

  15. Data Hiding in Journaling File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Eckstein; Marko Jahnke

    2005-01-01

    Data hiding is one technique by which system perpetrators store information while reducing the risk of being detected by system administrators. The first major section of this article structures and compares existing data hiding methods for UNIX file systems in terms of usability and countermeasures. It discusses variant techniques related to advanced file systems. The second section proposes a new

  16. Experience with a Distributed File System Implementation

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Tom

    Experience with a Distributed File System Implementation Randolph Y. Wang and Thomas E. Anderson highlights some of the lessons learned during the course of implementing xFS, a fully distributed file system complex distributed programming issues than are faced by traditional client­server operating system

  17. Prefetching in file systems for MIMD multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotz, David F.; Ellis, Carla Schlatter

    1990-01-01

    The question of whether prefetching blocks on the file into the block cache can effectively reduce overall execution time of a parallel computation, even under favorable assumptions, is considered. Experiments have been conducted with an interleaved file system testbed on the Butterfly Plus multiprocessor. Results of these experiments suggest that (1) the hit ratio, the accepted measure in traditional caching studies, may not be an adequate measure of performance when the workload consists of parallel computations and parallel file access patterns, (2) caching with prefetching can significantly improve the hit ratio and the average time to perform an I/O (input/output) operation, and (3) an improvement in overall execution time has been observed in most cases. In spite of these gains, prefetching sometimes results in increased execution times (a negative result, given the optimistic nature of the study). The authors explore why it is not trivial to translate savings on individual I/O requests into consistently better overall performance and identify the key problems that need to be addressed in order to improve the potential of prefetching techniques in the environment.

  18. Postmark: a new file system benchmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Katcher

    1997-01-01

    Existing file system benchmarks are deficient in portraying performance in the ephemeral small-file regime used by Internet software, especially: electronicmail; netnews; and web-based commerce. PostMark is a new benchmark to measure performance for this class of application.In this paper, PostMark test results are presented and analyzed for both UNIX and Windows NT application servers. Network Appliance Filers (file server appliances)

  19. Minix File System Inode Table Data Zones

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    Minix File System Boot SB Inode Map Zone Map 1 . 10 bin 2 etc 1 .. 10 . 0 47 file1 1 .. 10 . 63_uid; __u32 i_size; __u32 i_time; __u8 i_gid; __u8 i_nlinks; __u16 i_zone[9]; }; struct minix symbLn 47 hardLn 1 .. Inode Table Data Zones /bin/file1 struct minix_inode { __u16 i_mode; __u16 i

  20. A five-year study of file-system metadata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitin Agrawal; William J. Bolosky; John R. Douceur; Jacob R. Lorch

    2007-01-01

    For five years, we collected annual snapshots of file- system metadata from over 60,000 Windows PC file sys- tems in a large corporation. In this paper, we use these snapshots to study temporal changes in file size, file age, file-type frequency, directory size, namespace structure, file-system population, storage capacity and consump- tion, and degree of file modification. We present a

  1. Deciding when to forget in the Elephant file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas S. Santry; Michael J. Feeley; Norman C. Hutchinson; Alistair C. Veitch; Ross W. Carton; Jacob Ofir

    1999-01-01

    Modern file systems associate the deletion of a file with the immediate release of storage, and file writes with the irrevocable change of file contents. We argue that this behavior is a relic of the past, when disk storage was a scarce resource. Today, large cheap disks make it possible for the file system to protect valuable data from accidental

  2. Design and Implementation of Ceph: A Scalable Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, S A; Brandt, S A; Miller, E L; Long, D E; Maltzahn, C

    2006-04-19

    File system designers continue to look to new architectures to improve scalability. Object-based storage diverges from server-based (e.g. NFS) and SAN-based storage systems by coupling processors and memory with disk drives, delegating low-level allocation to object storage devices (OSDs) and decoupling I/O (read/write) from metadata (file open/close) operations. Even recent object-based systems inherit decades-old architectural choices going back to early UNIX file systems, however, limiting their ability to effectively scale to hundreds of petabytes. We present Ceph, a distributed file system that provides excellent performance and reliability with unprecedented scalability. Ceph maximizes the separation between data and metadata management by replacing allocation tables with a pseudo-random data distribution function (CRUSH) designed for heterogeneous and dynamic clusters of unreliable OSDs. We leverage OSD intelligence to distribute data replication, failure detection and recovery with semi-autonomous OSDs running a specialized local object storage file system (EBOFS). Finally, Ceph is built around a dynamic distributed metadata management cluster that provides extremely efficient metadata management that seamlessly adapts to a wide range of general purpose and scientific computing file system workloads. We present performance measurements under a variety of workloads that show superior I/O performance and scalable metadata management (more than a quarter million metadata ops/sec).

  3. Frangipani: A Scalable Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandramohan A. Thekkath; Timothy Mann; Edward K. Lee

    1997-01-01

    The ideal distributed file system would provide all its users with co- herent, shared access to the same set of files,yet would be arbitrarily scalable to provide more storage space and higher performance to a growing user community. It would be highly available in spite of component failures. It would require minimal human administra- tion, and administration would not become

  4. 1 Distributed File Systems ffl Network transparency

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    , files and directories -- cache manager -- to reduce network delay, disk delay problem: inconsistency ffl1 Distributed File Systems 1.1 Goals ffl Network transparency users do not have to aware performance) -- clients -- machines used for computational activities may have a local disk for caching remote

  5. Reclaiming Space from Duplicate Files in a Serverless Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Douceur; Atul Adya; William J. Bolosky; Daniel R. Simon; Marvin Theimer

    2002-01-01

    The Farsite distributed file system provides availability by replicating each file onto multiple desktop computers. Since this replication consumes significant storage space, it is important to reclaim used space where possible. Measurement of over 500 desktop file systems shows that nearly half of all consumed space is occupied by duplicate files. We present a mechanism to reclaim space from this

  6. Preliminary specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC11

    E-print Network

    Ida, Nathan

    DATA SHEET Preliminary specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC11 1997 Jul 09 INTEGRATED chip TDA5147CH QUICK REFERENCE DATA SYMBOL PARAMETER MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT Supply voltage VCC5 analog5 VCC5 disable disable brake DRIVER DRIVER from PORN block VCCS12 disable disable b

  7. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC06

    E-print Network

    Martin, Tom

    Package Information · The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Outlines #12;December 1990 2 PhilipsDATA SHEET Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC06 December 1990 INTEGRATED download: · The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications · The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic

  8. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC06

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    /HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications · The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Information · The IC06 74HCDATA SHEET Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC06 September 1993 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 74HC/HCT04 Hex inverter For a complete data sheet, please also download: · The IC06 74HC

  9. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC06

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    /HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Family Specifications · The IC06 74HC/HCT/HCU/HCMOS Logic Package Information · The IC06 74HCDATA SHEET Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC06 September 1993 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 74HCU04 Hex inverter For a complete data sheet, please also download: · The IC06 74HC

  10. A groupware interface to a shared file system 

    E-print Network

    Faltemier, Timothy Collin

    2005-02-17

    Is Achieved ?. 20 8 SDT Situation Tester????????????????... 21 9 SDT File System Server???????????????.. 23 10 SDT File System Client???????????????.. 26 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Current shared file systems NFS, Samba, and AFS..., and repeatable. 23 SDT FILE SYSTEM SERVER Fig. 9. SDT File System Server The server as shown above in Figure 9, was designed to be very simplistic. As shown, there are really only three options that can be done as this system...

  11. Network assisted file system consistency checking

    E-print Network

    Zehender, Nicholas (Nicholas G.)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reports on the design and implementation of Network Assisted NFSCK (or NAN), an extension to NFSCK, a research project about checking file system consistency at NetApp. NFSCK requires disk space to store temporary ...

  12. 17 CFR 250.57 - Notices and reports to be filed under section 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...filed under section 33. 250.57 Section 250.57 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.57 Notices and reports to be filed under section 33. (a) Notification of...

  13. Design and Implementation of Grid File Management System Hotfile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liqiang Cao; Jie Qiu; Li Zha; Haiyan Yu; Wei Li; Yuzhong Sun

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a Hotfile is a user level file management system. It wraps GridFTP and GASS or any other file transfer protocol compatible with\\u000a hotfile structure into a unified vegafile protocol. Based on virtual grid file layer and a set of basic grid file operations,\\u000a users can access grid file without knowing the physical transport protocol of the file. Test result shows the

  14. Stochastic Petri Net Analysis of a Replicated File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Bechta Dugan; Gianfranco Ciardo

    1989-01-01

    We present a stochastic Petri net model of a replicated file system in a distributed environmentwhere replicated files reside on different hosts and a voting algorithm is used to maintain consistency.Witnesses, which simply record the status of the file but contain no data, may be used in additionto or in place of files to reduce overhead. We present a model

  15. Collective operations in a file system based execution model

    DOEpatents

    Shinde, Pravin; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2013-02-19

    A mechanism is provided for group communications using a MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system. A master application creates a multi-pipe synthetic file in the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system, the master application indicating a multi-pipe operation to be performed. The master application then writes a header-control block of the multi-pipe synthetic file specifying at least one of a multi-pipe synthetic file system name, a message type, a message size, a specific destination, or a specification of the multi-pipe operation. Any other application participating in the group communications then opens the same multi-pipe synthetic file. A MULTI-PIPE file system module then implements the multi-pipe operation as identified by the master application. The master application and the other applications then either read or write operation messages to the multi-pipe synthetic file and the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system module performs appropriate actions.

  16. Collective operations in a file system based execution model

    DOEpatents

    Shinde, Pravin; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2013-02-12

    A mechanism is provided for group communications using a MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system. A master application creates a multi-pipe synthetic file in the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system, the master application indicating a multi-pipe operation to be performed. The master application then writes a header-control block of the multi-pipe synthetic file specifying at least one of a multi-pipe synthetic file system name, a message type, a message size, a specific destination, or a specification of the multi-pipe operation. Any other application participating in the group communications then opens the same multi-pipe synthetic file. A MULTI-PIPE file system module then implements the multi-pipe operation as identified by the master application. The master application and the other applications then either read or write operation messages to the multi-pipe synthetic file and the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system module performs appropriate actions.

  17. FiST: A Language for Stackable File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erez Zadok; Jason Nieh

    2000-01-01

    Traditional file system development is difficult. Stack- able file systems promise to ease the development of file systems by offering a mechanism for incremental develop- ment. Unfortunately, existing methods often require writ- ing complex low-level kernel code that is specific to a sin- gle operating system platform and also difficult to port. We propose a new language, FiST, to describe

  18. Replication in the Harp File System Barbara Liskov

    E-print Network

    Replication in the Harp File System Barbara Liskov Sanjay Ghemawat Robert Gruber Paul Johnson Liuba to respondHarp file system. Harp is a replicated Unix file system before replying to the client. The system good performance be- failovers.cause it allows us to trade disk accesses for network com- Harp is one

  19. Directory Reference Patterns in Hierarchical File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Floyd; Carla Schlatter Ellis

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a brief description of data on directory reference patterns collected from a 4.2BSD UNIX system. These data are used to examine the importance of the name lookup overhead involved in opening and using files. The analysis shows that paths in the environment are relatively long and that, in the absence of caching, name resolution overhead accounts for

  20. The parallel virtual file system for portals.

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, James Alan

    2004-04-01

    This report presents the result of an effort to re-implement the Parallel Virtual File System (PVFS) using Portals as the transport. This report provides short overviews of PVFS and Portals, and describes the design and implementation of PVFS over Portals. Finally, the results of performance testing of both stock PVFS and PVFS over Portals are presented.

  1. Extending ACID semantics to the file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Wright; Richard Spillane; Gopalan Sivathanu; Erez Zadok

    2007-01-01

    An organization's data is often its most valuable asset, but today's file systems provide few facilities to ensure its safety. Databases, on the other hand, have long provided transactions. Transactions are useful because they provide atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID). Many applications could make use of these semantics, but databases have a wide variety of nonstandard interfaces. For example,

  2. Secure Files Management System in Intranet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Zhang; Jun-feng Diao; Qiao-yan Wen

    2008-01-01

    Documents and source codes is the core assets in an enterprise. For preventing the dates to be leaked, some enterprises don't allow them to be transmitted or copied. This results in the rigid workflows. Others just adopt the software. This results in the compromise of the files. In this paper, a system is proposed based on access control, encryption and

  3. StegFS: A Steganographic File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hweehwa Pang; Kian-lee Tan; Xuan Zhou

    2003-01-01

    While user access control and encryption can protect valuable data from passive observers, those techniques leave visible ciphertexts that are likely to alert an active adversary to the existence of the data, who can then com- pel an authorized user to disclose it. This paper introduces StegFS, a steganographic file system that aims to overcome that weakness by offering plausible

  4. Transaction Support in Read Optimizied and Write Optimized File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margo I. Seltzer; Michael Stonebraker

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of five implementations of transaction support. The first of the methods is the traditional approach of implementing transaction processing within a data manager on top of a read optimized file system. The second also assumes a traditional file system but embeds transaction support inside the file system. The third model considers a tradi- tional

  5. File system usage in Windows NT 4.0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Vogels

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a study of the usage of the Windows NT File System through long-term kernel tracing. Our goal was to provide a new data point with respect to the 1985 and 1991 trace-based File System studies, to investigate the usage details of the Windows NT file system architecture, and to study the overall statistical behavior of the usage

  6. Umbrella file system: Storage management across heterogeneous devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Garrison; A. L. Narasimha Reddy

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of and recent developments in Flash storage, device characteristic diversity is becoming both more prevalent and more distinct. In this article, we describe the Umbrella File System (UmbrellaFS), a stackable file system designed to provide flexibility in matching diversity of file access characteristics to diversity of device characteristics through a user or system administrator specified policy. We

  7. Clump: Improving File System Performance Through Adaptive Optimizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick R. Eaton; Dennis Geels; Greg Mori

    1999-01-01

    Recent years have seen a meteoric rise in microprocessorperformance. Overall computer system performance,however, has not kept pace with that of its most glamorouscomponent. One key bottleneck in system performanceis file system I\\/O [17].This paper investigates methods for improving file systemperformance by reducing or hiding disk latency.These methods monitor file accesses and infer relationshipsabout the accessed files. Based on this continuouslyupdated

  8. Security and Decentralized Control in the SFS Global File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mazieres

    1997-01-01

    SFS (secure file system) is a global file system de- signed to be secure against all active and passive net- work attacks, provide a single namespace across all machines in the world, and avoid any form of cen- tralized control. Using SFS, any unprivileged user can access any file server in the world securely and with no prior arrangement on

  9. File System Support for Digital Evidence Bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Golden; Roussev, Vassil

    Digital Evidence Bags (DEBs) are a mechanism for bundling digital evidence, associated metadata and audit logs into a single structure. DEB-compliant applications can update a DEB's audit log as evidence is introduced into the bag and as data in the bag is processed. This paper investigates native file system support for DEBs, which has a number of benefits over ad hoc modification of digital evidence bags. The paper also describes an API for DEB-enabled applications and methods for providing DEB access to legacy applications through a DEB-aware file system. The paper addresses an urgent need for digital-forensics-aware operating system components that can enhance the consistency, security and performance of investigations.

  10. Design and Implementation of a Metadata-rich File System

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2010-01-19

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of user-defined file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and semantic metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, user-defined attributes, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS incorporates Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the de facto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  11. Digital Libraries: The Next Generation in File System Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mic; Camargo, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Examines file sharing within corporations that use wide-area, distributed file systems. Applications and user interactions strongly suggest that the addition of services typically associated with digital libraries (content-based file location, strongly typed objects, representation of complex relationships between documents, and extrinsic…

  12. AutoFS - An Automounting File System for FreeBSD 6.x

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam David; Alan Martin; Erez Zadok

    File systems store, organize, and retrieve data for users and often these files are stored on remote ma- chines, or removable media. The UNIX system requires that these file systems must be mounted before files can be accessed. In network environments, mounted file sys- tems can result in extra traffic, even when the file sys- tem is mounted, but no

  13. An NGN-Based Cross-Domain Shared File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Q. Kuhnen; Johannes Häussler; Anett Schülke; Harald Kornmayer; Federico Marmori; Matthias Kraus

    2010-01-01

    The vision of cross-domain file systems is becoming a reality; however, issues like ensuring quality of service for bandwidth-intense resource access, especially over mobile network, may still arise. In this paper, we propose a cross-domain shared file system, which enables a real-time experience for delivery of virtualized file systems utilizing a grid approach over NGN. The system allows users to

  14. Lab 5 Winter 2011 File Systems

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    , select Virtual hard disk file and used the Browse button to add the MinixFS.vhd file as the hard drive documentation provided in Virtual campus. Preparing the Hard Disk Use the following steps to add a hard disk:\\VirtualMachine\\SiteDev\\", unzip the file MinixFS.vhd (from the zip file MinixFS.zip). This file will serve as a hard drive

  15. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  16. INFeRS: Interactive Numeric Files Retrieval System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Katherine; And Others

    In 1988 Mann Library at Cornell University proposed to develop a computer system that would support interactive access to significant electronic files in agriculture and the life sciences. This system was titled the Interactive Numeric Files Retrieval System (INFeRS). This report describes how project goals were met and it presents the project's…

  17. Silvabase: A flexible data file management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambing, Steven J.; Reynolds, Sandra J.

    1991-01-01

    The need for a more flexible and efficient data file management system for mission planning in the Mission Operations Laboratory (EO) at MSFC has spawned the development of Silvabase. Silvabase is a new data file structure based on a B+ tree data structure. This data organization allows for efficient forward and backward sequential reads, random searches, and appends to existing data. It also provides random insertions and deletions with reasonable efficiency, utilization of storage space well but not at the expense of speed, and performance of these functions on a large volume of data. Mission planners required that some data be keyed and manipulated in ways not found in a commercial product. Mission planning software is currently being converted to use Silvabase in the Spacelab and Space Station Mission Planning Systems. Silvabase runs on a Digital Equipment Corporation's popular VAX/VMS computers in VAX Fortran. Silvabase has unique features involving time histories and intervals such as in operations research. Because of its flexibility and unique capabilities, Silvabase could be used in almost any government or commercial application that requires efficient reads, searches, and appends in medium to large amounts of almost any kind of data.

  18. Single file and normal dual mode diffusion in highly confined hard sphere mixtures under flow.

    E-print Network

    Spiteri, Raymond J.

    the dual-mode diffusion regime of binary and tertiary mixtures of hard spheres confined in narrowSingle file and normal dual mode diffusion in highly confined hard sphere mixtures under flow and below their passing thresholds still exhibit behaviors consistent with normal and single-file diffusion

  19. 5 CFR 293.504 - Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. 293.504 Section 293...REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.504 Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. (a) All employee...

  20. 5 CFR 293.504 - Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. 293.504 Section 293...REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.504 Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. (a) All employee...

  1. 5 CFR 293.504 - Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. 293.504 Section 293...REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.504 Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. (a) All employee...

  2. Self-Certifying File System Implementation for Windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Euresti

    2002-01-01

    SFS for Windows is a Microsoft Windows 2000 client for the Self-Certifying File System. It is a direct port of the original using Cygwin. It uses a commercial NFS client to connect Windows to SFS. It provides support for symbolic links in Cygwin by converting these into Windows Shortcuts. It automounts file systems in Windows using a mount daemon and

  3. On designing generalized file records for management information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank H. Benner

    1967-01-01

    The centrality of the files in a MIS (Management Information System), or in any other large scale computer application, has been traditionally considered as self-evident. The new problems of operating systems and the languages for use in the 3rd generation computers, plus the relatively unknown world of integrated data communications may tend to remove the files from the limelight. This

  4. New System for Secure Cover File of Hidden Data in the Image Page within Executable File Using Statistical Steganography Techniques

    E-print Network

    Islam, Rafiqul; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B

    2010-01-01

    A Previously traditional methods were sufficient to protect the information, since it is simplicity in the past does not need complicated methods but with the progress of information technology, it become easy to attack systems, and detection of encryption methods became necessary to find ways parallel with the differing methods used by hackers, so the embedding methods could be under surveillance from system managers in an organization that requires the high level of security. This fact requires researches on new hiding methods and cover objects which hidden information is embedded in. It is the result from the researches to embed information in executable files, but when will use the executable file for cover they have many challenges must be taken into consideration which is any changes made to the file will be firstly detected by untie viruses, secondly the functionality of the file is not still functioning. In this paper, a new information hiding system is presented. The aim of the proposed system is to ...

  5. Architecture For An Image Filing And Indexing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Stanley N.; Paoni, Robert A.; Robeson, Glenn H.

    1986-06-01

    We are developing an in-house Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) targeted to the centralized storage of images acquired from our computer-assisted imaging modalities and to the display of these images on multi-modality viewing stations. The central image database is distributed between two system modules with image processing capabilities located at the viewing stations. The first module of the image database is an image filing subsystem used for the storage and retrieval of complete image files. In our initial work, this module consists of a Data General MV/6000 computer system with 1.16 Gbytes of on-line disk storage. However, more efficient dedicated filing systems may be substituted for this general purpose computer in future revisions. The second module is an image file indexing subsystem which has been implemented on a DEC PDP-11/44 computer and is tightly integrated with our MARS II (ADAC Laboratories) Radiology Information System. These two image database modules communicate via low-speed, serial communications lines. This report focuses on our developmental work on the image file indexing subsystem and its communications protocol with the image filing subsystem. The image file indexing subsystem automatically inserts image file locators for studies referenced by patient when an image is transmitted from the acquisition device (eg, CT) to the image filing subsystem. It also locates image files at the request of a viewing station user based on patient name, physician name, or study type for either read or unread studies. Other capabilities include cross-referencing patient attributes with the MARS II system, deleting studies based on predefined criteria, storing requests for hard copy, storing user selected image processing attributes for individual images, flagging the archival status of an image, and complete managerial functions. This central-ized image filing and indexing system comprises what will become the central element of our PACS.

  6. Performance and Scalability Evaluation of the Ceph Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL] [ORNL; Nelson, Mark [Inktank Storage, Inc.] [Inktank Storage, Inc.; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is an open-source and emerging parallel distributed file and storage system technology. By design, Ceph assumes running on unreliable and commodity storage and network hardware and provides reliability and fault-tolerance through controlled object placement and data replication. We evaluated the Ceph technology for scientific high-performance computing (HPC) environments. This paper presents our evaluation methodology, experiments, results and observations from mostly parallel I/O performance and scalability perspectives. Our work made two unique contributions. First, our evaluation is performed under a realistic setup for a large-scale capability HPC environment using a commercial high-end storage system. Second, our path of investigation, tuning efforts, and findings made direct contributions to Ceph's development and improved code quality, scalability, and performance. These changes should also benefit both Ceph and HPC communities at large. Throughout the evaluation, we observed that Ceph still is an evolving technology under fast-paced development and showing great promises.

  7. 43 CFR 45.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Section 45.70 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 45.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  8. 43 CFR 45.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Section 45.70 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 45.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  9. 50 CFR 221.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 221.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  10. 43 CFR 45.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Section 45.70 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 45.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  11. 50 CFR 221.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 221.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  12. 50 CFR 221.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 221.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  13. 43 CFR 45.70 - How must documents be filed and served under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Section 45.70 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 45.70 How must documents be filed and served under this subpart? (a)...

  14. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  15. Stochastic Petri net analysis of a replicated file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechta Dugan, Joanne; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic Petri-net model of a replicated file system is presented for a distributed environment where replicated files reside on different hosts and a voting algorithm is used to maintain consistency. Witnesses, which simply record the status of the file but contain no data, can be used in addition to or in place of files to reduce overhead. A model sufficiently detailed to include file status (current or out-of-date), as well as failure and repair of hosts where copies or witnesses reside, is presented. The number of copies and witnesses is a parameter of the model. Two different majority protocols are examined, one where a majority of all copies and witnesses is necessary to form a quorum, and the other where only a majority of the copies and witnesses on operational hosts is needed. The latter, known as adaptive voting, is shown to increase file availability in most cases.

  16. 76 FR 71019 - Amendment of Inspector General's Operation and Reporting (IGOR) System Investigative Files (EPA-40)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...Reporting (IGOR) System Investigative Files (EPA-40) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Reporting (IGOR) System Investigative Files (EPA-40) to the Inspector General Enterprise...able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special...

  17. Knowledge File System A principled approach to personal information management

    E-print Network

    Knowledge File System A principled approach to personal information management Kuiyu Chang School as to facilitate easy retrieval. Think of the KFS as a personal assistant, who can file every one of you documents; search engine; personal information management; indexing; classification I. INTRODUCTION Today, people

  18. Availability and Consistency Tradeoffs in the Echo Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Hisgen; Andrew Birrell; Timothy Mann; Michael D. Schroeder; Garret Swart

    1989-01-01

    Workstations typically depend on remote servers accessed over a network for such services as mail, printing, storing files, booting, and time. The availability of these remote services has a major impact on the usability of the workstation. Availability can be increased by repli- cating the servers. In the Echo distributed file system at DEC SRC, two different replication techniques are

  19. File Systems Security Dr. Craig A. Rich

    E-print Network

    Raheja, Amar

    Access Control Lists (ACLs) An access control list (ACL) is a list of access control entries (ACEs) An access control entry (ACE) consists of Type, allow (A) or deny (D) : Flags, a subset of f file inheritd Add ACE (w/o inherit flags) to each new file d directory inheritd Add ACE to each new subdirectory n

  20. File-Management Techniques and Systems with Applications to Information Retrieval; A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrzyk, Alfred, Comp.; And Others

    Based on material collected for system-automation studies within the efforts of the Linguistic Documentation Program toward development of a Language Information Network and Clearinghouse System (LINCS), the bibliography lists 216 references under the headings: (1) Survey, Reviews, Symposia (19 references); (2) File-organization Principles (18…

  1. Configuration Management File Manager Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.

  2. A Virtual Environment Based File Management System: Preliminary Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances L. Van Scoy

    The preliminary design of a virtual environment based file management system is described. 1. Background Current virtual environments model real or imagined scenes at various scales. It is the premise of this paper that VE can also be used in more abstract settings, in particular in a file management system. 1.1. Pre-Virtual Environment 3-Dimensional Models of Linear Systems Long before

  3. A CDP method in an object-based file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Cao, Qiang; Li, Huaiyang

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances in large-capacity, low-cost storage devices have led to active research in design of large-scale storage system built from commodity devices. These storage systems are composed of thousands of storage device and require an efficient file system to provide high system bandwidth and petabyte-scale data storage. Object-based file system integrates advantage of both NAS and SAN, can be applied in above environment. Continuous data protection (CDP) is a methodology that continuously captures or tracks data modifications and stores changes independent of the primary data, enabling recovery points from any point in the past. All changes to files and file metadata are stored and managed. A CDP method in Object-based file system is presented in this thesis to improve the system reliability. Firstly, we can get detail at byte level of every write request because data protection operates at the file system level. It can consume less storage space. Secondly, every object storage server can compute the recovery strip data object independently to decrease the recovery time. Thirdly a journal-like metadata management way is introduced to provide metadata optimization for CDP.

  4. Design and Implementation of Symphony: An Integrated Multimedia File System

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    of Computer Sciences, University of Texas at Austin Taylor Hall 2.124, Austin, Texas 78712­1188, USA E to as continuous media data) [13]. Most existing file systems are optimized ei­ ther for textual or continuous

  5. A groupware interface to a shared file system

    E-print Network

    Faltemier, Timothy Collin

    2005-02-17

    : Philadelphia. ACM, 181-190. RAYNAL, F. 2002. NFS - Network File System. Translated by Philippe Trbich and Emmanuel Bonnel. Technical Report. http://www.linuxfocus.org/English/November2000/article164.shtml. Accessed July 2004. SUESS, J. 1995...

  6. CFMS - A Collaborative File Management System on WWW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruey-kai Sheu; Ming-chun Cheng; Yue-shan Chang; Shyan-ming Yuan; Jensen Tsai; Yao-jin Hung; Ming-chih Lai

    2000-01-01

    The increasing complexity and geographical separation of design data, tools and teams have demanded for a collaborative and\\u000a distributed management environment. In this paper we present a practical system, the CFMS, which is designed to manage collaborative\\u000a files on WWW. Wherever remote developers are, they can navigate the evolutions and relationships between target files, check\\u000a in and check out them

  7. Efficient file distribution in a flexible,wide-area file system

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Irene Y. (Irene Yun)

    2009-01-01

    WheelFS is a wide-area distributed file system designed to help applications cope with the challenges of sharing data over the wide-area network. A wide range of applications can use WheelFS as a storage layer because ...

  8. Research on File Content Tamper-proofing System for Distribution Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong Liu; Jiya Jiang; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    It is very important to protect the data security in distributed Web applications. In this paper, a file content tamper-proofing system is proposed, which can effectively resist file content tampering, and prevents illegal information spreading. To meet the requirement of authentication speed, a fast authentication algorithm combines file length verification and HMAC is used in the file content tamper-proofing system,

  9. A trace-driven analysis of the UNIX 4.2 BSD file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Ousterhout; Hervé Da Costa; David Harrison; John A. Kunze; Michael D. Kupfer; James G. Thompson

    1985-01-01

    We analyzed the UNIX 4.2BSD file system by recording activity in trace files and writing programs to analyze the traces. The trace analysis shows that the average file system bandwidth needed per user is low (a few hundred bytes per second). Most of the files accessed are short, are open a short time, and are accessed sequentially. Most new information

  10. Replicated File Management in Large-Scale Distributed Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özalp Babaoglu; Alberto Bartoli; Gianluca Dini

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale systems spanning geographically distant sites are potentially appropriate environments for distributed applications supporting collaboration. In this paper, we examine the possibility of using such systems as repositories for replicated files to facilitate lowlatency data sharing. Asynchrony in communication and computation, complex combinations of site and communication failures, and in particular, network partitions that characterize these systems make the design

  11. JavaFIRE: A Replica and File System for Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Marko; da Silva Gomes, Diego; Resin Geyer, Claudio Fernando; Santoro, Alberto; Gowdy, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    The work is focused on the creation of a replica and file transfers system for Computational Grids inspired on the needs of the High Energy Physics (HEP). Due to the high volume of data created by the HEP experiments, an efficient file and dataset replica system may play an important role on the computing model. Data replica systems allow the creation of copies, distributed between the different storage elements on the Grid. In the HEP context, the data files are basically immutable. This eases the task of the replica system, because given sufficient local storage resources any dataset just needs to be replicated to a particular site once. Concurrent with the advent of computational Grids, another important theme in the distributed systems area that has also seen some significant interest is that of peer-to-peer networks (p2p). P2p networks are an important and evolving mechanism that eases the use of distributed computing and storage resources by end users. One common technique to achieve faster file download from possibly overloaded storage elements over congested networks is to split the files into smaller pieces. This way, each piece can be transferred from a different replica, in parallel or not, optimizing the moments when the network conditions are better suited to the transfer. The main tasks achieved by the system are: the creation of replicas, the development of a system for replicas transfer (RFT) and for replicas location (RLS) with a different architecture that the one provided by Globus and the development of a system for file transfer in pieces on computational grids with interfaces for several storage elements. The RLS uses a p2p overlay based on the Kademlia algorithm.

  12. Dm: 3474941 v.1 Notice of Filing of Application Under the US Department of Labor's

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    ALIEN LABOR CERTIFICATION ON BEHALF OF ONE OR MORE ALIENS WITH THE US DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. ANY PERSONDm: 3474941 v.1 Notice of Filing of Application Under the US Department of Labor's Permanent Labor Certification Program An application concerning the employment of one or more alien workers for the following

  13. Log-Based Directory Resolution in the Coda File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Puneet Kumar; Mahadev Satyanarayanan

    1993-01-01

    updates to an object must be treated as conflicting, and Optimistic replication is an important technique for merged manually by the user. Manual resolution is achieving high availability in distributed file systems. A undesirable because it reduces the overall usability of the key problem in optimistic replication is using semantic knowledge of objects to resolve concurrent updates from system. multiple

  14. Selective security capabilities in ASAP: a file management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Conway; William Maxwell; Howard Morgan

    1972-01-01

    Although the general requirements of data security in file management and retrieval systems are fairly obvious, and have been often stated current practice does not provide even an approximation of these requirements and, in fact, current languages and operating systems, with few exceptions make it relatively difficult to achieve these objectives when one tries to do so. Apparently, current languages

  15. The ITC Distributed File System: Principles and Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahadev Satyanarayanan; John H. Howard; David A. Nichols; Robert N. Sidebotham; Alfred Z. Spector; Michael J. West

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the design and rationale of a distributed file system for a network of more than 5000 personal computer workstations. While scale has been the dominant design influence, careful attention has also been paid to the goals of location transparency, user mobility and compatibility with existing operating system interfaces. Security is an important design consideration, and the mechanisms

  16. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 6: NASIS message file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The message file for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is discussed. The message file contains all the message and term explanations for the system. The data contained in the file can be broken down into three separate sections: (1) global terms, (2) local terms, and (3) system messages. The various terms are defined and their use within the system is explained.

  17. Macro-modeling and energy efficiency studies of file management in embedded systems with flash memory

    E-print Network

    Goyal, Nitesh

    2006-08-16

    processor and flash in an embedded system heavily depends on the choice of file system in use. To address this problem, it is necessary to provide sys- tem developers with energy profiles of file system activities and energy efficient file systems...

  18. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 6: NASIS message file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The message file for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is discussed. The message file contains all the message and term explanations for the system. The data contained in the file can be broken down into three separate sections: (1) global terms, (2) local terms, and (3) system messages. The various terms are defined and their use within the system is explained.

  19. File

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a cover that looks suspiciously like one of the 20th century's most beloved photographic magazines (hint: "File" is an anagram of its moniker), File is an online photography magazine that specializes in "alternate takes, odd angles, unconventional observations". As its makers wryly note, "We leave the Kodak Moments to the family album, the glossy fashion spreads to Vogue, and the photo finishes to ESPN". While the site is relatively new, there is a good deal to browse through here, and visitors can start with a trip to the thematic galleries, and also stop by the contributors section to learn more about each individual photographer. One rather intriguing collection is called "Rustfetish" and features the work of Vince Stinson, whose artistic statement notes that "...these photos prove that by celebrating/the love of rust and all that rusts". The site also includes "Karaoke Camera", in which the editors of the FILE offer a photographic theme or trope, and visitors are encouraged to submit photographs related to that particular idea.

  20. FotoFile: a consumer multimedia organization and retrieval system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Kuchinsky; Celine Pering; Michael L. Creech; Dennis F. Freeze; Bill Serra; Jacek Gvvizdka

    1999-01-01

    FotoFile is an experimental system for multimediaorganization and retrieval, based upon the design goal of makingmultimedia content accessible to non-expert users. Search andretrieval are done in terms that are natural to the task. Thesystem blends human and automatic annotation methods. It extendstextual search, browsing, and retrieval technologies to supportmultimedia data types.

  1. Versioning File System Victoria Sun (vsun@mit.edu)

    E-print Network

    File System Victoria Sun (vsun@mit.edu) 6.033 Design Project 1: Report Hal Abelson, R01A, Tuesdays 10AM March 22, 2013 #12;Victoria Sun 2 Overview typically exists to account for !ile recovery from !ile deletions and movement

  2. Volume Based Metadata Isolation in Blue Whale Cluster File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingliang Zhang; Chengxiang Si; Yajun Jia; Jiangang Zhang; Xiaoming Han; Lu Xu

    2009-01-01

    The mainly traditional File Systems are constructed on single device where the metadata and data access interfere with each other which will lead to performance degradations. In this paper we propose a volume based mechanism in BWFS to separate metadata from data into different devices by isolations both in store location and IO path. Test result has verified the effectiveness

  3. Ceph: A Scalable, High-Performance Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sage A. Weil; Scott A. Brandt; Ethan L. Miller; Darrell D. E. Long; Carlos Maltzahn

    2006-01-01

    We have developed Ceph, a distributed file system that provides excellent performance, reliability, and scala- bility. Ceph maximizes the separation between data and metadata management by replacing allocation ta- bles with a pseudo-random data distribution function (CRUSH) designed for heterogeneous and dynamic clus- ters of unreliable object storage devices (OSDs). We leverage device intelligence by distributing data replica - tion,

  4. VMDFS: Virtual Memory based Mobile Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susmit Bagchi

    2007-01-01

    The mobile computing paradigm is becoming a reality due to the advent of mobile devices such as, PDA and Smart Phones having wireless interface to WWW. As a result, the high-end applications related to mobile multimedia and distributed digital contents have gained much attention. However, the existing distributed and mobile file systems are not adequately suitable to support such applications

  5. Home networking as a distributed file system view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Defrance; Rémy Gendrot; Jean Le Roux; Gilles Straub; Thierry Tapie

    2011-01-01

    Devices forming a Home Network have different capabilities and interfaces, discouraging users to organize their large digital content libraries. To help users, we propose to organize the Home Network according to a gateway-centric architecture, where the content access unification is realized at the file system level and where no additional software installation on devices is required. Solutions for realizing this

  6. FILE SYSTEM ISOLATION FOR UNTRUSTED APPLICATIONS Fareha Shafique

    E-print Network

    Goel, Ashvin

    , the file system provides a single namespace that, when compromised, can have cascading effects to be on my defense committee. Finally, I would like to thank my husband for supporting me and having.3 Taint Propagation and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.4 Usage Model

  7. Implementation Principles of File Management System for Omega Parallel DBMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail L. Zymbler; Leonid B. Sokolinsky

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes development principles and the program structure of the Omega File Management System (OFMS) for the Omega parallel DBMS engine. The paper gives requirements for OFMS and the description of its general structure and components. The paper gives some effective protocol for interaction with the Disk Subsystem Unit and describes architecture of the Disk Subsystem Emulator. The paper

  8. A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Storage Techniques for Distributed File Systems Ragib Hasan

    E-print Network

    Newhall, Tia

    A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Storage Techniques for Distributed File Systems Ragib Hasan Zahid Anwar}@ncsa.uiuc.edu, roy@cs.uiuc.edu Abstract The popularity of distributed file systems continues to grow. Reasons to such systems and discusses the various research activities in the field of Distributed Peer- to-Peer file

  9. Bandwidth Guarantee in a Distributed Multimedia File System Using Network Attached Autonomous Disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuneyt Akinlar; Sarit Mukherjee

    2000-01-01

    File systems for multimedia applications must support high bandwidth streaming with strict rate guarantees. Recently we proposed a distributed file system built using autonomous disks (S. Mukherjee et al., 1999). Autonomous disks are attached directly to the network and are able to perform lightweight processing. The paper describes the methodologies used to make the file system quality of service (QoS)

  10. yFS: A Journaling File System Design for Handling Large Data Sets with Reduced Seeking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihui Zhang; Kanad Ghose

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, disk seek times have not improved commensurately with CPU performance, memory system performance, and disk transfer rates. Furthermore, many modern applications are making increasing use of large files. Traditional file system designs are limited in how they address these two trends. We present the design of a file system called yFS that consciously reduces disk seeking and

  11. Anomaly Detection in Computer Security and an Application to File System Accesses

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    Anomaly Detection in Computer Security and an Application to File System Accesses Salvatore J System that monitors file systems to detect abnormal accesses. The File Wrapper Anomaly Detector (FWRAP that computes normal models of those accesses. FWRAP employs the Probabilistic Anomaly Detection (PAD) algorithm

  12. A fault tolerant hardware based file system manager for solid state mass memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian-carlo Cardarilli; Marco Ottavi; Salvatore Pontarelli; Marco Re; Adelio Salsano

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the hardware implementation of a file system manager for a fault tolerant Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) is presented. A hardware implementation of the file system manager implies the following advantages: ad hoc fault tolerant design and graceful degradation capability. The former means developing special fault tolerant hardware for each file system basic function (read, write and

  13. Generalized File Management Systems: Their Implication for a California Junior College Data Base System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedrick, Robert John

    Criteria to use in evaluating data processing efficiency, factors of file and record definitions, convenience of use for non-programmers, report generating capabilities, and customer support for generalized file management systems for use by the California junior colleges are indicated by the author. The purchase of such a system at the state…

  14. Elephant: The File System that Never Forgets Douglas J. Santry, Michael J. Feeley, Norman C. Hutchinson

    E-print Network

    Wiseman, Yair

    Elephant: The File System that Never Forgets Douglas J. Santry, Michael J. Feeley, Norman C to determine which old ver­ sions of a file to retain and for how long. This paper presents the Elephant file system, which pro­ vides users with a new contract: Elephant will automati­ cally retain all important

  15. 77 FR 15026 - Privacy Act of 1974; Farm Records File (Automated) System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Farm Records File (Automated) System of Records AGENCY...Act System of Records titled Farm Records File (Automated) USDA/FSA-2. The records...INFORMATION: FSA maintains the Farm Records File (Automated) USDA/FSA-2...

  16. Structure and Performance of the Direct Access File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas Magoutis; Salimah Addetia; Alexandra Fedorova; Margo I. Seltzer; Jeffrey S. Chase; Andrew J. Gallatin; Richard Kisley; Rajiv Wickremesinghe; Eran Gabber

    2002-01-01

    The Direct Access File System (DAFS) is an emerg- ing industrial standard for network-attached stor- age. DAFS takes advantage of new user-level net- work interface standards. This enables a user-level le system structure in which client-side function- ality for remote data access resides in a library rather than in the kernel. This structure addresses longstanding performance problems stemming from weak

  17. Metadata management for CDP in object-based file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Cao, Qiang; Huang, Jianzhong

    2009-08-01

    Object-based storage system integrates advantage of both NAS and SAN, can be applied in large-capacity, low-cost and large-scale storage systems which are built from commodity devices. Continuous data protection (CDP) is a methodology that continuously captures or tracks data modifications and stores changes independent of the primary data, enabling recovery points from any point in the past. An efficient file system optimized for CDP is needed to provide CDP feature in object-based storage system. In this thesis, a new metadata management method is present. All necessary meta data information are recorded when changes happened to file system. We have a journal-like data placement algorithm to store these metadata. Secondly, this metadata management method provides both CDP feature and Object-based feature. Two type write operations are analyzed to reduce storage space consumption. Object-based data allocation algorithm can take the advantage of distributed file system to concurrently process CDP operations over storage nodes. Thirdly, history revisions and recovery operations are discussed. Finally, the experiment test result is present and analyzed.

  18. Distributed PACS using distributed file system with hierarchical meta data servers.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Minamitani, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Yoshimi, Masato

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we propose a new distributed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) which is available to integrate several PACSs that exist in each medical institution. The conventional PACS controls DICOM file into one data-base. On the other hand, in the proposed system, DICOM file is separated into meta data and image data and those are stored individually. Using this mechanism, since file is not always accessed the entire data, some operations such as finding files, changing titles, and so on can be performed in high-speed. At the same time, as distributed file system is utilized, accessing image files can also achieve high-speed access and high fault tolerant. The introduced system has a more significant point. That is the simplicity to integrate several PACSs. In the proposed system, only the meta data servers are integrated and integrated system can be constructed. This system also has the scalability of file access with along to the number of file numbers and file sizes. On the other hand, because meta-data server is integrated, the meta data server is the weakness of this system. To solve this defect, hieratical meta data servers are introduced. Because of this mechanism, not only fault--tolerant ability is increased but scalability of file access is also increased. To discuss the proposed system, the prototype system using Gfarm was implemented. For evaluating the implemented system, file search operating time of Gfarm and NFS were compared. PMID:23367269

  19. 26 CFR 1.6033-6 - Notification requirement for entities not required to file an annual information return under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...entities not required to file an annual information return under section 6033(a)(1) (taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006). 1.6033-6 Section 1.6033-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6033-6 - Notification requirement for entities not required to file an annual information return under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...entities not required to file an annual information return under section 6033(a)(1) (taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006). 1.6033-6 Section 1.6033-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6033-6 - Notification requirement for entities not required to file an annual information return under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...entities not required to file an annual information return under section 6033(a)(1) (taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006). 1.6033-6 Section 1.6033-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6033-6 - Notification requirement for entities not required to file an annual information return under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...entities not required to file an annual information return under section 6033(a)(1) (taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006). 1.6033-6 Section 1.6033-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6033-6 - Notification requirement for entities not required to file an annual information return under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...entities not required to file an annual information return under section 6033(a)(1) (taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006). 1.6033-6 Section 1.6033-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 7 CFR 1.670 - How must documents be filed and served under §§ 1.670 through 1.673?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 1.670 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.670 How must documents be filed and served under §§ 1.670 through 1.673?...

  5. 7 CFR 1.670 - How must documents be filed and served under §§ 1.670 through 1.673?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1.670 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.670 How must documents be filed and served under §§ 1.670 through 1.673?...

  6. 47 CFR 1.791 - Reports and requests to be filed under part 32 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reports and requests to be filed under part 32...Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.791 Reports...

  7. 47 CFR 1.791 - Reports and requests to be filed under part 32 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reports and requests to be filed under part 32...Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.791 Reports...

  8. 47 CFR 1.791 - Reports and requests to be filed under part 32 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports and requests to be filed under part 32...Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.791 Reports...

  9. 47 CFR 1.791 - Reports and requests to be filed under part 32 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports and requests to be filed under part 32...Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.791 Reports...

  10. 47 CFR 1.791 - Reports and requests to be filed under part 32 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reports and requests to be filed under part 32...Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.791 Reports...

  11. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  12. An in vitro CT Comparison of Gutta-Percha Removal with Two Rotary Systems and Hedstrom Files

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pankaj; Bharath, Makonahalli Jaganath; Sahadev, Chickmagravalli Krishnegowda; Makonahalli Ramachandra, Praveen Kumar; Rao, Yogesh; Ali, Ambereen; Mohamed, Shahnawaz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the efficacy of NiTi mechanical rotary instrumentation and Hedstrom file for gutta-percha/sealer removal computed tomography (CT) was utilized in vitro. Materials and Methods Thirty extracted human single rooted teeth, each with a single canal were selected. The samples were decoronated with a double faced diamond disk to have 17-mm root; teeth roots were instrumented with K-files up to master apical file #30 using step back technique. Samples were obturated using cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus root canal sealer. The teeth were then randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each. After 2 weeks 3-dimensional images of the roots were obtained by CT and the volume of root filling mass was measured. All the canals were then retreated by either the ProTaper retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files or Hedstrom files. The canals were irrigated with 2 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution during each change of instrument. The volume of remaining filling materials after the retreatment procedures was assessed by CT. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results Neither of studied systems completely removed the root filling material. No significant difference was observed between the rotary systems. The volume of remaining filling materials was significantly less in rotary instrumentation than hand files. There was no significant difference for debris extruded from the apical foramen between the groups. Conclusion Under the experimental conditions, Mtwo and ProTaper retreatment files left less gutta-percha and sealer than H files; however, complete removal of filling materials was not achieved by the three systems investigated. PMID:23717331

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NAPAP) EMISSIONS INVENTORY, 1980: THE FLEXIBLE REGIONAL EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM (SOFTWARE, ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES, PERIPHERAL DATA FILES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The package contains documentation of the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory, FREDS source code, allocation factor files, and peripheral data files. FREDS extracts emissions data, pertinent modeling parameters (e.g., stack heigh...

  14. ASDF: An Autonomous and Scalable Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Ming Wang; Chi-Chang Huang; Huan-Ming Liang

    2011-01-01

    The demand for huge storage space on data-intensive applications and high-performance scientific computing continues to grow. To integrate massive distributed storage resources for providing huge storage space is an important and challenging issue in Cloud and Grid computing. In this paper, we propose a distributed file system, called ASDF, to meet the demands of not only data-intensive applications but also

  15. AliEnFS - a Linux File System for the AliEn Grid Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas-J. Peters; Pablo Saiz; Predrag Buncic

    2003-01-01

    Among the services offered by the AliEn (ALICE Environment\\u000ahttp:\\/\\/alien.cern.ch) Grid framework there is a virtual file catalogue to allow\\u000atransparent access to distributed data-sets using various file transfer\\u000aprotocols. $alienfs$ (AliEn File System) integrates the AliEn file catalogue as\\u000aa new file system type into the Linux kernel using LUFS, a hybrid user space\\u000afile system framework (Open Source

  16. 20 CFR 429.202 - How do I file a claim under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Section 429.202 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE... You must file your claim with the Social Security Administration, Office of...the filing of a claim. If war or armed conflict prevents you from filing the...

  17. ATLAS, an integrated structural analysis and design system. Volume 4: Random access file catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, F. P., Jr. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented for the random access files used by the ATLAS integrated structural analysis and design system. ATLAS consists of several technical computation modules which output data matrices to corresponding random access file. A description of the matrices written on these files is contained herein.

  18. Generation and use of the Goddard trajectory determination system SLP ephemeris files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, M. G.; Tomaszewski, I. B.

    1973-01-01

    Information is presented to acquaint users of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System Solar/Lunar/Planetary ephemeris files with the details connected with the generation and use of these files. In particular, certain sections constitute a user's manual for the ephemeris files.

  19. CITI Technical Report 04-02 NFSv4 and High Performance File Systems

    E-print Network

    Honeyman, Peter

    CITI Technical Report 04-02 NFSv4 and High Performance File Systems: Positioning to Scale Dean is a mechanism to control access to a file, comparable to whole-file locking. When a client issues an OPEN as a standard for fast and secure access to this data, both across a WAN and within a (potentially massive

  20. The K3 rotary nickel-titanium file system.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    The K3 rotary nickel-titanium file system by SybronEndo is a state-of-the-art rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instrumentation method combines excellent cutting characteristics with a robust sense of tactile control and excellent fracture resistance. The K3 has universal applicability across a wide range of clinical indications. Although it is a complete instrumentation system, future possibilities for hybrid instrumentation techniques that combine the best features of K3 with other rotary system hold promise. PMID:15066511

  1. Athos: Efficient Authentication of Outsourced File Systems

    E-print Network

    units of minimal trust assumptions (e.g., NAS or SAN, storage providers, Internet-based computing of the computations performed on this data is necessary to ensure the trustworthiness of the storage system Papamanthou2 , Roberto Tamassia2 , and Nikos Triandopoulos3 1 Dept. of Computer Science, U. California, Irvine

  2. Streaming RAID: a disk array management system for video files

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fouad A. Tobagi; Joseph Pang; Randall Baird; Mark Gang

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of digital video files and traffic differ substantially from those encountered with data applications: (i) video files are much larger than data files, and (ii) video traffic is continuous in nature while data traffic is bursty, with the data rate of a video stream much higher than the mean rate of a data traffic source. Accordingly, conventional file

  3. Disk File Management in a Medium-Scale Time-Sharing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Robert J.; Pethia, Richard D.

    The paper descibes a compact and highly efficient disk file management system responsible for the management and allocation of space on moving head disk drives in a medium-scale time-sharing system. The disk file management system is a major component of the Experimental Time-Sharing System (ETSS) developed at the Learning Research and Development…

  4. 76 FR 52549 - Suspension of the Duty To File Reports for Classes of Asset-Backed Securities Under Section 15(D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...240 and 249 [Release No. 34-65148; File No. S7-02-11] RIN 3235-AK89 Suspension of the Duty To File Reports for Classes of Asset- Backed Securities...the automatic suspension of the duty to file under Section 15(d) of the...

  5. 76 FR 2049 - Suspension of the Duty To File Reports for Classes of Asset-Backed Securities Under Section 15(d...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...240 and 249 [Release No. 34-63652; File No. S7-02-11] RIN 3235-AK89 Suspension of the Duty To File Reports for Classes of Asset- Backed Securities...the automatic suspension of the duty to file under Section 15(d) of the...

  6. Design, implementation, and benchmarking of a file manager for a relational database management system on a raw UNIX disk

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, Pudugramam Shanker

    1994-01-01

    The file management component of a database management system (DBMS) has to be tailor designed to meet the performance demands of large database applications. The operating system (OS) file systems are typically not suitable for storing...

  7. Enhancing the Scalability of Blue Whale Cluster File System in Video-editing Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengxiang Si; Xiaoxuan Meng; Junwei Zhang; Lu Xu

    2009-01-01

    Scalability, which indicates the capacity of system to support the maximal number of clients, is very important to cluster file system. But in practical applications, the bandwidth that storage devices provide doesnpsilat linearly grow with the increasing number of clients which leads to bad QoS and restricts the scalability of cluster file system. This paper analyses the bottleneck of scalability

  8. The PUNCH Virtual File System: Seamless Access to Decentralized Storage Services in a Computational Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato J. O. Figueiredo; Nirav H. Kapadia; Jose A. B. Fortest

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a virtual file system that allows data to be transferred on demand between storage and compute servers for the duration of a computing session. The solution works with unmodified applications (even commercial ones) running on standard operating systems and hardware. The virtual file system employs software proxies to broker transactions between standard NFS clients and servers; the

  9. Feasibility of a serverless distributed file system deployed on an existing set of desktop PCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Bolosky; John R. Douceur; David Ely; Marvin Theimer

    2000-01-01

    We consider an architecture for a serverless distributed file system that does not assume mutual trust among the client computers. The system provides security, availability, and reliability by distributing multiple encrypted replicas of each file among the client machines. To assess the feasibility of deploying this system on an existing desktop infrastructure, we measure and analyze a large set of

  10. Requirements for LINCS File Management System. LINCS Project Document Series. LINCS #8-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Samuel A.; Sable, Jerome

    The report discusses the file management requirements of a computer-based information storage and retrieval system for the Language Information Network and Clearinghouse System (LINCS). It discusses a hypothetical structure for the LINCS system, requirements of file management, long-range trends in data management technology of interest to the…

  11. Transaction and Catalog Management of the Distributed File Management System DISCO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Breitwieser; U. Kersten

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents t he structure and concepts of two main functional components of the distributed file management system DISCO: The component 'access management for logical files' is responsible for the access to the distributed data. In order to achieve parallel transaction processing a page buffer system is maintained. It is shown how this page buffer system fits into the

  12. Interlude: File and Directories Thus far we have seen the development of two key operating system ab-

    E-print Network

    Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi

    39 Interlude: File and Directories Thus far we have seen the development of two key operating'll expect to see when interacting with a UNIX file system. 39.1 Files and Directories Two key abstractions;2 INTERLUDE: FILE AND DIRECTORIES name, usually a number of some kind; often, the user is not aware

  13. File servers for network-based distributed systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liba Svobodova

    1984-01-01

    A file server provides remote centralized storage of data to workstations connected to it via a communicatmn network; it facilitates data sharing among autonomous workstations and support of inexpensive workstations that have limited or no secondary storage. Various characteristics of file servers and the corresponding implementation issues based on a survey of a number of experimental file servers are discussed

  14. GPFS on AIX Clusters: High Performance File System Administration Simplified

    SciTech Connect

    Farazdel, Abbas (International Technical Support Organization, IBM); Curran, Robert (IBM); Jaehde, Astrid (Availant); Mcpheeters, Gordon (IBM); Paden, Raymond (IBM); Wescott, Ralph E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-08-03

    With the newest release of General Parallel File System for AIX (GPFS), release 1.4, the range of supported hardware platforms has been extended to include AIX RS/6000 workstations that are not part of an RS/6000 SP system. This is the first time that GPFS has been offered to non-RS/6000 SP users. Running GPFS outside of the RS/6000 SP does require that HACMP/ES is configured and that the RS/6000 systems within the HACMP cluster that will be part of the GPFS cluster be concurrently connected to an SSA disk subsystem. This redbook focuses on the planning, installation and implementation of GPFS in a cluster environment. The tasks to be covered include the installation and configuration of HACMP to support the GPFS cluster, implementation of the GPFS software, and developing application programs that use GPFS. A troubleshooting chapter is added in case any problems arise.

  15. CITADEL: A Content Protection Architecture for Decentralized Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems

    E-print Network

    Ammar, Mostafa

    CITADEL: A Content Protection Architecture for Decentralized Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems Paul architecture designed to operate in decentralized peer-to-peer systems (such as Gnutella). CITADEL enforces that provide the ability to con- trol or restrict the content that can be shared on peer-to-peer file sharing

  16. A Scalable Bandwidth Guaranteed Distributed Multimedia File System Using Network Attached Autonomous Disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuneyt Akinlar; Sarit Mukherjee

    Repository for multimedia data differs from that of the traditional text-based data both in storage space and streaming bandwidth requirements. The file systems used in multimedia environment need to support large vol- umes and high bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a novel scalable distributed file system built using Autonomous Disks. Autonomous disks are attached directly to the net- work

  17. The Naval Aviation Supply Office Inventory Retrieval SystemA Case Study in File Automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Zimmerman; David Lefkovitz; Noah S. Prywes

    1964-01-01

    This article describes the case history of the pilot mechanization of files at the Naval Aviation Supply Office. The system described retrieves information on a real-time basis from a large file of technical and inventory data stored on magnetic disk memory. A feature of the system is the use of the Multi-List technique which stores an addressing index in the

  18. New techniques for real-time FAT file system in mobile multimedia devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Young Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Flash memory has become the most important storage media in the mobile multimedia products such as MP3 players, mobile phones, and digital cameras. Most mobile multimedia devices, however, use one of the conventional FAT file systems slightly modified for flash memory environments. Our analysis shows that theses file systems have some restriction in recording a live multimedia stream stably because

  19. CEFT: A cost-effective, fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifeng Zhu; Hong Jiang

    The vulnerability of computer nodes due to component failures is a critical issue for cluster-based file systems. This paper studies the development and deployment of mirroring in cluster-based parallel virtual file systems to provide fault tolerance and analyzes the tradeoffs between the performance and the reliability in the mirroring scheme. It presents the design and implementation of CEFT, a scalable

  20. Serials Fiscal Control Using a Flat-File Database Management System on a Microcomputer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Khoo; Hong-Kiat Ong; Sylvia Yap

    1991-01-01

    The use of Q&A for serials fund accounting and for generating related management information is described. Q&A is a flat-file database management system used with IBM compatible microcomputers. The file structures of the accounting system are outlined as are the procedures for obtaining various management reports.

  1. USENIX Association 11th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST '13) 31 A Study of Linux File System Evolution

    E-print Network

    Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi

    by a local file system; for ex- ample, Google Android phones use Ext4 [2, 23] and Ap- ple's iOS devices use systems remain a moving target. Developed by different teams with different goals, these file systems? These questions are important to an- swer for different communities: for developers, so that they can improve

  2. Derived virtual devices: a secure distributed file system mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanMeter, Rodney; Hotz, Steve; Finn, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the design of derived virtual devices (DVDs). DVDs are the mechanism used by the Netstation Project to provide secure shared access to network-attached peripherals distributed in an untrusted network environment. DVDs improve Input/Output efficiency by allowing user processes to perform I/O operations directly from devices without intermediate transfer through the controlling operating system kernel. The security enforced at the device through the DVD mechanism includes resource boundary checking, user authentication, and restricted operations, e.g., read-only access. To illustrate the application of DVDs, we present the interactions between a network-attached disk and a file system designed to exploit the DVD abstraction. We further discuss third-party transfer as a mechanism intended to provide for efficient data transfer in a typical NAP environment. We show how DVDs facilitate third-party transfer, and provide the security required in a more open network environment.

  3. OdeFS: A File System Interface to an Object-Oriented Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narain H. Gehani; H. V. Jagadish; William D. Roome

    1994-01-01

    OdeFS is a file-like interface to the Ode object-oriented database. Database objects are accessed and manipulated like files in a traditional file system using standard UNIX® commands. For example, the ls command can be used to list the objects in a directory and the cat command can be used to display the contents of an object. Editors such as vi

  4. A Differentiated Service Based Incentive Mechanism in P2P File-sharing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiubo Huang; Shaoyin Huang; Chuanshan Gao

    2007-01-01

    In P2P file-sharing systems, incentives to motivate peers to provide their files are essential. The objective of this paper is to enable the peers to get service differentiation in a P2P network based on how much the peers are willing to pay for a file. A peer can obtain higher download bandwidth if he pays a relatively higher price. To

  5. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  6. 10 CFR 708.41 - Will DOE ever refer a complaint filed under this part to another agency for investigation and a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Will DOE ever refer a complaint filed under this...708.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM...and Decision Process § 708.41 Will DOE ever refer a complaint filed under...

  7. 12 CFR 116.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OCC Review Expedited Treatment § 116.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  8. 12 CFR 516.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Expedited Treatment § 516.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  9. 12 CFR 116.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OCC Review Expedited Treatment § 116.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  10. 12 CFR 516.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Expedited Treatment § 516.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  11. 12 CFR 516.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Expedited Treatment § 516.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  12. 12 CFR 516.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OTS Review Expedited Treatment § 516.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  13. 12 CFR 116.200 - If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed activities...PROCESSING PROCEDURES OCC Review Expedited Treatment § 116.200 If I file a notice under expedited treatment, when may I engage in the proposed...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required...1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required...that is required to be filed on magnetic media under § 301.6033-4 of this...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required...Returns § 1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required...organization that is required to be filed on magnetic media under § 301.6033-4 of...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required... § 301.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required...to file returns under section 6033 on magnetic media. An organization required...

  17. ISU Policy Library All of this information can be found Under the ISU Policy Library --File retention.

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsing-Chang "Mike"

    ISU Policy Library All of this information can be found Under the ISU Policy Library -- File, Reimbursements -- http://records.policy.iastate.edu/view.php?id=389 Archive -- ISU Library University Archives 403 Parks Library Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 Phone: 515-294-6672 Please contact archives

  18. Evaluating the Shared Root File System Approach for Diskless High-Performance Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Ong, Hong Hoe [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Diskless high-performance computing (HPC) systems utilizing networked storage have become popular in the last several years. Removing disk drives significantly increases compute node reliability as they are known to be a major source of failures. Furthermore, networked storage solutions utilizing parallel I/O and replication are able to provide increased scalability and availability. Reducing a compute node to processor(s), memory and network interface(s) greatly reduces its physical size, which in turn allows for large-scale dense HPC solutions. However, one major obstacle is the requirement by certain operating systems (OSs), such as Linux, for a root file system. While one solution is to remove this requirement from the OS, another is to share the root file system over the networked storage. This paper evaluates three networked file system solutions, NFSv4, Lustre and PVFS2, with respect to their performance, scalability, and availability features for servicing a common root file system in a diskless HPC configuration. Our findings indicate that Lustre is a viable solution as it meets both, scaling and performance requirements. However, certain availability issues regarding single points of failure and control need to be considered.

  19. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...1202.94 What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...Case Files (NARA-24) system of records is...

  20. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...1202.94 What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...Case Files (NARA-24) system of records is...

  1. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...1202.94 What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...Case Files (NARA-24) system of records is...

  2. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...1202.94 What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...Case Files (NARA-24) system of records is...

  3. 36 CFR 1202.94 - What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory Information Material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...1202.94 What NARA systems of records are exempt from release under the Investigatory...Case Files (NARA-24) system of records is...

  4. Providing asynchronous file I/O for the Plan 9 operating system

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Jason, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis proposes a mux abstraction that multiplexes messages of a network file protocol to provide asynchronous access to all system resources on the Plan 9 operating system. The mux provides an easy-to-program ...

  5. A scalable bandwidth guaranteed distributed continuous media file system using network attached autonomous disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuneyt Akinlar; Sarit Mukherjee

    2003-01-01

    Repository for multimedia data differs fromthat of the traditional text-based data both in storage spaceand streaming bandwidth requirements. The file systemsused in multimedia environment need to support large volumesand high bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a novelscalable distributed file system built using AutonomousDisks. Autonomous disks are attached directly to the networkand are able to perform lightweight processing. Wediscuss different

  6. Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.

    The Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a collection of education and health data on more than 750,000 migrant children in grades K-12 in the United States (except Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and the outlying territories of Puerto Rico and the Mariana and Marshall Islands. The active file

  7. An Empirical Study of Free-Riding Behavior in the Maze P2P File-Sharing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Yang; Zhengyou Zhang; Xiaoming Li; Yafei Dai

    2005-01-01

    Maze1 is a P2P file-sharing system with an active and large user base. It is developed, deployed and op- erated by an academic research team. As such, it offers ample opportunities to conduct experiments to under- stand user behavior. Embedded in Maze is a set of in- centive policies designed to encourage sharing and contribution. This paper presents an in-depth

  8. A Multidimensional Reputation System Combined with Trust and Incentive Mechanisms in P2P File Sharing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Yang; Qinyuan Feng; Yafei Dai; Zheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Free-riders and fake files are two important problems in P2P file sharing systems. Previous works have always used incentive mechanisms and trust mechanisms to address them respectively. In real systems however, a trust mechanism without incentive would face lack of users' enthusiasm and thus cause sparse relationship of direct trust while an incentive mechanism without trust could induce users' bad

  9. Development of a user-centered radiology teaching file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Fujino, Asa

    2011-03-01

    Learning radiology requires systematic and comprehensive study of a large knowledge base of medical images. In this work is presented the development of a digital radiology teaching file system. The proposed system has been created in order to offer a set of customized services regarding to users' contexts and their informational needs. This has been done by means of an electronic infrastructure that provides easy and integrated access to all relevant patient data at the time of image interpretation, so that radiologists and researchers can examine all available data to reach well-informed conclusions, while protecting patient data privacy and security. The system is presented such as an environment which implements a distributed clinical database, including medical images, authoring tools, repository for multimedia documents, and also a peer-reviewed model which assures dataset quality. The current implementation has shown that creating clinical data repositories on networked computer environments points to be a good solution in terms of providing means to review information management practices in electronic environments and to create customized and contextbased tools for users connected to the system throughout electronic interfaces.

  10. Fuzzy file management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niloy Gupta; K. R. Abhinav; Annappa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a fuzzy logic approach to improve file management and organization. Incorporating fuzzy techniques in the file management process provides an intelligent way of maintaining files on the computer system. The fuzzy inference engine implements the decision making process required to select files for various file operations. This provides user convenience and system efficiency. We develop

  11. The Design and Implementation of Elastic Quotas: A System for Flexible File System Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Nieh; Erez Zadok; Jeffrey Osborn; Ariye Shater; Charles Wright

    We introduce elastic quotas, a disk space management technique that makes disk space an elastic resource like CPU and memory. Elastic quotas allow all users to use unlimited amounts of available disk space while still providing system administrators the ability to control how the disk space is al- located among users. Elastic quotas maintain existing persis- tent file semantics while

  12. 75 FR 27986 - Electronic Filing System-Web (EFS-Web) Contingency Option

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is increasing the availability of its patent electronic filing system, Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web) by providing a new contingency option when the primary portal to EFS-Web has an unscheduled outage. Previously, the entire EFS-Web system is not available to the users during such an outage. The contingency option in EFS-Web will......

  13. A resources monitoring architecture for P2P file-sharing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Xingshu; Wang, Haizhou

    2013-07-01

    Resources monitoring is an important problem of the overall efficient usage and control of P2P file-sharing systems. The resources of file-sharing systems can include all distributing servers, programs and peers. Several researches have tried to address this issue, but most of them illuminated P2P traffic characterization, identification and user behavior. Based on previous work, we present a resources monitoring architecture for P2P file-sharing systems. The monitoring architecture employs a hierarchical structure and provides systemic monitoring including resources discovery, relative information extraction and analysis, trace and location. It gives a systematic framework for file-sharing resources monitoring. And a prototype system has been developed based on the framework.

  14. Using Hadoop File System and MapReduce in a small/medium Grid site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, H.; Donvito, G.; Fanò, L.; Fasi, M.; Marzulli, G.; Spiga, D.; Valentini, A.

    2012-12-01

    Data storage and data access represent the key of CPU-intensive and data-intensive high performance Grid computing. Hadoop is an open-source data processing framework that includes fault-tolerant and scalable distributed data processing model and execution environment, named MapReduce, and distributed File System, named Hadoop distributed File System (HDFS). HDFS was deployed and tested within the Open Science Grid (OSG) middleware stack. Efforts have been taken to integrate HDFS with gLite middleware. We have tested the File System thoroughly in order to understand its scalability and fault-tolerance while dealing with small/medium site environment constraints. To benefit entirely from this File System, we made it working in conjunction with Hadoop Job scheduler to optimize the executions of the local physics analysis workflows. The performance of the analysis jobs which used such architecture seems to be promising, making it useful to follow up in the future.

  15. Alternatives to Conjunctive Query Processing in Peer-to-Peer File-sharing Systems

    E-print Network

    Thai Nguyen and Ophir Frieder Illinois Institute of Technology 10 W 31 st Street Chicago, IL 60616 USA {waigen, linhnt, ophir}@ir.iit.edu ABSTRACT Peer-to-peer file-sharing systems suffer from the over

  16. Microcomputer-assisted filing system of cardiac catheterization records using a relational database management system.

    PubMed

    Mohri, M; Kikuchi, Y; Sagara, T; Sugihara, M

    1988-03-01

    To efficiently store and retrieve cardiac catheterization records, we have developed a computer-assisted database, which comprises a 16-bit microcomputer with dual floppy disk drives, a 20 MB random-access memory, hard disk drive, and a line printer. All programmings were accomplished using a relational database management system (R:base 5000, Microrim, Inc.). Data inquiry procedures could be performed with direct operational commands of the system as well as with preprogrammed command files, and final results of searches were printed out with a line printer. The major advantages of the present system described in this report include: (1) the relatively easy and rapid creation of the database, (2) ease of modification of the database structures even after the system design is finished, (3) operational commands in combination with conditional operator(s) are flexible and powerful enough to allow the end user to retrieve data based on various kinds of criteria, (4) a high-level programming language provided by the R:base automates a series of database procedures with relative ease, (5) relational capabilities of the database management system can enhance the possibility of reconstruction of a new data file from a single or several preexisting data files, and (6) the system can be realized at reasonable cost. PMID:3258556

  17. The Umbrella File System: Storage Management Across Heterogeneous Devices

    E-print Network

    Garrison, John Allen

    2011-08-08

    With the advent of Flash based solid state devices (SSDs), the differences in physical devices used to store data in computers are becoming more and more pronounced. Effectively mapping the differences in storage devices to the files...

  18. The Fifth Workshop on HPC Best Practices: File Systems and Archives

    SciTech Connect

    Hick, Jason; Hules, John; Uselton, Andrew

    2011-11-30

    The workshop on High Performance Computing (HPC) Best Practices on File Systems and Archives was the fifth in a series sponsored jointly by the Department Of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and DOE National Nuclear Security Administration. The workshop gathered technical and management experts for operations of HPC file systems and archives from around the world. Attendees identified and discussed best practices in use at their facilities, and documented findings for the DOE and HPC community in this report.

  19. Dynamic disk bandwidth management and metadata pre-fetching in a real-time file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasio Molano; Ragunathan Rajkumar; Kanaka Juvva

    1998-01-01

    The authors focus on two practical considerations that arise in the design of a real-time file system. Firstly, disk bandwidth management should be dynamic, which in turn would allow a QoS manager to dynamically reallocate disk bandwidth to running applications based on their changing needs. Secondly, real-time access to file system data structures should be deterministic, in order to avoid

  20. Lessons Learned in Deploying the World s Largest Scale Lustre File System

    SciTech Connect

    Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.

  1. RFS: A MobileTransparent File System for the Rover Toolkit Anthony D. Joseph, George M. Candea, and M. Frans Kaashoek

    E-print Network

    RFS: A Mobile­Transparent File System for the Rover Toolkit Anthony D. Joseph, George M. Candea easier for application designers, we are adding a file system proxy, the Rover File System (RFS), to the Rover toolkit's object­based model [1, 2]. This will allow the Rover toolkit to support both a file

  2. Object and File Management in the EXODUS Extensible Database System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carey; David J. Dewitt; Joel E. Richardron; Eugene J. Shekita

    provided by no commercial database system at this time). Storing This paper describes the design of the object-oriented storage component of EXODUS, an extensible database manaaement~svs- tern currently under development at the University of-Wiscon&t. The basic abstraction in the EXODU'S storage system is the storage object, an uninterpmted variable-length m&z& of arbitrary size; higher level abstractions such as records and

  3. Recent Developments in the CernVM-File System Server Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusel, R.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Ganis, G.; Heikkila, S.

    2015-05-01

    The CernVM File System (CernVM-FS) is a snapshotting read-only file system designed to deliver software to grid worker nodes over HTTP in a fast, scalable and reliable way. In recent years it became the de-facto standard method to distribute HEP experiment software in the WLCG and starts to be adopted by other grid computing communities outside HEP. This paper focusses on the recent developments of the CernVM-FS Server, the central publishing point of new file system snapshots. Using a union file system, the CernVM-FS Server allows for direct manipulation of a (normally read-only) CernVM-FS volume with copy-on-write semantics. Eventually the collected changeset is transformed into a new CernVM-FS snapshot, constituting a transactional feedback loop. The generated repository data is pushed into a content addressable storage requiring only a RESTful interface and gets distributed through a hierarchy of caches to individual grid worker nodes. Additonally we describe recent features, such as file chunking, repository garbage collection and file system history that enable CernVM- FS for a wider range of use cases.

  4. Semantic File Systems David K. Gifford, Pierre Jouvelotl,

    E-print Network

    Sirer, Emin Gun

    .S. Department of Defense and was men. Ltored by the Office of Naval Research under grsmt number NOOO 14. S9-J-19. Programming Systems Research Group MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Abstract A semantic jile s~stem that provides flexi- This research was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U

  5. Performance of file directory systems for data bases in star and distributed networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wesley W. Chu

    1976-01-01

    Three classes of file directories for distributed data bases are studied: The centralized directory system, the local directory system, and the distributed directory system. The parameters considered are communication cost, storage cost, code translation cost, query rate, update rate, directory size, and directory response time. This study reports the cost performance tradeoffs of these three classes of directory systems in

  6. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.

    2014-06-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  7. 47 CFR 1.1705 - Forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...applications with the Commission: batch and interactive. (i) Batch filing. Batch filing...system as they enter the information. (ii) Interactive filing. Interactive filing involves data transmission with...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1705 - Forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...applications with the Commission: batch and interactive. (i) Batch filing. Batch filing...system as they enter the information. (ii) Interactive filing. Interactive filing involves data transmission with...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1705 - Forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...applications with the Commission: batch and interactive. (i) Batch filing. Batch filing...system as they enter the information. (ii) Interactive filing. Interactive filing involves data transmission with...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1705 - Forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...applications with the Commission: batch and interactive. (i) Batch filing. Batch filing...system as they enter the information. (ii) Interactive filing. Interactive filing involves data transmission with...

  11. Hades: Locality-aware Proxy Caching for Distributed File Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamprini Konsta; Stergios V. Anastasiadis

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we explore storage manage- ment issues in proxy servers for distributed file sys- tems. We organize the requested data at the disks of the proxy server using locality-aware approaches. Ad- ditionally, we introduce improvements in the map- ping mechanism from remote to local data and con- sider cost-aware replacement methods. In a prototype implementation that we

  12. Fine-Grained Access Control in the Chirp Distributed File System Patrick Donnelly and Douglas Thain

    E-print Network

    Thain, Douglas

    Fine-Grained Access Control in the Chirp Distributed File System Patrick Donnelly and Douglas Thain filesystem. We have implemented this system in the context of the Chirp user-level distributed filesystem distributed computing systems such as clus- ters, clouds, and grids provide end users with access to virtually

  13. Cryptographic Security for a High-Performance Distributed File System Roman Pletka

    E-print Network

    Cachin, Christian

    storage systems. Today, storage space is typically provided by complex networked systems. These networksCryptographic Security for a High-Performance Distributed File System Roman Pletka AdNovum Informatik AG CH-8005 Z¨urich, Switerland roman@pletka.ch Christian Cachin IBM Zurich Research Laboratory CH

  14. Cryptographic Security for a HighPerformance Distributed File System Roman Pletka #

    E-print Network

    Cachin, Christian

    storage systems. Today, storage space is typically provided by complex networked systems. These networksCryptographic Security for a High­Performance Distributed File System Roman Pletka # AdNovum Informatik AG CH­8005 ZË?urich, Switerland roman@pletka.ch Christian Cachin IBM Zurich Research Laboratory CH

  15. Planning ATES systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Kwakkel, Jan; Bloemendal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) can contribute to significant reductions in energy use within the built environment, by providing seasonal energy storage in aquifers for the heating and cooling of buildings. ATES systems have experienced a rapid uptake over the last two decades; however, despite successful experiments at the individual level, the overall performance of ATES systems remains below expectations - largely due to suboptimal practices for the planning and operation of systems in urban areas. The interaction between ATES systems and underground aquifers can be interpreted as a common-pool resource problem, in which thermal imbalances or interference could eventually degrade the storage potential of the subsurface. Current planning approaches for ATES systems thus typically follow the precautionary principle. For instance, the permitting process in the Netherlands is intended to minimize thermal interference between ATES systems. However, as shown in recent studies (Sommer et al., 2015; Bakr et al., 2013), a controlled amount of interference may benefit the collective performance of ATES systems. An overly restrictive approach to permitting is instead likely to create an artificial scarcity of available space, limiting the potential of the technology in urban areas. In response, master plans - which take into account the collective arrangement of multiple systems - have emerged as an increasingly popular alternative. However, permits and master plans both take a static, ex ante view of ATES governance, making it difficult to predict the effect of evolving ATES use or climactic conditions on overall performance. In particular, the adoption of new systems by building operators is likely to be driven by the available subsurface space and by the performance of existing systems; these outcomes are themselves a function of planning parameters. From this perspective, the interactions between planning authorities, ATES operators, and subsurface conditions form a complex adaptive system, for which agent-based modelling provides a useful analysis framework. This study therefore explores the interactions between endogenous ATES adoption processes and the relative performance of different planning schemes, using an agent-based adoption model coupled with a hydrologic model of the subsurface. The models are parameterized to simulate typical operating conditions for ATES systems in a dense urban area. Furthermore, uncertainties relating to planning parameters, adoption processes, and climactic conditions are explicitly considered using exploratory modelling techniques. Results are therefore presented for the performance of different planning policies over a broad range of plausible scenarios.

  16. System Design of Real Time Vehicle Type Recognition Based on Video for Windows (AVI) Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wei; Luo, Zhiqing

    In this system, with technology of motion detection, the data frames include vehicle digital image can be detected automatically from a Video for Windows (AVI) File, at the same time, vehicle type will be recognized and displayed automatically. The system's process consists of five steps: Read the AVI file and decompose it into digital image frames; Motion detection; Vehicle digital image processing; Counting number of black pixels included in vehicle body contour and project on car image; Module of vehicle type classification. In particular, algorithm of vehicle recognition through counting number of black pixels included in vehicle body contour is one innovation algorithm. Experiment on actual AVI files shows: the system design is simple and effective.

  17. Question Answering from FrequentlyAsked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System

    E-print Network

    Burke, Robin

    Question Answering from Frequently­Asked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System, Noriko Tomuro, & Scott Schoenberg School of Computer Science, DePaul University 243 S. Wabash, Chicago -- not for citation Abstract This paper describes FAQ Finder, a natural language question­answering system that uses

  18. A Next-Generation Parallel File System Environment for the OLCF

    SciTech Connect

    Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Reitz, Doug M [ORNL; Simmons, James A [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    When deployed in 2008/2009 the Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was the world s largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF s diverse computational environment, Spider has since become a blueprint for shared Lustre environments deployed worldwide. Designed to support the parallel I/O requirements of the Jaguar XT5 system and other smallerscale platforms at the OLCF, the upgrade to the Titan XK6 heterogeneous system will begin to push the limits of Spider s original design by mid 2013. With a doubling in total system memory and a 10x increase in FLOPS, Titan will require both higher bandwidth and larger total capacity. Our goal is to provide a 4x increase in total I/O bandwidth from over 240GB=sec today to 1TB=sec and a doubling in total capacity. While aggregate bandwidth and total capacity remain important capabilities, an equally important goal in our efforts is dramatically increasing metadata performance, currently the Achilles heel of parallel file systems at leadership. We present in this paper an analysis of our current I/O workloads, our operational experiences with the Spider parallel file systems, the high-level design of our Spider upgrade, and our efforts in developing benchmarks that synthesize our performance requirements based on our workload characterization studies.

  19. Fast mounting method for NAND flash memory file system using offset information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan-Sul Park; Tae Hee Han

    2010-01-01

    Replacing hard disks as a storage device, NAND flash memories are now widely used on embedded systems due to a variety of advantages such as fast accessibility, low power consumption, solid durability and small form factor. However, the NAND flash memory cannot use existing file system for hard disks because of the physical difference between the NAND flash memory and

  20. Extending the POSIX I/O interface: a parallel file system perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilayannur, M.; Lang, S.; Ross, R.; Klundt, R.; Ward, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; VMWare, Inc.; SNL

    2008-12-11

    The POSIX interface does not lend itself well to enabling good performance for high-end applications. Extensions are needed in the POSIX I/O interface so that high-concurrency HPC applications running on top of parallel file systems perform well. This paper presents the rationale, design, and evaluation of a reference implementation of a subset of the POSIX I/O interfaces on a widely used parallel file system (PVFS) on clusters. Experimental results on a set of micro-benchmarks confirm that the extensions to the POSIX interface greatly improve scalability and performance.

  1. A convertor and user interface to import CAD files into worldtoolkit virtual reality systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Peter Hor-Ching

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly developing human-to-computer interface technology. VR can be considered as a three-dimensional computer-generated Virtual World (VW) which can sense particular aspects of a user's behavior, allow the user to manipulate the objects interactively, and render the VW at real-time accordingly. The user is totally immersed in the virtual world and feel the sense of transforming into that VW. NASA/MSFC Computer Application Virtual Environments (CAVE) has been developing the space-related VR applications since 1990. The VR systems in CAVE lab are based on VPL RB2 system which consists of a VPL RB2 control tower, an LX eyephone, an Isotrak polhemus sensor, two Fastrak polhemus sensors, a folk of Bird sensor, and two VPL DG2 DataGloves. A dynamics animator called Body Electric from VPL is used as the control system to interface with all the input/output devices and to provide the network communications as well as VR programming environment. The RB2 Swivel 3D is used as the modelling program to construct the VW's. A severe limitation of the VPL VR system is the use of RB2 Swivel 3D, which restricts the files to a maximum of 1020 objects and doesn't have the advanced graphics texture mapping. The other limitation is that the VPL VR system is a turn-key system which does not provide the flexibility for user to add new sensors and C language interface. Recently, NASA/MSFC CAVE lab provides VR systems built on Sense8 WorldToolKit (WTK) which is a C library for creating VR development environments. WTK provides device drivers for most of the sensors and eyephones available on the VR market. WTK accepts several CAD file formats, such as Sense8 Neutral File Format, AutoCAD DXF and 3D Studio file format, Wave Front OBJ file format, VideoScape GEO file format, Intergraph EMS stereolithographics and CATIA Stereolithographics STL file formats. WTK functions are object-oriented in their naming convention, are grouped into classes, and provide easy C language interface. Using a CAD or modelling program to build a VW for WTK VR applications, we typically construct the stationary universe with all the geometric objects except the dynamic objects, and create each dynamic object in an individual file.

  2. CHAIO: Enabling HPC Applications on Data-Intensive File Systems Hui Jin, Jiayu Ji, Xian-He Sun

    E-print Network

    Sun, Xian-He

    CHAIO: Enabling HPC Applications on Data-Intensive File Systems Hui Jin, Jiayu Ji, Xian-He Sun National Laboratory thakur@mcs.anl.gov ABSTRACT--The computing paradigm of "HPC in the Cloud" has gained of running HPC applications on top of data-intensive file systems is a critical catalyst in promoting Clouds

  3. Performance of Size-Changing Algorithms in Stackable File Systems Erez Zadok, Johan M. Andersen, Ion Badulescu, and Jason Nieh

    E-print Network

    , Ion Badulescu, and Jason Nieh Computer Science Department, Columbia University ezk,johan,ion,nieh @cs for typical work- loads, only 2.3% over other stacked file systems. Our sys- tem can deliver much better]. With stacking, file systems can be developed indepen- dently and then stacked on top of each other to provide

  4. Performance of SizeChanging Algorithms in Stackable File Systems Erez Zadok, Johan M. Andersen, Ion Badulescu, and Jason Nieh

    E-print Network

    , Ion Badulescu, and Jason Nieh Computer Science Department, Columbia University fezk,johan,ion for typical work­ loads, only 2.3% over other stacked file systems. Our sys­ tem can deliver much better]. With stacking, file systems can be developed indepen­ dently and then stacked on top of each other to provide

  5. Bimodal Biometric Person Identification System Under Perturbations

    E-print Network

    verification using face and voice information. We are interested in setting up a bimodal identification systemBimodal Biometric Person Identification System Under Perturbations Miguel Carrasco1 , Luis Pizarro2. Multibiometric person identification systems play a crucial role in environments where security must be ensured

  6. Further implementation of the user space file system based on CastorFS and Xrootd

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Manjun

    The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments use a mass storage system for recording petabytes of experimental data. This system is called CASTOR[1] (CERN Advanced STORage manager) and it is powerful and convenient for many use cases. However, it is impossible to use standard tools and scripts straight away for dealing with the files in the system since the users can access the data just in the way of using command-line utilities and parsing their output. Thus a complete POSIX filesystem – CastorFS[2] is developed based on the FUSE[3] (File System in Userspace) and two CASTOR I/O libraries-RFIO (Remote File I/O) library and NS (Name Server) library. Although it is applied successfully, it has serious limitation of wide application because the I/O protocols it relies on are very old. Each time the CASTOR side receives the calling for accessing data files from the user side, the load of the CASTOR side system will increase quickly even out of its upper bound and the system would crash. Besides that, those two ...

  7. HLLV avionics requirements study and electronic filing system database development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report provides a summary of achievements and activities performed under Contract NAS8-39215. The contract's objective was to explore a new way of delivering, storing, accessing, and archiving study products and information and to define top level system requirements for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) avionics that incorporate Vehicle Health Management (VHM). This report includes technical objectives, methods, assumptions, recommendations, sample data, and issues as specified by DPD No. 772, DR-3. The report is organized into two major subsections, one specific to each of the two tasks defined in the Statement of Work: the Index Database Task and the HLLV Avionics Requirements Task. The Index Database Task resulted in the selection and modification of a commercial database software tool to contain the data developed during the HLLV Avionics Requirements Task. All summary information is addressed within each task's section.

  8. Fracture strength of roots instrumented with three different single file systems in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Bilge Gulsum; Ok, Evren; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Tanriver, Mehmet; Capar, Ismail Davut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strength of roots instrumented with three different single file rotary systems in curved mesial root canals of maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Curvatures of 25°–35° on mesial roots of 60 maxillary molar teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction to obtain roots 11 mm in length. The roots were balanced with respect to buccolingual and mesiodistal diameter and weight. They were distributed into three experimental groups and one control group (no instrumentation) (n = 15): Reciproc rotary file (R25, VDW, Munich, Germany), WaveOne Primary rotary file (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, UK) and OneShape (Micro-Mega, Besancon, France) rotary file. Vertical load was applied until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance test (P < 0.05). Results: The mean fracture load was 412 ± 72 Newton (N) for the control group, 395 ± 69 N for the Reciproc group, 373 ± 63 N for the WaveOne group and 332 ± 68 N for the OneShape group. The fracture load differences among three experimental groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05.) Whereas, the fracture loads of control and OneShape groups were significantly different (P = 0.012). Conclusions: Fracture resistance of the roots instrumented with WaveOne and Reciproc file systems were similar to the control group whereas it was observed that OneShape rotary file systems enhance the fracture strength of standardized curved roots when compared with the control group.

  9. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on the clinical lifetime of ProTaper rotary file system.

    PubMed

    Penta, Virgil; Pirvu, Cristian; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current paper is to show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could be a method for evaluating and predicting of ProTaper rotary file system clinical lifespan. This particular aspect of everyday use of the endodontic files is of great importance in each dental practice and has profound clinical implications. The method used for quantification resides in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy theory and has in its main focus the characteristics of the surface titanium oxide layer. This electrochemical technique has been adapted successfully to identify the quality of the Ni-Ti files oxide layer. The modification of this protective layer induces changes in corrosion behavior of the alloy modifying the impedance value of the file. In order to assess the method, 14 ProTaper sets utilized on different patients in a dental clinic have been submitted for testing using EIS. The information obtained in regard to the surface oxide layer has offered an indication of use and proves that the said layer evolves with each clinical application. The novelty of this research is related to an electrochemical technique successfully adapted for Ni-Ti file investigation and correlation with surface and clinical aspects. PMID:24605336

  10. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation on the Clinical Lifetime of ProTaper Rotary File System

    PubMed Central

    Pirvu, Cristian; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current paper is to show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could be a method for evaluating and predicting of ProTaper rotary file system clinical lifespan. This particular aspect of everyday use of the endodontic files is of great importance in each dental practice and has profound clinical implications. The method used for quantification resides in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy theory and has in its main focus the characteristics of the surface titanium oxide layer. This electrochemical technique has been adapted successfully to identify the quality of the Ni-Ti files oxide layer. The modification of this protective layer induces changes in corrosion behavior of the alloy modifying the impedance value of the file. In order to assess the method, 14 ProTaper sets utilized on different patients in a dental clinic have been submitted for testing using EIS. The information obtained in regard to the surface oxide layer has offered an indication of use and proves that the said layer evolves with each clinical application. The novelty of this research is related to an electrochemical technique successfully adapted for Ni-Ti file investigation and correlation with surface and clinical aspects. PMID:24605336

  11. Free-Riding on BitTorrent-Like Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems: Modeling

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Free-Riding on BitTorrent-Like Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems: Modeling Analysis and Improvement contribution and prevent free-riding. However, BitTorrent's ability to prevent free-riding needs further study. In this paper, we present a fluid model with two different classes of peers to capture the effect of free

  12. Research of the mobile-code-based file system for portable information device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yurong Xu; Shouqian Sun; Yunhe Pan

    2001-01-01

    While the mobile communication device is developing into the portable information device, it is necessary to design a distributed file-system in such a mobile environment. In order to do it, we must consider the relative shortage of the portable storage and low computation ability of a portable information device as well as unreliable and low-performance networks. By using mobile code

  13. Scaling Filename Queries in a Large-Scale Distributed File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Ledlie; Laura Serban; Dafina Toncheva

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the tradeoffs in applying regular and Compressed Bloom filters to the name query problem in distributed file systems and developed and tested a novel mechanism for scaling queries as the network grows large. Filters greatly reduced query messages when using Fan' s \\

  14. Digital Computer Simulation Models of Library-Based Information Retrieval Systems. Reports on File Organization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Kevin D.

    A simulation study of library-based information retrieval systems is described. Basic models for each of several important aspects are presented: (1) user behavior, emphasizing response to quality and delays in services; (2) the scheduling of services and the organization of the machine-readable files; and (3) the distribution of conventional…

  15. Improving File System Reliability with I/O Shepherding Haryadi S. Gunawi

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Microsoft Research University of Wisconsin, Madison Silicon Valley {haryadi, swetha, dusseau, remzi I/O that the file system issues. The shepherd then takes responsibility for the "care and feeding in the rich Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom

  16. Using Model Checking to Find Serious File System Errors Junfeng Yang, Paul Twohey, Dawson Engler #

    E-print Network

    Engler, Dawson

    Using Model Checking to Find Serious File System Errors Junfeng Yang, Paul Twohey, Dawson Engler was supported by NSF grant CCR­0326227 and DARPA grant F29601­03­2­0117. Dawson Engler is partially sup­ ported

  17. Binary authentication signatures integrity standard: System file integrity for the masses

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoletti, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Graff, M. [Sun Microsystems, Inc. (United States); Schales, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Thrusted software plays a central role in computer security, yet straightforward methods for authentication of installed software are lacking in the marketplace. This paper argues for a vendor-supported standard for the generation and publication of strong digital signature for all vendor-supplied system files. Progress in the design and adoption of a proposed standard is discussed.

  18. SANE: Semantic-Aware Namespace in Ultra-Large-Scale File Systems

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yifeng

    --The explosive growth in data volume and complexity imposes great challenges for file systems. To address are facing great challenges in handling the deluge of data stemming from many data-intensive applica- tions of respondents faced two critical chal- lenges: efficiently supporting a flood of emerging applica- tions

  19. Toward Behavioral Modeling of a Grid System: Mining the Logging and Bookkeeping files

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - puting is becoming a source of challenging applications in Machine Learning and Data Mining (see e.g. [2]). This paper is concerned with the behavioral modeling of the EGEE grid (Enabling Grid for E-Science in EuropeToward Behavioral Modeling of a Grid System: Mining the Logging and Bookkeeping files Xiangliang

  20. HighLight: Using a Log-structured File System for Tertiary Storage Management y

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    is reclaimed by copying valid data from dirty segments to the tail of the log and marking the emptied segments and mechanisms should ar- range the data on tertiary storage to improve read perfor- mance. HighLight was developed to provide a data storage file system for use by Sequoia researchers. Project Sequoia 2000 [14

  1. Balancing Peer and Server Energy Consumption in Large Peer-to-Peer File Distribution Systems

    E-print Network

    Andrew, Lachlan

    Balancing Peer and Server Energy Consumption in Large Peer-to-Peer File Distribution Systems}@swin.edu.au Abstract--Network induced energy consumption is a significant fraction of all ICT energy consumption. It is shown that using peer-to-peer and naively minimizing the transfer time results in energy consumption

  2. A dynamic migration algorithm for a distributed memory-based file management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Griffioen; Todd A. Anderson; Yuri Breitbart

    1997-01-01

    Conventional migration strategies attempt to evenly balance the load across all available server machines. The paper discusses why conventional migration approaches are not necessarily appropriate for distributed memory based file systems and presents an alternative approach that spreads data (possibly unevenly) across as few machines as possible and involves other available machines only as needed. The main advantage of our

  3. The Panda Array I/O library on the Galley Parallel File System

    E-print Network

    1 The Panda Array I/O library on the Galley Parallel File System Joel T. Thomas Dartmouth Computer Joel.T.Thomas@dartmouth.edu June 5, 1996 Abstract The Panda Array I/O library, created some time, and the Panda project is an attempt to ameliorate this problem while still providing

  4. No more isolated files: managing files as social artifacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indratmo Indratmo; Julita Vassileva

    2006-01-01

    People manage and use their files\\/documents in social settings. However, current file systems do not consider social interactions that happen around files. For example, files that have been sent to many people are displayed in the same way as those that have never been sent. We argue that by capturing user activities around files, we can enhance user experience in

  5. Implementing scalable disk-less clusters using the Network File System (NFS).

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Lee H.; Laros, James H., III

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a methodology for implementing disk-less cluster systems using the Network File System (NFS) that scales to thousands of nodes. This method has been successfully deployed and is currently in use on several production systems at Sandia National Labs. This paper will outline our methodology and implementation, discuss hardware and software considerations in detail and present cluster configurations with performance numbers for various management operations like booting.

  6. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure-Index Locator File: SDF File and Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances fou...

  7. Operation Shipping for Mobile File Systems Yui-Wah Lee, Member, IEEE, Kwong-Sak Leung, Senior Member, IEEE, and

    E-print Network

    Satyanarayanan, Mahadev "Satya"

    Operation Shipping for Mobile File Systems Yui-Wah Lee, Member, IEEE, Kwong-Sak Leung, Senior to its servers. It proposes an efficient mechanism called operation shipping or operation-based update propagation. In the new mechanism, the client ships the user operation that updated the large files, rather

  8. Endodontic treatment of mandibular molar with root dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Daniely Amorin; Bastos, Mariana Mena Barreto; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer) and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer) up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH) was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH) and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer), using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods. PMID:24010084

  9. Histological evaluation of the cleaning effectiveness of two reciprocating single-file systems in severely curved root canals: Reciproc versus WaveOne

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Maira de Souza; Junior, Emílio Carlos Sponchiado; Bitencourt Garrido, Angela Delfina; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Franco Marques, André Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning effectiveness achieved with two reciprocating single-file systems in severely curved root canals: Reciproc and WaveOne. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly separated into two groups, according to the instrumentation system used. The negative control group consisted of five specimens that were not instrumented. The mesial canals (buccal and lingual) in Reciproc Group were instrumented with file R25 and the WaveOne group with the Primary file. The samples were submitted to histological processing and analyzed under a digital microscope. Results: The WaveOne group presented a larger amount of debris than the Reciproc Group, however, without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). A larger amount of debris in the control group was observed, with statistically significant difference to Reciproc and WaveOne groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The two reciprocating single-file instrumentation systems presented similar effectiveness for root canal cleaning. PMID:25713489

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Best Practices Workshop onFile Systems & Archives San Francisco, CA September 26-27, 2011 Position Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, R M

    2011-09-01

    This position paper discusses issues of usability of the large parallel file systems in the Livermore Computing Center. The primary uses of these file systems are for storage and access of data that is created during the course of a simulation running on an LC system. The Livermore Computing Center has multiple, globally mounted parallel file systems in each of its computing environments. The single biggest issue of file system usability that we have encountered through the years is to maintain continuous file system responsiveness. Given the back end storage hardware that our file systems are provisioned with, it is easily possible for a particularly I/O intensive application or one with particularly inefficiently coded I/O operations to bring the file system to an apparent halt. The practice that we will be addressing is one of having an ability to indentify, diagnose, analyze and optimize the I/O quickly and effectively.

  11. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...that on July 18, 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition...order determining that System Energy Resources' payment of distributions out of common stock or paid- in...

  12. An Evolvable Hardware System Under Uneven Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Ja Jeon; Phill-kyu Rhee; Hanho Lee

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper proposes an evolvable hardware system with capability of evolution under uneven image environment, which is implemented\\u000a on reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with ARM core and genetic algorithm processor (GAP). Parallel\\u000a genetic algorithm based reconfigurable architecture system evolves image filter blocks to explore optimal configuration of\\u000a filter combination, associated parameters, and structure of feature space adaptively

  13. Improving phasor measurements under power system oscillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. de la O Serna; K. E. Martin

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the phasor estimation process leads to the ideal criteria that a digital filter must fulfill in order to provide more accurate phasor estimates under power system oscillations. The raised cosine filter, widely used in digital transmission, is described and proposed to approach those criteria. Simulation results corroborate an improvement in the performance (accuracy and speed) of

  14. On the role of file system metadata in digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian P. Buchholz; Eugene H. Spafford

    2004-01-01

    Most of the eort in today's digital forensics community lies in the retrieval and analysis of existing information from computing systems. Little is being done to increase the quantity and quality of the forensic information on today's computing systems. In this paper we pose the question of what kind of information is desired on a system by a forensic investigator.

  15. Management of the Israeli National Water System under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, U.; Housh, M.; Ostfeld, A.; Zaide, M.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in our region is due to the natural variability of hydrological patterns, with recurring extended droughts, reduced average and broadening variability of recharge that seem to indicate the effect of climate change, as well as to deterioration of water quality in the natural sources, to population growth and distribution, to shifting demand patterns among consumer sectors, and to expected future regional water agreements. These factors combine to create a challenging environment in which highly stressed water resources and water systems have to be developed, operated and managed. The natural sources have been used to their sustainable capacity and often beyond. The main policy responses are a shift of fresh water from agriculture to the cities, replacing it with treated wastewater for irrigation, and a major program for construction of sea-water desalination plants and the associated infrastructure needed for its integration into the supply systems. Organizational reforms, regulation, and demand management options are also being developed, including full-cost pricing. Management of the water resources and systems under these conditions requires a long-term perspective. The methodologies for supporting management decisions that have been used to date by the Israeli Water Authority include evaluation by scenarios, simulation, and optimization with sensitivity analysis. We review existing approaches and models for management of the Israeli water system (Zaide 2006) and then present some new methodologies for addressing operational decisions under hydrological uncertainty, which include generation of tradeoffs between the expected value and variability of the outcomes, and an Info-Gap (Ben-Haim 2006) based approach. These methodologies are demonstrated on examples that emulate portions of a regional water system and are then applied to the Israeli National Water System. Ben-Haim, Y. (2006) Info-Gap Theory: Decisions under Severe Uncertainty, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, London. Zaide, M. (2006) A Model for Management of Water Quantity and Quality in the Israeli National System", MSc Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technion. http://urishamir.wri.technion.ac.il/files/documents/Miki%20Zaide%20-%20Thesis%20Final%2015.03.06.pdf

  16. 76 FR 46774 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Federal Student Aid Application File

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Records--Federal Student Aid Application File AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department...Federal Student Financial Aid Application File (18-11-01), 64 Federal Register...term ``Federal Student Aid Application File'' in the subject line of your...

  17. Design and Implementation of a Direct Access File System (DAFS) Kernel Server for FreeBSD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas Magoutis

    2002-01-01

    The Direct Access File System (DAFS) is an emerging commercial standard for network-attached storage on server cluster interconnects. The DAFS architecture and protocol leverage network interface controller (NIC) support for user-level networking, remote direct memory access, ecien t event noti- cation, and reliable communication. This paper describes the design of the rst implementation of a DAFS kernel server for FreeBSD,

  18. An intelligent vision guided telerobotic system for file manipulation and office automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin G. Stanley; Jonathan Wu; William A. Gruver

    2000-01-01

    Describes a vision-guided telerobotic system that enables people with disabilities to perform clerical or office tasks. By adding a light-duty robot to the office workspace, the operator can manipulate files and perform other work-related tasks. To increase the effectiveness of the robot, vision can be used to verify that the robot is correctly positioned. In addition, vision can be be

  19. An Extended Inverted File Approach for Information Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iadh Ounis; Marius Pasca

    1997-01-01

    In information retrieval, the way in which the correspondence procedure works is highly important for the performance of the underlying system as a whole. An inverted file ensures quick access to the information items because the index alone is examined, rather than the actual file of items, in order to determine the items which satisfy a search request. This technique

  20. Security and Decentralized Control in the SFS Global File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mazi

    SFS (secure le system) is a global le system de- signed to be secure against all active and passive net- work attacks, provide a single namespace across all machines in the world, and avoid any form of cen- tralized control. Using SFS, any unprivileged user can access any le server in the world securely and with no prior arrangement on

  1. Construction of file management systems from software components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Batory; J. R. Barnett; J. Roy; B. C. Twichell; J. Garza

    1989-01-01

    Domain analysis, a classical approach to the indentification of reusable software modules, relies on in-depth studies of existing systems, published algorithms, and structures to discern generic architectures for large classes of systems. An architecture is a template in which building-block modules can be plugged. Interfaces are standardized to make blocks interchangeable. The authors explain how domain analysis has led them

  2. Performance and Extension of User Space File Systems Aditya Rajgarhia

    E-print Network

    Stehr, Mark-Oliver

    , CA 94305, USA aditya@cs.stanford.edu Ashish Gehani SRI International Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA ashish.gehani@sri of these efforts have failed to make a significant impact as measured by their use in production systems. Recently

  3. PPFS: a high performance portable parallel file system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James V. Huber Jr.; Andrew A. Chien; Christopher L. Elford; David S. Blumenthal; Daniel A. Reed

    1995-01-01

    Rapid increases in processor performance over the pastdecade have outstripped performance improvements ininput\\/output devices, increasing the importance of input\\/output performance to overall system performance.Further, experience has shown that the performance ofparallel input\\/output systems is particularly sensitive todata placement and data management policies, makinggood choices critical. To explore this vast design space, wehave developed a user-level library, the Portable...

  4. gVault: A Gmail Based Cryptographic Network File System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Chandra Jammalamadaka; Roberto Gamboni; Sharad Mehrotra; Kent E. Seamons; Nalini Venkatasubramanian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of gVault, a crypto- graphic network flle system that utilizes the data storage provided by Gmail's web-based email service. Such a flle system efiectively provides users with an easily accessible free network drive on the Internet. gVault provides numerous beneflts to the users, including: a) Secure remote ac- cess: Users can access their

  5. 37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    (a) The effective filing date for a claimed invention in a patent or application for patent, other than in a reissue application or reissued patent, is the earliest of: (1) The actual filing date of the patent or the application for the patent containing a claim to the invention;...

  6. 37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    (a) The effective filing date for a claimed invention in a patent or application for patent, other than in a reissue application or reissued patent, is the earliest of: (1) The actual filing date of the patent or the application for the patent containing a claim to the invention;...

  7. Computer printing and filing of microbiology reports. 1. Description of the system.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C S; Smith, B C

    1976-06-01

    From March 1974 all reports from this microbiology department have been computer printed and filed. The system was designed to include every medically important microorganism and test. Technicians at the laboratory bench made their results computer-readable using Port-a-punch cards, and specimen details were recorded on paper-tape, allowing the full description of each specimen to appear on the report. A summary form of each microbiology phrase enabled copies of reports to be printed on wide paper with 12 to 18 reports per sheet; such copies, in alphabetical order for one day, and cumulatively for one week were used by staff answering enquiries to the office. This format could also be used for printing allthe reports for one patient. Retrieval of results from the files was easily performed and was useful to medical and laboratory staff and for control-of-infection purposes. The system was written in COBOL and was designed to be as cost-effective as possible without sacrificing accuracy; the cost of a report and its filing was 17-97 pence. PMID:939809

  8. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  9. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  10. GAS: Overloading a File Sharing Network as an Anonymizing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elias Athanasopoulos; Mema Roussopoulos; Kostas G. Anagnostakis; Evangelos P. Markatos

    2007-01-01

    Anonymity is considered as a valuable property as far as everyday transactions in the Internet are concerned. Users care about their privacy and they seek for new ways to keep secret as much as of their personal information from third parties. Anonymizing systems exist nowadays that provide users with the tech- nology, which is able to hide their origin when

  11. Introduction to BIBELOT: a bibliographic filing and retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.I.

    1984-09-01

    The BIBELOT System of COBOL and Datatrieve programs for bibliographic storage and retrieval is described. The storage scheme is also briefly described. The use of unique citation numbers and user defined keywords is illustrated by many retrieval examples. Finally, typical questions about the use of BIBELOT are answered.

  12. A study on the development of a filing system for funduscopic images with a personal computer for Twin AMHTS.

    PubMed

    Inada, H; Horio, H; Ishikawa, K; Yoshikawa, H; Harasawa, E; Hosaka, H

    1993-08-01

    A filing system for ocular funduscopic image data was developed by using a personal computer for the Twin AMHTS. The development of the system was tried as one of the data transfer system including image data between two similar AMHTSs named the Twin AMHTS through the information network system. The filing system is capable of storing 26782 data of ophthalmoscopic pictures with a data compression mode by using a magneto-optical disk (MOD) whose storage capacity of both sides is 616 MB. It takes no long time for retrieval and display of the image data in the filing system. Good quality of compression and decompression obtained and reproducibility of the ocular fundus picture is favorable regardless of normal or abnormal cases. As a result, it is suggested that the developed system has practical utility although it requires more improvement. PMID:8254274

  13. Root Canal Shaping by Single-File Systems and Rotary Instruments: a Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Bane, Khaly; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mouhamed; Niang, Seydina O; Ndiaye, Diouma; Machtou, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of two single-file systems and conventional rotary instruments in severely curved root canals of extracted human molars. Methods and Materials: Mesiobuccal canals of 120 mandibular molars with angles of curvature ranging between 25° and 35° and radii of curvature from 5 to 9 mm, were divided into three groups (n=40). In each group the canals were instrumented with either WaveOne (W), Reciproc (R) or ProTaper (P). The time required for canal shaping and the frequency of broken instruments were recorded. The standardized pre and post-instrumentation radiographs were taken to determine changes in working length (WL) and straightening of canal curvature. The presence of blockage or perforation was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey’s test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Both single-instrument systems reduced the canal preparation time by approximately 50% (P<0.05). No incidence of broken instruments from single-file systems was reported; however, two F2 instruments in the P group were broken (P<0.05). Reduction in WL and straightening of canal curvature was observed in all three systems with the highest scores belonging to P system (P<0.05). No case of blockage or perforation was found during shaping in any group. Conclusion: Single-file systems shaped curved canals with substantial saving in time and a significant decrease in incidence of instrument separation, change in WL, and straightening of canal curvature. PMID:25834600

  14. Synchronization of nonlinear systems under information constraints.

    PubMed

    Fradkov, Alexander L; Andrievsky, Boris; Evans, Robin J

    2008-09-01

    A brief survey of control and synchronization under information constraints (limited information capacity of the coupling channel) is given. Limit possibilities of nonlinear observer-based synchronization systems with first-order coders or full-order coders are considered in more detail. The existing and new theoretical results for multidimensional drive-response Lurie systems (linear part plus nonlinearity depending only on measurable outputs) are presented. It is shown that the upper bound of the limit synchronization error (LSE) is proportional to the upper bound of the transmission error. As a consequence, the upper and lower bounds of LSE are proportional to the maximum coupling signal rate and inversely proportional to the information transmission rate (channel capacity). The analysis is extended to networks having a "chain," "star," or "star-chain" topology. Adaptive chaotic synchronization under information constraints is analyzed. The results are illustrated by example: master-slave synchronization of two chaotic Chua systems coupled via a channel with limited capacity. PMID:19045483

  15. ncBrowse: A Graphical netCDF File Browser

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Java application provides interactive browsing of data and metadata netCDF file formats written under a wide range of netCDF file conventions. It features flexibility in accommodating a very wide range of netCDF files, user assignment of axes, and interactive, zoomable scientific graphics displays, including a self-scaling time axis. ncBrowse can read network accessible files, and includes Distributed Ocean Data System (DODS) and OPeNDAP support. Supported for Unix, Mac and PC hardware platforms.

  16. 47 CFR 1.10006 - Is electronic filing mandatory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Is electronic filing mandatory...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...Bureau Filing System § 1.10006 Is electronic filing mandatory...Bureau Filing System (IBFS) form...for which an electronic form is...

  17. 47 CFR 1.10006 - Is electronic filing mandatory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Is electronic filing mandatory...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...Bureau Filing System § 1.10006 Is electronic filing mandatory...Bureau Filing System (IBFS) form...for which an electronic form is...

  18. 47 CFR 1.10006 - Is electronic filing mandatory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Is electronic filing mandatory...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...Bureau Filing System § 1.10006 Is electronic filing mandatory...Bureau Filing System (IBFS) form...for which an electronic form is...

  19. 47 CFR 1.10006 - Is electronic filing mandatory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Is electronic filing mandatory...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...Bureau Filing System § 1.10006 Is electronic filing mandatory...Bureau Filing System (IBFS) form...for which an electronic form is...

  20. Formalizing structured file services for the data storage and retrieval subsystem of the data management system for Spacestation Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamsek, Damir A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief example of the use of formal methods techniques in the specification of a software system is presented. The report is part of a larger effort targeted at defining a formal methods pilot project for NASA. One possible application domain that may be used to demonstrate the effective use of formal methods techniques within the NASA environment is presented. It is not intended to provide a tutorial on either formal methods techniques or the application being addressed. It should, however, provide an indication that the application being considered is suitable for a formal methods by showing how such a task may be started. The particular system being addressed is the Structured File Services (SFS), which is a part of the Data Storage and Retrieval Subsystem (DSAR), which in turn is part of the Data Management System (DMS) onboard Spacestation Freedom. This is a software system that is currently under development for NASA. An informal mathematical development is presented. Section 3 contains the same development using Penelope (23), an Ada specification and verification system. The complete text of the English version Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is reproduced in Appendix A.

  1. File under Fleeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgovnick, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Archives have always had an aura of neutrality and coolness that masks the heat behind the data they record: births, marriages, crimes, wars, business dealings, genocides and deaths. Long thought of as the musty haunts of scholars with a specialized interest in the demographics of Rome or 15th-century France, archives have been seen as controlled…

  2. Coordinating Government Funding of File System and I/O Research through the High End Computing University Research Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, Gary; Nunez, James; Bent, John; Ross, Rob; Ward, Lee; Poole, Steve; Felix, Evan J.; Salmon, Ellen; Bancroft, Marti

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the High End Computing Revitalization Task Force designated file systems and I/O as an area in need of national focus. The purpose of the High End Computing Interagency Working Group (HECIWG) is to coordinate government spending on File Systems and 1I0 (FSIO) R&D by all the government agencies that are involved in High End Computing. The HECIWG tasked a smaller advisory group to list, categorize, and prioritize HEC VO and File Systems R&D needs. In 2005, leaders in FSIO from academia, industry and government agencies collaborated to Jist and prioritize areas of research in HEC FSIO. This led to a very successful High End Computing University Research Activity (HECURA) call from NSF in 2006 and has prompted a new HECURA call from NSF in 2009. This paper serves as both a review of the 2008 HEC FSIO identified research gaps as well as a preview of this forthcoming HECURA call.

  3. Managing personal files across independent file management units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt W. Mutka; Lionel M. Ni

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the PFS personal file management system. PFS provides transparent and reliable access to personal files that are dispersed across reliable independent file servers. PFS is unique and practical since it runs on variations of the Unix system, it does not modify the operating system kernel, and more importantly, it operates in environments

  4. An in-vitro Evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability of two rotary Nickel Titanium systems (Twisted Files and Hyflex files) with conventional stainless Steel hand K-flexofiles by using Spiral Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Shiva; Pattanshetty, Spoorti; Prasad, Manju; Soni, Sunny; Pattanshetty, Kirti S; Prasad, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to compare canal transportation and centering ability of Twisted and Hyflex Rotary Files with stainless steel hand k-flexofiles by using Spiral Computed Tomography. Materials & Methods: A total of 90 freshly extracted human mandibular single rooted Premolar teeth were selected. The crowns were flattened with steel disks and a final dimension of 18-mm WL was achieved for each tooth. Canals were divided randomly into 3 groups of 30 teeth each. Group I:Hyflex files, Group II:Twisted files, Group III:stainless steel hand k-flexofiles. Three sections from apical, mid-root, and coronal levels of the canal were recorded. All the teeth were scanned before and after instrumentation by using Spiral Computed Tomography. Results: K-files showed highest transportation and less centered when compared to the Twisted and Hyflex rotary files. No significant difference was found between TF and Hyflex CM instruments. Conclusion: TF and Hyflex files shaped curved root canals without significant shaping errors when compared to the Hand stainless steel k-flexofiles. How to cite this article: Kumar BS, Pattanshetty S, Prasad M, Soni S, Pattanshetty KS, Prasad S. An in-vitro Evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability of two rotary Nickel Titanium systems (Twisted Files and Hyflex files) with conventional stainless Steel hand K-flexofiles by using Spiral Computed Tomography. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):108-15. PMID:24324313

  5. 40 CFR 264.71 - Use of manifest system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...paper copy to EPA, the owner or operator may transmit to the EPA system an image file of Page 1 of the manifest, or both a data string file and the image file corresponding to Page 1 of the manifest. Any data or image files transmitted to EPA under this...

  6. E-Government and Citizen Adoption of Innovations: Factors Underlying Citizen Use of the Internet for State Tax Filing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic government has been embraced by many organizations seeking to dramatically improve service delivery, but results to date have often fallen short of expectations. This dissertation is focused on state revenue agencies and their electronic tax filing mechanisms for state individual income taxes. It asks: What factors best explain whether…

  7. cadcVOFS: A FUSE Based File System Layer for VOSpace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavelaars, J.; Dowler, P.; Jenkins, D.; Hill, N.; Damian, A.

    2012-09-01

    The CADC is now making extensive use of the VOSpace protocol for user managed storage. The VOSpace standard allows a diverse set of rich data services to be delivered to users via a simple protocol. We have recently developed the cadcVOFS, a FUSE based file-system layer for VOSpace. cadcVOFS provides a filesystem layer on-top of VOSpace so that standard Unix tools (such as ‘find’, ‘emacs’, ‘awk’ etc) can be used directly on the data objects stored in VOSpace. Once mounted the VOSpace appears as a network storage volume inside the operating system. Within the CADC Cloud Computing project (CANFAR) we have used VOSpace as the method for retrieving and storing processing inputs and products. The abstraction of storage is an important component of Cloud Computing and the high use level of our VOSpace service reflects this.

  8. The Tort System \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. David Cummins; Sharon Tennyson

    1993-01-01

    The paper focuses on the effects of claimant behavior, especially fraudulent claiming, in determining liability insurance costs. The theoretical perspective underlying the analysis is that the ease of filing a claim and the net potential payoff affect individuals' incentives to file claims. Compensating claims via the liability system thus may increase incentives to file, because the payoff from a successful

  9. Evaluation of Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigant Using Two New Reciprocating and One Continuous Rotation Single File Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet; Shetty, Shashit; Dahiya, Surya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20) were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One) and one rotary (One Shape) single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P<0.05), but no statistically significant difference was obtained between the two reciprocating instruments (P>0.05). Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05). Conclusions: Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems. PMID:25628665

  10. Portable Executable File Format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Singh

    PE stands for 'portable executable' file format. As the name suggests, the format can be portable across all the 32-bit operating\\u000a system and can be executed on any version of windows. The format is also being used by 32-bit dlls and Windows NT device derivers.\\u000a The WINNT.H header file defines the structure definition representation for the PE file format.\\u000a \\u000a Understanding

  11. Effect of Patency File on Transportation and Curve Straightening in Canal Preparation with ProTaper System.

    PubMed

    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Farhadi, Nastaran; Shokraneh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of using a patency file on apical transportation and curve straightening during canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotary system. Seventy permanent mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals, measuring 18-23?mm in length and with a 25-40° curvature (according to the Schneider method), were selected. The working lengths were determined and the teeth were mounted and divided into two experimental groups: (A) prepared by the ProTaper system without using a patency file (n = 35) and (B) prepared by the ProTaper system using a patency file (n = 35). Radiographs taken before and after the preparation were imported into Photoshop software and the apical transportation, and curve straightening were measured. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Partial correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the initial curvature, transportation, and curve straightening (? = 0.05). Using a patency file during canal preparation significantly decreased both apical transportation and curve straightening (P < 0.001). There were significant relationships between the angle of curvature, transportation and curve straightening in pairs (P < 0.001). Apical patency is recommended during root canal preparation with the ProTaper rotary system. PMID:24159390

  12. Energy-Efficiency and Storage Flexibility in the Blue File System Edmund B. Nightingale and Jason Flinn

    E-print Network

    Flinn, Jason

    file system calls to a user-level daemon, called Wolverine, that decides when and where to access data. For calls that read data, Wolverine orders attached devices by the anticipated performance and en- ergy cost of a device changes, or when wireless network conditions fluctuate. For calls that write data, Wolverine

  13. Effect of Patency File on Transportation and Curve Straightening in Canal Preparation with ProTaper System

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of using a patency file on apical transportation and curve straightening during canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotary system. Seventy permanent mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals, measuring 18–23?mm in length and with a 25–40° curvature (according to the Schneider method), were selected. The working lengths were determined and the teeth were mounted and divided into two experimental groups: (A) prepared by the ProTaper system without using a patency file (n = 35) and (B) prepared by the ProTaper system using a patency file (n = 35). Radiographs taken before and after the preparation were imported into Photoshop software and the apical transportation, and curve straightening were measured. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Partial correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the initial curvature, transportation, and curve straightening (? = 0.05). Using a patency file during canal preparation significantly decreased both apical transportation and curve straightening (P < 0.001). There were significant relationships between the angle of curvature, transportation and curve straightening in pairs (P < 0.001). Apical patency is recommended during root canal preparation with the ProTaper rotary system. PMID:24159390

  14. LegionFS: a secure and scalable file system supporting cross-domain high-performance applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian S. White; Michael Walker; Marty Humphrey; Andrew S. Grimshaw

    2001-01-01

    Realizing that current file systems can not cope with the diverse requirements of wide-area collaborations, researchers have developed data access facilities to meet their needs. Recent work has focused on comprehensive data access architectures. In order to fulfill the evolving requirements in this environment, we suggest a more fully-integrated architecture built upon the fundamental tenets of naming, security, scalability, extensibility,

  15. The Integrated Sci-Mate Software System. Part 1. Combining File Management, Online Access, and Searching with Manuscript Editing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Garfield

    1985-01-01

    Contents, #38, p.3-10, September 23, 1985Number 38EUGENE GARFIELDINSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION 3501 MARKET $T,PHILAOELPHIA, PA 19104The Integrated Sci-Mate Software System.Part 1. Combining File Management,Online Access, and Searching withManuscript E<ingSeptember 23, :195More than seven years ago, I \\

  16. RSX system development under VAX/VMS compatibility mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fuka, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Control System for the Proton Storage Ring now being built at Los Alamos will use a VAX-11/750 as its main control computer with several LSI-11/23 microprocessors reading and controlling the hardware. The VMS Compatibility Mode makes it possible to use the VAX as a development system for the LSI-11/23 microprocessors running the RSX-11S (stand-alone) operating system. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)-supplied software is used to generate the RSX-11S operating system and DECNET-11S network software. We use the VMS editors to create source files, the Macro-11 assembler and the PDP-11 Fortran-77 compiler to generate object code, and the RSX Task Builder to link the executable RSX task image. The RSX task then can be tested to some extent on the VAX before it is down-line loaded to the LSI-11/23 for further testing.

  17. Evaluation of Single File Systems Reciproc, Oneshape, and WaveOne using Cone Beam Computed Tomography –An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Annil; Miglani, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful endodontic therapy depends on many factor, one of the most important step in any root canal treatment is root canal preparation. In addition, respecting the original shape of the canal is of the same importance; otherwise, canal aberrations such as transportation will be created. Aim The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate Reciprocating WaveOne ,Reciproc and Rotary Oneshape Single File Instrumentation System On Cervical Dentin Thickness, Cross Sectional Area and Canal Transportation on First Mandibular Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Materials and Methods Sixty Mandibular First Molars extracted due to periodontal reason was collected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial. Teeth were prepared using one rotary and two reciprocating single file system. Teeth were divided into 3 groups 20 teeth in each group. Pre instrumentation and Post instrumentation scans was done and evaluated for three parameters Canal Transportation, Cervical Dentinal Thickness, Cross-sectional Area. Results were analysed statistically using ANOVA, Post-Hoc Tukey analysis. Results The change in cross-sectional area after filing showed significant difference at 0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 7mm (p<0.001, p =0.006, 0.004 & <0.001 respectively). There was significant difference between wave one and oneshape; oneshape and reciproc at 0mm, 1mm, 2mm & 7mm (p-values for waveone and Oneshape <0.001, 0.022, 0.011 & <0.001 resp. and for oneshape and reciproc < 0.001, p= 0.011, p=0.008 & <0.001). On assessing the transportation of the three file system over a distance of 7 mm (starting from 0mm and then evaluation at 1mm, 2mm, 3mm, 5mm and 7mm), the results showed a significant difference among the file systems at various lengths (p= 0.014, 0.046, 0.004, 0.028, 0.005 & 0.029 respectively). Mean value of cervical dentinal removal is maximum at all the levels for oneshape and minimum for waveone showing the better quality of waveone and reciproc over oneshape file system. Significant difference was found at 9mm, 11mm and 12mm between all the three file systems (p<0.001,< 0.001, <0.001). Conclusion It was concluded that reciprocating motion is better than rotary motion in all the three parameters Canal Transportation, Cross-sectional Area, Cervical Dentinal Thickness.

  18. REAL-TIME SYSTEM DESIGN UNDER PHYSICAL AND RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS

    E-print Network

    Lemmon, Michael

    REAL-TIME SYSTEM DESIGN UNDER PHYSICAL AND RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS A Dissertation Submitted;REAL-TIME SYSTEM DESIGN UNDER PHYSICAL AND RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS Abstract by Thidapat Chantem This dissertation presents several design techniques for resource-constrained, dependable embedded real-time systems

  19. 78 FR 67927 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...elements in the Automated Export System (AES) under control number 0607-0152. DATES...collection of two new data elements through the AES under control number 0607-0152 on May...gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The AES is the primary instrument used for...

  20. Interactive Radiology teaching file system: the development of a MIRC-compliant and user-centered e-learning resource.

    PubMed

    dos-Santos, M; Fujino, A

    2012-01-01

    Radiology teaching usually employs a systematic and comprehensive set of medical images and related information. Databases with representative radiological images and documents are highly desirable and widely used in Radiology teaching programs. Currently, computer-based teaching file systems are widely used in Medicine and Radiology teaching as an educational resource. This work addresses a user-centered radiology electronic teaching file system as an instance of MIRC compliant medical image database. Such as a digital library, the clinical cases are available to access by using a web browser. The system has offered great opportunities to some Radiology residents interact with experts. This has been done by applying user-centered techniques and creating usage context-based tools in order to make available an interactive system. PMID:23367264

  1. A Web based Covert File System Arati Baliga, Joe Kilian and Liviu Iftode

    E-print Network

    Iftode, Liviu

    with other users. CovertFS can be built on top of any web based media sharing service. The files are hidden- bility as well. Since the user files are completely hidden, it gives only the user complete control over, blogs, wikis and other collaborative and interactive services have become a part of our daily lives

  2. Control of wheel system under uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Matyukhin

    2009-01-01

    Consideration was given to the nonholonomic mechanical systems with rolling or the wheel systems such as mobile robot, car,\\u000a or wheeled tractor. Analysis was confined to the kinematic models with regard for the dynamics of the controlling drives.\\u000a Control of system motion along a given trajectory (planar smooth curve) was studied. The designed control law stabilizes this\\u000a motion in large

  3. 37 CFR 201.34 - Procedures for filing Correction Notices of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 201.34 Section...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. (a) General...Copyright (NIEs) Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of December...

  4. 37 CFR 201.34 - Procedures for filing Correction Notices of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 201.34 Section...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. (a) General...Copyright (NIEs) Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of December...

  5. 37 CFR 201.34 - Procedures for filing Correction Notices of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 201.34 Section...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. (a) General...Copyright (NIEs) Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of December...

  6. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 201.33 Section...Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. (a) General...Enforce a Restored Copyright under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, as...

  7. 37 CFR 201.34 - Procedures for filing Correction Notices of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 201.34 Section...Enforce a Copyright Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. (a) General...Copyright (NIEs) Restored under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of December...

  8. Dynamic file management techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihnd B. Deshpande; Richard B. Bunt

    1988-01-01

    Consideration of the dynamic characteristics of file referencing behavior provides an appropriate basis for the design of effective algorithms for the management of a hierarchical file system. Several algorithms are proposed, based on similar algorithms in the memory referencing context. Trace-driven simulation experiments were conducted to assess the performance implications of these approaches. The results of these experiments show that

  9. Free-Riding on BitTorrent-Like Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems: Modeling Analysis and Improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minglu Li; Jiadi Yu; Jie Wu

    2008-01-01

    BitTorrent has emerged as a very popular peer-to-peer file sharing system, which uses an embedded set of incentive mechanisms to encourage contribution and prevent free-riding. However, BitTorrent's ability to prevent free-riding needs further study. In this paper, we present a fluid model with two different classes of peers to capture the effect of free-riding on BitTorrent-like systems. With the model,

  10. Ecological and genetic systems underlying sustainable horticulture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the 21st century will face unprecedented challenges due to rising energy costs, global climate change, and increasingly scarce production resources. It will become imperative for producers to adopt sustainable systems that rely on natural system processes and use inputs as efficientl...

  11. TRANSITION TO ORGANIC CROPPING SYSTEMS UNDER RISK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the risks, returns and optimal adoption strategies for a representative Minnesota farm switching from conventional to organic cropping systems. The EPIC simulation model was calibrated based on the yields observed in a farming systems field study. A farm-level simulation model was constr...

  12. Reliable water supply system design under uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chung; K. Lansey; Güzin Bayraksan

    2009-01-01

    Given the natural variability and uncertainties in long-term predictions, reliability is a critical design factor for water supply systems. However, the large scale of the problem and the correlated nature of the involved uncertainties result in models that are often intractable. In this paper, we consider a municipal water supply system over a 15-year planning period with initial infrastructure and

  13. Structural Reconfiguration of Systems under Behavioral Carlos Canala

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structural Reconfiguration of Systems under Behavioral Adaptation Carlos Canala , Javier C systems is to dynamically reconfigure themselves to cope with failures or component updates. Nevertheless of Software Adaptation in order to also provide reconfiguration capabilities to black-box components

  14. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  15. 29 CFR 102.46 - Exceptions, cross-exceptions, briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file; service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file...on the parties; extension of time; effect of failure to include...BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to...

  16. 29 CFR 102.46 - Exceptions, cross-exceptions, briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file; service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file...on the parties; extension of time; effect of failure to include...BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to...

  17. 29 CFR 102.46 - Exceptions, cross-exceptions, briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file; service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file...on the parties; extension of time; effect of failure to include...BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to...

  18. 29 CFR 102.46 - Exceptions, cross-exceptions, briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file; service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to file...on the parties; extension of time; effect of failure to include...BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section...briefs, answering briefs; time for filing; where to...

  19. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  20. 43 CFR 1822.16 - Where do I file an application that involves lands under the jurisdiction of more than one BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Where do I file an application that involves...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES... § 1822.16 Where do I file an application that...

  1. 43 CFR 1822.16 - Where do I file an application that involves lands under the jurisdiction of more than one BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Where do I file an application that involves...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES... § 1822.16 Where do I file an application that...

  2. 43 CFR 1822.16 - Where do I file an application that involves lands under the jurisdiction of more than one BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Where do I file an application that involves...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES... § 1822.16 Where do I file an application that...

  3. Directionally solidified composite systems under evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The directionally solidified eutectic in-situ composites being evaluated for use as turbine materials range from ductile-ductile systems, where both matrix and reinforcement are ductile, to brittle-brittle systems, where both phases are brittle. The alloys most likely to be used in gas turbine engines in the near term are the lamellar ductile-semi ductile alloys gamma prime-delta, Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and gamma/gamma prime-delta Ni,Cr,Cb,Al/Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and the fibrous ductile-brittle alloys M-MC CoTaC or NiTaC and M-M7C3(Co,Cr,Al)-(Cr,Co)7C3. The results of tests are given which indicate that gamma prime strengthened NiTaC alloys and a (Co,Cr,Al)7C3 have greater tensile strength than the strongest superalloys at temperatures up to about 600 C. The gamma prime-delta and gamma/gamma prime-delta alloys in the Ni,Al,Nb(Cr) systems have greater tensile strength than the superalloys at temperatures greater than 800 C. At low stresses fibrous carbide reinforced eutectic alloys have longer lives at high temperatures than the strongest superalloys. Lamellar delta, Ni3Nb reinforced eutectic alloys have longer lives at high temperatures than the strongest superalloys at all stresses. The experience currently being gained in designing with the brittle ceramics SiC and Si3N4 may eventually be applied to ceramic matrix eutectic in-situ composites. However, the refractory metal fiber reinforced brittle-ductile systems may find acceptance as turbine materials before the ceramic-ceramic brittle-brittle systems.

  4. On stability domains of nonconservative systems under small parametric excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Mailybaev

    2002-01-01

    Summary A linear multi-parameter nonconservative system under small periodic parametric excitation is considered. Approximations of the stability domain in the parameter space are derived in the cases, when the corresponding autonomous system has a zero eigenvalue or a pair of complex conjugate imaginary eigenvalues. Formulae of the approximations use information on the unperturbed autonomous system and derivatives of system matrices

  5. Binary Files Reading and Writing Binary Files

    E-print Network

    Razak, Saquib

    Unit 20 1 File IO · Binary Files · Reading and Writing Binary Files · Writing Objects to files · Reading Objects from files #12;Unit 20 2 Binary Files · Files that are designed to be read by programs to another ­ These files can then be read by a Java program, but only by a Java program #12;Unit 20 3 Writing

  6. 77 FR 62226 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Principal Investigator/Application File and Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...Principal Investigator/ Application File and Associated Records AGENCY: Institute...Sciences Principal Investigator/Application File and Associated Records'' (18-13-26...notice will cover a database and paper files containing personally identifying...

  7. 76 FR 9780 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA Transit and Guaranteed Ride Home Program Files (EPA-35) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...records for EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10), published in the...

  8. Attribute Meaning Protection Who can access the file and in what way

    E-print Network

    West, Margaret Mary

    ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ System flag 0 for normal files; 1 for system file ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ASCII/binary flag 0 for ASCII file; 1 for binary file ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ Record length Number of bytes in a record

  9. Masked Queries for Search Accuracy in Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Systems Wai Gen Yee, Linh Thai Nguyen, Ophir Frieder

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Ophir Frieder Department of Computer Science Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, IL 60616 yee@iit.edu, nguylin@iit.edu, ophir@ir.iit.edu Abstract Peer-to-peer file-sharing systems suffer from

  10. Read Optimized File System Designs: A Performance Evaluation1 Margo Seltzer, Michael Stonebraker

    E-print Network

    extents of suitable size can become increasingly complex as free space becomes fragmented. Frequently- formed in a rotationally optimal fashion so that succes- sive blocks of the same file are retrieved

  11. Efficient Caching Strategies for Gnutella-Like Systems to Achieve Anonymity in Unstructured P2P File Sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Ryong Kim; Ki-chang Kim

    2006-01-01

    A critical problem in a Peer-to-Peer file sharing system is how to protect the anonymity of agent nodes when providing efficient\\u000a data access services. Most of existing technique mostly focus on how to provide the initiator anonymity and privacy, but leave\\u000a the anonymity of the server. Our technique is similar to Onion routing in that it uses a proxy node

  12. Efficient algorithms for multi-file caching

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Rotem, Doron; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2004-03-15

    Multi-File Caching issues arise in applications where a set of jobs are processed and each job requests one or more input files. A given job can only be started if all its input files are preloaded into a disk cache. Examples of applications where Multi-File caching may be required are scientific data mining, bit-sliced indexes, and analysis of sets of vertically partitioned files. The difference between this type of caching and traditional file caching systems is that in this environment, caching and replacement decisions are made based on ''combinations of files (file bundles),'' rather than single files. In this work we propose new algorithms for Multi-File caching and analyze their performance. Extensive simulations are presented to establish the effectiveness of the Multi-File caching algorithm in terms of job response time and job queue length.

  13. XML Files

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on July 21, 2015 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  14. Optimal control of dynamical systems and structures under stochastic uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Marti

    Consider a dynamic mechanical control systems or structure under stochastic uncertainty, as e.g. the active control of a mechanical structure under stochastic applied dynamic loadings. Optimal controls, being most insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, are determined by finding stochastic optimal controls, i.e., controls minimizing the expected total costs composed of the costs arising along the trajectory, the costs

  15. 28 CFR 58.7 - Procedures for Completing Uniform Forms of Trustee Final Reports in Cases Filed Under Chapters 7...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...13 of the Bankruptcy Code. 58.7 Section...13 of the Bankruptcy Code. (a) UST Form 101-7-TFR...Bankruptcy Court, if the net proceeds realized...Defaults by the debtor in performance under the plan. ...defaults by the debtor in performance under the plan....

  16. Signed and Spoken Language: A Unique Underlying System?*

    E-print Network

    Mehler, Jacques

    to pass from nose to lungs avoiding the mouth and throat. ...This gives the tongue the space to move both that under favorable circumstances, deaf children exploit sign input to gain entry into the language system

  17. On Convergence of Concurrent Systems under Regular Interactions

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    On Convergence of Concurrent Systems under Regular Interactions Pavithra Prabhakar, Sayan Mitra, Mahesh Viswanathan University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Abstract. Convergence is often the key convergence (asymptotic stability) have been extensively studied by con- trol theorists. In particular

  18. New Paradigm of Power System Planning under Competitive Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new paradigm of power system planning under competitive environment. As the liberalization of power systems become more competitive, power systems are faced with new aspects that the conventional bundled power company has never encountered. The conventional power system planning methods do not match the requirements of competitive environment. In practice, the power system liberalization brings about new environment that puts emphasis on the profit maximization and the risk minimization. Thus, the problem formulation of power system planning should be reformulated to reflect the new aspects in power systems. As the tasks of power system planning, this paper outlines transmission network expansion planning, distribution network expansion planning, and unit commitment under competitive environment. In addition, new tasks such as very short-term load forecasting, electricity price forecasting, and wind power forecasting are described.

  19. Enhancing I/O Throughput via Efficient Routing and Placement for Large-scale Parallel File Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As storage systems get larger to meet the demands of petascale systems, careful planning must be applied to avoid congestion points and extract the maximum performance. In addition, the large data sets generated by such systems makes it desirable for all compute resources to have common access to this data without needing to copy it to each machine. This paper describes a method of placing I/O close to the storage nodes to minimize contention on Cray s SeaStar2+ network, and extends it to a routed Lustre configuration to gain the same benefits when running against a center-wide file system. Our experiments using half of the resources of Spider the center-wide file system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility show that I/O write bandwidth can be improved by up to 45% (from 71.9 to 104 GB/s) for a direct-attached configuration and by 137% (47.6 GB/s to 115 GB/s) for a routed configuration. We demonstrated up to 20.7% reduction in run-time for production scientific applications. With the full Spider system, we demonstrated over 240 GB/s of aggregate bandwidth using our techniques.

  20. File Identification in iOS Michael Ogata

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    File Identification in iOS Michael Ogata michael.ogata@nist.gov #12;Questions: · Can the NSRL method of file identification be used to identify files on a device running iOS? · Once identified, can methodology to iOS ­ Brief anatomy of iOS file system ­ Brief anatomy of iOS applications ­ File

  1. Group-Based Management of Distributed File Caches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Amer; Darrell D. E. Long; Randal C. Burns

    2002-01-01

    We describe how to manage distributed file system caches based upon groups of files that are accessed to- gether. We use file access patterns to automatically con- struct dynamic groupings of files and then manage our cache by fetching groups, rather than single files. We present experimental results, based on trace-driven work- loads, demonstrating that grouping improves cache perfor- mance.

  2. Power Allocation Based on System Capacity under Cooperative Communication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenkai Liu; Congcong Lao; Menglong Wu

    2011-01-01

    Different effects of power allocation between the source node and all the relay nodes on the system capacity are taken into consideration in an amplify-and-forward cooperative communication system. An optimum power allocation algorithm based on harmonic mean of relay channel strength to increase the system capacity was proposed. Furthermore, exact formulations of s p , r p and i p

  3. 47 CFR 61.14 - Method of filing publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61...Secretary, Federal Communications Commission, Washington...20554.” The Electronic Tariff Filing System will accept...

  4. 47 CFR 61.14 - Method of filing publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61...Secretary, Federal Communications Commission, Washington...20554.” The Electronic Tariff Filing System will accept...

  5. 47 CFR 61.14 - Method of filing publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61...Secretary, Federal Communications Commission, Washington...20554.” The Electronic Tariff Filing System will accept...

  6. 47 CFR 61.14 - Method of filing publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61...Secretary, Federal Communications Commission, Washington...20554.” The Electronic Tariff Filing System will accept...

  7. Compression of Large Inverted Files with Hyperbolic Term Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuegraf, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations of storage requirements for retrieval systems using inverted files. Problem of minimal storage requirements for inverted file is solved for different index term distributions. (Author/KP)

  8. ESTIMATION FOR STOCHASTIC DAMPING HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS UNDER PARTIAL OBSERVATION.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ESTIMATION FOR STOCHASTIC DAMPING HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS UNDER PARTIAL OBSERVATION. II. DRIFT TERM part of our study started with Cattiaux, Leon and Prieur (2012). For some ergodic hamiltonian systems section for its existence), then one can find a discretization step hn, bandwidths b1,n and b2,n

  9. 76 FR 12953 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. Description: Duke Energy Indiana, Inc. submits tariff filing per 35: DEI-DEI Compliance Filing to be effective 12/1/2010. Filed Date: 03/02/2011. Accession Number: 20110302-5025....

  10. 76 FR 13176 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...Description: California Independent System Operator Corporation submits tariff filing per 35: 2011-03-02 CAISO's Convergence Bidding Compliance Filing to be effective 2/1/2011. Filed Date: 03/02/2011 Accession Number: 20110302-5205...

  11. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM SUPPORTING THE PARALLEL WORLD MODEL

    E-print Network

    Shinjo, Yasushi

    to shorten the response times of applications. Experiments have been done to measure the performance a new child world from an existing parent world. The child world inherits all the contents of its parent world. When files are modified in the new child world, this modification is effective only in the child

  12. Fast Indexing: Support for Size-Changing Algorithms in Stackable File Systems

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    this mapping. Index files are designed to be recover- able if lost and add less than 0.1% disk space overhead or transmission bandwidths. Encoding: Algorithms that encode the data such that it has a better chance of being ASCII characters and no more than 72 characters per line. In this category we also consider

  13. Fast Indexing: Support for Size-Changing Algorithms in Stackable File Systems

    E-print Network

    Zadok, Erez

    this mapping. Index files are designed to be recover- able if lost and add less than 0.1% disk space overhead or transmission bandwidths. Encoding: Algorithms that encode the data such that it has a better chance of being characters and no more than 72 characters per line. In this category we also consider transformations to sup

  14. Fast Indexing: Support for SizeChanging Algorithms in Stackable File Systems

    E-print Network

    Zadok, Erez

    this mapping. Index files are designed to be recover­ able if lost and add less than 0.1% disk space overhead or transmission bandwidths. Encoding: Algorithms that encode the data such that it has a better chance of being ASCII characters and no more than 72 characters per line. In this category we also consider

  15. Data file management in the DIII-D data acquisition and analysis computer systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Jr

    1989-01-01

    DIII-D is a large tokamak plasma physics and fusion energy research experiment funded by the US Department of Energy. Each shot of the experiment results in data files containing between 20 and 30 Mb of data. These shots occur about once every 10 min, with 40 to 50 shots per operating day. Over 1.2 GB have been acquired in one

  16. 75 FR 38805 - Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM07-16-000; RM01-5-000] Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's Electronic Filing System June 28, 2010. Take...

  17. 29 CFR 15.303 - How does a Job Corps student file a claim for loss of or damages to personal property under the WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How does a Job Corps student file a claim for loss of or damages...STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.303 How does a Job Corps student file a claim for loss of or...

  18. 29 CFR 15.303 - How does a Job Corps student file a claim for loss of or damages to personal property under the WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a Job Corps student file a claim for loss of or damages...STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.303 How does a Job Corps student file a claim for loss of or...

  19. Modeling and simulation of a high-performance PACS based on a shared file system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Glenn; Anderson, Kenneth R.; Wirsz, Emil; Prior, Fred W.; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1992-07-01

    Siemens and Loral Western Development Labs have designed a Picture Archiving and Communication System capable of supporting a large, fully digital hospital. Its functions include the management, storage and retrieval of medical images. The system may be modeled as a heterogeneous network of processing elements, transfer devices and storage units. Several discrete event simulation models have been designed to investigate different levels of the design. These models include the System Model, focusing on the flow of image traffic throughout the system, the Workstation Models, focusing on the internal processing in the different types of workstations, and the Communication Network Model, focusing on the control communication and host computer processing. The first two of these models are addressed here, with reference being made to a separate paper regarding the Communication Network Model. This paper describes some of the issues addressed with the models, the modeling techniques used and the performance results from the simulations. Important parameters of interest include: time to retrieve images from different possible storage locations and the utilization levels of the transfer devices and other key hardware components. To understand system performance under fully loaded conditions, the proposed system for the Madigan Army Medical Center was modeled in detail, as part of the Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System (MDIS) proposal.

  20. Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

  1. A scalable infrastructure for CMS data analysis based on OpenStack Cloud and Gluster file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, S.; Osmani, L.; Eerola, P.; Kraemer, O.; Lindén, T.; Tarkoma, S.; White, J.

    2014-06-01

    The challenge of providing a resilient and scalable computational and data management solution for massive scale research environments requires continuous exploration of new technologies and techniques. In this project the aim has been to design a scalable and resilient infrastructure for CERN HEP data analysis. The infrastructure is based on OpenStack components for structuring a private Cloud with the Gluster File System. We integrate the state-of-the-art Cloud technologies with the traditional Grid middleware infrastructure. Our test results show that the adopted approach provides a scalable and resilient solution for managing resources without compromising on performance and high availability.

  2. MCard\\/FS: a file manager for memory cards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Frenger

    1989-01-01

    A general-purpose file management system designed specifically for memory cards is described. The file system provides a standardized data handling technique to support a wide variety of biomedical applications. Any type of file may be used. System overhead is minimal, and the file structure is independent of microprocessor, word width and implementation language

  3. Efficient diagnosis of multiprocessor systems under probabilistic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blough, Douglas M.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of fault diagnosis in multiprocessor systems is considered under a probabilistic fault model. The focus is on minimizing the number of tests that must be conducted in order to correctly diagnose the state of every processor in the system with high probability. A diagnosis algorithm that can correctly diagnose the state of every processor with probability approaching one in a class of systems performing slightly greater than a linear number of tests is presented. A nearly matching lower bound on the number of tests required to achieve correct diagnosis in arbitrary systems is also proven. Lower and upper bounds on the number of tests required for regular systems are also presented. A class of regular systems which includes hypercubes is shown to be correctly diagnosable with high probability. In all cases, the number of tests required under this probabilistic model is shown to be significantly less than under a bounded-size fault set model. Because the number of tests that must be conducted is a measure of the diagnosis overhead, these results represent a dramatic improvement in the performance of system-level diagnosis techniques.

  4. An image matrix for accessing files

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley T. Schuyler; Jonathan A. Soule; Patrick F. Turchetta; Malcolm H. Gotterer

    1972-01-01

    The efficiency of a file management system using direct access storage depends to a large extent upon the efficiency of its file access algorithm, the extent to which the operating environment influences file manager performance, and the effectiveness of primary storage utilization. One way to increase a system's efficiency is to reduce the number of probes necessary to access a

  5. An Evolvable Hardware System Under Varying Illumination Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Ja Jeon; Phill-kyu Rhee

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper proposes an evolvable hardware system with capability of evolution under varying illumination environment, which\\u000a is implemented on reconfigurable field programmable gate array platform with ARM core and genetic algorithm processor. The\\u000a proposed evolvable hardware system for image processing consists of the reconfigurable hardware module and the evolvable software\\u000a module, which are implemented using SoC platform board with the

  6. File Fragment Classification-The Case for Specialized Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassil Roussev; Simson L. Garfinkel

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly advances in file carving, memory analysis and network forensics requires the ability to identify the underlying type of a file given only a file fragment. Work to date on this problem has relied on identification of specific byte sequences in file headers and footers, and the use of statistical analysis and machine learning algorithms taken from the middle of

  7. Enabling automatic adaptation in systems with under-specified elements

    E-print Network

    Koopman, Philip

    Enabling automatic adaptation in systems with under-specified elements Orna Raz School of Computer. We show how this mechanism may be used in our framework for enhanc- ing dynamic data feeds with automatic adaptation. We dis- cuss how the same mechanism may be used in repair. Our emphasis

  8. Global stability results for systems under sampled-data control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iasson Karafyllis; Costas Kravaris

    2009-01-01

    In this work sufficient conditions expressed by means of single and vector\\u000aLyapunov functions of Uniform Input-to-Output Stability (UIOS) and Uniform\\u000aInput-to-State Stability (UISS) are given for finite-dimensional systems under\\u000afeedback control with zero order hold.

  9. System Performances under Automation Degradation E. Hollnagel3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    System Performances under Automation Degradation (SPAD) E. Hollnagel3 , C. Martinie1 , P. Palanque1 of the project objectives augmented by some early findings. Abstract - Increased automation is one of the main changes foreseen by SESAR in ATM. This will pose new challenges including possible automation degradation

  10. 11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressedsteel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. An abandoned electrical system was found under the pressed-steel ceiling. For some undetermined reason the pattern of the ceiling panels has 'photographed' onto the cardboard substrate. Two different panel designs were utilized in a checkerboard pattern. One panel of each design remains in place. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. "Women under the Influence": The System as the Cause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Suggests "Woman Under the Influence" is an excellent film for teaching key concepts in family communication. Explains systems theory as it applies to transactions within the family. Extends the theory to the analysis of the spousal relationship in the film from the perspective of interactional communication, dramatically illustrating the…

  12. Dual Flagellar Systems Enable Motility under Different Circumstances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda L. McCarter

    2004-01-01

    Flagella are extremely effective organelles of locomotion used by a variety of bacteria and archaea. Some bacteria, including Aeromonas, Azospirillum, Rhodospirillum, and Vibrio species, possess dual flagellar systems that are suited for movement under different circumstances. Swimming in liquid is promoted by a single polar flagellum. Swarming over surfaces or in viscous environments is enabled by the production of numerous

  13. Bigfoot-NFS: A Parallel File-Striping NFS Server (Extended Abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene H. Kim; Ronald G. Minnich; Larry McVoy

    Bigfoot-NFS allows the transparent use of the aggregate space of multiple NFS file servers as a single file system. By presenting a single apparent file system to the user, Bigfoot-NFS allows the use of available storage without the maintenance overhead of tracking multiple mounted file systems. Unlike most other network parallel file systems, Bigfoot-NFS runs without a central \\

  14. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  15. Improving MTF measurements of under-sampled optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVeigne, Joseph D.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2009-05-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) of optical systems is often derived by taking the Fourier transform (FT) of a measured line spread function. Recently, methods of performing Fourier transforms that are common in infrared spectroscopy have been applied to MTF calculations. Proper apodization and phase correction have been shown to improve MTF calculations in optical systems. In this paper these methods as well as another filtering algorithm based on phase are applied to under-sampled optical systems. Results, both with and without the additional processing are presented and the differences are discussed.

  16. Usage analysis of user files in UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a user-oriented analysis of short term file usage in a 4.2 BSD UNIX environment. The key aspect of this analysis is a characterization of users and files, which is a departure from the traditional approach of analyzing file references. Two characterization measures are employed: accesses-per-byte (combining fraction of a file referenced and number of references) and file size. This new approach is shown to distinguish differences in files as well as users, which cam be used in efficient file system design, and in creating realistic test workloads for simulations. A multi-stage gamma distribution is shown to closely model the file usage measures. Even though overall file sharing is small, some files belonging to a bulletin board system are accessed by many users, simultaneously and otherwise. Over 50% of users referenced files owned by other users, and over 80% of all files were involved in such references. Based on the differences in files and users, suggestions to improve the system performance were also made.

  17. Compress Your Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files

  18. A Metaobject Protocol for Controlling File Cache Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Maeda

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a metaobject protocol (MOP) for controlling file buffercaches in operating systems. The MOP exposes an abstraction of the file cache machinerythat is an inherent part of every file system implementation, and thereby allows applicationsto control cache management decisions for the files that they use. Safety and protection arepreserved by carefully designing the MOP so

  19. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS): Fall Staff Data File 1995

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Center for Education Statistics.

    1998-01-01

    The Fall Staff database contains detailed information on staffing for all Post-secondary institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the outlying areas that are eligible to participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Information gathered from the IPEDS forms used to create this data file include: distribution of full- and part-time staff by primary occupation, sex, and race-ethnicity; full-time faculty by academic rank and tenure; full-time new hires by sex and race-ethnicity; and number of staff by employment status, primary occupation, and sex. Information on software requirements for reading the data is provided.

  20. Searching the TELEGEN and BIOTECHNOLOGY Files

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Grodsky

    1983-01-01

    TELEGEN and BIOTECHNOLOGY, two new databases on thc SDC ORBIT system, index the whole range of genetic engineering literaturc. TELEGEN covers business aspects of the industry, as well as technical literature: BIOTECHNOLOGY covers patents and technical literature only. Both files are PROXIMITY-searchable. File design and content, as well as search techniques specific to each file, are discusscd in detail. The

  1. VENNFS: A Venn-Diagram File Manager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario De Chiara; Ugo Erra; Vittorio Scarano

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a prototypal file manager, VEN- NFS, that is designed to overcome some of the limitations of the current desktop interfaces, that are strongly based on hierarchical file systems. VENNFS allows users to place documents and categories on a plane so that files may be- long to multiple categories at once, where proximity on the plane

  2. A file transfer protocol and implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Butscher; W. Heinze

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a file transfer service in a heterogeneous computer network (HMINET). The basic architecture models are presented, the file transfer protocol is described and the implementation in the HMINET is shown with the functional capabilities and the command structure. A transfer of files between different computer system can be regarded as a service, which is divided into four

  3. Soil enzyme activities under agroforestry systems in northern Jiangsu Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuxu Wan; Ping Chen

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented the enzyme characteristics of catalase, sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase under agroforestry\\u000a systems in northern Jiangsu Province. The results show that soil enzyme activities reduce gradually from top to bottom layer\\u000a of the soil profile, and the fluctuations of catalase and urease are smaller than those of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase.\\u000a Soil enzyme activities differe significantly in

  4. Decentralized optimal control of dynamical systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabasov, R.; Dmitruk, N. M.; Kirillova, F. M.

    2011-07-01

    The problem of optimal control of a group of interconnected dynamical objects under uncertainty is considered. The cases are examined in which the centralized control of the group of objects is impossible due to delay in the channel for information exchange between the group members. Optimal self-control algorithms in real time for each dynamical object are proposed. Various types of a priori and current information about the behavior of the group members and about uncertainties in the system are examined. The proposed methods supplement the earlier developed optimal control methods for an individual dynamical system and the methods of decentralized optimal control of deterministic objects. The results are illustrated with examples.

  5. 36 CFR 1150.21 - Form of documents to be filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Form, Execution, Service and Filing of Documents for Proceedings on Citations § 1150.21 Form of documents to be filed. Documents to be filed under the rules in this part shall be...

  6. 36 CFR 1150.21 - Form of documents to be filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Form, Execution, Service and Filing of Documents for Proceedings on Citations § 1150.21 Form of documents to be filed. Documents to be filed under the rules in this part shall be...

  7. ViewBox: Integrating Local File Systems with Cloud Storage Services Yupu Zhang, Chris Dragga, Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    . However, despite the excellent reliability that the cloud back-end provides, the loose coupling provide the user with a strong sense of data safety. Unfortunately, this is merely a sense, not a reality; the loose coupling of these services and the local file system endangers data even as these services strive

  8. Reporting Arezow Doost Filed Under

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    dioxide exhaled by sleeping babies. Parents can buy monitors that detect movement, but this device Baby monitor, Child Health, Sudden infant death syndrome, United States University of Texas Arlington (CBSDFW.COM) ­ Gone are the days of audio and video-based baby monitors ­­ if University of Texas

  9. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay systems... General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems... (b) Geographic conversion. When comparing positions under paragraph...

  10. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay systems... General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems... (b) Geographic conversion. When comparing positions under paragraph...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Canal Centering Ability of Different Single File Systems Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography- An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Jatin; Jain, Pradeep; Chandra, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of an endodontic instrument to remain centered in the root canal system is one of the most important characteristic influencing the clinical performance of a particular file system. Thus, it is important to assess the canal centering ability of newly introduced single file systems before they can be considered a viable replacement of full-sequence rotary file systems. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the canal transportation, centering ability, and time taken for preparation of curved root canals after instrumentation with single file systems One Shape and Wave One, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Sixty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 20o to 35o were divided into three groups of 20 samples each: ProTaper PT (group I) – full-sequence rotary control group, OneShape OS (group II)- single file continuous rotation, WaveOne WO – single file reciprocal motion (group III). Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CBCT images were obtained from root cross-sections at 3mm, 6mm and 9mm from the apex. Scanned images were then accessed to determine canal transportation and centering ability. The data collected were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. Results It was observed that there were no differences in the magnitude of transportation between the rotary instruments (p >0.05) at both 3mm as well as 6mm from the apex. At 9 mm from the apex, Group I PT showed significantly higher mean canal transportation and lower centering ability (0.19±0.08 and 0.39±0.16), as compared to Group II OS (0.12±0.07 and 0.54±0.24) and Group III WO (0.13±0.06 and 0.55±0.18) while the differences between OS and WO were not statistically significant Conclusion It was concluded that there was minor difference between the tested groups. Single file systems demonstrated average canal transportation and centering ability comparable to full sequence Protaper system in curved root canals.

  12. Numerical experiments in ringing of offshore systems under viscous loads

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, K.R.; Kareem, A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A phenomenon which has recently received much attention in offshore engineering is the ringing response of structures. This high frequency transient type response has been observed in nature, particularly in tension leg platforms (TLPs). Given the implications of this behavior on the fatigue life of tendons, it is important that it be considered for response analysis. Significant progress has been made in recent years in identifying the nonlinear mechanisms that induce ringing in complex offshore structural systems. This introductory study-uses a simple model to numerically demonstrates several of the more salient features that are commonly cited in current literature, and shows that viscous loads may result in inducing ringing type response of members under certain conditions. Ringing response in pitch due to viscous loading is simulated on a column piercing the surface, and the significant contributing force mechanisms are identified. System characteristics are altered to ameliorate the performance of these systems.

  13. Clinical Accuracy of the Respiratory Tumor Tracking System of the CyberKnife: Assessment by Analysis of Log Files

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogeman, Mischa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.hoogeman@erasmusmc.nl; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Nuyttens, Joost; Poell, Johan; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinical accuracy of the respiratory motion tracking system of the CyberKnife treatment device. Methods and Materials: Data in log files of 44 lung cancer patients treated with tumor tracking were analyzed. Errors in the correlation model, which relates the internal target motion with the external breathing motion, were quantified. The correlation model error was compared with the geometric error obtained when no respiratory tracking was used. Errors in the prediction method were calculated by subtracting the predicted position from the actual measured position after 192.5 ms (the time lag to prediction in our current system). The prediction error was also measured for a time lag of 115 ms and a new prediction method. Results: The mean correlation model errors were less than 0.3 mm. Standard deviations describing intrafraction variations around the whole-fraction mean error were 0.2 to 1.9 mm for cranio-caudal, 0.1 to 1.9 mm for left-right, and 0.2 to 2.5 mm for anterior-posterior directions. Without the use of respiratory tracking, these variations would have been 0.2 to 8.1 mm, 0.2 to 5.5 mm, and 0.2 to 4.4 mm. The overall mean prediction error was small (0.0 {+-} 0.0 mm) for all directions. The intrafraction standard deviation ranged from 0.0 to 2.9 mm for a time delay of 192.5 ms but was halved by using the new prediction method. Conclusions: Analyses of the log files of real clinical cases have shown that the geometric error caused by respiratory motion is substantially reduced by the application of respiratory motion tracking.

  14. Inelastic collapse in one-dimensional driven systems under gravity.

    PubMed

    Wakou, Jun'ichi; Kitagishi, Hiroyuki; Sakaue, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2013-04-01

    We study inelastic collapse in a one-dimensional N-particle system when the system is driven from below under gravity. We investigate the hard-sphere limit of inelastic soft-sphere systems by numerical simulations to find how the collision rate per particle n(coll) increases as a function of the elastic constant of the sphere k when the restitution coefficient e is kept constant. For systems with large enough N>/~20, we find three regimes in e depending on the behavior of n(coll) in the hard-sphere limit: (i) an uncollapsing regime for 1?e>e(c1), where n(coll) converges to a finite value, (ii) a logarithmically collapsing regime for e(c1)>e>e(c2), where n(coll) diverges as n(coll)~logk, and (iii) a power-law collapsing regime for e(c2)>e>0, where n(coll) diverges as n(coll)~k(?) with an exponent ? that depends on N. The power-law collapsing regime shrinks as N decreases and seems not to exist for the system with N=3, while, for large N, the size of the uncollapsing and the logarithmically collapsing regime decreases as e(c1)=/~1-2.6/N and e(c2)=/~1-3.0/N. We demonstrate that this difference between large and small systems exists already in the inelastic collapse without external drive and gravity. PMID:23679401

  15. A robotic assistant system for cardiac interventions under MRI guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Wood, Bradford J.; Horvath, Keith A.; Kapoor, Ankur

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present a surgical assistant system for implanting prosthetic aortic valve transapically under MRI guidance, in a beating heart. The system integrates an MR imaging system, a robotic system, as well as user interfaces for a surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. A compact robotic delivery module mounted on a robotic arm is used for delivering both balloon-expandable and self-expanding prosthesis. The system provides different user interfaces at different stages of the procedure. A compact fiducial pattern close to the volume of interest is proposed for robot registration. The image processing and the transformation recovery methods using this fiducial in MRI are presented. The registration accuracy obtained by using this compact fiducial is comparable to the larger multi-spherical marker registration method. The registration accuracy using these two methods is less than 0.62+/-0.50 deg (mean +/- std. dev.) and 0.63+/-0.72 deg (mean +/- std. dev.), respectively. We evaluated each of the components and show that they can work together to form a complete system for transapical aortic valve replacement.

  16. Real-time specified object tracking system under complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Wang, Weichao; Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Haiyang

    2011-12-01

    A new approach is proposed in real-time specified object tracking system under auto dome rotation freely. When it is necessary to track objects in occlusion conditions or with high speed by real-time system, it is not always possible to using particle filter or mean shift algorithm both of which are widely used. The key idea of the presented research work is to integrate the advantages of mean-shift algorithm and particle filter. Using mean shift algorithm to iterate the particles generated by particle filter repeatedly until stable, which could efficiently reduces the number of sampled particles. Therefore the system designed in this paper can track the objects in occlusion conditions or with high speed, and the computational cost is greatly reduced, moreover, an adaptive occlusion detecting algorithm, which update the model when the object is in occlusion makes the system more robust. The experiment results demonstrate that the object tracking system in this paper can meet the tracking requirements when the object is moving, rotating or in partial occlusion. The error of this system is less than 0.859%, it also proved the combing method is effective and steady.

  17. 76 FR 34221 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...Independent System Operator, Inc. submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: NYISO Errata Filing re: 7/30/11 RLS filing Correcting Formula to be effective 10/21/2010. Filed Date: 05/31/2011. Accession Number:...

  18. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (IL); Hunley, A.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small.

  19. Experimental System Setup for HIFU under MRI for mouse experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Tao; Amin, Viren; Boska, Michael

    2009-04-01

    We describe an integrated system setup for HIFU and MRI thermometry for mouse experiments. The applications of such a system include MRI imaging and thermometry for evaluation and feedback during HIFU applications on mouse models of various diseases; and validation of temperature estimated by other methods, such as RF data. A 5 MHz geometrically focused (diameter of 16.1 mm, focal length 35 mm), MRI-compatible HIFU transducer is used, driven by a programmable signal generator and a power amplifier. The small animal MRI scanner has been programmed to acquire sequential phase information, which is used to determine frequency shift. Relative temperature rise is then calculated by proton resonance frequency (RPF) method. The current software development is done in C++ and Matlab. An integrated software is being developed to streamline the acquisition, analysis and visualization during HIFU delivery. Preliminary experiments have been performed using different phantoms. Performing HIFU (less than 100 watts) under MRI has had minimal interference for MRI data acquisition. The development is continuing for further characterizing and understanding the interference at the higher power level and accelerate data acquisition rate to achieve thermometry for a few frames per second. Further tissue experiments are under way with target of live mouse experiments. We present the overall design and discuss challenges encountered in the development of such system for experiments on mouse.

  20. 77 FR 19657 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...filings: Docket Numbers: ES12-23-000. Applicants: Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative, Inc. Description: Second Amendment...of Securities under Section 204 of the Federal Power Act of Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative, Inc. Filed Date:...

  1. 29 CFR 1985.103 - Filing of retaliation complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...RETALIATION COMPLAINTS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROVISION OF THE CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION ACT OF 2010 Complaints, Investigations, Findings...been retaliated against in violation of the Act may file, or have filed by any person...

  2. 26 CFR 55.6071-1 - Time for filing returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Procedure... Time for filing returns. (a) Returns...that the real estate investment trust is required to file its income tax return under section...

  3. 29 CFR 1980.103 - Filing of discrimination complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 806 OF THE CORPORATE AND CRIMINAL FRAUD ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2002, TITLE VIII OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations...representative in violation of the Act may file, or have filed by...

  4. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

  5. 7 CFR 47.25 - Filing; extensions of time; effective date of filing; computations of time; official notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Filing; extensions of time; effective...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES RULES...UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT ...47.25 Filing; extensions of time;...

  6. Limitation Periods for Filing a Charge with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan Medbury

    1976-01-01

    This note briefly outlines the legislative purposes and the general procedural requirements of Title VII, including the ambiguity of the time limitations on filing. It is suggested that the time limitations with the EEOC should not be rigidly construed and that tolling of the limitation periods is often justified. (Author/LBH)

  7. Quantitative evaluation of file management performance improvements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. McFadden; J. C. Strauss

    1973-01-01

    Operating systems generally provide file management service, routines that are employed by user tasks to access secondary storage. This paper is concerned with quantitative evaluation of several suggested performance improvements to the file management system of the Xerox Data Systems (XDS) operating systems.

  8. [In vitro comparison of root canal preparation with step-back technique and GT rotary file--a nickel-titanium engine driven rotary instrument system].

    PubMed

    Krajczár, Károly; Tóth, Vilmos; Nyárády, Zoltán; Szabó, Gyula

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the authors' study was to compare the remaining root canal wall thickness and the preparation time of root canals, prepared either with step-back technique, or with GT Rotary File, an engine driven nickel-titanium rotary instrument system. Twenty extracted molars were decoronated. Teeth were divided in two groups. In Group 1 root canals were prepared with step-back technique. In Group 2 GT Rotary File System was utilized. Preoperative vestibulo-oral X-ray pictures were taken from all teeth with radiovisiograph (RVG). The final preparations at the mesiobuccal canals (MB) were performed with size #30 and palatinal/distal canals with size #40 instruments. Postoperative RVG pictures were taken ensuring the preoperative positioning. The working time was measured in seconds during each preparation. The authors also assessed the remaining root canal wall thickness at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the radiological apex, comparing the width of the canal walls of the vestibulo-oral projections on pre- and postoperative RVG pictures both mesially and buccally. The ratios of the residual and preoperative root canal wall thickness were calculated and compared. The largest difference was found at the MB canals of the coronal and middle third level of the root, measured on the distal canal wall. The ratio of the remaining dentin wall thickness at the coronal and the middle level in the case of step-back preparation was 0.605 and 0.754, and 0.824 and 0.895 in the cases of GT files respectively. The preparation time needed for GT Rotary File System was altogether 68.7% (MB) and 52.5% (D/P canals) of corresponding step-back preparation times. The use of GT Rotary File with comparison of standard step-back method resulted in a shortened preparation time and excessive damage of the coronal part of the root canal could be avoided. PMID:16108416

  9. Propulsion system assessment for very high UAV under ERAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bettner, James L.; Blandford, Craig S.; Rezy, Bernie J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of propulsion systems were configured to power a sensor platform to very high altitudes under the Experimental Research Advanced Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The unmanned aircraft was required to carry a 100 kg instrument package to 90,000 ft altitude, collect samples and make scientific measurements for 4 hr, and then return to base. A performance screening evaluation of 11 propulsion systems for this high altitude mission was conducted. Engine configurations ranged from turboprop, spark ignition, two- and four-stroke diesel, rotary, and fuel cell concepts. Turbo and non-turbo-compounded, recuperated and nonrecuperated arrangements, along with regular JP and hydrogen fuels were interrogated. Each configuration was carried through a preliminary design where all turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and engine core concepts were sized and weighed for near-optimum design point performance. Mission analysis, which sized the aircraft for each of the propulsion systems investigated, was conducted. From the array of configurations investigated, the propulsion system for each of three different technology levels (i.e., state of the art, near term, and far term) that was best suited for this very high altitude mission was identified and recommended for further study.

  10. Optimal maintenance of a multi-unit system under dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ho-Joon

    The availability, or reliability, of an engineering component greatly influences the operational cost and safety characteristics of a modern system over its life-cycle. Until recently, the reliance on past empirical data has been the industry-standard practice to develop maintenance policies that provide the minimum level of system reliability. Because such empirically-derived policies are vulnerable to unforeseen or fast-changing external factors, recent advancements in the study of topic on maintenance, which is known as optimal maintenance problem, has gained considerable interest as a legitimate area of research. An extensive body of applicable work is available, ranging from those concerned with identifying maintenance policies aimed at providing required system availability at minimum possible cost, to topics on imperfect maintenance of multi-unit system under dependencies. Nonetheless, these existing mathematical approaches to solve for optimal maintenance policies must be treated with caution when considered for broader applications, as they are accompanied by specialized treatments to ease the mathematical derivation of unknown functions in both objective function and constraint for a given optimal maintenance problem. These unknown functions are defined as reliability measures in this thesis, and theses measures (e.g., expected number of failures, system renewal cycle, expected system up time, etc.) do not often lend themselves to possess closed-form formulas. It is thus quite common to impose simplifying assumptions on input probability distributions of components' lifetime or repair policies. Simplifying the complex structure of a multi-unit system to a k-out-of-n system by neglecting any sources of dependencies is another commonly practiced technique intended to increase the mathematical tractability of a particular model. This dissertation presents a proposal for an alternative methodology to solve optimal maintenance problems by aiming to achieve the same end-goals as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). RCM was first introduced to the aircraft industry in an attempt to bridge the gap between the empirically-driven and theory-driven approaches to establishing optimal maintenance policies. Under RCM, qualitative processes that enable the prioritizing of functions based on the criticality and influence would be combined with mathematical modeling to obtain the optimal maintenance policies. Where this thesis work deviates from RCM is its proposal to directly apply quantitative processes to model the reliability measures in optimal maintenance problem. First, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, in conjunction with a pre-determined Design of Experiments (DOE) table, can be used as a numerical means of obtaining the corresponding discrete simulated outcomes of the reliability measures based on the combination of decision variables (e.g., periodic preventive maintenance interval, trigger age for opportunistic maintenance, etc.). These discrete simulation results can then be regressed as Response Surface Equations (RSEs) with respect to the decision variables. Such an approach to represent the reliability measures with continuous surrogate functions (i.e., the RSEs) not only enables the application of the numerical optimization technique to solve for optimal maintenance policies, but also obviates the need to make mathematical assumptions or impose over-simplifications on the structure of a multi-unit system for the sake of mathematical tractability. The applicability of the proposed methodology to a real-world optimal maintenance problem is showcased through its application to a Time Limited Dispatch (TLD) of Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) system. In broader terms, this proof-of-concept exercise can be described as a constrained optimization problem, whose objective is to identify the optimal system inspection interval that guarantees a certain level of availability for a multi-unit system. A variety of reputable numerical techniques were used to model the problem as accurately as possible, including a

  11. Analysis of Long Term File Reference Patterns for Application to File Migration Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Jay Smith

    1981-01-01

    In most large computer installations files are moved between on-line disk and mass storage (tape, integrated mass storage device) either automatically by the system and\\/or at the direction of the user. In this paper we present and analyze long term file reference data in order to develop a basis for the construction of algorithms for file migration. Specifically, we examine

  12. [The development and application of computer assisted photogrammetric-system of facial soft tissue running under multiple facilities for taking image].

    PubMed

    Bao, B; Yu, S; Tan, J

    1997-08-01

    The photogrammetric-system was developed by using multimedia computer, colour television camera, SE100 video blaster, Newsketch 1212 HR digitizer and by using Visual Basic language. It ran under Windows 3.1 and Windows 95. The features of this system: 1. It had three kinds of functions: photogrammetric function for frontal and profile facial soft tissue, function for managing file and function for forming dynamic data base. 2. It ran under different facilities for taking image (television camera with video blaster, digitizer, scanner) speedily and specificly, and had very friendly interface, and was of multimedia. The application of this system: 1. assisting diagnosing, making plan for treatment and observing results of treatment in clinic of orthodontics, orthopedics and facial plastics, 2. assisting analysing the features of facial soft tissue about certain people, 3. assisting the multimedia teaching. PMID:11480017

  13. System for Processing Coded OFDM Under Doppler and Fading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Haiping; Darden, Scott; Lee, Dennis; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2005-01-01

    An advanced communication system has been proposed for transmitting and receiving coded digital data conveyed as a form of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in the presence of such adverse propagation-channel effects as large dynamic Doppler shifts and frequency-selective multipath fading. Such adverse channel effects are typical of data communications between mobile units or between mobile and stationary units (e.g., telemetric transmissions from aircraft to ground stations). The proposed system incorporates novel signal processing techniques intended to reduce the losses associated with adverse channel effects while maintaining compatibility with the high-speed physical layer specifications defined for wireless local area networks (LANs) as the standard 802.11a of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 802.11a). OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique that is widely used for wireless transmission of data in LANs and in metropolitan area networks (MANs). OFDM has been adopted in IEEE 802.11a and some other industry standards because it affords robust performance under frequency-selective fading. However, its intrinsic frequency-diversity feature is highly sensitive to synchronization errors; this sensitivity poses a challenge to preserve coherence between the component subcarriers of an OFDM system in order to avoid intercarrier interference in the presence of large dynamic Doppler shifts as well as frequency-selective fading. As a result, heretofore, the use of OFDM has been limited primarily to applications involving small or zero Doppler shifts. The proposed system includes a digital coherent OFDM communication system that would utilize enhanced 802.1la-compatible signal-processing algorithms to overcome effects of frequency-selective fading and large dynamic Doppler shifts. The overall transceiver design would implement a two-frequency-channel architecture (see figure) that would afford frequency diversity for reducing the adverse effects of multipath fading. By using parallel concatenated convolutional codes (also known as Turbo codes) across the dual-channel and advanced OFDM signal processing within each channel, the proposed system is intended to achieve at least an order of magnitude improvement in received signal-to-noise ratio under adverse channel effects while preserving spectral efficiency.

  14. Opening Data Files There are three file types: Raw Image File (.rif), Compensated Image File (.cif), Data Analysis File

    E-print Network

    ), Data Analysis File (.daf). To open a Raw Image File: 1. Launch IDEAS. 2. Select the appropriate analysis wizard for your application, or select Open from the File menu, select a data file to open if necessary. 8. Name the Compensated Image File and data analysis file that is created; generally the default

  15. Viewing Files

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML Web pages, our Web sites sometimes contain other file formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of the information available on our sites. The following lists show each format, along with links

  16. 29 CFR 4902.11 - Specific exemptions: Office of Inspector General Investigative File System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (2) Reasons for exemption. The reasons for asserting this exemption are because the disclosure...could interfere with other important law enforcement concerns...Contract Employment. (1) Exemption. Under the authority...

  17. [Individual systemic reactions of human organism under acute hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Burykh, É A; Bekshaev, S S; Rozhkov, V P; Bo?ko, E R

    2012-11-01

    Results of physiological and biochemical study including analysis of brain electrical activity dynamics, volumetric and linear parameters of cerebral blood flow, plasma stress hormones levels (adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol) and energy metabolism markers (glucose, lactate) at different stages of acute normobaric hypoxia are presented. The correlations are shown between alterations of main cerebral arteries tone and resistivity type vessels, as well as between changes in linear and volumetric cerebral blood flow providing a compensation of the oxygen deficit. Features of EEG dynamics were investigated that characterized CNS regulatory functions and brain electrogenesis disturbance under deep stages of hypoxia. By means of original evaluating methods of interaction structure between different EEG rhythm, EEG markers were obtained that revealed both brain intercentral interaction rearrangements and functional disintegration of systemic brain activity at various stages of acute hypoxia. PMID:23431769

  18. Experience, use, and performance measurement of the Hadoop File System in a typical nuclear physics analysis workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaline, E.; Lauret, J.

    2014-06-01

    The quantity of information produced in Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP) experiments necessitates the transmission and storage of data across diverse collections of computing resources. Robust solutions such as XRootD have been used in NPP, but as the usage of cloud resources grows, the difficulties in the dynamic configuration of these systems become a concern. Hadoop File System (HDFS) exists as a possible cloud storage solution with a proven track record in dynamic environments. Though currently not extensively used in NPP, HDFS is an attractive solution offering both elastic storage and rapid deployment. We will present the performance of HDFS in both canonical I/O tests and for a typical data analysis pattern within the RHIC/STAR experimental framework. These tests explore the scaling with different levels of redundancy and numbers of clients. Additionally, the performance of FUSE and NFS interfaces to HDFS were evaluated as a way to allow existing software to function without modification. Unfortunately, the complicated data structures in NPP are non-trivial to integrate with Hadoop and so many of the benefits of the MapReduce paradigm could not be directly realized. Despite this, our results indicate that using HDFS as a distributed filesystem offers reasonable performance and scalability and that it excels in its ease of configuration and deployment in a cloud environment.

  19. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS) (National) EZ-Base (trade name) Version 7. 3 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created by EPA to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of PRPs. EZ-Base(TM) is a relational data base management system that utilizes a WordPerfect(R) interface and requires no programming skills to either convert or input databases. EZ-Base(TM) allows users to output selected records to merge files for reports or directly to printer. Selections may be made on any combination of field content criteria such as: site identification codes; site name; NPL flag; Potentially Responsible Party (PRP); addressee; title; address; city; state; ZIP notification date GNL and SNL.

  20. File Routing in an Intelligent Network Disk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hou Fang; Zhao Yue-Long

    2009-01-01

    Some problems of storage architectures such as DAS, NAS and SAN have been analyzed. A new network storage system named as Intelligent Network Disk (IND) has been proposed. Its hardware architecture and file system (INDFS) architecture have been presented. Further discussion of its file routing and resources balancing algorithms has been introduced. A basic experimental system based on IND has

  1. FEW: File Management for Portable Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Baquero; Jose Legatheaux Martins; Marc Shapiro; Paulo S'ergio Almeida; Henrique Domingos; Victor Fonte; S'ergio Duarte

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of portable de-vices with large amounts of storage have become widely used. In this paper, we present the early design of the FEW system, a system that aims to ease file management in the new mobile environment. To this end, the system will man-age file replicas stored in fixed and portable storage devices. It

  2. Microleakage under orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Alkis, Huseyin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Adanir, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study aimed to compare the microleakage of orthodontic brackets between enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces at the occlusal and gingival margins bonded with different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 human maxillary premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons was randomly divided into four groups. Each group was then further divided into three sub-groups. Three total-etching bonding systems (Transbond XT, Greengloo and Kurasper F), three one-step self-etching bonding systems (Transbond Plus SEP, Bond Force and Clearfil S3), three two-step self-etching bonding systems (Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protectbond and Clearfil Liner Bond), and three self-adhesive resin cements (Maxcem Elite, Relyx U 100 and Clearfil SA Cement) were used to bond the brackets to the teeth. After bonding, all teeth were sealed with nail varnish and stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 h. All samples were sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope to score for microleakage at the adhesive–enamel and adhesive–bracket interfaces from both occlusal and gingival margins. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were performed with Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: The results indicate no statistically significant differences between the microleakage scores of the adhesives; microleakage was detected in all groups. Comparison of the average values of the microleakage scores in the enamel–adhesive and adhesive–bracket interfaces indicated statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The amount of the microleakage was higher at the enamel–adhesive interface than at the bracket-adhesive interface. Conclusions: All of the brackets exhibited some amount of microleakage. This result means that microleakage does not depend on the type of adhesive used. PMID:25713494

  3. 77 FR 9226 - Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...Commission [Docket No. ER12-1013-000] Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...in the above-referenced proceeding of Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  4. Logical stochastic resonance in bistable system under ?-stable noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Song, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In the presence of ?-stable noise, the logical stochastic resonance (LSR) phenomenon in a class of double well nonlinear system is investigated in this paper. LSR effect is obtained under ?-stable noise. The probability of getting correct logic outputs is used to evaluate LSR behavior. Four main results are presented. Firstly, in the optimal band of noise intensity, Gaussian white noise is considered a better choice than heavy tailed noise to obtain clean logic operation. But at weak noise background, the success probability of getting the right logic outputs is higher when the system is subjected to heavy tailed noise. Secondly, it is shown that over the entire range of noise variance, the asymmetric noise induced LSR performs better than that induced by the symmetric noise. Furthermore, we find which side the tail skews also affects the correct probability of LSR. At last, the fractional Fokker-Planck equation is presented to show when the characteristic exponent of ?-stable noise is less than 1, LSR behavior will not be obtained irrespective of the setting for other parameters.

  5. A Comparison of the Canal Centering Ability of ProFile, K3, and RaCe Nickel Titanium Rotary Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina Al-Sudani; Saad Al-Shahrani

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the ability of three Nickel Titanium (NiTi) rotary systems (ProFile, K3, and RaCe) to centralize instrumentation relative to the original canal location and to determine the distance of transportation of these canals. Sixty mesial root canals mandibular molars with curvature ranging from 15 to 40 degrees were selected. The canals were divided

  6. Computer program modifications of Open-file report 82-1065; a comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction and arrival-time data using interactive computer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackermann, Hans D.; Pankratz, Leroy W.; Dansereau, Danny A.

    1983-01-01

    The computer programs published in Open-File Report 82-1065, A comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction arrival-time data using interactive computer methods (Ackermann, Pankratz, and Dansereau, 1982), have been modified to run on a mini-computer. The new version uses approximately 1/10 of the memory of the initial version, is more efficient and gives the same results.

  7. 78 FR 55248 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...5 p.m. ET 9/11/13. Docket Numbers: RP13-1307-000. Applicants: MarkWest Pioneer, L.L.C. Description: Quarterly Fuel Adjustment Filing of MarkWest Pioneer, L.L.C. under RP13-1307. Filed Date: 8/30/13....

  8. 76 FR 69260 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...to be effective 12/2/2011 under RP12-128 Filing Type: 570. Filed Date: 11/02/2011. Accession Number: 20111102-5052. Comment Date: 5 p.m. ET on 11/14/2011. Any person desiring to intervene or protest in any of the above...

  9. Evaluation of Forces Generated on Three Different Rotary File Systems in Apical Third of Root Canal using Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medha, Ashish; Patil, Suvarna; Hoshing, Upendra; Bandekar, Siddhesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution of forces on the instrument in the apical 3rd of curved canal with three Nickel Titanium rotary systems. Methodology: Three brands of instruments (ProTaper Universal; DENTSPLY Maillefer, RevoS; MicroMega and Hyflex; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) were scanned with the Laser assisted computerized scanner to produce a real-size, 3-dimensional (3-D) model for each. The stresses on the instrument during simulated shaping of a root canal were analyzed numerically by using a 3-D finite element package, taking into account the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the nickel-titanium material. Results: RevoS shows lowest values for force generation in the apical 3rd of canal as compared to Protaper which shows highest values, while Hyflex shows intermediate values for forces. Conclusion: With FE simulation of root canal shaping by 3 files, it was observed that different instrument designs would experience unequal degree of force generation in canal, as well as reaction torque from the root canal wall. PMID:24596786

  10. Optimal Management and Design of Energy Systems under Atmospheric Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitescu, M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V.

    2010-12-01

    The generation and distpatch of electricity while maintaining high reliability levels are two of the most daunting engineering problems of the modern era. This was demonstrated by the Northeast blackout of August 2003, which resulted in the loss of 6.2 gigawatts that served more than 50 million people and which resulted in economic losses on the order of $10 billion. In addition, there exist strong socioeconomic pressures to improve the efficiency of the grid. The most prominent solution to this problem is a substantial increase in the use of renewable energy such as wind and solar. In turn, its uncertain availability—which is due to the intrinsic weather variability—will increase the likelihood of disruptions. In this endeavors of current and next-generation power systems, forecasting atmospheric conditions with uncertainty can and will play a central role, at both the demand and the generation ends. User demands are strongly correlated to physical conditions such as temperature, humidity, and solar radiation. The reason is that the ambient temperature and solar radiation dictate the amount of air conditioning and lighting needed in residential and commercial buildings. But these potential benefits would come at the expense of increased variability in the dynamics of both production and demand, which would become even more dependent on weather state and its uncertainty. One of the important challenges for energy in our time is how to harness these benefits while “keeping the lights on”—ensuring that the demand is satisfied at all times and that no blackout occurs while all energy sources are optimally used. If we are to meet this challenge, accounting for uncertainty in the atmospheric conditions is essential, since this will allow minimizing the effects of false positives: committing too little baseline power in anticipation of demand that is underestimated or renewable energy levels that fail to materialize. In this work we describe a framework for the optimal management and design of energy systems, such as the power grid or building systems, under atmospheric conditions uncertainty. The framework is defined in terms of a mathematical paradigm called stochastic programming: minimization of the expected value of the decision-makers objective function subject to physical and operational constraints, such as low blackout porbability, that are enforced on each scenario. We report results on testing the framework on the optimal management of power grid systems under high wind penetration scenarios, a problem whose time horizon is in the order of days. We discuss the computational effort of scenario generation which involves running WRF at high spatio-temporal resolution dictated by the operational constraints as well as solving the optimal dispatch problem. We demonstrate that accounting for uncertainty in atmospheric conditions results in blackout prevention, whereas decisions using only mean forecast does not. We discuss issues in using the framework for planning problems, whose time horizon is of several decades and what requirements this problem would entail from climate simulation systems.

  11. ACCIDENT, ILLNESS AND INJURY AND EMPLOYMENT SELF-EXTRACTING FILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Files containing information of accidents, illnesses and injuries of miners. These "self-extracting" files are the actual information (raw data) from the accident and injury MSHA Form 7000-2 filed with MSHA by mining operators and contractors as required under the 30 CFR Part 50....

  12. 14 CFR 221.195 - Requirement for filing printed material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    (a) Any tariff, or revision thereto, filed in paper format which accompanies, governs, or otherwise affects, a tariff filed electronically, must be received by the Department on the same date that a tariff or revision thereto, is filed electronically with the Department under §...

  13. A Scalable Distributed Multimedia File System Using Network Attached Autonomous Disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuneyt Akinlar; Sarit Mukherjee

    2000-01-01

    Repository for multimedia data diers from that of the traditional text-based data both in storagespace and streaming bandwidth requirements. The le systems used in multimedia environment needto support large volumes and high bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a novel scalable distributedle system built using Autonomous Disks. Autonomous disks are attached directly to the network andare able to perform lightweight

  14. DETERMINING INTRUSION ACTIVITY FOR FILE-SYSTEM RECOVERY A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements

    E-print Network

    Goel, Ashvin

    . This approach is implemented as part of the Taser intrusion recovery system. Our evaluation shows that Taser of the Taser project. I would also like to thank Eyal de Lara for his time and his valuable input. Finally, I of the Taser Recovery System 5 2.1 The Taser Auditor

  15. Macro-modeling and energy efficiency studies of file management in embedded systems with flash memory 

    E-print Network

    Goyal, Nitesh

    2006-08-16

    Technological advancements in computer hardware and software have made embedded systems highly affordable and widely used. Consumers have ever increasing demands for powerful embedded devices such as cell phones, PDAs and ...

  16. Neural systems underlying the reappraisal of personally craved foods.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Nicole R; Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A Janet; Berkman, Elliot T

    2014-07-01

    Craving of unhealthy food is a common target of self-regulation, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In this study, participants used cognitive reappraisal to regulate their desire to consume idiosyncratically craved or not craved energy-dense foods, and neural activity during regulation was compared with each other and with the activity during passive viewing of energy-dense foods. Regulation of both food types elicited activation in classic top-down self-regulation regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. This main effect of regulation was qualified by an interaction, such that activation in these regions was significantly greater during reappraisal of craved (versus not craved) foods and several regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, medial frontal, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices, were uniquely active during regulation of personally craved foods. Body mass index significantly negatively correlated with regulation-related activation in the right dorsolateral PFC, thalamus, and bilateral dorsal ACC and with activity in nucleus accumbens during passive viewing of craved (vs. neutral, low-energy density) foods. These results suggest that several of the brain regions involved in the self-regulation of food craving are similar to other kinds of affective self-regulation and that others are sensitive to the self-relevance of the regulation target. PMID:24392892

  17. Multiscale Systems Biology and Physics of Thrombosis under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Flamm, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blood clotting under hemodynamic conditions involves numerous multiscale interactions from the molecular scale to macroscopic vessel and systemic circulation scales. Transmission of shear forces to platelet receptors such as GPIb?, P-selectin, ?2?1, and ?2b?3 controls adhesion dynamics. These forces also drive membrane tether formation, cellular deformation, and mechanosignaling in blood cells. Blood flow results in red blood cell (RBC) drift towards the center of the vessel along with a near-wall plasma layer enriched with platelets. RBC motions also dramatically enhance platelet dispersion. Trajectories of individual platelets near a thrombotic deposit dictate capture-activation-arrest dynamics as these newly arriving platelets are exposed to chemical gradients of ADP, thromboxane, and thrombin within a micron-scale boundary layer formed around the deposit. If shear forces are sufficiently elevated (> 50 dyne/cm2), the largest polymers of von Willebrand Factor may elongate with concomitant shear-induced platelet activation. Finally, thrombin generation enhances platelet recruitment and clot strength via fibrin polymerization. By combination of coarse-graining, continuum, and stochastic algorithms, the numerical simulation of the growth rate, composition, and occlusive/embolic potential of a thrombus now spans multiscale phenomena. These simulations accommodate particular flow geometries, blood phenotype, pharmacological regimen, and reactive surfaces to help predict disease risk or response to therapy. PMID:22460075

  18. Cooling of a Magmatic System Under Thermal Chaotic Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Omari, Kamal; Le Guer, Yves; Perugini, Diego; Petrelli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The cooling of a basaltic melt undergoing chaotic advection is studied numerically for a magma with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with moving boundary. Different statistical mixing and energy indicators are used to characterize the efficiency of cooling by thermal chaotic mixing. We show that different cooling rates can be obtained during the thermal mixing of a single basaltic magmatic batch undergoing chaotic advection. This process can induce complex temperature patterns inside the magma chamber. The emergence of chaotic dynamics strongly modulates the temperature fields over time and greatly increases the cooling rates. This mechanism has implications for the thermal lifetime of the magmatic body and may favor the appearance of chemical heterogeneities in the igneous system as a result of different crystallization rates. Results from this study also highlight that even a single magma batch can develop, under chaotic thermal advection, complex thermal and therefore compositional patterns resulting from different cooling rates, which can account for some natural features that, to date, have received unsatisfactory explanations, including the production of magmatic enclaves showing completely different cooling histories compared with the host magma, compositional zoning in mineral phases, and the generation of large-scale compositional zoning observed in many plutons worldwide.

  19. Multiobjective design of water distribution systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapelan, Zoran S.; Savic, Dragan A.; Walters, Godfrey A.

    2005-11-01

    The water distribution system (WDS) design problem is defined here as a multiobjective optimization problem under uncertainty. The two objectives are (1) minimize the total WDS design cost and (2) maximize WDS robustness. The WDS robustness is defined as the probability of simultaneously satisfying minimum pressure head constraints at all nodes in the network. Decision variables are the alternative design options for each pipe in the network. The sources of uncertainty are future water consumption and pipe roughness coefficients. Uncertain variables are modeled using probability density functions (PDFs) assigned in the problem formulation phase. The corresponding PDFs of the analyzed nodal heads are calculated using the Latin hypercube sampling technique. The optimal design problem is solved using the newly developed RNSGAII method based on the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII). In RNSGAII a small number of samples are used for each fitness evaluation, leading to significant computational savings when compared to the full sampling approach. Chromosome fitness is defined here in the same way as in the NSGAII optimization methodology. The new methodology is tested on several cases, all based on the New York tunnels reinforcement problem. The results obtained demonstrate that the new methodology is capable of identifying robust Pareto optimal solutions despite significantly reduced computational effort.

  20. Cooling of a Magmatic System Under Thermal Chaotic Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Omari, Kamal; Le Guer, Yves; Perugini, Diego; Petrelli, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    The cooling of a basaltic melt undergoing chaotic advection is studied numerically for a magma with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with moving boundary. Different statistical mixing and energy indicators are used to characterize the efficiency of cooling by thermal chaotic mixing. We show that different cooling rates can be obtained during the thermal mixing of a single basaltic magmatic batch undergoing chaotic advection. This process can induce complex temperature patterns inside the magma chamber. The emergence of chaotic dynamics strongly modulates the temperature fields over time and greatly increases the cooling rates. This mechanism has implications for the thermal lifetime of the magmatic body and may favor the appearance of chemical heterogeneities in the igneous system as a result of different crystallization rates. Results from this study also highlight that even a single magma batch can develop, under chaotic thermal advection, complex thermal and therefore compositional patterns resulting from different cooling rates, which can account for some natural features that, to date, have received unsatisfactory explanations, including the production of magmatic enclaves showing completely different cooling histories compared with the host magma, compositional zoning in mineral phases, and the generation of large-scale compositional zoning observed in many plutons worldwide.

  1. Electronic zoom functionality in under-sampled imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Hixson, Jonathan; Teaney, Brian; Vollmerhausen, Richard

    2007-04-01

    US Army thermal target acquisition models based on the Johnson metric do not accurately predict sensor performance with electronic zoom (E-zoom). For this reason, NVTherm2002 removed the limiting E zoom Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) to agree better with measured performance results. In certain scenarios, especially with under-sampled staring sensors, the model shows incorrect performance improvements with E-zoomed images. The current Army model NVThermIP, based upon the new targeting task performance (TTP) metric, more accurately models range performance in these cases. E-zoom provides system design flexibility when limited to a single optical field-of-view and/or eye distance is constrained by ergonomic factors. This paper demonstrates that targeting acquisition range performance, modeled using the TTP metric, shows increases only up to an optimized magnification and then decreases beyond this optimal value. A design "rule of thumb" is provided to determine this optimal magnification. NVThermIP modeled range performance is supported with E-zoom perception experiment results.

  2. Adaptation of cell renewal systems under continuous irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    There are adaptive changes in the proliferative characteristics of renewal tissues under the stress of continuous low-dose-rate irradiation which indicate that cell and tissue kinetics will have a considerable effect on the radiation response. Factors that determine the adaptation response involve cellular radiosensitivity, i.e. cell cycle effects, which determine the rate of cell sterilization and death, and compensatory cell proliferation and the capacity for regeneration, i.e. changes in the patterns of cell population kinetics, which determine the rate of cell birth. In rapidly dividing cell renewal systems, there is an effective elimination of damaged cells, with almost complete repair of cellular nonlethal damage. In slowly dividing renewal tissues, there is some repair or elimination of cellular radiation damage and the pattern of cell proliferation during regeneration is relatively little disturbed by prior continuous irradiation. Experimental data on intestinal epithelium, immunohematopoietic tissues, seminiferous epithelium and regenerating liver are presented. Discussion includes differences in adaptation to continuous low-dose-rate irradiation involving intracellular and extracellular control mechanisms which regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation and, thereby, control cell population levels and physiological function. 29 references.

  3. Cooling of a magmatic system under thermal chaotic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrelli, Maurizio; El Omari, Kamal; Le Guer, Yves; Perugini, Diego

    2015-04-01

    The cooling of a melt undergoing chaotic advection is studied numerically for a magma with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a 2D cavity with moving boundary. Different statistical mixing and energy indicators are used to characterize the efficiency of cooling by thermal chaotic mixing. We show that different cooling rates can be obtained during the thermal mixing even of a single basaltic magmatic batch undergoing chaotic advection. This process can induce complex temperature patterns inside the magma chamber. The emergence of chaotic dynamics strongly affects the temperature field during time and greatly increases the cooling rates. This mechanism has implications for the lifetime of a magmatic body and may favor the appearance of chemical heterogeneities in igneous systems as a result of different crystallization rates. Results from this study also highlight that even a single magma batch can develop, under chaotic thermal advection, complex thermal and therefore compositional patterns resulting from different cooling rates, which can account for some natural features that, to date, have received unsatisfactory explanations. Among them, the production of magmatic enclaves showing completely different cooling histories compared with the host magma, compositional zoning in mineral phases, and the generation of large-scale compositionally zoning observed in many plutons worldwide.

  4. 20 CFR 217.6 - What is an application filed with the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...chapter for a list of application forms. (b) Claim...Administration. An application filed for benefits under title II...Administration. An application filed with the...Administration on one of its forms for survivor benefits under...

  5. Indexing and filing of pathological illustrations.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R A; Fawkes, R S; Beck, J S

    1975-01-01

    An inexpensive feature card retrieval system has been combined with the Systematised Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP) to provide simple but efficient means of indexing and filing 2 in. x 2 in. transparencies within a department of pathology. Using this system 2400 transparencies and the associated index cards can be conveniently stored in one drawer of a standard filing cabinet. Images PMID:1123438

  6. A new system for hidden data within header space for EXE-File using object oriented technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahya AL-Nabhani; A. A. Zaidan; B. B. Zaidan; H. A. Jalab; H. O. Alanazi

    2010-01-01

    A Previously traditional methods were sufficient to protect the information, since it is simplicity in the past does not need complicated methods but with the progress of information technology, it become easy to attack systems, and detection of hiding methods became necessary to find ways parallel with the differing methods used by hackers, so the embedding methods could be under

  7. EFFECTS OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE UNDER A CONTINUOUS COTTON CROPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices affect soil microbial communities which, in turn, influence soil ecosystem processes. In this study, the effects of conventional and no-tillage practices on soil microbial communities were examined under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) systems on a Decatur silt l...

  8. Undercut and fill system for pitching coal. Open file report Aug 79-Jun 81

    SciTech Connect

    Mangolds, A.; Fisk, A.

    1981-06-01

    A study of the technical and economic feasibility of using a unique undercut and fill system developed by Bureau of Mines engineers to mine steeply pitching coal is discussed. The undercut and fill system combines hydraulic coal cutting with unassisted gravity fluming of the coal slurry. Mining occurs across strike and the extended entry is backfilled to provide uniform strata control and an impermeable water and air barrier. Subsequent mining occurs beneath the previously filled stope such that the roof consists of a solid, controlled back.

  9. 48 CFR 1304.804 - Closeout of contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Closeout of contract files. 1304.804 Section 1304.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 1304.804 Closeout of contract...

  10. 77 FR 64499 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...ER11-2547-007. Applicants: New York Independent System Operator, Inc. Description: NYISO Compliance Filing re: Neptune Proxy Bus 15 Minute Variable Scheduling to be effective 10/30/2012. Filed Date: 10/12/12. Accession Number:...

  11. Adaptive File Cache Management for Mobile Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangmei Mei; Richard B. Bunt

    2003-01-01

    By performing file system operations on cached copies of files mobile users reduce their need to access files across the network.\\u000a Effective cache management strategies will limit use of the network to a small number of read misses and periodic reintegration\\u000a of changes (updates), and thus can shield the mobile user from changes in bandwidth that will have a significant

  12. January 22, 2008 14:54 WSPC/INSTRUCTION FILE ZLJDKACS Advances in Complex Systems

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Scientific Publishing Company A multi-agent simulation of a stylized french labor market : emergences) Accepted (Day Month Year) The aim of this work is to design a Multi-Agent System (MAS) simulation to model model is to decide whether a particular variable can be derived from simulation or had to be computed

  13. 17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and complete version of the plan is posted on a plan Web site or on a Web site designated by plan participants within two business...effective national market system plan shall ensure that such Web site is updated to reflect amendments to such...

  14. 17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and complete version of the plan is posted on a plan Web site or on a Web site designated by plan participants within two business...effective national market system plan shall ensure that such Web site is updated to reflect amendments to such...

  15. 17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and complete version of the plan is posted on a plan Web site or on a Web site designated by plan participants within two business...effective national market system plan shall ensure that such Web site is updated to reflect amendments to such...

  16. 17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and complete version of the plan is posted on a plan Web site or on a Web site designated by plan participants within two business...effective national market system plan shall ensure that such Web site is updated to reflect amendments to such...

  17. 17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and complete version of the plan is posted on a plan Web site or on a Web site designated by plan participants within two business...effective national market system plan shall ensure that such Web site is updated to reflect amendments to such...

  18. An Empirical Study of Collusion Behavior in the Maze P2P FileSharing System

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Ben Y.

    Zhang 1 , Mao Yang 13 , Ben Y. Zhao 2 , Yafei Dai 3 , Xiaoming Li 3 Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing, China 1 U. C. Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA 2 Peking University, Beijing, China 3 Abstract--- Peer­to­peer networks often use incentive policies to encourage cooperation between nodes. Such systems

  19. An Empirical Study of Collusion Behavior in the Maze P2P File-Sharing System

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Ben Y.

    Zhang1, Mao Yang13, Ben Y. Zhao2, Yafei Dai3, Xiaoming Li3 Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing, China1 U. C. Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA2 Peking University, Beijing, China3 Abstract-- Peer-to-peer networks often use incentive policies to encourage cooperation between nodes. Such systems are generally

  20. CS 440 Database Management Systems Catalog Description: Relational database design, normalization, file structures, disk storage,

    E-print Network

    CS 440 ­ Database Management Systems Catalog Description: Relational database design, normalization Termehchy Course Content: · Functional dependencies and normalization for relational databases · Relational database design by dependency analysis and normalization (ABET Outcomes: A, B, I, J, K) 4. Explain disk

  1. Sci-Mate—a microcomputer system for Online Search and Personal File Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lefkovitz; David Toliver

    1983-01-01

    Sci-Mate is a microcomputer software package that has two independent, but related, components. One is called the Universal Online Searcher (UOS). It enables a person to search five online host systems using a single menu-driven language and to download records from the search. The second component is called the Personal Data Manager (PDM). It enables the downloaded records to be

  2. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...Docket No. RM01-5-000] Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs May 21, 2010. Take Notice that the attached...Filing Procedures For Electronically Filed Tariffs, Rate Schedules And Jurisdictional...

  3. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T.; Andres, A. Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO3 removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO3 removal.

  4. On single file and less dense processes

    E-print Network

    O. Flomenbom; A. Taloni

    2008-07-23

    The diffusion process of N hard rods in a 1D interval of length L (--> inf) is studied using scaling arguments and an asymptotic analysis of the exact N-particle probability density function (PDF). In the class of such systems, the universal scaling law of the tagged particle's mean absolute displacement reads, ~ _{free}/n^mu, where _{free} is the result for a free particle in the studied system and n is the number of particles in the covered length. The exponent mu is given by, mu=1/(1+a), where a is associated with the particles' density law of the system, rho~rho_0*L^(-a), 0 leads to, ~rho_0^((a-1)/2) (_{free})^((1+a)/2), an equation that predicts a smooth interpolation between single file diffusion and free particle diffusion depending on the particles' density law, and holds for any underlying dynamics. In particular, ~t^((1+a)/2) for normal diffusion, with a Gaussian PDF in space for any value of a (deduced by a complementary analysis), and, ~t^((beta(1+a))/2), for anomalous diffusion in which the system's particles all have the same power-law waiting time PDF for individual events, psi~t^(-1-beta), 0~t^(1/2) in a 'standard' single file is a direct result of the fixed particles' density condition imposed on the system, a=0.

  5. Demonstration of coal mine illumination systems. Open file report (final) October 1977June 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Szpak; W. F. Hahn; C. S. Skinner

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating various types of underground coal mining machinery as required by the Federal Coal Mine Illumination Standards Part 75.1719 to 75.1719-4 Code of Federal Regulations Title 30. Nine various machines were illuminated and the illumination systems were evaluated for a 3-month period. Factors evaluted were ease of implementation, reliability,

  6. The Index Poisoning Attack in P2P File Sharing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Liang; Naoum Naoumov; Keith W. Ross

    2006-01-01

    Abstractó P2P le-sharing systems have indexes, which users search to nd,locations of desired titles. In the index poisoning attack, the attacker inserts massive numbers of bogus records into the index for a set of targeted titles. As a result, when a user searches for a targeted title, the index returns bogus results, such as bogus le identiers, bogus IP addresses,

  7. 7 CFR 15.72 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for Hearings, Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Form, Execution, Filing and Service...the Office of the Hearing Clerk at Room 112, Administration Building, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.,...

  8. 77 FR 32115 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...Cooperative Working Agreement Western Mediterranean-U.S. East Coast. Parties...Parties: CMA CGM S.A. and Sea Star Line LLC. Filing Party...under the name Maersk Line and Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A....

  9. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...be accompanied by an English translation verified by the person making the translation, under oath, to be complete and accurate, together with the name, address...qualifications of the person making the translation. Translations filed of...

  10. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...be accompanied by an English translation verified by the person making the translation, under oath, to be complete and accurate, together with the name, address...qualifications of the person making the translation. Translations filed of...

  11. RETRIEVING FILES USING THE OWL DROP BOX October 2013 Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    RETRIEVING FILES USING THE OWL DROP BOX October 2013 Page 1 of 2 Scanex files are uploaded, check for either one under the `More Sites' tab: #12;RETRIEVING FILES USING THE OWL DROP BOX October 2013 Page 2 of 2 3) Select `DROP BOX' from the list on left: This Drop Box is only used to send files

  12. 30 CFR 291.106 - How do I file a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I file a complaint? 291...BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT...file a complaint? To file a complaint under this part, you must: (a) File your complaint with the Director, Minerals Management Service at the...

  13. 30 CFR 291.106 - How do I file a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I file a complaint? 291...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...file a complaint? To file a complaint under this part, you must: (a) File your complaint with the Director, Minerals Management Service at the...

  14. Modeling Water Resource Systems under Climate Change: IGSM-WRS

    E-print Network

    Strzepek, K.

    Through the integration of a Water Resource System (WRS) component, the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework has been enhanced to study the effects of climate change on managed water-resource systems. ...

  15. Promotion of High-Efficiency Electric Motor Systems Under the Clean Development Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Arquit Niederberger; Conrad U. Brunner

    Since EEMODS 05, carbon markets have developed rapidly, in particular under the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This paper will provide an overview of trends, current status and prospects for promotion of high-efficiency motor component technologies and systems under the CDM, addressing the following broad topics: • status of motor technology\\/system promotion under the CDM, including case studies; •

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Gutta Percha Removal and Extrusion of Apical Debris by Rotary and Hand Files

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Kumar, Mohan; Sivakumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Protaper retreatment files in comparison with RaCe, K3 and H-files for removal of gutta-percha and apically extruded debris using volumetric analysis. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted single rooted maxillary incisor teeth with straight canals and mature apices were selected for the study. After access cavity preparation, apical patency was confirmed with a size 10 K-file extending 1mm beyond the point at which it was first visible at the apical end. Working lengths were determined with the use of size 15 K-file. The canals were prepared in a step-back technique and the master apical file was size 30 for all teeth. 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant after each instrumentation. Before final rinse, size 20 K-file was passed 1mm beyond the apex to remove any dentinal shaving plugs and maintain the apical patency. Then the canals were dried with paper points. The root canal was filled using standard gutta-percha points and zinc oxide eugenol sealer under lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups of ten teeth each based on the instrument used for gutta percha removal. All the rotary instruments used in this study were rotated at 300rpm. The instruments used were: Group 1 – RaCe Files, Group 2 – ProTaper retreatment Files, Group 3 – K3 Files and Group 4 – H Files. The volume of the obturating material was calculated before and after removal using volumetric analysis with spiral CT. The removal efficacy with each instrument was calculated and statistically analysed. Results: The results of the study show that the ProTaper retreatment files (Group 2) (97.4%) showed the highest efficiency in the removal of obturating material, which was followed by RaCe (95.74%), K3 (92.86%) and H files (90.14%) with the efficiency in the decreasing order. Similarly the mean apical extrusion in H files (0.000 ± 0.002) was significantly lower than all the rotary instruments. However, the difference among the rotary files were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: ProTaper retreatment files show significant difference over other groups in removal of obturating material and can be the system of choice in endodontic retreatment procedures. PMID:25584299

  17. DEPENDABILITY EVALUATION OF NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEMS UNDER TRANSMISSION FAULTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    evaluation of a networked control system (NCS) taking into account the network behaviour when transition evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION Networked control system (NCS) is a type of distributed control systems where. In communication systems, these faults usually affect the medium leading to a transmission error. In (Barger, et al

  18. Condition-based maintenance for systems under dependent competing failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Chen; Z. S. Ye; B. Huang

    2011-01-01

    Failures of complex systems may be various types. Natural failure due to degradation is one main mechanism. Other factors such as traumatic failure caused by random shocks from external environment are also critical to systems' operation. This paper proposes a new model to study complex systems that experience both degradation and shocks which are dependent. System reliability is analyzed and

  19. Evaluated nuclear-data file for niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Smith, D.L.; Howerton, R.J.

    1985-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluated nuclear-data file for elemental niobium is provided in the ENDF/B format. This file, extending over the energy range 10/sup -11/-20 MeV, is suitable for comprehensive neutronic calculations, particulary those dealing with fusion-energy systems. It also provides dosimetry information. Attention is given to the internal consistancy of the file, energy balance, and the quantitative specification of uncertainties. Comparisons are made with experimental data and previous evaluated files. The results of integral tests are described and remaining outstanding problem areas are cited. 107 refs.

  20. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 ?m) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 ?m). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar SCR (4.5%). C content in the mineral fraction increased for SRC and AF 1.3-1.5 times compare to cropland, showing that the early stage of trees development lead to C accumulation in stable fractions. CO2 efflux from the surface 0-3 cm was in 2-3 times higher than from 3-20 cm. CO2 efflux did not follow soil C contents and was the highest for poplar SRC plot (1.8 mg C g-1 soil), followed by willow AF (1.6 mg C g-1 soil), willow SRC (1.4 mg C g-1 soil) and cropland (0.8 mg C g-1 soil). Estimated size of labile C pool for forest soils was two times higher and decomposition rates were 1.3 times faster than for the arable site. We conclude that afforestation in the first years mainly affects C accumulation in the top soil. Due to changing in soil structure most of the C was associated with large macroaggregates. Afforestation measures promoted C accumulation in the mineral fractions, whereas C associated with free POM even decreased in case of poplar SRC, compare to cropland soil.