Sample records for understand brain function

  1. Toward Technical Understanding. Part 1: Brain Structure and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that there are many kinds of understanding and many ways to reach these different understandings. Suggests that this is the reason why articulating general rules that can consistently lead to understanding is difficult. Discusses the relationship between brain structure and learning. (DDR)

  2. Analyzing complex functional brain networks: Fusing statistics and network science to understand the brain*†

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Sean L.; Bowman, F. DuBois; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Complex functional brain network analyses have exploded over the last decade, gaining traction due to their profound clinical implications. The application of network science (an interdisciplinary offshoot of graph theory) has facilitated these analyses and enabled examining the brain as an integrated system that produces complex behaviors. While the field of statistics has been integral in advancing activation analyses and some connectivity analyses in functional neuroimaging research, it has yet to play a commensurate role in complex network analyses. Fusing novel statistical methods with network-based functional neuroimage analysis will engender powerful analytical tools that will aid in our understanding of normal brain function as well as alterations due to various brain disorders. Here we survey widely used statistical and network science tools for analyzing fMRI network data and discuss the challenges faced in filling some of the remaining methodological gaps. When applied and interpreted correctly, the fusion of network scientific and statistical methods has a chance to revolutionize the understanding of brain function. PMID:25309643

  3. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    ScienceCinema

    Olaf Sporns

    2010-01-08

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  4. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    SciTech Connect

    Olaf Sporns

    2008-01-23

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  5. Understanding entangled cerebral networks: a prerequisite for restoring brain function with brain-computer interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Historically, cerebral processing has been conceptualized as a framework based on statically localized functions. However, a growing amount of evidence supports a hodotopical (delocalized) and flexible organization. A number of studies have reported absence of a permanent neurological deficit after massive surgical resections of eloquent brain tissue. These results highlight the tremendous plastic potential of the brain. Understanding anatomo-functional correlates underlying this cerebral reorganization is a prerequisite to restore brain functions through brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in patients with cerebral diseases, or even to potentiate brain functions in healthy individuals. Here, we review current knowledge of neural networks that could be utilized in the BCIs that enable movements and language. To this end, intraoperative electrical stimulation in awake patients provides valuable information on the cerebral functional maps, their connectomics and plasticity. Overall, these studies indicate that the complex cerebral circuitry that underpins interactions between action, cognition and behavior should be throughly investigated before progress in BCI approaches can be achieved. PMID:24834030

  6. The use of functional and effective connectivity techniques to understand the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Diane; Galván, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    Developmental neuroscience, the study of the processes that shape and reshape the maturing brain, is a growing field still in its nascent stages. The developmental application of functional and effective connectivity techniques, which are tools that measure the interactions between elements of the brain, has revealed insight to the developing brain as a complex system. However, this insight is granted in discrete windows of consecutive time. The current review uses dynamic systems theory as a conceptual framework to understand how functional and effective connectivity tools may be used in conjunction to capture the dynamic process of change that occurs with development. PMID:25770766

  7. The Mouse Blood-Brain Barrier Transcriptome: A New Resource for Understanding the Development and Function of Brain Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Daneman, Richard; Zhou, Lu; Agalliu, Dritan; Cahoy, John D.; Kaushal, Amit; Barres, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis and limits the entry of toxins and pathogens into the brain. Despite its importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the development and function of this crucial barrier. In this study we have developed methods to highly purify and gene profile endothelial cells from different tissues, and by comparing the transcriptional profile of brain endothelial cells with those purified from the liver and lung, we have generated a comprehensive resource of transcripts that are enriched in the BBB forming endothelial cells of the brain. Through this comparison we have identified novel tight junction proteins, transporters, metabolic enzymes, signaling components, and unknown transcripts whose expression is enriched in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells. This analysis has identified that RXRalpha signaling cascade is specifically enriched at the BBB, implicating this pathway in regulating this vital barrier. This dataset provides a resource for understanding CNS endothelial cells and their interaction with neural and hematogenous cells. PMID:21060791

  8. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal “true” subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different “slices” of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  9. Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce S. McEwen

    2008-01-01

    Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire life span and influencing brain function, behavior, and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called “epigenetics” as well as the role of

  10. nAture methods | VOL.11 NO.9 | SEPTEMBER2014 | 941 understanding brain function requires monitoring and

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Articles nAture methods | VOL.11 NO.9 | SEPTEMBER2014 | 941 understanding brain function requires on the open-source Apache spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. the library implements and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. our open

  11. Understanding complexity in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind–brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind–brain mechanisms. PMID:21497128

  12. Understanding the changing adolescent brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Burnett; Catherine Sebastian

    Summary Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human brain continues to develop throughout the adolescent years. Although there are differences between male and female teenagers in terms of the time course of neural development, similar brain areas undergo significant restructuring in both sexes. Brain regions in which development is particularly protracted include the prefrontal cortex and the temporalparietal

  13. Understanding the brain through its spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Will Zachary

    The spatial location of cells in neural tissue can be easily extracted from many imaging modalities, but the information contained in spatial relationships between cells is seldom utilized. This is because of a lack of recognition of the importance of spatial relationships to some aspects of brain function, and the reflection in spatial statistics of other types of information. The mathematical tools necessary to describe spatial relationships are also unknown to many neuroscientists, and biologists in general. We analyze two cases, and show that spatial relationships can be used to understand the role of a particular type of cell, the astrocyte, in Alzheimer's disease, and that the geometry of axons in the brain's white matter sheds light on the process of establishing connectivity between areas of the brain. Astrocytes provide nutrients for neuronal metabolism, and regulate the chemical environment of the brain, activities that require manipulation of spatial distributions (of neurotransmitters, for example). We first show, through the use of a correlation function, that inter-astrocyte forces determine the size of independent regulatory domains in the cortex. By examining the spatial distribution of astrocytes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease, we determine that astrocytes are not actively transported to fight the disease, as was previously thought. The paths axons take through the white matter determine which parts of the brain are connected, and how quickly signals are transmitted. The rules that determine these paths (i.e. shortest distance) are currently unknown. By measurement of axon orientation distributions using three-point correlation functions and the statistics of axon turning and branching, we reveal that axons are restricted to growth in three directions, like a taxicab traversing city blocks, albeit in three-dimensions. We show how geometric restrictions at the small scale are related to large-scale trajectories. Finally we discuss the implications of this finding for experimental and theoretical connectomics.

  14. Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

  15. Adolescent Brain Development: Implications for Understanding Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken C. Winters

    2008-01-01

    New scientific discoveries have put a much different perspective on our understanding of adolescent behavior. Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during the adolescent years, with significant changes continuing into the early 20s. The developing brain of the teenage years may help explain why adolescents and young adults sometimes make decisions that seem to be quite

  16. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: dynamic systems theory as a framework for understanding and promoting recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle; DeMatteo, Carol

    2009-11-01

    A theoretical framework can help physiotherapists understand and promote recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries (ABI). Physiotherapy interventions for this population have traditionally been based in hierarchical-maturational theories of motor development emphasizing the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling motor behaviour. In contrast, Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) views movement as resulting from the interaction of many subsystems within the individual, features of the functional task to be accomplished, and the environmental context in which the movement takes place. DST is now a predominant theoretical framework in pediatric physiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to describe how DST can be used to understand and promote recovery of function after pediatric ABI. A DST-based approach for children and youth with ABI does not treat the impaired CNS in isolation but rather emphasizes the role of all subsystems, including the family and the environment, in influencing recovery. The emphasis is on exploration, problem solving, and practice of functional tasks. A case scenario provides practical recommendations for the use of DST to inform physiotherapy interventions and clinical decision making in the acute phase of recovery from ABI. Future research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based in this theoretical framework. PMID:19925262

  17. On the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries

    E-print Network

    Ghazanfar, Asif

    areas of the brain (Broca, 1861; Wernicke, 1874). The loci of brain lesions detected by postmortemOn the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries Christoph Teufel will require a much better understanding of how lateralized brain functions interact with overt behaviors

  18. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    PubMed

    Marder, Eve

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important. PMID:25965068

  19. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  20. The brain timewise: how timing shapes and supports brain function

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the importance of timing in brain function: how temporal dynamics of the world has left its traces in the brain during evolution and how we can monitor the dynamics of the human brain with non-invasive measurements. Accurate timing is important for the interplay of neurons, neuronal circuitries, brain areas and human individuals. In the human brain, multiple temporal integration windows are hierarchically organized, with temporal scales ranging from microseconds to tens and hundreds of milliseconds for perceptual, motor and cognitive functions, and up to minutes, hours and even months for hormonal and mood changes. Accurate timing is impaired in several brain diseases. From the current repertoire of non-invasive brain imaging methods, only magnetoencephalography (MEG) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) provide millisecond time-resolution; our focus in this paper is on MEG. Since the introduction of high-density whole-scalp MEG/EEG coverage in the 1990s, the instrumentation has not changed drastically; yet, novel data analyses are advancing the field rapidly by shifting the focus from the mere pinpointing of activity hotspots to seeking stimulus- or task-specific information and to characterizing functional networks. During the next decades, we can expect increased spatial resolution and accuracy of the time-resolved brain imaging and better understanding of brain function, especially its temporal constraints, with the development of novel instrumentation and finer-grained, physiologically inspired generative models of local and network activity. Merging both spatial and temporal information with increasing accuracy and carrying out recordings in naturalistic conditions, including social interaction, will bring much new information about human brain function. PMID:25823867

  1. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  2. Understanding brain, mind and soul: contributions from neurology and neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise spoken speech to Broca's area or the movement of limbs to the contralateral motor cortex. Galen's localisation of imagination, reasoning, judgement and memory in the cerebral ventricles collapsed once it was evident that the functional units-neurones-lay in the parenchyma of the brain. Experiences gained from accidental injuries (Phineas Gage) or temporal lobe resection (William Beecher Scoville); studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes), and generally in the brain. When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. The concept of brain death after irreversible damage to it has made all of us aware of 'the cocktail of brain soup and spark' in the brainstem so necessary for life. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here. PMID:21694966

  3. Altered brain functional networks in heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuchun; Wu, Guangyao; Zhu, Ling; Lei, Hao

    2015-07-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is associated with changed brain structure and function. However, little is known about alterations of the topological organization of brain functional networks in heavy smokers. Thirty-one heavy smokers and 33 non-smokers underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding the correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and their topological properties were analyzed using graph network analysis. Non-parametric permutation tests were performed to investigate group differences in network topological measures and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between the network metrics and smoking-related variables. Both heavy smokers and non-smokers exhibited small-world architecture in their brain functional networks. Compared with non-smokers, however, heavy smokers showed altered topological measurements characterized by lower global efficiency, higher local efficiency and clustering coefficients and greater path length. Furthermore, heavy smokers demonstrated decreased nodal global efficiency mainly in brain regions within the default mode network, whereas increased nodal local efficiency predominated in the visual-related regions. In addition, heavy smokers exhibited an association between the altered network metrics and the duration of cigarette use or the severity of nicotine dependence. Our results suggest that heavy smokers may have less efficient network architecture in the brain, and chronic cigarette smoking is associated with disruptions in the topological organization of brain networks. Our findings may further the understanding of the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. PMID:24962385

  4. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the ‘understanding the brain by creating the brain’ approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain–machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  5. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-03-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the 'understanding the brain by creating the brain' approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain-machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  6. Functional brain mapping of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Honey, G; Fletcher, P; Bullmore, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity for investigation of physiological function of the living human brain, there are fundamental questions and assumptions which remain to be addressed. In this review we examine these conceptual issues under three broad sections: (1) characterising the clinical population of interest, (2) defining appropriate levels of description of normal brain function, and (3) relating these models to pathophysiological conditions. Parallel advances in each of these questions will be required before imaging techniques can impact on clinical decisions in psychiatry. PMID:11909899

  7. Functional brain network efficiency predicts intelligence.

    PubMed

    Langer, Nicolas; Pedroni, Andreas; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Hänggi, Jürgen; Knoch, Daria; Jäncke, Lutz

    2012-06-01

    The neuronal causes of individual differences in mental abilities such as intelligence are complex and profoundly important. Understanding these abilities has the potential to facilitate their enhancement. The purpose of this study was to identify the functional brain network characteristics and their relation to psychometric intelligence. In particular, we examined whether the functional network exhibits efficient small-world network attributes (high clustering and short path length) and whether these small-world network parameters are associated with intellectual performance. High-density resting state electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in 74 healthy subjects to analyze graph-theoretical functional network characteristics at an intracortical level. Ravens advanced progressive matrices were used to assess intelligence. We found that the clustering coefficient and path length of the functional network are strongly related to intelligence. Thus, the more intelligent the subjects are the more the functional brain network resembles a small-world network. We further identified the parietal cortex as a main hub of this resting state network as indicated by increased degree centrality that is associated with higher intelligence. Taken together, this is the first study that substantiates the neural efficiency hypothesis as well as the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence in the context of functional brain network characteristics. These theories are currently the most established intelligence theories in neuroscience. Our findings revealed robust evidence of an efficiently organized resting state functional brain network for highly productive cognitions. PMID:21557387

  8. Natriuretic hormones in brain function.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  9. Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  10. Understanding autism: insights from mind and brain.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Elisabeth L; Frith, Uta

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. The consequences of this disorder for everyday life adaptation are extremely variable. The general public is now more aware of the high prevalence of this lifelong disorder, with ca. 0.6% of the population being affected. However, the signs and symptoms of autism are still puzzling. Since a biological basis of autism was accepted, approaches from developmental cognitive neuroscience have been applied to further our understanding of the autism spectrum. The study of the behavioural and underlying cognitive deficits in autism has advanced ahead of the study of the underlying brain abnormalities and of the putative genetic mechanisms. However, advances in these fields are expected as methodological difficulties are overcome. In this paper, recent developments in the field of autism are outlined. In particular, we review the findings of the three main neuro-cognitive theories of autism: theory-of-mind deficit, weak central coherence and executive dysfunction. PMID:12639326

  11. Functional photoacoustic tomography of animal brains 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xueding

    2005-11-01

    -dimensional tissue structures in intact brains, including lesions and tumors in brain cerebral cortex. Physiological changes and functional activities in brains, including cerebral blood volume and blood oxygenation in addition to anatomical information, were also...

  12. Analysis of connectivity in NeuCube spiking neural network models trained on EEG data for the understanding of functional changes in the brain: A case study on opiate dependence treatment.

    PubMed

    Capecci, Elisa; Kasabov, Nikola; Wang, Grace Y

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a methodology for the analysis of functional changes in brain activity across different conditions and different groups of subjects. This analysis is based on the recently proposed NeuCube spiking neural network (SNN) framework and more specifically on the analysis of the connectivity of a NeuCube model trained with electroencephalography (EEG) data. The case study data used to illustrate this method is EEG data collected from three groups-subjects with opiate addiction, patients undertaking methadone maintenance treatment, and non-drug users/healthy control group. The proposed method classifies more accurately the EEG data than traditional statistical and artificial intelligence (AI) methods and can be used to predict response to treatment and dose-related drug effect. But more importantly, the method can be used to compare functional brain activities of different subjects and the changes of these activities as a result of treatment, which is a step towards a better understanding of both the EEG data and the brain processes that generated it. The method can also be used for a wide range of applications, such as a better understanding of disease progression or aging. PMID:26000776

  13. Functional Brain Basis of Hypnotizability

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Haas, Brian W.; Bammer, Roland; Menon, Vinod; Spiegel, David

    2015-01-01

    Context Focused hypnotic concentration is a model for brain control over sensation and behavior. Pain and anxiety can be effectively alleviated by hypnotic suggestion, which modulates activity in brain regions associated with focused attention, but the specific neural network underlying this phenomenon is not known. Objective The main goal of the study was to investigate the brain basis of hypnotizability. Design Cross sectional, in-vivo neuroimaging study. Setting Academic medical center at Stanford University School of Medicine. Patients 12 adults with high and 12 adults with low hypnotizability. Main Outcome Measures (1) functional MRI (fMRI) to measure functional connectivity networks at rest including default-mode, salience and executive-control networks, (2) structural T1 MRI to measure regional grey and white matter volumes, and (3) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure white matter microstructural integrity. Results High-compared to low-hypnotizable individuals showed greater functional connectivity between left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an executive-control region of the brain, and the salience network composed of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), anterior insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum, involved in detecting, integrating, and filtering relevant somatic, autonomic, and emotional information, using independent component analysis (ICA). Seed based analysis confirmed elevated functional coupling between the dACC and the DLPFC in high, compared to low, hypnotizables. These functional differences were not due to variation in brain structure in these regions, including regional grey and white matter volumes and white matter microstructure. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence that altered functional connectivity in DLPFC and dACC may underlie hypnotizability. Future studies focusing on how these functional networks change and interact during hypnosis are warranted. PMID:23026956

  14. Organization and Functions of the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubica Benuskova; Nikola Kasabov

    \\u000a This chapter gives an overview of the brain organization and functions performed by different parts of the brain. We will\\u000a try to answer the following questions: How is the human brain organized at the macroscopic and microscopic levels? Which functions\\u000a are performed by the brain? How is the organization of the human brain related to its functions? These and many

  15. The Brain as a Complex System: Using Network Science as a Tool for Understanding the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Sean L.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although graph theory has been around since the 18th century, the field of network science is more recent and continues to gain popularity, particularly in the field of neuroimaging. The field was propelled forward when Watts and Strogatz introduced their small-world network model, which described a network that provided regional specialization with efficient global information transfer. This model is appealing to the study of brain connectivity, as the brain can be viewed as a system with various interacting regions that produce complex behaviors. In practice, graph metrics such as clustering coefficient, path length, and efficiency measures are often used to characterize system properties. Centrality metrics such as degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centrality determine critical areas within the network. Community structure is also essential for understanding network organization and topology. Network science has led to a paradigm shift in the neuroscientific community, but it should be viewed as more than a simple “tool du jour.” To fully appreciate the utility of network science, a greater understanding of how network models apply to the brain is needed. An integrated appraisal of multiple network analyses should be performed to better understand network structure rather than focusing on univariate comparisons to find significant group differences; indeed, such comparisons, popular with traditional functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, are arguably no longer relevant with graph-theory based approaches. These methods necessitate a philosophical shift toward complexity science. In this context, when correctly applied and interpreted, network scientific methods have a chance to revolutionize the understanding of brain function. PMID:22432419

  16. Great expectations: using whole-brain computational connectomics for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2014-12-01

    The study of human brain networks with in vivo neuroimaging has given rise to the field of connectomics, furthered by advances in network science and graph theory informing our understanding of the topology and function of the healthy brain. Here our focus is on the disruption in neuropsychiatric disorders (pathoconnectomics) and how whole-brain computational models can help generate and predict the dynamical interactions and consequences of brain networks over many timescales. We review methods and emerging results that exhibit remarkable accuracy in mapping and predicting both spontaneous and task-based healthy network dynamics. This raises great expectations that whole-brain modeling and computational connectomics may provide an entry point for understanding brain disorders at a causal mechanistic level, and that computational neuropsychiatry can ultimately be leveraged to provide novel, more effective therapeutic interventions, e.g., through drug discovery and new targets for deep brain stimulation. PMID:25475184

  17. Modeling Brain Energy Metabolism and Function: A Multiparametric Monitoring Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larisa Vatova; Sigal Meilin; Tamar Manor

    Mathematical modeling of brain function is an important tool needed for a better understanding of experimental results and clinical situations. In the present study, we are constructing and testing a mathematical model capable of simulating changes in brain energy metabolism that develop in real time under various pathophysiological conditions. The model incorporates the following pa- rameters: cerebral blood flow, partial

  18. Functional brain imaging in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Kyle

    2015-06-01

    Discordance of clinical symptoms with markers of disease severity remains a conundrum in a variety of respiratory conditions. The breathlessness of chronic lung disease correlates poorly with spirometry, yet is a better predictor of mortality. In chronic cough, symptoms are often evident without clear physical cause. In asthma, the terms 'over perceivers' and 'under perceivers' are common parlance. In all these examples, aberrant brain mechanisms may explain the mismatch between symptoms and pathology. Functional MRI is a non-invasive method of measuring brain function. It has recently become significantly advanced enough to be useful in clinical research and to address these potential mechanisms. This article explains how FMRI works, current understanding from FMRI in breathlessness, cough and asthma and suggests possibilities for future research. PMID:25589519

  19. Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudel, Tina M.; Scherer, Marcia J.; Elias, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Historically, TBI has received very limited national public policy attention and support. However since it has become the signature injury of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, TBI has gained the attention of elected officials, military leaders,…

  20. Retinoic Acid Signaling in the Functioning Brain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ursula C. Drager (University of Massachusetts Medical School; Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center REV)

    2006-02-28

    Retinoic acid, an active form of vitamin A, regulates gene expression throughout the body, and many components of the signaling system through which it acts are present in the brain. Very little is known, however, about how retinoic acid functions in neurobiological systems. Several studies have provided evidence that retinoic acid plays a role in sleep, learning, and memory, but the precise mechanisms through which it influences these processes remain unclear. All of these processes involve local or long-range inhibition and synchronized neuronal activity between separate locations in the brain. A critical component in the generation of the synchronized firing of cortical neurons (cortical synchrony) is a network of inhibitory interneurons containing parvalbumin, a cell population affected by retinoid perturbations, such as exposure to a vitamin A overdose. An understanding of the role of retinoids in normal brain function would provide clues to the long-standing question of whether abnormalities in retinoic acid signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of some brain diseases with uncertain etiologies that involve both genetic and environmental factors.

  1. Dynamic geometry, brain function modeling, and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sisir; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Pellionisz and Llinás proposed, years ago, a geometric interpretation towards understanding brain function. This interpretation assumes that the relation between the brain and the external world is determined by the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to construct an internal model of the external world using an interactive geometrical relationship between sensory and motor expression. This approach opened new vistas not only in brain research but also in understanding the foundations of geometry itself. The approach named tensor network theory is sufficiently rich to allow specific computational modeling and addressed the issue of prediction, based on Taylor series expansion properties of the system, at the neuronal level, as a basic property of brain function. It was actually proposed that the evolutionary realm is the backbone for the development of an internal functional space that, while being purely representational, can interact successfully with the totally different world of the so-called "external reality". Now if the internal space or functional space is endowed with stochastic metric tensor properties, then there will be a dynamic correspondence between events in the external world and their specification in the internal space. We shall call this dynamic geometry since the minimal time resolution of the brain (10-15 ms), associated with 40 Hz oscillations of neurons and their network dynamics, is considered to be responsible for recognizing external events and generating the concept of simultaneity. The stochastic metric tensor in dynamic geometry can be written as five-dimensional space-time where the fifth dimension is a probability space as well as a metric space. This extra dimension is considered an imbedded degree of freedom. It is worth noticing that the above-mentioned 40 Hz oscillation is present both in awake and dream states where the central difference is the inability of phase resetting in the latter. This framework of dynamic geometry makes it possible to distinguish one individual from another. In this paper we shall investigate the role of dynamic geometry in brain function modeling and the neuronal basis of consciousness. PMID:18166391

  2. A default mode of brain function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus E. Raichle; Ann Mary MacLeod; Abraham Z. Snyder; William J. Powers; Debra A. Gusnard; Gordon L. Shulman

    2001-01-01

    A baseline or control state is fundamental to the understanding of most complex systems. Defining a baseline state in the human brain, arguably our most complex system, poses a particular challenge. Many suspect that left unconstrained, its activity will vary unpredictably. Despite this prediction we identify a baseline state of the normal adult human brain in terms of the brain

  3. Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of acquired prosopagnosia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Sorger; Rainer Goebel; Christine Schiltz; Bruno Rossion

    2007-01-01

    One of the most remarkable disorders following brain damage is prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize faces. While a number of cases of prosopagnosia have been described at the behavioral level, the functional neuroanatomy of this face recognition impairment, and thus the brain regions critically involved in normal face recognition, has never been specified in great detail. Here, we used anatomical

  4. Can we observe epigenetic effects on human brain function?

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Yuliya S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-07-01

    Imaging genetics has identified many contributions of DNA sequence variation to individual differences in brain function, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Recent studies have extended this work beyond the genome by mapping epigenetic differences, specifically gene methylation in peripherally assessed DNA, onto variability in behaviorally and clinically relevant brain function. These data have generated understandable enthusiasm for the potential of such research to illuminate biological mechanisms of risk. We use our research on the effects of genetic and epigenetic variation in the human serotonin transporter on brain function to generate a guardedly optimistic opinion that the available data encourage continued research in this direction, and suggest strategies to promote faster progress. PMID:26051383

  5. Understanding Understanding Source Code with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kaestner, Christian

    Understanding Understanding Source Code with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Janet Siegmund languages, tools, or coding conventions to support developers in their everyday work. In this paper, we explore whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is well established in cognitive

  6. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay Bhaskar

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. PMID:23352202

  7. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions Yalin Wang1,2 , Xianfeng Gu3 a brain surface to a multi-hole disk. The re- sulting parameterizations do not have any singularities of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, in- cluding the hippocampi and the cerebral cortices

  8. Brain dynamics promotes function Carlos Lourenco

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    Brain dynamics promotes function Carlos Louren¸co 1 Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa - Portugal Abstract. Dynamical structure in the brain promotes biological func- tion. Computational scientists have new opportunities to receive 'algorithmic' inspiration from brain processes

  9. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions 1,2Yalin Wang , 3Xianfeng Gu, 1 Angeles, CA, USA. 2Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Brain Mapping Division, Department of Neurology, UCLA previous work conformally parameterizes various brain anatomical surfaces with several planar

  10. Effect of disease and recovery on functional anatomy in brain tumor patients: insights from functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Saleh, Emam; Huang, Raymond Y; Golby, Alexandra J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with brain tumors provide a unique opportunity to understand functional brain plasticity. Using advanced imaging techniques, such as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, we have gained tremendous knowledge of brain tumor behavior, transformation, infiltration and destruction of nearby structures. Using these advanced techniques as an adjunct with more proven techniques, such as direct cortical stimulation, intraoperative navigation and advanced microsurgical techniques, we now are able to better formulate safer resection trajectories, perform larger resections at reduced risk and better counsel patients and their families about possible complications. Brain mapping in patients with brain tumors and other lesions has shown us that the old idea of fixed function of the adult cerebral cortex is not entirely true. Improving care for patients with brain lesions in the future will depend on better understanding of the functional organization and plasticity of the adult brain. Advanced noninvasive brain imaging will undoubtedly play a role in advancing this understanding. PMID:24660024

  11. Angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain recovery of function following injury.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Chopp, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Unfortunately, almost all phase III clinical trials of neuroprotective agents for stroke and TBI have demonstrated no benefit, raising concerns regarding the use of neuroprotective strategies alone as therapy for acute brain injuries. Therefore, a compelling need exists to develop treatments that promote both the repair and regeneration of injured brain tissue, and functional recovery. Recent data suggest that strategies to enhance neurogenesis and angiogenesis following brain injuries may provide promising opportunities to improve clinical outcomes and brain functional recovery. This review discusses neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult brain following stroke or TBI. Selected cell-based and pharmacological therapies are highlighted that promote neurogenesis and angiogenesis and are designed to restore neurological function after brain injuries. These discoveries emphasize the need for an improved understanding of injury- and therapy-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult brain, and suggest that the manipulation of endogenous neural precursors and endothelial cells is a potential therapy for brain injury. PMID:20178043

  12. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  13. Modeling Brain Energy Metabolism and Function: A Multiparametric Monitoring Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larisa Vatov; Ziv Kizner; Eytan Ruppin; Sigal Meilin; Tamar Manor; Avraham Mayevsky

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of brain function is an important tool needed for a better understanding of experimental results and\\u000a clinical situations. In the present study, we are constructing and testing a mathematical model capable of simulating changes\\u000a in brain energy metabolism that develop in real time under various pathophysiological conditions. The model incorporates the\\u000a following parameters: cerebral blood flow, partial oxygen

  14. Bioengineered functional brain-like cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Schomer, Min D.; White, James D.; Tien, Lee W.; Schmitt, L. Ian; Valentin, Thomas M.; Graziano, Daniel J.; Hopkins, Amy M.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Haydon, Philip G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The brain remains one of the most important but least understood tissues in our body, in part because of its complexity as well as the limitations associated with in vivo studies. Although simpler tissues have yielded to the emerging tools for in vitro 3D tissue cultures, functional brain-like tissues have not. We report the construction of complex functional 3D brain-like cortical tissue, maintained for months in vitro, formed from primary cortical neurons in modular 3D compartmentalized architectures with electrophysiological function. We show that, on injury, this brain-like tissue responds in vitro with biochemical and electrophysiological outcomes that mimic observations in vivo. This modular 3D brain-like tissue is capable of real-time nondestructive assessments, offering previously unidentified directions for studies of brain homeostasis and injury. PMID:25114234

  15. Energetic cost of brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2013-01-01

    The brain's functional connectivity is complex, has high energetic cost, and requires efficient use of glucose, the brain's main energy source. It has been proposed that regions with a high degree of functional connectivity are energy efficient and can minimize consumption of glucose. However, the relationship between functional connectivity and energy consumption in the brain is poorly understood. To address this neglect, here we propose a simple model for the energy demands of brain functional connectivity, which we tested with positron emission tomography and MRI in 54 healthy volunteers at rest. Higher glucose metabolism was associated with proportionally larger MRI signal amplitudes, and a higher degree of connectivity was associated with nonlinear increases in metabolism, supporting our hypothesis for the energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs. Basal metabolism (in the absence of connectivity) accounted for 30% of brain glucose utilization, which suggests that the spontaneous brain activity accounts for 70% of the energy consumed by the brain. The energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs was higher for ventral precuneus, cerebellum, and subcortical hubs than for cortical hubs. The higher energy demands of brain communication that hinges upon higher connectivity could render brain hubs more vulnerable to deficits in energy delivery or utilization and help explain their sensitivity to neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23898179

  16. Prospective Teachers' Understandings: Function and Composite Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meel, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The current education reform efforts place greater emphasis on conceptual understanding and focus attention on teacher preparation, especially on the adequacy of teachers' mathematical knowledge of the material they will be teaching. This paper discusses the responses of 20 prospective elementary and special education mathematics specialists to…

  17. [Regulation of brain microvessel function].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Yokoo, Hiroki; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Wada, Akihiko

    2002-05-01

    The brain microvessels are formed by a specialized endothelium and regulate the movement of solutes between blood and brain. The endothelial cells are sealed together by tight junctions and play a role as the blood-brain barrier. The brain microvessels express GLUT1 as the major form of glucose transporter, aquaporin-4 as a water channel, and p-glycoprotein as a xenobiotic transporter. Occludin and claudin-5 have been identified as the components of tight junction. Increasing evidence suggests that the activities of the transporters are regulated by adrenergic nerve activity as well as by bioactive peptides such as adrenomedullin. The regulation of the activity as well as expression of these transporters may become a strategy for prophylaxis and treatment of not only cerebral vascular diseases but also neurodegenerative disorders, developmental abnormalities and aging of the brain. PMID:12061139

  18. Functional Aspects of Creatine Kinase in Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Hemmer; Theo Wallimann

    1993-01-01

    The distinct isoenzyme-specific localization of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes found recently in brain suggests an important function for CK in brain energetics and points to adaptation of the CK system to the special energy requirements of different neuronal and glial cell types. For example, the presence of brain-type B-CK in Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes is very likely related to

  19. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of the animal brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Gi Kim; Kamil Ugurbil

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand brain function, one must look beyond the level of a single neuron. By elucidating the spatial properties of the columnar and laminar functional architectures, information regarding the neural processing in the brain can be gained. To map these fine functional structures noninvasively and repeatedly, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be employed. In this article the basic

  20. Creating the Brain and Interacting with the Brain: An Integrated Approach to Understand the Brain

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    brain-like computations [94]. Differ- ent subfields have different emphasis on machine-learning, nonlinear dynamics, neuroscience, cognitive science [62], developmental psychology [5] and so on. But all of them possess some relevance to brain science. Brain machine interface (BMI) is an interface

  1. Connectomics and new approaches for analyzing human brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Craddock, R Cameron; Tungaraza, Rosalia L; Milham, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the functional interactions between brain regions and mapping those connections to corresponding inter-individual differences in cognitive, behavioral and psychiatric domains are central pursuits for understanding the human connectome. The number and complexity of functional interactions within the connectome and the large amounts of data required to study them position functional connectivity research as a "big data" problem. Maximizing the degree to which knowledge about human brain function can be extracted from the connectome will require developing a new generation of neuroimaging analysis algorithms and tools. This review describes several outstanding problems in brain functional connectomics with the goal of engaging researchers from a broad spectrum of data sciences to help solve these problems. Additionally it provides information about open science resources consisting of raw and preprocessed data to help interested researchers get started. PMID:25810900

  2. Order and disorder in the brain function.

    PubMed

    Quadens, Olga

    2003-01-01

    The interest in studying the brain electrical activity as a function of the development of intelligence has been spurred by the need to understand how the brain responds to environmental information. The description of sleep in mentally retarded children reveals deviant patterns of the EEG-spindles and of the eye movement activity (REM sleep) when compared to normal children. The patterns may be considered as a valuable index of mental function. According to experimental evidence, the distribution of the eye movements of sleep appears either as random or ordered. The latter are altered in the mentally handicapped in whom the appearance out of chaos, of the order which is needed for intelligence and memory to function, is altered. The sleep signs are redundant as from birth. Their pattern is also related to the psychomotor development of the infant. If their distribution remains random, or appears in long uninterrupted sequences of waves as in epilepsy, intelligence does not develop. A similar strategy appears to function in the foetus when nature organizes the structures that will lead to the development of intelligence. The eye movement patterns of sleep change in the pregnant women as a function of term and resemble those of premature babies of a similar gestational age. They also change as a function of the menstrual cycle and more generally as a function of age. The hypothesis that attention is the diurnal equivalent of REM sleep is discussed. Attempts at modelling the eye movement patterns of REM sleep as a function of near zero gravity environments have been made. 1) By means of a Montecarlo simulation using the semi Markov model during the Spacelab 1 flight. 2) With the method of the single and multiple g-phase transition analysis of the strange attractor dimension (d) during parabolic flights. The implication of the latter for the neural processes involved in learning is that the central nervous system can preserve intact, from input to output, over a period of several days, all the information it receives 3) The relation between spindles and eye movements has also been viewed by a quantum approach which is another medium between the information and the way of describing it. PMID:14523349

  3. Functional brain connectivity phenotypes for schizophrenia drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neil; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2015-02-01

    While our knowledge of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has increased dramatically, this has not translated into the development of new and improved drugs to treat this disorder. Human brain imaging and electrophysiological studies have provided dramatic new insight into the mechanisms of brain dysfunction in the disease, with a swathe of recent studies highlighting the differences in functional brain network and neural system connectivity present in the disorder. Only recently has the value of applying these approaches in preclinical rodent models relevant to the disorder started to be recognised. Here we highlight recent findings of altered functional brain connectivity in preclinical rodent models and consider their relevance to those alterations seen in the brains of schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, we highlight the potential translational value of using the paradigm of functional brain connectivity phenotypes in the context of preclinical schizophrenia drug discovery, as a means both to understand the mechanisms of brain dysfunction in the disorder and to reduce the current high attrition rate in schizophrenia drug discovery. PMID:25567554

  4. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. PMID:25913701

  5. Astrocytes and Brain Function: Implications for Reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISHNAN M. DHANDAPANI; B. MAHESH; DARRELL W. BRANN

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that astrocytes have important neu- roregulatory functions in addition to their classic functions of support and segregation of neurons. These newly revealed functions include regulation of neuron communication, neuro- secretion, and synaptic plasticity. Although these actions occur throughout the brain, this review will focus on astrocyte- neuron interactions in the hypothalamus, particularly with re- spect to their

  6. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed. PMID:23256049

  7. Functional brain development in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    There is a continuing debate in developmental neuroscience about the importance of activity-dependent processes. The relatively delayed rate of development of the human brain, compared with that of other mammals, might make it more susceptible to the influence of postnatal experience. The human infant is well adapted to capitalize on this opportunity through primitive biases to attend to relevant stimuli

  8. Brain death and the historical understanding of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Gary S

    2003-07-01

    In a 1968 Report, the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death promulgated influential criteria for the idea and practice known as "brain death." Before and since the Committee met, brain death has been a focal point of visions and nightmares of medical progress, purpose, and moral authority. Critics of the Committee felt it was deaf to apparently central moral considerations and focused on the self-serving purpose of expanding transplantation. Historical characterizations of the uses and meanings of brain death and the work of the Committee have tended to echo these themes, which means also generally repeating a widely held bioethical self-understanding of how the field appeared-that is, as a necessary antidote of moral expertise. This paper looks at the Committee and finds that historical depictions of it have been skewed by such a bioethical agenda. Entertaining different possibilities as to the motives and historical circumstances behind the Report it famously produced may point to not only different histories of the Committee, but also different perspectives on the historical legacy and role of bioethics as a discourse for addressing anxieties about medicine. PMID:12938717

  9. CONEUR-1155; NO. OF PAGES 12 Please cite this article in press as: Barrett LF, Satpute AB. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain, Curr Opin

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    to distinct brain net- works. Understanding the functions of the human brain in psychological terms requires-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain, Curr Opin Neurobiol (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2012.12.012 Large-scale brain

  10. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the maturational events that occur during prenatal and postnatal brain development and to present neuroimaging findings from studies of healthy individuals that identify the trajectories of normal brain development. Method Histological and postmortem findings of early brain development are presented, followed by a discussion of anatomical, diffusion tensor, proton spectroscopy, and functional imaging findings from studies of healthy individuals, with special emphasis on longitudinal data. Results Early brain development occurs through a sequence of major events, beginning with the formation of the neural tube and ending with myelination. Brain development at a macroscopic level typically proceeds first in sensorimotor areas, spreading subsequently and progressively into dorsal and parietal, superior temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices throughout later childhood and adolescence. These patterns of anatomical development parallel increasing activity in frontal cortices that subserves the development of higher-order cognitive functions during late childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in these developmental patterns seem to be involved centrally in the pathogenesis of various childhood psychiatric disorders including childhood-onset schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental dyslexia, Tourette’s syndrome, and bipolar disorder. Conclusions Advances in imaging techniques have enhanced our understanding of normal developmental trajectories in the brain, which may improve insight into the abnormal patterns of development in various childhood psychiatric disorders. PMID:18833009

  11. Functional transcranial brain imaging by

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    concentration and oxygenation will facili- tate the understanding of neurovascular coupling at the capillary; neurovascular coupling. Paper 09119LR received Apr. 1, 2009; revised manuscript received Jun. 9, 2009; accepted

  12. The nicotinic cholinergic system function in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Research on the nicotinic cholinergic system function in the brain was previously mainly derived from animal studies, yet, research in humans is growing. Up to date, findings allow significant advances on the understanding of nicotinic cholinergic effects on human cognition, emotion and behavior using a range of functional brain imaging approaches such as pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Studies provided insights across various mechanistic psychological domains using different tasks as well as at rest in both healthy individuals and patient populations, with so far partly mixed results reporting both enhancements and decrements of neural activity related to the nicotinic cholinergic system. Moreover, studies on the relation between brain structure and the nicotinic cholinergic system add important information in this context. The present review summarizes the current status of human brain imaging studies and presents the findings within a theoretical and clinical perspective as they may be useful not only for an advancement of the understanding of basic nicotinic cholinergic-related mechanisms, but also for the development and integration of psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches. Patterns of functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry across various cognitive and emotional domains may be used as neuropsychological markers of mental disorders such as addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease or schizophrenia, where nicotinic cholinergic system changes are characteristic. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25446570

  13. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Mier, Walter; Mier, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this—visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applications of functional brain imaging techniques with a focus on applications in psychiatry. A historical overview of the development of functional imaging is followed by the portrayal of the principles and applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), two key molecular imaging techniques that have revolutionized the ability to image molecular processes in the brain. We conclude that the juxtaposition of PET and fMRI in hybrid PET/MRI scanners enhances the significance of both modalities for research in neurology and psychiatry and might pave the way for a new area of personalized medicine. PMID:26042013

  14. Changes in Connectivity after Visual Cortical Brain Damage Underlie Altered Visual Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Holly; Thomas, Owen; Jbabdi, Saad; Cowey, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The full extent of the brain's ability to compensate for damage or changed experience is yet to be established. One question particularly important for evaluating and understanding rehabilitation following brain damage is whether recovery involves new and aberrant neural connections or whether any change in function is due to the functional

  15. Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity Jieun Kim a,

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity Jieun Kim a, , Marco L. Loggia a connec- tivity change to more clinically relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific connectivity a b s t r a c t Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding

  16. An outline of brain function.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P F

    2001-08-01

    An outline of how the brain may compute is proposed. In the cerebral cortex memories are stored through long-term potentiation at synapses from layer 1 cortical inputs (representing contexts) on layer 2/3 pyramidal cells linked with the thalamus in a cortico-thalamic (CT) unit. The signals which are memorized are the layer 3 inputs from the thalamus or other cortical areas. Signals are memorized (and later recalled) at the gamma frequency. A conscious thought comprises the outputs of layer 5 cells in CT units in different cortical regions firing in synchrony through the contribution of oscillatory thalamic and cortical inputs. This cortical output influences sub-cortical areas to cause or participate in a movement. Cerebral cortical outputs may be stored in the cerebellum and generated later in a particular context by the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus the brain may either generate 'conscious' outputs using the cerebral cortex or 'automatic' outputs using the basal ganglia and cerebellum. When contexts are recognized by the basal ganglia it permits outputs stored in the cerebellum to commence and in this way the basal ganglia can control complex sequences of outputs or movements. Working memory involves the prefrontal cortex using similarly the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The hippocampus has a role in the storage and recall of cortical outputs by providing unique layer 1 contexts to all the CT loops in different cortical areas in a conscious thought. With further recall of the thought new layer 1 contexts may become associated with the CT loops enabling recall without the hippocampal input. PMID:11489610

  17. See the brain at work: intraoperative laser Doppler functional brain imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Martin-Williams; A. Raabe; D. van de Ville; M. Leutenegger; A. Szelényi; E. Hattingen; R. Gerlach; V. Seifert; C. Hauger; A. Lopez; R. Leitgeb; M. Unser; T. Lasser

    2009-01-01

    During open brain surgery we acquire perfusion images non-invasively using laser Doppler imaging. The regions of brain activity show a distinct signal in response to stimulation providing intraoperative functional brain maps of remarkably strong contrast.

  18. Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity Identification of Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Jiaofen; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; Yan, Xuemei; Yin, Qing; Zeng, Fang; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown local brain aberrations in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients, yet little attention has been paid to the whole-brain resting-state functional network abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether FD disrupts the patterns of whole-brain networks and the abnormal functional connectivity could reflect the severity of the disease. The dysfunctional interactions between brain regions at rest were investigated in FD patients as compared with 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Multivariate pattern analysis was used to evaluate the discriminative power of our results for classifying patients from controls. In our findings, the abnormal brain functional connections were mainly situated within or across the limbic/paralimbic system, the prefrontal cortex, the tempo-parietal areas and the visual cortex. About 96% of the subjects among the original dataset were correctly classified by a leave one-out cross-validation approach, and 88% accuracy was also validated in a replication dataset. The classification features were significantly associated with the patients’ dyspepsia symptoms, the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, but it was not correlated with duration of FD patients (p>0.05). Our results may indicate the effectiveness of the altered brain functional connections reflecting the disease pathophysiology underling FD. These dysfunctional connections may be the epiphenomena or causative agents of FD, which may be affected by clinical severity and its related emotional dimension of the disease rather than the clinical course. PMID:23799056

  19. Network biology: understanding the cell's functional organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert-László Barabási; Zoltán N. Oltvai

    2004-01-01

    A key aim of postgenomic biomedical research is to systematically catalogue all molecules and their interactions within a living cell. There is a clear need to understand how these molecules and the interactions between them determine the function of this enormously complex machinery, both in isolation and when surrounded by other cells. Rapid advances in network biology indicate that cellular

  20. Culture, Executive Function, and Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting…

  1. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  2. Press Release Fingerprints of higher brain functions

    E-print Network

    Tübingen, Universität

    Seite 1/3 Press Release Fingerprints of higher brain functions Neuroscientists uncover novel during information processing, may be `fingerprints' of these basic calculations. Such basic calculations of brainwaves, also known as oscillations, are `spec- tral fingerprints' of canonical neuronal computations

  3. Circadian rhythms have broad implications for understanding brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Rae; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are generated by an endogenously organized timing system that drives daily rhythms in behavior, physiology and metabolism. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the locus of a master circadian clock. The SCN is synchronized to environmental changes in the light:dark cycle by direct, monosynaptic innervation via the retino-hypothalamic tract. In turn, the SCN coordinates the rhythmic activities of innumerable subordinate clocks in virtually all bodily tissues and organs. The core molecular clockwork is composed of a transcriptional/post-translational feedback loop in which clock genes and their protein products periodically suppress their own transcription. This primary loop connects to downstream output genes by additional, interlocked transcriptional feedback loops to create tissue-specific ‘circadian transcriptomes’. Signals from peripheral tissues inform the SCN of the internal state of the organism and the brain’s master clock is modified accordingly. A consequence of this hierarchical, multilevel feedback system is that there are ubiquitous effects of circadian timing on genetic and metabolic responses throughout the body. This overview examines landmark studies in the history of the study of circadian timing system, and highlights our current understanding of the operation of circadian clocks with a focus on topics of interest to the neuroscience community. PMID:24799154

  4. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to “comfort zones” that support survival, and negative affects reflect “discomfort zones” that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living - evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  5. Bottom up modeling of the connectome: Linking structure and function in the resting brain and their changes in aging

    E-print Network

    Deco, Gustavo

    aspects and understand how dynamics and structure interact to form functional brain net- works in task connectivity patterns, and given support to the view that the brain works at a critical point at the edgeReview Bottom up modeling of the connectome: Linking structure and function in the resting brain

  6. Functional craniology and brain evolution: from paleontology to biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Emiliano; de la Cuétara, José Manuel; Masters, Michael; Amano, Hideki; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modeling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes. PMID:24765064

  7. Regulatory RNAs in Brain Function and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Bianchi, Riccardo; Tiedge, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory RNAs are being increasingly investigated in neurons, and important roles in brain function have been revealed. Regulatory RNAs are non-protein-coding RNAs (npcRNAs) that comprise a heterogeneous group of molecules, varying in size and mechanism of action. Regulatory RNAs often exert post-transcriptional control of gene expression, resulting in gene silencing or gene expression stimulation. Here, we review evidence that regulatory RNAs are implicated in neuronal development, differentiation, and plasticity. We will also discuss npcRNA dysregulation that may be involved in pathological states of the brain such as neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegeneration, and epilepsy. PMID:20307503

  8. Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

  9. Generative models, brain function and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Friston, K J; Price, C J

    2001-07-01

    The representational capacity and inherent function of any neuron, neuronal population or cortical area in the brain is dynamic and context-sensitive. Functional integration, or interactions among brain systems, that employ driving (bottom up) and backward (top-down) connections, mediate this adaptive and contextual specialisation. A critical consequence is that neuronal responses, in any given cortical area, can represent different things at different times. This can have fundamental implications for the design of brain imaging experiments and the interpretation of their results. Our arguments are developed under generative models of brain function, where higher-level systems provide a prediction of the inputs to lower-level regions. Conflict between the two is resolved by changes in the higher-level representations, which are driven by the ensuing error in lower regions, until the mismatch is "cancelled". From this perspective the specialisation of any region is determined both by bottom-up driving inputs and by top-down predictions. Specialisation is therefore not an intrinsic property of any region but depends on both forward and backward connections with other areas. Because the latter have access to the context in which the inputs are generated they are in a position to modulate the selectivity or specialisation of lower areas. The implications for classical models (e.g., classical receptive fields in electrophysiology, classical specialisation in neuroimaging and connectionism in cognitive models) are severe and suggest these models may provide incomplete accounts of real brain architectures. Here we focus on the implications for cognitive neuroscience in the context of neuroimaging. PMID:11501732

  10. Age-related reorganizational changes in modularity and functional connectivity of human brain networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Birn, Rasmus M; Boly, Mélanie; Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    The human brain undergoes both morphological and functional modifications across the human lifespan. It is important to understand the aspects of brain reorganization that are critical in normal aging. To address this question, one approach is to investigate age-related topological changes of the brain. In this study, we developed a brain network model using graph theory methods applied to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from two groups of normal healthy adults classified by age. We found that brain functional networks demonstrated modular organization in both groups with modularity decreased with aging, suggesting less distinct functional divisions across whole brain networks. Local efficiency was also decreased with aging but not with global efficiency. Besides these brain-wide observations, we also observed consistent alterations of network properties at the regional level in the elderly, particularly in two major functional networks-the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network. Specifically, we found that measures of regional strength, local and global efficiency of functional connectivity were increased in the sensorimotor network while decreased in the DMN with aging. These results indicate that global reorganization of brain functional networks may reflect overall topological changes with aging and that aging likely alters individual brain networks differently depending on the functional properties. Moreover, these findings highly correspond to the observation of decline in cognitive functions but maintenance of primary information processing in normal healthy aging, implying an underlying compensation mechanism evolving with aging to support higher-level cognitive functioning. PMID:25183440

  11. Non-Invasive Brain-to-Brain Interface (BBI): Establishing Functional Links between Two Brains

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer’s intention to stimulate a rat’s brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer’s intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications. PMID:23573251

  12. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI): establishing functional links between two brains.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications. PMID:23573251

  13. The social brain in adolescence: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Burnett; Catherine Sebastian; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh; Sarah-Jayne Blakemore

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition is the collection of cognitive processes required to understand and interact with others. The term ‘social brain’ refers to the network of brain regions that underlies these processes. Recent evidence suggests that a number of social cognitive functions continue to develop during adolescence, resulting in age differences in tasks that assess cognitive domains including face processing, mental state

  14. Control of brain development, function, and behavior by the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Timothy R; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2015-05-13

    Animals share an intimate and life-long partnership with a myriad of resident microbial species, collectively referred to as the microbiota. Symbiotic microbes have been shown to regulate nutrition and metabolism and are critical for the development and function of the immune system. More recently, studies have suggested that gut bacteria can impact neurological outcomes--altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of nervous system disorders. In this review, we highlight emerging evidence that the microbiome extends its influence to the brain via various pathways connecting the gut to the central nervous system. While understanding and appreciation of a gut microbial impact on neurological function is nascent, unraveling gut-microbiome-brain connections holds the promise of transforming the neurosciences and revealing potentially novel etiologies for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25974299

  15. Disrupted Brain Functional Organization in Epilepsy Revealed by Graph Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Gaggl, Wolfgang; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-06-01

    The human brain is a complex and dynamic system that can be modeled as a large-scale brain network to better understand the reorganizational changes secondary to epilepsy. In this study, we developed a brain functional network model using graph theory methods applied to resting-state fMRI data acquired from a group of epilepsy patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A brain functional network model was constructed based on resting-state functional connectivity. A minimum spanning tree combined with proportional thresholding approach was used to obtain sparse connectivity matrices for each subject, which formed the basis of brain networks. We examined the brain reorganizational changes in epilepsy thoroughly at the level of the whole brain, the functional network, and individual brain regions. At the whole-brain level, local efficiency was significantly decreased in epilepsy patients compared with the healthy controls. However, global efficiency was significantly increased in epilepsy due to increased number of functional connections between networks (although weakly connected). At the functional network level, there were significant proportions of newly formed connections between the default mode network and other networks and between the subcortical network and other networks. There was a significant proportion of decreasing connections between the cingulo-opercular task control network and other networks. Individual brain regions from different functional networks, however, showed a distinct pattern of reorganizational changes in epilepsy. These findings suggest that epilepsy alters brain efficiency in a consistent pattern at the whole-brain level, yet alters brain functional networks and individual brain regions differently. PMID:25647011

  16. When “altering brain function” becomes “mind control”

    PubMed Central

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. “Under what conditions does ‘altering brain function’ qualify as ‘mind control’?” In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control. PMID:25352789

  17. Understanding paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a condition occurring in a small percentage of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is characterized by a constellation of symptoms associated with excessive adrenergic output, including tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, and diaphoresis. Diagnosis is one of exclusion and, therefore, is often delayed. Treatment is aimed at minimizing triggers and pharmacologic management of symptoms. Methods: A literature review using medline and cinahl was conducted to identify articles related to PSH. Search terms included paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, autonomic storming, diencephalic seizures, and sympathetic storming. Reference lists of pertinent articles were also reviewed and these additional papers were included. Results: The literature indicates that the understanding of PSH following TBI is in its infancy. The majority of information is based on small case series. The review revealed treatments that may be useful in treating PSH. Conclusions: Nurses play a critical role in the identification of at-risk patients, symptom complexes, and in the education of family. Early detection and treatment is likely to decrease overall morbidity and facilitate recovery. Further research is needed to establish screening tools and treatment algorithms for PSH. PMID:25506508

  18. Circadian rhythms have broad implications for understanding brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Silver, Rae; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms are generated by an endogenously organized timing system that drives daily rhythms in behavior, physiology and metabolism. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the locus of a master circadian clock. The SCN is synchronized to environmental changes in the light:dark cycle by direct, monosynaptic innervation via the retino-hypothalamic tract. In turn, the SCN coordinates the rhythmic activities of innumerable subordinate clocks in virtually all bodily tissues and organs. The core molecular clockwork is composed of a transcriptional/post-translational feedback loop in which clock genes and their protein products periodically suppress their own transcription. This primary loop connects to downstream output genes by additional, interlocked transcriptional feedback loops to create tissue-specific 'circadian transcriptomes'. Signals from peripheral tissues inform the SCN of the internal state of the organism and the brain's master clock is modified accordingly. A consequence of this hierarchical, multilevel feedback system is that there are ubiquitous effects of circadian timing on genetic and metabolic responses throughout the body. This overview examines landmark studies in the history of the study of circadian timing system, and highlights our current understanding of the operation of circadian clocks with a focus on topics of interest to the neuroscience community. PMID:24799154

  19. Anticorrelated Resting-state Functional Connectivity in Awake Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhifeng; King, Jean; Zhang, Nanyin

    2011-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging has played an essential role in understanding neural circuitry and brain diseases. The vast majority of RSFC studies have been focused on positive RSFC, whereas our understanding about its conceptual counterpart—negative RSFC (i.e. anticorrelation)—remains elusive. To date, anticorrelated RSFC has yet been observed without the commonly used preprocessing step of global signal correction. However, this step can induce artifactual anticorrelation (Murphy et al., 2009), making it difficult to determine whether the observed anticorrelation in humans is a processing artifact (Fox et al., 2005). In this report we demonstrated robust anticorrelated RSFC in a well characterized frontolimbic circuit between the infralimbic cortex (IL) and amygdala in the awake rat. This anticorrelation was anatomically specific, highly reproducible and independent of preprocessing methods. Interestingly, this anticorrelated relationship was absent in anesthetized rats even with global signal regression, further supporting its functional significance. Establishing negative RSFC independent of data preprocessing methods will significantly enhance the applicability of RSFC in better understanding neural circuitries and brain networks. In addition, combining the neurobiological data of the IL-amygdala circuit in rodents, the finding of the present study will enable further investigation of the neurobiological basis underlying anticorrelation. PMID:21864689

  20. Understanding the Functions of Proteins and DNA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    This overview provides a sequence of learning activities to help students understand that proteins and DNA are not just abstract concepts in biology textbooks, but rather crucial components of our bodies that affect functions and characteristics that students are familiar with. Students learn about how proteins contribute to the digestion of food and to characteristics such as albinism, sickle cell anemia and hemophilia. Then, students learn about the relationship between the genetic information in DNA and the different versions of these proteins. The discussion, web-based, and hands-on learning activities presented are appropriate for an introductory unit on biological molecules or as an introduction to a unit on molecular biology.

  1. Understanding Brain Injury and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities in the Preterm Infant: The Evolving Role of Advanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Amit M.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability in premature infants requires continued efforts at understanding the underlying microstructural changes in the brain that cause this perturbation in normal development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods offer great potential to fulfill this need. Serial MR imaging and the application of newer analysis techniques such as, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), volumetric MR analysis, cortical surface analysis, functional connectivity (fcMRI) and diffusion tractography, provide important insights into the trajectory of brain development in the premature infant and the impact of injury on this developmental trajectory. While some of these imaging techniques are currently available in the research setting only, other measures such as DTI and brain metric measures can be used clinically. MR imaging also has enormous potential to be used as a surrogate, short-term outcome measure in clinical studies evaluating new therapeutic interventions of neuroprotection of the developing brain. In this article we review the current status of these advanced MR imaging techniques. PMID:20109973

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, R G; Blamire, A M; Rothman, D L; McCarthy, G

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy have been established over the past two decades. Recent applications of these methods to study human brain function have become a rapidly growing area of research. The development of methods using standard MR contrast agents within the cerebral vasculature has allowed measurements of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which are activity dependent. Subsequent investigations linked the MR relaxation properties of brain tissue to blood oxygenation levels which are also modulated by consumption and blood flow (rCBF). These methods have allowed mapping of brain activity in human visual and motor cortex as well as in areas of the frontal lobe involved in language. The methods have high enough spatial and temporal sensitivity to be used in individual subjects. MR spectroscopy of proton and carbon-13 nuclei has been used to measure rates of glucose transport and metabolism in the human brain. The steady-state measurements of brain glucose concentrations can be used to monitor the glycolytic flux, whereas subsequent glucose metabolism--i.e., the flux into the cerebral glutamate pool--can be used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Under visual stimulation the concentration of lactate in the visual cortex has been shown to increase by MR spectroscopy. This increase is compatible with an increase of anaerobic glycolysis under these conditions as earlier proposed from positron emission tomography studies. It is shown how MR spectroscopy can extend this understanding of brain metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8475050

  3. Chemotherapy Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Women with Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Julie A.; Makarewicz, Jenna; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Devins, Robert; Albert, Kimberly; Dittus, Kim; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improvements in long-term cancer survival. However, reports of cognitive impairment following treatment emphasize the importance of understanding the long-term effects of chemotherapy on brain functioning. Cognitive deficits found in chemotherapy patients suggest a change in brain functioning that affects specific cognitive domains such as attentional processing and executive functioning. This study examined the processes potentially underlying these changes in cognition by examining brain functional connectivity pre- and post-chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Functional connectivity examines the temporal correlation between spatially remote brain regions in an effort to understand how brain networks support specific cognitive functions. Nine women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before chemotherapy, one month after, and one year after the completion of chemotherapy. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were completed using seeds in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to examine connectivity in the dorsal anterior attention network and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to examine connectivity in the default mode network. Results showed decreased functional connectivity one month after chemotherapy that partially returned to baseline at one year in the dorsal attention network. Decreased connectivity was seen in the default mode network at one month and one year following chemotherapy. In addition, increased subjective memory complaints were noted at one month and one year post-chemotherapy. These findings suggest a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functional connectivity that is potentially related to subjective cognitive assessment. PMID:23852814

  4. Inability to empathize: brain lesions that disrupt sharing and understanding another’s emotions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Emotional empathy—the ability to recognize, share in, and make inferences about another person’s emotional state—is critical for all social interactions. The neural mechanisms underlying emotional empathy have been widely studied with functional imaging of healthy participants. However, functional imaging studies reveal correlations between areas of activation and performance of a task, so that they can only reveal areas engaged in a task, rather than areas of the brain that are critical for the task. Lesion studies complement functional imaging, to identify areas necessary for a task. Impairments in emotional empathy have been mostly studied in neurological diseases with fairly diffuse injury, such as traumatic brain injury, autism and dementia. The classic ‘focal lesion’ is stroke. There have been scattered studies of patients with impaired empathy after stroke and other focal injury, but these studies have included small numbers of patients. This review will bring together data from these studies, to complement evidence from functional imaging. Here I review how focal lesions affect emotional empathy. I will show how lesion studies contribute to the understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying emotional empathy, and how they contribute to the management of patients with impaired emotional empathy. PMID:24293265

  5. Inability to empathize: brain lesions that disrupt sharing and understanding another's emotions.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Argye E

    2014-04-01

    Emotional empathy--the ability to recognize, share in, and make inferences about another person's emotional state--is critical for all social interactions. The neural mechanisms underlying emotional empathy have been widely studied with functional imaging of healthy participants. However, functional imaging studies reveal correlations between areas of activation and performance of a task, so that they can only reveal areas engaged in a task, rather than areas of the brain that are critical for the task. Lesion studies complement functional imaging, to identify areas necessary for a task. Impairments in emotional empathy have been mostly studied in neurological diseases with fairly diffuse injury, such as traumatic brain injury, autism and dementia. The classic 'focal lesion' is stroke. There have been scattered studies of patients with impaired empathy after stroke and other focal injury, but these studies have included small numbers of patients. This review will bring together data from these studies, to complement evidence from functional imaging. Here I review how focal lesions affect emotional empathy. I will show how lesion studies contribute to the understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying emotional empathy, and how they contribute to the management of patients with impaired emotional empathy. PMID:24293265

  6. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain. PMID:26037235

  7. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function.

    PubMed

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain. PMID:26037235

  8. Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-07-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is applied to functional brain imaging in living mice. A near-diffraction-limited bright-field optical illumination is employed to achieve micrometer lateral resolution, and a dual-wavelength measurement is utilized to extract the blood oxygenation information. The variation in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) along vascular branching has been imaged in a precapillary arteriolar tree and a postcapillary venular tree, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on in vivo volumetric imaging of brain microvascular morphology and oxygenation down to single capillaries through intact mouse skulls. It is anticipated that: (i) chronic imaging enabled by this minimally invasive procedure will advance the study of cortical plasticity and neurological diseases; (ii) revealing the neuroactivity-dependent changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation will facilitate the understanding of neurovascular coupling at the capillary level; and (iii) combining functional OR-PAM and high-resolution blood flowmetry will have the potential to explore cellular pathways of brain energy metabolism.

  9. Dynamic representations and generative models of brain function.

    PubMed

    Friston, K J; Price, C J

    2001-02-01

    The main point made in this article is that the representational capacity and inherent function of any neuron, neuronal population or cortical area is dynamic and context-sensitive. This adaptive and contextual specialisation is mediated by functional integration or interactions among brain systems with a special emphasis on backwards or top-down connections. The critical notion is that neuronal responses, in any given cortical area, can represent different things at different times. Our argument is developed under the perspective of generative models of functional brain architectures, where higher-level systems provide a prediction of the inputs to lower-level regions. Conflict between the two is resolved by changes in the higher-level representations, driven by the resulting error in lower regions, until the mismatch is 'cancelled'. In this model the specialisation of any region is determined both by bottom-up driving inputs and by top-down predictions. Specialisation is therefore not an intrinsic property of any region but depends on both forward and backward connections with other areas. Because these other areas have access to the context in which the inputs are generated they are in a position to modulate the selectivity or specialisation of lower areas. The implications for 'classical' models (e.g., classical receptive fields in electrophysiology, classical specialisation in neuroimaging and connectionism in cognitive models) are severe and suggest these models provide incomplete accounts of real brain architectures. Generative models represent a far more plausible framework for understanding selective neurophysiological responses and how representations are constructed in the brain. PMID:11287132

  10. Brain Maps on the Go: Functional Imaging During Motor Challenge in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, DP; Maarek, J-M I

    2008-01-01

    Brain mapping in the freely-moving animal is useful for studying motor circuits, not only because it avoids the potential confound of sedation or restraints, but because activated brain states may serve to accentuate differences that only manifest partially while a subject is in the resting state. Perfusion or metabolic mapping using autoradiography allows one to examine changes in brain function at the circuit level across the entire brain with a spatial resolution (?100 microns) appropriate for the rat or mouse brain, and a temporal resolution (seconds – minutes) sufficient for capturing acute brain changes. Here we summarize the application of these methods to the functional brain mapping of behaviors involving locomotion of small animals, methods for the three dimensional reconstruction of the brain from autoradiographic sections, voxel based analysis of the whole brain, and generation of maps of the flattened rat cortex. Application of these methods in animal models promises utility in improving our understanding of motor function in the normal brain, and of the effects of neuropathology and treatment interventions such as exercise have on the reorganization of motor circuits. PMID:18554522

  11. ScaleScale--free Brain Functional Networksfree Brain Functional Networks victor@imedea.uib.es www.imedea.uib.es/~victor

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    ScaleScale--free Brain Functional Networksfree Brain Functional Networks victor@imedea.uib.es wwwPlan Motivation: Networks & Brain How to get functional networks from fMRI Characterization of brain functional) Co-authorship of scientific papers #12;...... and the brainand the brain #12;""In catalogue" cortical

  12. Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

  13. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Boris C.; Hong, SeokJun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy. PMID:24098281

  14. Organization, development and function of complex brain networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Sporns; Dante R. Chialvo; Marcus Kaiser; Claus C. Hilgetag

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed general principles in the structural and functional organization of complex networks which are shared by various natural, social and technological systems. This review examines these principles as applied to the organization, development and function of complex brain networks. Specifically, we examine the structural properties of large-scale anatomical and functional brain networks and discuss how they might

  15. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Eggebrecht, Adam T; Ferradal, Silvina L; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25083161

  16. THE CONTRIBUTION OF NOVEL BRAIN IMAGING TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTANDING THE

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    , Stanford University, Stanford, California Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:331­339. Key Words: mental retardation; developmental that mental retardation is a clinical manifesta- tion in 1,228 genetic syndromes. Brain abnormalities

  17. Significance of epigenetics for understanding brain development, brain evolution and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Keverne, E B

    2014-04-01

    Two major environmental developments have occurred in mammalian evolution which have impacted on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development. The first of these was viviparity and development of the placenta which placed a considerable burden of time and energy investment on the matriline, and which resulted in essential hypothalamic modifications. Maternal feeding, maternal care, parturition, milk letdown and the suspension of fertility and sexual behaviour are all determined by the maternal hypothalamus and have evolved to meet foetal needs under the influence of placental hormones. Viviparity itself provided a new environmental variable for selection pressures to operate via the co-existence over three generations of matrilineal genomes (mother, developing offspring and developing oocytes) in one individual. Also of importance for the matriline has been the evolution of epigenetic marks (imprint control regions) which are heritable and undergo reprogramming primarily in the oocyte to regulate imprinted gene expression according to parent of origin. Imprinting of autosomal genes has played a significant role in mammalian evolutionary development, particularly that of the hypothalamus and placenta. Indeed, many imprinted genes that are co-expressed in the placenta and hypothalamus play an important role in the co-adapted functioning of these organs. Thus the action and interaction of two genomes (maternal and foetal) have provided a template for transgenerational selection pressures to operate in shaping the mothering capabilities of each subsequent generation. The advanced aspects of neocortical brain evolution in primates have emancipated much of behaviour from the determining effects of hormonal action. Thus in large brain primates, most of the sexual behaviour is not reproductive hormone dependent and maternal care can and does occur outside the context of pregnancy and parturition. The neocortex has evolved to be adaptable and while the adapted changes are not inherited, the epigenetic predisposing processes can be. This provides each generation with the same ability to generate new adaptations while retaining a "cultural" predisposition to retain others. A significant evolutionary contribution to this epigenetic dimension has again been the matriline. The extensive neocortical development which takes place post-natally does so in an environment which is predominantly that of the caring guidance of the mother. Evidence for the epigenetic regulation of neocortical development is best illustrated by the GABA-ergic neurons and their long tangential migratory pathway from the ganglionic eminence, in contrast to the radial migration of principle neurons. GABA-ergic neurons play an integral role both in the developmental formation of canonical localised circuits and in synchronising widespread functional activity by the regulation of network oscillations. Such synchronisation enables distributed regions of the neocortex to coordinate firing. GABA-ergic dysfunction contributes to a broad spectrum of neurological and psychiatric disorders which can differ even across identical monozygotic twins. Moreover, major treatments for schizophrenia over the past 40 years have included the drugs lithium and valproate, both of which we now know are histone deacetylases. It is rarely the heritable dysfunctioning of these epigenetic mechanisms that is at fault, but the timing, duration and place where they are deployed. The timing and complexity in the development of the neocortex makes this region of the brain more vulnerable to perturbations. PMID:23201253

  18. The Brain: Understanding Neurobiology Through the Study of Addiction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    They're finally here! The NIH Office of Science Education has recently launched Web versions of curriculum supplements from its series of "interactive teaching units that combine cutting-edge research discoveries from the National Institutes of Health with state-of-the-art instructional materials." "The Brain" is intended for grades 9-12. The supplement provides detailed, downloadable lesson plans, fantastic multimedia features, teachers' guides with downloadable worksheets, and loads of other excellent resources.

  19. A Brain-Wide Study of Age-Related Changes in Functional Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Saliasi, Emi; Maurits, Natasha M; Lorist, Monicque M

    2015-07-01

    Aging affects functional connectivity between brain areas, however, a complete picture of how aging affects integration of information within and between functional networks is missing. We used complex network measures, derived from a brain-wide graph, to provide a comprehensive overview of age-related changes in functional connectivity. Functional connectivity in young and older participants was assessed during resting-state fMRI. The results show that aging has a large impact, not only on connectivity within functional networks but also on connectivity between the different functional networks in the brain. Brain networks in the elderly showed decreased modularity (less distinct functional networks) and decreased local efficiency. Connectivity decreased with age within networks supporting higher level cognitive functions, that is, within the default mode, cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal control networks. Conversely, no changes in connectivity within the somatomotor and visual networks, networks implicated in primary information processing, were observed. Connectivity between these networks even increased with age. A brain-wide analysis approach of functional connectivity in the aging brain thus seems fundamental in understanding how age affects integration of information. PMID:24532319

  20. Spatiotemporal brain imaging and modeling

    E-print Network

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis integrates hardware development, data analysis, and mathematical modeling to facilitate our understanding of brain cognition. Exploration of these brain mechanisms requires both structural and functional knowledge ...

  1. Topographic Brain Mapping: A Window on Brain Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniski, Walt M.

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the method of topographic mapping of the brain's electrical activity. Multiple electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and computerized analysis of the EEG signal are used to generate maps of frequency and voltage (evoked potential). This relatively new technique holds promise in the evaluation of children with behavioral and…

  2. From `Understanding the Brain by Creating the Brain' towards manipulative neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    to prove cause-and-effect relationships even at the system level. Keywords: computational neuroscience; creating the brain; humanoid robot; cerebellar learning; long-term depression; manipulative neuroscience 1, a committee for brain science promotion in the Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese government

  3. Functional development in the infant brain for auditory pitch processing.

    PubMed

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Nakano, Tamami; Taga, Gentaro

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how the developing brain processes auditory information is a critical step toward the clarification of infants' perception of speech and music. We have reported that the infant brain perceives pitch information in speech sounds. Here, we used multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the infant brain is sensitive to information of pitch changes in auditory sequences. Three types of auditory sequences with distinct temporal structures of pitch changes were presented to 3- and 6-month-old infants: a long condition of 12 successive tones constructing a chromatic scale (600 ms), a short condition of four successive tones constructing a chromatic scale (200 ms), and a random condition of random tone sequences (50 ms per tone). The difference among the conditions was only in the sequential order of the tones, which causes pitch changes between the successive tones. We found that the bilateral temporal regions of both ages of infants showed significant activation under the three conditions. The stimulus-dependent activation was observed in the right temporoparietal region of the both infant groups; the 3- and 6-month-old infants showed the most prominent activation under the random and short conditions, respectively. Our findings indicate that the infant brain, which shows functional differentiation and lateralization in auditory-related areas, is capable of responding to more than single tones of pitch information. These results suggest that the right temporoparietal region of the infants increases sensitivity to auditory sequences, which have temporal structures similar to those of syllables in speech sounds, in the course of development. PMID:21488136

  4. Structure-function relationships in human brain development

    E-print Network

    Saygin, Zeynep Mevhibe

    2012-01-01

    The integration of anatomical, functional, and developmental approaches in cognitive neuroscience is essential for generating mechanistic explanations of brain function. In this thesis, I first establish a proof-of-principle ...

  5. Time-varying functional network information extracted from brief instances of spontaneous brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that the brain is remarkably active even in the absence of overt behavior, and this activity occurs in spatial patterns that are reproducible across subjects and follow the brain’s established functional subdivision. Investigating the distribution of these spatial patterns is an active area of research with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of the neural networks underlying brain function. One intriguing aspect of spontaneous activity is an apparent nonstationarity, or variability of interaction between brain regions. It was recently proposed that spontaneous brain activity may be dominated by brief traces of activity, possibly originating from a neuronal avalanching phenomenon. Such traces may involve different subregions in a network at different times, potentially reflecting functionally relevant relationships that are not captured with conventional data analysis. To investigate this, we examined publicly available functional magnetic resonance imaging data with a dedicated analysis method and found indications that functional networks inferred from conventional correlation analysis may indeed be driven by activity at only a few critical time points. Subsequent analysis of the activity at these critical time points revealed multiple spatial patterns, each distinctly different from the established functional networks. The spatial distribution of these patterns suggests a potential functional relevance. PMID:23440216

  6. Chemical approaches to understanding O-GlcNAc glycosylation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Rexach, Jessica E; Clark, Peter M; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

    2011-01-01

    O -GlcNAc glycosylation is a unique, dynamic form of glycosylation found on intracellular proteins of all multicellular organisms. Studies suggest that O-GlcNAc represents a key regulatory modification in the brain, contributing to transcriptional regulation, neuronal communication and neurodegenerative disease. Recently, several new chemical tools have been developed to detect and study the modification, including chemoenzymatic tagging methods, quantitative proteomics strategies and small-molecule inhibitors of O-GlcNAc enzymes. Here we highlight some of the emerging roles for O-GlcNAc in the nervous system and describe how chemical tools have significantly advanced our understanding of the scope, functional significance and cellular dynamics of this modification. PMID:18202679

  7. Highlighting the Structure-Function Relationship of the Brain with the Ising Model and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Das, T. K.; Abeyasinghe, P. M.; Crone, J. S.; Sosnowski, A.; Laureys, S.; Owen, A. M.; Soddu, A.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model) or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model) have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions. PMID:25276772

  8. Manifold learning on brain functional networks in aging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Anqi; Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Chung, Moo K

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new analysis framework to utilize the full information of brain functional networks for computing the mean of a set of brain functional networks and embedding brain functional networks into a low-dimensional space in which traditional regression and classification analyses can be easily employed. For this, we first represent the brain functional network by a symmetric positive matrix computed using sparse inverse covariance estimation. We then impose a Log-Euclidean Riemannian manifold structure on brain functional networks whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a mean. Finally, based on the fact that the computation of linear operations can be done in the tangent space of this Riemannian manifold, we adopt Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) to the Log-Euclidean Riemannian manifold space in order to embed the brain functional networks into a low-dimensional space. We show that the integration of the Log-Euclidean manifold with LLE provides more efficient and succinct representation of the functional network and facilitates regression analysis, such as ridge regression, on the brain functional network to more accurately predict age when compared to that of the Euclidean space of functional networks with LLE. Interestingly, using the Log-Euclidean analysis framework, we demonstrate the integration and segregation of cortical-subcortical networks as well as among the salience, executive, and emotional networks across lifespan. PMID:25476411

  9. The Dynamic Dielectric at a Brain Functional Site and an EM Wave Approach to Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. P.; Xia, Q.; Qu, D.; Wu, T. C.; Yang, D. G.; Hao, W. D.; Jiang, X.; Li, X. M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for functional brain imaging include functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for functional brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain functional site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM wave varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain functional site provides the basis for an RF EM wave approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain functional sites, leading to an RF EM wave approach to functional brain imaging. PMID:25367217

  10. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

  11. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind for review February 22, 2010) Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain--from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky

  12. Evidence for hubs in human functional brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hubs integrate and distribute information in powerful ways due to the number and positioning of their contacts in a network. Several resting state functional connectivity MRI reports have implicated regions of the default mode system as brain hubs; we demonstrate that previous degree-based approaches to hub identification may have identified portions of large brain systems rather than critical nodes of brain networks. We utilize two methods to identify hub-like brain regions: 1) finding network nodes that participate in multiple sub-networks of the brain, and 2) finding spatial locations where several systems are represented within a small volume. These methods converge on a distributed set of regions that differ from previous reports on hubs. This work identifies regions that support multiple systems, leading to spatially constrained predictions about brain function that may be tested in terms of lesions, evoked responses, and dynamic patterns of activity. PMID:23972601

  13. Chemical Biology for Understanding Matrix Metalloproteinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Knapinska, Anna; Fields, Gregg B.

    2013-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family has long been associated with normal physiological processes such as embryonic implantation, tissue remodeling, organ development, and wound healing, as well as multiple aspects of cancer initiation and progression, osteoarthritis, inflammatory and vascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of chemically designed MMP probes has advanced our understanding of the roles of MMPs in disease in addition to shedding considerable light on the mechanisms of MMP action. The first generation of protease-activated agents has demonstrated proof of principle as well as providing impetus for in vivo applications. One common problem has been a lack of agent stability at nontargeted tissues and organs due to activation by multiple proteases. The present review considers how chemical biology has impacted the progress made in understanding the roles of MMPs in disease and the basic mechanisms of MMP action. PMID:22933318

  14. Decoding brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongha Lee; Changwon Jang; Hae-Jeong Park

    2011-01-01

    Most leading research in basic and clinical neuroscience has been carried out by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),\\u000a which detects the blood oxygenation level dependent signals associated with neural activities. Among new fMRI applications,\\u000a brain decoding is an emerging research area, which infers mental states from fMRI signals. Brain decoding using fMRI includes\\u000a classification, identification, and reconstruction of brain states.

  15. The Role of Noise in Brain Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Llinás, R.

    2012-12-01

    Noise plays a fundamental role in all living organisms from the earliest prokaryotes to advanced mammalian forms, such as ourselves. In the context of living organisms, the term 'noise' usually refers to the variance amongst measurements obtained from repeated identical experimental conditions, or from output signals from these systems. It is noteworthy that both these conditions are universally characterized by the presence of background fluctuations. In non-biological systems, such as electronics or in communications sciences, where the aim is to send error-free messages, noise was generally regarded as a problem. The discovery of Stochastic Resonances (SR) in non-linear dynamics brought a shift of perception where noise, rather than representing a problem, became fundamental to system function, especially so in biology. The question now is: to what extent is biological function dependent on random noise. Indeed, it seems feasible that noise also plays an important role in neuronal communication and oscillatory synchronization. Given this approach, it follows that determining Fisher information content could be relevant in neuronal communication. It also seems possible that the principle of least time, and that of the sum over histories, could be important basic principles in understanding the coherence dynamics responsible for action and perception. Ultimately, external noise cancellation combined with intrinsic noise signal embedding and, the use of the principle of least time may be considered an essential step in the organization of central nervous system (CNS) function.

  16. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com The functional brain architecture of human morality

    E-print Network

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    Available online at www.sciencedirect.com The functional brain architecture of human morality Chadd M Funk and Michael S Gazzaniga Human morality provides the foundation for many of the pillars progress in the effort to understand the neural basis of human morality. The emerging insights from

  17. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain Through Interactive Specialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Johnson; Tobias Grossmann; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the social brain. They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied—the emergence of social cognition and mentalizing computations

  18. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function. Human visual cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Belliveau; K. K. Kwong; D. N. Kennedy; J. R. Baker; C. E. Stern; R. Benson; D. A. Chesler; R. M. Weisskoff; M. S. Cohen; R. B. Tootell; P. T. Fox; T. J. Brady

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human brain activity are described. Task-induced changes in brain cognitive state were measured using high-speed MRI techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation. These techniques were used to generate the first functional MRI maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. The methodology

  20. Functional brain imaging of trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Moisset, Xavier; Villain, Nicolas; Ducreux, Denis; Serrie, Alain; Cunin, Gérard; Valade, Dominique; Calvino, Bernard; Bouhassira, Didier

    2011-02-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to analyze changes in brain activity associated with stimulation of the cutaneous trigger zone in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN). Fifteen consecutive patients with CTN in the second or third division of the nerve, were included in this study. The fMRI paradigm consisted of light tactile stimuli of the trigger zone and the homologous contralateral area. Stimulation of the affected side induced pain in seven patients, but was not painful in eight patients on the day of the experiment. Painful stimuli were associated with significantly increased activity in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV), thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1, S2), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, premotor/motor cortex, prefrontal areas, putamen, hippocampus and brainstem. Nonpainful stimulation of the trigger zone activated all but three of these structures (SpV, brainstem and ACC). After a successful surgical treatment, activation induced by stimulation of the operated side was confined to S1 and S2. Our data demonstrate the pathological hyperexcitability of the trigeminal nociceptive system, including the second order trigeminal sensory neurons during evoked attacks of CTN. Such sensitization may depend on pain modulatory systems involving both the brainstem (i.e. periaqueductal gray and adjacent structures) and interconnected cortical structures (i.e. ACC). The fact that large portions of the classical 'pain neuromatrix' were also activated during nonpainful stimulation of the trigger zone, could reflect a state of maintained sensitization of the trigeminal nociceptive systems in CTN. PMID:20609605

  1. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  2. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  3. Brain Responses to Acupuncture Are Probably Dependent on the Brain Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinbo; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhu, Yuanqiang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, neuroimaging studies of acupuncture have explored extensive aspects of brain responses to acupuncture in finding its underlying mechanisms. Most of these studies have been performed on healthy adults. Only a few studies have been performed on patients with diseases. Brain responses to acupuncture in patients with the same disease at different pathological stages have not been explored, although it may be more important and helpful in uncovering its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we used fMRI to compare brain responses to acupuncture in patients with Bell's palsy at different pathological stages with normal controls and found that the brain response to acupuncture varied at different pathological stages of Bell's palsy. The brain response to acupuncture decreased in the early stages, increased in the later stages, and nearly returned to normal in the recovered group. All of the changes in the brain response to acupuncture could be explained as resulting from the changes in the brain functional status. Therefore, we proposed that the brain response to acupuncture is dependent on the brain functional status, while further investigation is needed to provide more evidence in support of this proposition. PMID:23737817

  4. Understanding the Evolution of Mammalian Brain Structures; the Need for a (New) Cerebrotype Approach

    PubMed Central

    Willemet, Romain

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian brain varies in size by a factor of 100,000 and is composed of anatomically and functionally distinct structures. Theoretically, the manner in which brain composition can evolve is limited, ranging from highly modular (“mosaic evolution”) to coordinated changes in brain structure size (“concerted evolution”) or anything between these two extremes. There is a debate about the relative importance of these distinct evolutionary trends. It is shown here that the presence of taxa-specific allometric relationships between brain structures makes a taxa-specific approach obligatory. In some taxa, the evolution of the size of brain structures follows a unique, coordinated pattern, which, in addition to other characteristics at different anatomical levels, defines what has been called here a “taxon cerebrotype”. In other taxa, no clear pattern is found, reflecting heterogeneity of the species’ lifestyles. These results suggest that the evolution of brain size and composition depends on the complex interplay between selection pressures and constraints that have changed constantly during mammalian evolution. Therefore the variability in brain composition between species should not be considered as deviations from the normal, concerted mammalian trend, but in taxa and species-specific versions of the mammalian brain. Because it forms homogenous groups of species within this complex “space” of constraints and selection pressures, the cerebrotype approach developed here could constitute an adequate level of analysis for evo-devo studies, and by extension, for a wide range of disciplines related to brain evolution. PMID:24962772

  5. Understanding the behavioural consequences of noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bestmann, Sven; de Berker, Archy O; Bonaiuto, James

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) influences neural activity in a way that can elicit behavioural change but may also improve high-level cognition or ameliorate symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the current fervour for tES contrasts with the paucity of mechanistically detailed models of how stimulation causes behavioural change. Here we challenge the plausibility of several common assumptions and interpretations of tES and discuss how to bridge the ravines separating our understanding of the behavioural and neural consequences of tES. We argue that rational application of tES should occur in tandem with computational neurostimulation and appropriate physiological and behavioural assays. This will aid appreciation of the limitations of tES and generate testable predictions of how tES expresses its effects on behaviour. PMID:25467129

  6. The brain's shared circuits of interpersonal understanding: implications for psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pally, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Social Neuroscience maintains that human survival depends on interpersonal relations, and that shared circuits evolved to enhance our ability to interact with and understand other people. Shared circuits operate by re-creating the Other’s experience in the same brain regions used for Self experience. The interpersonal understanding made possible by shared circuits is, for the most part, outside conscious awareness and plays a role in the transference-counter transference interaction. The brain mechanisms of shared circuits are presented and clinical vignettes illustrate the use of the concept of shared circuits in the clinical setting. PMID:20865827

  7. Fish Oil Tied to Better Brain Function in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152697.html Fish Oil Tied to Better Brain Function in Older ... 3 fatty acids -- found in many types of fish -- may benefit people at risk for Alzheimer's disease, ...

  8. Functional geometry alignment and localization of brain areas

    E-print Network

    Langs, Georg

    Matching functional brain regions across individuals is a challenging task, largely due to the variability in their location and extent. It is particularly difficult, but highly relevant, for patients with pathologies such ...

  9. Functional brain imaging using near-infrared technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meltem Izzetoglu; SCOTT C. BUNCE; Kurtulus Izzetoglu; Banu Onaral; A. K. Pourrezaei

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) has been introduced as a new neuroimaging modality with which to conduct functional brain imaging studies [1]?[24]. fNIR technology uses specific wavelengths of light, irradiated through the scalp, to enable the noninvasive measurement of changes in the relative ratios of deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) during brain activity. This technology

  10. PATH57 Altered structural and functional network connectivity predicts cognitive function after traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Sharp; Powell J Leech R; V Bonnelle; C F Beckmann; X De Boissezon; R Greenwood; K Kinnunen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments that limit recovery. The key pathophysiological predictors of recovery are uncertain, but the disruption of brain networks by diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is likely to be important. Here we use MRI to investigate the effect of TBI on structural and functional connections within cognitive brain networks. We studied 21 patients after

  11. Studying brain function with concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional magnetic resonance

    E-print Network

    Fantini, Sergio

    Studying brain function with concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional magnetic collected with a frequency domain experimental apparatus (ISS, Inc., Champaign IL) comprising sixteen laser brain monitor for functional studies. Keywords: Near-infrared spectroscopy, frequency-domain, f

  12. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  13. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2374-2386, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25733379

  14. Brain covariance selection: better individual functional connectivity models using population prior

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Brain covariance selection: better individual functional connectivity models using population prior bertrand.thirion@inria.fr Abstract Spontaneous brain activity, as observed in functional neuroimaging, has been shown to display reproducible structure that expresses brain architecture and car- ries markers

  15. Frontal brain asymmetry and immune function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duck-hee Kang; Richard J. Davidson; Christopher L. Coe; Robert E. Wheeler

    1991-01-01

    The relation between brain activity and the immune system was evaluated by assessing immune responses in 20 healthy women who manifested extreme differences in the asymmetry of frontal cortex activation. One group showed extreme and stable left frontal activation; the other group showed extreme and stable right frontal activation. As predicted, women with extreme right frontal activation had significantly lower

  16. Chapter 1: Chemical Approaches to Understanding O-GlcNAc Glycosylation in the Brain

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    proteins with multiple modification sites. Recently, chemical approaches have been developed to tag O improvement in sensitivity, enabling detection of proteins Figure 2: Strategy for chemically tagging O-GChapter 1: Chemical Approaches to Understanding O-GlcNAc Glycosylation in the Brain Portions

  17. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  18. Eleventh Graders' Understandings of Mathematical Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett-Bradshaw, Camille S.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the study presented in this dissertation is to describe 11th-graders' understandings, through different representations, of: (1) the definition of function, (2) the production of a function, and (3) the interpretation of a function. In addition, this dissertation seeks to describe the relationship between…

  19. The impact of alcohol dependence on social brain function.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Müller, Bernhard W; Scherbaum, Norbert; Lieb, Bodo; Forsting, Michael; Wiltfang, Jens; Leygraf, Norbert; Schiffer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The impact of alcoholism (ALC) or alcohol dependence on the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive and affective empathy (i.e. the different routes to understanding other people's minds) in schizophrenic patients and non-schizophrenic subjects is still poorly understood. We therefore aimed at determining the extent to which the ability to infer other people's mental states and underlying neural mechanisms were affected by ALC. We examined 48 men, who suffered either from ALC, schizophrenia, both disorders or none of these disorders, using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing on a mind reading task that involves both cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Using voxel-based morphometry, we additionally examined whether between-group differences in functional activity were associated with deficits in brain structural integrity. During mental state attribution, all clinical groups as compared with healthy controls exhibited poor performance as well as reduced right-hemispheric insular function with the highest error rate and insular dysfunction seen in the schizophrenic patients without ALC. Accordingly, both behavioral performance and insular functioning revealed schizophrenia × ALC interaction effects. In addition, schizophrenic patients relative to non-schizophrenic subjects (regardless of ALC) exhibited deficits in structural integrity and task-related recruitment of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Our data suggest that ALC-related impairment in the ability to infer other people's mental states is limited to insular dysfunction and thus deficits in affective empathy. By contrast, mentalizing in schizophrenia (regardless of ALC) may be associated with insular dysfunction as well as a combination of structural and functional deficits in the left vlPFC. PMID:22340281

  20. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  1. Obesity Increases Cerebrocortical Reactive Oxygen Species And Impairs Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Linnea R.; Zhang, Le; Nair, Anand; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Francis, Joseph; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of the population in the United States is overweight or obese, and this unprecedented level of obesity will undoubtedly have a profound impact on overall health, although little is currently known about the effects of obesity on the brain. The objective of the current study was to investigate cerebral oxidative stress and cognitive decline in the context of diet-induced obesity (DIO). We demonstrate for the first time that DIO induces higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain, and promotes cognitive impairment. Importantly, we also demonstrate for the first time in these studies that both body weight and adiposity are tightly correlated with the level of ROS. Interestingly, ROS were not correlated with cognitive decline in this model. Alterations in the antioxidant/detoxification Nrf2 pathway, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were not significantly altered in response to DIO. A significant impairment in glutathione peroxidase was observed in response to DIO. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that DIO increases the level of total and individual ROS in the brain, and highlight a direct relationship between the amount of adiposity and the level of oxidative stress within the brain. These data have important implications for understanding the negative effects of obesity on the brain, and are vital to understanding the role of oxidative stress in mediating the effects of obesity on the brain. PMID:23116605

  2. Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Kraft, Eduard; Santana, Silvina; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. PMID:26054789

  3. Change of Brain Functional Connectivity in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: Graph Theory Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yu-Sun; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Jang Woo; Lee, Jong-Min; Cha, Jungho; Yang, Jin-Ju; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Hwang, Jong-Moon; Yoo, Ji-Na

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the global functional reorganization of the brain following spinal cord injury with graph theory based approach by creating whole brain functional connectivity networks from resting state-functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), characterizing the reorganization of these networks using graph theoretical metrics and to compare these metrics between patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and age-matched controls. Methods Twenty patients with incomplete cervical SCI (14 males, 6 females; age, 55±14.1 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males, 10 females; age, 52.9±13.6 years) participated in this study. To analyze the characteristics of the whole brain network constructed with functional connectivity using rs-fMRI, graph theoretical measures were calculated including clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, global efficiency and small-worldness. Results Clustering coefficient, global efficiency and small-worldness did not show any difference between controls and SCIs in all density ranges. The normalized characteristic path length to random network was higher in SCI patients than in controls and reached statistical significance at 12%-13% of density (p<0.05, uncorrected). Conclusion The graph theoretical approach in brain functional connectivity might be helpful to reveal the information processing after SCI. These findings imply that patients with SCI can build on preserved competent brain control. Further analyses, such as topological rearrangement and hub region identification, will be needed for better understanding of neuroplasticity in patients with SCI. PMID:26161343

  4. Effect of tumor resection on the characteristics of functional brain networks J. M. Hernndez,1

    E-print Network

    Van Mieghem, Piet

    Effect of tumor resection on the characteristics of functional brain networks H. Wang,1 L. Douw,2 J. The functional brain networks of a group of patients with brain tumors are measured before and after tumor with brain tumors before and after surgery, the aim of which was to remove the tumor. In brain tumor patients

  5. Abstract: Voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels in brain functions

    E-print Network

    Gruen, Sonja

    to restore the resting Ca2+ level. We use various tools for analysis of the mutants to define the brain link, sleep stability, and pathogenesis of absence seizures. We are interested in trying to understand how+ channels. Science 302:117-119 Lee J et al. (2004). Lack of delta waves and sleep disturbances during NREM

  6. Brain glycogen—new perspectives on its metabolic function and regulation at the subcellular level

    PubMed Central

    Obel, Linea F.; Müller, Margit S.; Walls, Anne B.; Sickmann, Helle M.; Bak, Lasse K.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia. In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies—it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism. Based on (1) the compartmentation of the interconnected second messenger pathways controlling glycogen metabolism (calcium and cAMP), (2) alterations in the subcellular location of glycogen-associated enzymes and proteins induced by the metabolic status and (3) a sequential component in the intermolecular mechanisms of glycogen metabolism, we suggest that glycogen metabolism in astrocytes is compartmentalized at the subcellular level. As a consequence, the meaning and importance of conventional terms used to describe glycogen metabolism (e.g., turnover) is challenged. Overall, this review represents an overview of contemporary knowledge about brain glycogen and its metabolism and function. However, it also has a sharp focus on what we do not know, which is perhaps even more important for the future quest of uncovering the roles of glycogen in brain physiology and pathology. PMID:22403540

  7. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042

  8. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, Jiyoung

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042

  9. Apolipoprotein E ?4 modulates functional brain connectome in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Xiao; He, Yi; Yu, Xin; Wang, Huali; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele is a well-established genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent research has demonstrated an APOE ?4-mediated modulation of intrinsic functional brain networks in cognitively normal individuals. However, it remains largely unknown whether and how APOE ?4 affects the brain's functional network architecture in patients with AD. Using resting-state functional MRI and graph-theory approaches, we systematically investigated the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks in 16 APOE ?4 carriers and 26 matched noncarriers with AD at three levels: global whole-brain, intermediate module, and regional node/connection. Neuropsychological analysis showed that the APOE ?4 carriers performed worse on delayed memory but better on a late item generation of a verbal fluency task (associated with executive function) than noncarriers. Whole-brain graph analyses revealed that APOE ?4 significantly disrupted whole-brain topological organization as characterized by (i) reduced parallel information transformation efficiency; (ii) decreased intramodular connectivity within the posterior default mode network (pDMN) and intermodular connectivity of the pDMN and executive control network (ECN) with other neuroanatomical systems; and (iii) impaired functional hubs and their rich-club connectivities that primarily involve the pDMN, ECN, and sensorimotor systems. Further simulation analysis indicated that these altered connectivity profiles of the pDMN and ECN largely accounted for the abnormal global network topology. Finally, the changes in network topology exhibited significant correlations with the patients' cognitive performances. Together, our findings suggest that the APOE genotype modulates large-scale brain networks in AD and shed new light on the gene-connectome interaction in this disease. PMID:25619771

  10. Theory of mind and the social brain: implications for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, A K; Robinson, G; Dzafic, I; Reutens, D; Mowry, B

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies in schizophrenia have recently made significant progress in our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this disorder. Many genetic loci have been identified and now require functional investigation. One approach involves studying their correlation with neuroimaging and neurocognitive endophenotypes. Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits are well established in schizophrenia and they appear to fulfill criteria for being considered an endophenotype. We aim to review the behavioral and neuroimaging-based studies of ToM in schizophrenia, assess its suitability as an endophenotype, discuss current findings, and propose future research directions. Suitable research articles were sourced from a comprehensive literature search and from references identified through other studies. ToM deficits are repeatable, stable, and heritable: First-episode patients, those in remission and unaffected relatives all show deficits. Activation and structural differences in brain regions believed important for ToM are also consistently reported in schizophrenia patients at all stages of illness, although no research to date has examined unaffected relatives. Studies using ToM as an endophenotype are providing interesting genetic associations with both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and specific copy number variations (CNVs) such as the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We conclude that ToM is an important cognitive endophenotype for consideration in future studies addressing the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, and may help identify more homogeneous clinical sub-types for further study. PMID:23927712

  11. The Concept of Progressive Brain Change in Schizophrenia: Implications for Understanding Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    Kraepelin originally defined dementia praecox as a progressive brain disease, although this concept has received various degrees of acceptance and rejection over the years since his famous published textbooks appeared. This article places an historical perspective on the current renewal of Kraepelin's concept in brain imaging literature that supports progressive brain change in schizophrenia from its earliest stages through its chronic course. It is concluded that a great deal of future research is needed focusing on the longitudinal course of change, the extent to the regions of change within each individual and the underlying mechanism and implications of brain change through functional and neurochemical imaging, combined with structural studies in the same individuals. PMID:18263882

  12. Human Functional Neuroimaging of Brain Changes Associated with Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Clare Kelly; Hugh Garavan

    2005-01-01

    The discovery that experience-driven changes in the human brain can occur from a neural to a cortical level throughout the lifespan has stimulated a proliferation of research into how neural function changes in response to experience, enabled by neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Studies attempt to characterize these changes by examining how practice

  13. RESEARCH Open Access Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Functional

    E-print Network

    Nenadic, Zoran

    RESEARCH Open Access Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation System provide only a limited degree of motor function recovery in these individuals, and therefore novel to restore, substitute, or augment lost motor behaviors in patients with neurological injuries. Here, we

  14. Adaptation of Brain Functional and Structural Networks in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annie; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Tuan, Ta Anh; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Qiu, Anqi

    2015-01-01

    The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging. PMID:25875816

  15. Typical and Atypical Development of Functional Human Brain Networks: Insights from Resting-State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Lucina Q.; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, structural MRI studies have provided remarkable insights into human brain development by revealing the trajectory of gray and white matter maturation from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. In parallel, functional MRI studies have demonstrated changes in brain activation patterns accompanying cognitive development. Despite these advances, studying the maturation of functional brain networks underlying brain development continues to present unique scientific and methodological challenges. Resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) has emerged as a novel method for investigating the development of large-scale functional brain networks in infants and young children. We review existing rsfMRI developmental studies and discuss how this method has begun to make significant contributions to our understanding of maturing brain organization. In particular, rsfMRI has been used to complement studies in other modalities investigating the emergence of functional segregation and integration across short and long-range connections spanning the entire brain. We show that rsfMRI studies help to clarify and reveal important principles of functional brain development, including a shift from diffuse to focal activation patterns, and simultaneous pruning of local connectivity and strengthening of long-range connectivity with age. The insights gained from these studies also shed light on potentially disrupted functional networks underlying atypical cognitive development associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We conclude by identifying critical gaps in the current literature, discussing methodological issues, and suggesting avenues for future research. PMID:20577585

  16. Centrosome biogenesis and function: centrosomics brings new understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Bettencourt-Dias; David M. Glover

    2007-01-01

    Centrosomes, which were first described in the late 19th century, are found in most animal cells and undergo duplication once every cell cycle so that their number remains stable, like the genetic material of a cell. However, their function and regulation have remained elusive and controversial. Only recently has some understanding of these fundamental aspects of centrosome function and biogenesis

  17. The Role of Representation in Teacher Understanding of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mike

    2003-01-01

    It is becoming widely recognised that teachers' content knowledge has an important influence on their pedagogical content knowledge, and hence on the learning of students. In secondary schools, function is one of the fundamental concepts of mathematics. This paper considers the understanding of function exhibited by a group of teacher trainees in…

  18. Linking structure and function: Information processing in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gremillion, M.A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Traditionally, theories of function in neuroscience have emerged from physiology. Physiologists have suggested a number of means by which information in the brain can be processed, yet the principles underlying the generation of these phenomena are not well understood. A complex systems approach would be to examine the overall structure and function of the system and to attempt to establish a common framework for information processing interactions. This paper will use the structure-function relationship as a basis for exploring units of information processing. It will examine the brain as a whole, first providing the non-specialists with an short overview of the structure and some of the functions or outputs of the brain. It then very briefly reviews three of the prominent theoretical concepts that have emerged in the last few decades: receptive fields, feature extraction, and parallel processing. Next, it addresses the question of information processing and outlines the structures which have traditionally been proposed to be the basic unit of information processing. An alternative unit on which information processing in the brain might be based is then proposed, and data outlined to support it. Finally, the implications of this different mode of processing are discussed, both for the brain and for other complex systems. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  20. WONOEP APPRAISAL: NEW SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES TO STUDY THE BRAIN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF EPILEPSY

    PubMed Central

    Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; Shultz, Sandy R.; Federico, Paolo; Engel, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Modern functional neuroimaging provides opportunities to visualize activity of the entire brain, making it an indispensable diagnostic tool for epilepsy. Various forms of non-invasive functional neuroimaging are now also being performed as research tools in animal models of epilepsy and provide opportunities for parallel animal/human investigations into fundamental mechanisms of epilepsy and identification of epilepsy biomarkers. Methods Recent animal studies of epilepsy using positron emission tomography, tractography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. Results Epilepsy is an abnormal emergent property of disturbances in neuronal networks which, even for epilepsies characterized by focal seizures, involve widely distributed systems, often in both hemispheres. Functional neuroimaging in animal models now provides opportunities to examine neuronal disturbances in the whole brain that underlie generalized and focal seizure generation as well as various types of epileptogenesis. Significance Tremendous advances in understanding the contribution of specific properties of widely distributed neuronal networks to both normal and abnormal human behavior have been provided by current functional neuroimaging methodologies. Successful application of functional neuroimaging of the whole brain in the animal laboratory now permits investigations during epileptogenesis and correlation with deep brain EEG activity. With the continuing development of these techniques and analytical methods, the potential for future translational research on epilepsy is enormous. PMID:24836499

  1. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We introduce a simple ``toy`` brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ``critical`` state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught.

  2. Understanding well-being in the evolutionary context of brain development.

    PubMed Central

    Keverne, Eric B

    2004-01-01

    Much of the work on well-being and positive emotions has tended to focus on the adult, partly because this is when problems are manifest and well-being often becomes an issue by its absence. However, it is pertinent to ask if early life events might engender certain predispositions that have consequences for adult well-being. The human brain undergoes much of its growth and development postnatally until the age of seven and continues to extend its synaptic connections well into the second decade. Indeed, the prefrontal association cortex, areas of the brain concerned with forward planning and regulatory control of emotional behaviour, continue to develop until the age of 20. In this article, I consider the significance of this extended postnatal developmental period for brain maturation and how brain evolution has encompassed certain biological changes and predispositions that, with our modern lifestyle, represent risk factors for well-being. An awareness of these sensitive phases in brain development is important in understanding how we might facilitate secure relationships and high self-esteem in our children. This will provide the firm foundations on which to develop meaningful lifestyles and relationships that are crucial to well-being. PMID:15347526

  3. Multiple subject analysis of functional brain network communities through co-regularized spectral clustering.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Alp; Mahyari, Arash Golibagh; Bernat, Edward M; Aviyente, Selin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the human brain has been characterized as a complex network composed of segregated modules linked by short path lengths. In order to understand the organization of the network, it is important to determine these modules underlying the functional brain networks. However, the study of these modules is confounded by the fact that most neurophysiological studies consist of data collected from multiple subjects. Typically, this problem is addressed by either averaging the data across subjects which omits the variability across subjects or using consensus clustering methods which treats all subjects equally irrespective of outliers in the data. In this paper, we adapt a recently introduced co-regularized multiview spectral clustering approach to address these problems. The proposed framework is applied to EEG data collected during a study of error-related negativity (ERN) to better understand the functional networks involved in cognitive control and to compare between the network structure between error and correct responses. PMID:25571362

  4. Task-specific functional brain geometry from model maps.

    PubMed

    Langs, Georg; Samaras, Dimitris; Paragios, Nikos; Honorio, Jean; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose model maps to derive and represent the intrinsic functional geometry of a brain from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for a specific task. Model maps represent the coherence of behavior of individual fMRI-measurements for a set of observations, or a time sequence. The maps establish a relation between individual positions in the brain by encoding the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal over a time period in a Markov chain. They represent this relation by mapping spatial positions to a new metric space, the model map. In this map the Euclidean distance between two points relates to the joint modeling behavior of their signals and thus the co-dependencies of the corresponding signals. The map reflects the functional as opposed to the anatomical geometry of the brain. It provides a quantitative tool to explore and study global and local patterns of resource allocation in the brain. To demonstrate the merit of this representation, we report quantitative experimental results on 29 fMRI time sequences, each with sub-sequences corresponding to 4 different conditions for two groups of individuals. We demonstrate that drug abusers exhibit lower differentiation in brain interactivity between baseline and reward related tasks, which could not be quantified until now. PMID:18979834

  5. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  6. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: Enhancing Motor and Cognitive Functions In Healthy Old Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zimerman, Maximo; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2010-01-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural, and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects. PMID:21151809

  7. AUTONOMIC FUNCTION CAN EVALUATE BRAIN STEM FUNCTION TO DETERMINE VIABILITY OF LIFE.: 301

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Colombo; Kevan Iffrig; Elif Aysin; Ben Aysin; Charles C Wo; William C Shoemaker; Adam Colombo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Current methods in evaluating brain function to determine viability of life typically involves brain flow studies after cerebral edema or ischemia has occurred. We present data demonstrating earlier determination of lack of brain stem activity which can lead to earlier clinical decision-making, earlier family involvement in end-of-life issues, including organ donation, and decreased intensive care unit and ventilator-management time

  8. Efficiency and Cost of Economical Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Sophie; Bullmore, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Brain anatomical networks are sparse, complex, and have economical small-world properties. We investigated the efficiency and cost of human brain functional networks measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a factorial design: two groups of healthy old (N = 11; mean age = 66.5 years) and healthy young (N = 15; mean age = 24.7 years) volunteers were each scanned twice in a no-task or “resting” state following placebo or a single dose of a dopamine receptor antagonist (sulpiride 400 mg). Functional connectivity between 90 cortical and subcortical regions was estimated by wavelet correlation analysis, in the frequency interval 0.06–0.11 Hz, and thresholded to construct undirected graphs. These brain functional networks were small-world and economical in the sense of providing high global and local efficiency of parallel information processing for low connection cost. Efficiency was reduced disproportionately to cost in older people, and the detrimental effects of age on efficiency were localised to frontal and temporal cortical and subcortical regions. Dopamine antagonism also impaired global and local efficiency of the network, but this effect was differentially localised and did not interact with the effect of age. Brain functional networks have economical small-world properties—supporting efficient parallel information transfer at relatively low cost—which are differently impaired by normal aging and pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission. PMID:17274684

  9. The brains of high functioning autistic individuals do not synchronize with those of others?

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, J.; Roine, U.; Glerean, E.; Lahnakoski, J.; Nieminen-von Wendt, T.; Tani, P.; Leppämäki, S.; Nummenmaa, L.; Jääskeläinen, I.P.; Carlson, S.; Rintahaka, P.; Sams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Multifaceted and idiosyncratic aberrancies in social cognition characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To advance understanding of underlying neural mechanisms, we measured brain hemodynamic activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in individuals with ASD and matched-pair neurotypical (NT) controls while they were viewing a feature film portraying social interactions. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used as a measure of voxelwise similarity of brain activity (InterSubject Correlations—ISCs). Individuals with ASD showed lower ISC than NT controls in brain regions implicated in processing social information including the insula, posterior and anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, precuneus, lateral occipital cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. Curiously, also within NT group, autism-quotient scores predicted ISC in overlapping areas, including, e.g., supramarginal gyrus and precuneus. In ASD participants, functional connectivity was decreased between the frontal pole and the superior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, precuneus, and anterior/posterior cingulate gyrus. Taken together these results suggest that ISC and functional connectivity measure distinct features of atypical brain function in high-functioning autistic individuals during free viewing of acted social interactions. Our ISC results suggest that the minds of ASD individuals do not ‘tick together’ with others while perceiving identical dynamic social interactions. PMID:24273731

  10. The brains of high functioning autistic individuals do not synchronize with those of others.

    PubMed

    Salmi, J; Roine, U; Glerean, E; Lahnakoski, J; Nieminen-von Wendt, T; Tani, P; Leppämäki, S; Nummenmaa, L; Jääskeläinen, I P; Carlson, S; Rintahaka, P; Sams, M

    2013-01-01

    Multifaceted and idiosyncratic aberrancies in social cognition characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To advance understanding of underlying neural mechanisms, we measured brain hemodynamic activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in individuals with ASD and matched-pair neurotypical (NT) controls while they were viewing a feature film portraying social interactions. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used as a measure of voxelwise similarity of brain activity (InterSubject Correlations-ISCs). Individuals with ASD showed lower ISC than NT controls in brain regions implicated in processing social information including the insula, posterior and anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, precuneus, lateral occipital cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. Curiously, also within NT group, autism-quotient scores predicted ISC in overlapping areas, including, e.g., supramarginal gyrus and precuneus. In ASD participants, functional connectivity was decreased between the frontal pole and the superior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, precuneus, and anterior/posterior cingulate gyrus. Taken together these results suggest that ISC and functional connectivity measure distinct features of atypical brain function in high-functioning autistic individuals during free viewing of acted social interactions. Our ISC results suggest that the minds of ASD individuals do not 'tick together' with others while perceiving identical dynamic social interactions. PMID:24273731

  11. Zinc: an underappreciated modulatory factor of brain function.

    PubMed

    Marger, L; Schubert, C R; Bertrand, D

    2014-10-15

    The divalent cation, zinc is the second most abundant metal in the human body and is indispensable for life. Zinc concentrations must however, be tightly regulated as deficiencies are associated with multiple pathological conditions while an excess can be toxic. Zinc plays an important role as a cofactor in protein folding and function, e.g. catalytic interactions, DNA recognition by zinc finger proteins and modulation ion channel activity. There are 24 mammalian proteins specific for zinc transport that are subdivided in two groups with opposing functions: ZnT proteins reduce cytosolic zinc concentration while ZIP proteins increase it. The mammalian brain contains a significant amount of zinc, with 5-15% concentrated in synaptic vesicles of glutamatergic neurons alone. Accumulated in these vesicles by the ZnT3 transporter, zinc is released into the synaptic cleft at concentrations from nanomolar at rest to high micromolar during active neurotransmission. Low concentrations of zinc modulate the activity of a multitude of voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels, indicating that this divalent cation must be taken into account in the analysis of the pathophysiology of CNS disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In the context of the latest findings, we review the role of zinc in the central nervous system and discuss the relevance of the most recent association between the zinc transporter, ZIP8 and schizophrenia. An enhanced understanding of zinc transporters in the context of ion channel modulation may offer new avenues in identifying novel therapeutic entities that target neurological disorders. PMID:25130547

  12. Netrin 1 regulates blood-brain barrier function and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Podjaski, Cornelia; Alvarez, Jorge I; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Larouche, Sandra; Terouz, Simone; Bin, Jenea M; Lécuyer, Marc-André; Saint-Laurent, Olivia; Larochelle, Catherine; Darlington, Peter J; Arbour, Nathalie; Antel, Jack P; Kennedy, Timothy E; Prat, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier function is driven by the influence of astrocyte-secreted factors. During neuroinflammatory responses the blood-brain barrier is compromised resulting in central nervous system damage and exacerbated pathology. Here, we identified endothelial netrin 1 induction as a vascular response to astrocyte-derived sonic hedgehog that promotes autocrine barrier properties during homeostasis and increases with inflammation. Netrin 1 supports blood-brain barrier integrity by upregulating endothelial junctional protein expression, while netrin 1 knockout mice display disorganized tight junction protein expression and barrier breakdown. Upon inflammatory conditions, blood-brain barrier endothelial cells significantly upregulated netrin 1 levels in vitro and in situ, which prevented junctional breach and endothelial cell activation. Finally, netrin 1 treatment during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis significantly reduced blood-brain barrier disruption and decreased clinical and pathological indices of disease severity. Our results demonstrate that netrin 1 is an important regulator of blood-brain barrier maintenance that protects the central nervous system against inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PMID:25903786

  13. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Vanhove, Christian; Descamps, Benedicte; Dauwe, Ine; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Keereman, Vincent; Raedt, Robrecht; Boon, Paul; Van Holen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were <0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Our data indicate that real-time hippocampal DBS evokes a bilateral BOLD response in hippocampal and other mesolimbic structures, depending on the applied stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS. PMID:26193653

  14. Sex hormone therapy and functional brain plasticity in postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Bayer; M. Hausmann

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that fluctuating levels of sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) can affect fundamental principles of brain organization, including functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) and interhemispheric interactions. The majority of findings come from studies investigating younger women tested during distinct hormonal phases of the menstrual cycle, an approach that does not necessarily allow for conclusions about the causal relationship

  15. Complexity in Quantum System and Its Application to Brain Function

    E-print Network

    Masanori Ohya

    2004-06-30

    The complexity and the chaos degree can be used to examine the chaotic aspects of not only several nonlinear classical and quantum physical physics but also life sciences. We will construct a model describing the function of brain in the context of Quantum Information Dynamics.

  16. "Hotheaded": the role OF TRPV1 in brain functions.

    PubMed

    Martins, D; Tavares, I; Morgado, C

    2014-10-01

    The TRPV1 (vanilloid 1) channel is best known for its role in sensory transmission in the nociceptive neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Although first studied in the dorsal root ganglia as the receptor for capsaicin, TRPV1 has been recently recognized to have a broader distribution in the central nervous system, where it is likely to constitute an atypical neurotransmission system involved in several functions through modulation of both neuronal and glial activities. The endovanilloid-activated brain TRPV1 channels seem to be involved in somatosensory, motor and visceral functions. Recent studies suggested that TRPV1 channels also account for more complex functions, as addiction, anxiety, mood and cognition/learning. However, more studies are needed before the relevance of TRPV1 in brain activity can be clearly stated. This review highlights the increasing importance of TRPV1 as a regulator of brain function and discusses possible bases for the future development of new therapeutic approaches that by targeting brain TRPV1 receptors might be used for the treatment of several neurological disorders. PMID:24887171

  17. Understanding squeezing of quantum states with the Wigner function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royer, Antoine

    1994-01-01

    The Wigner function is argued to be the only natural phase space function evolving classically under quadratic Hamiltonians with time-dependent bilinear part. This is used to understand graphically how certain quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians induce squeezing of quantum states. The Wigner representation is also used to generalize Ehrenfest's theorem to the quantum uncertainties. This makes it possible to deduce features of the quantum evolution, such as squeezing, from the classical evolution, whatever the Hamiltonian.

  18. Brain covariance selection: better individual functional connectivity models using population prior

    E-print Network

    Brain covariance selection: better individual functional connectivity models using population prior.thirion@inria.fr Abstract Spontaneous brain activity, as observed in functional neuroimaging, has been shown to display reproducible structure that expresses brain architecture and car- ries markers of brain pathologies

  19. IR Principles for Content-based Indexing and Retrieval of Functional Brain Images

    E-print Network

    IR Principles for Content-based Indexing and Retrieval of Functional Brain Images Bing Bai, Paul(LSI)) to content-based brain image retrieval. Our results show that efficient and accurate retrieval of brain than are methods based on re- taining the full image information. Keywords fMRI, functional brain image

  20. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception. PMID:25883631

  1. Challenges in understanding the epidemiology of acquired brain injury in India

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakannan, Suresh Kumar; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai S.V.; Murthy Gudlavalleti, Venkata S.; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    An acquired brain injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. In India, rapid urbanization, economic growth and changes in lifestyle have led to a tremendous increase in the incidence of ABI, so much so that it is being referred to as a ‘silent epidemic’. Unlike developed countries, there is no well-established system for collecting and managing information on various diseases in India. Thus it is a daunting task to obtain reliable information about acquired brain injury. In the course of conducting a systematic review on the epidemiology of ABI in India, we recognized several challenges which hampered our effort. Inadequate case definition, lack of centralized reporting mechanisms, lack of population based studies, absence of standardized survey protocols and inadequate mortality statistics are some of the major obstacles. Following a standard case definition, linking multiple hospital-based registries, initiating a state or nationwide population-based registry, conducting population-based studies that are methodologically robust and introducing centralized, standard reporting mechanisms for ABI, are some of the strategies that could help facilitate a thorough investigation into the epidemiology and understanding of ABI. This may help improve policies on prevention and management of acquired brain injury in India. PMID:25745314

  2. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments - superorganisms revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas GP Grunewald; Saskia M Herbst; Jürgen Heinze; Stefan Burdach

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor.\\u000a In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the\\u000a superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional \\

  3. Understanding bovine trypanosomiasis and trypanotolerance: the promise of functional genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmeline W. Hill; Grace M. O’Gorman; Morris Agaba; John P. Gibson; Olivier Hanotte; Stephen J. Kemp; Jan Naessens; Paul M. Coussens; David E. MacHugh

    2005-01-01

    African bovine trypanosomiasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma congolense, is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is a major constraint on livestock production. A promising approach to disease control is to understand and exploit naturally evolved trypanotolerance. We describe the first attempt to investigate the transcriptional response of susceptible Boran (Bos indicus) cattle to trypanosome infection via a functional genomics

  4. Restoration of function after brain damage using a neural prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guggenmos, David J.; Azin, Meysam; Barbay, Scott; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Dunham, Caleb; Mohseni, Pedram; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2013-01-01

    Neural interface systems are becoming increasingly more feasible for brain repair strategies. This paper tests the hypothesis that recovery after brain injury can be facilitated by a neural prosthesis serving as a communication link between distant locations in the cerebral cortex. The primary motor area in the cerebral cortex was injured in a rat model of focal brain injury, disrupting communication between motor and somatosensory areas and resulting in impaired reaching and grasping abilities. After implantation of microelectrodes in cerebral cortex, a neural prosthesis discriminated action potentials (spikes) in premotor cortex that triggered electrical stimulation in somatosensory cortex continuously over subsequent weeks. Within 1 wk, while receiving spike-triggered stimulation, rats showed substantially improved reaching and grasping functions that were indistinguishable from prelesion levels by 2 wk. Post hoc analysis of the spikes evoked by the stimulation provides compelling evidence that the neural prosthesis enhanced functional connectivity between the two target areas. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that neural interface systems can be used effectively to bridge damaged neural pathways functionally and promote recovery after brain injury. PMID:24324155

  5. In vivo Visuotopic Brain Mapping with Manganese-Enhanced MRI and Resting-State Functional Connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kevin C.; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W.; Cheng, Joe S.; Zhou, Iris Y.; Wu, Ed X.

    2014-01-01

    The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn2+ administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn2+ injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn2+ transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn2+ transport after Mn2+ injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

  6. nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.2 | FEBRUARY2012 | 201 the understanding of brain computations requires methods

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Articles nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.2 | FEBRUARY2012 | 201 the understanding of brain computations requires methods that read out neural activity on different spatial and temporal scales. Following signal in mouse brain slices. We also performed volumetric random-access scanning calcium imaging of spontaneous

  7. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  8. The Effect of Criticism on Functional Brain Connectivity and Associations with Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Servaas, Michelle Nadine; Riese, Harriëtte; Renken, Remco Jan; Marsman, Jan-Bernard Cornelis; Lambregs, Johan; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2013-01-01

    Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders and depression. High neurotic individuals tend to be more self-critical and are overly sensitive to criticism by others. Hence, we used a novel resting-state paradigm to investigate the effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism. Forty-eight participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R) to assess neuroticism. Next, we recorded resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) during two sessions. We manipulated the second session before scanning by presenting three standardized critical remarks through headphones, in which the subject was urged to please lie still in the scanner. A seed-based functional connectivity method and subsequent clustering were used to analyse the resting state data. Based on the reviewed literature related to criticism, we selected brain regions associated with self-reflective processing and stress-regulation as regions of interest. The findings showed enhanced functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in emotion processing and social cognition during the processing of criticism. Concurrently, functional connectivity was reduced between these clusters and brain structures related to the default mode network and higher-order cognitive control. Furthermore, individuals scoring higher on neuroticism showed altered functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in the appraisal, expression and regulation of negative emotions. These results may suggest that the criticized person is attempting to understand the beliefs, perceptions and feelings of the critic in order to facilitate flexible and adaptive social behavior. Furthermore, multiple aspects of emotion processing were found to be affected in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during the processing of criticism, which may increase their sensitivity to negative social-evaluation. PMID:23922755

  9. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Candidi, Matteo; Avenanti, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal, and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however, are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding. PMID:24910603

  10. Reorganization of brain networks in aging: a review of functional connectivity studies.

    PubMed

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Junqué, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Healthy aging (HA) is associated with certain declines in cognitive functions, even in individuals that are free of any process of degenerative illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in order to link this age-related cognitive decline with patterns of altered brain function. A consistent finding in the fMRI literature is that healthy old adults present higher activity levels in some brain regions during the performance of cognitive tasks. This finding is usually interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. More recent approaches have focused on the study of functional connectivity, mainly derived from resting state fMRI, and have concluded that the higher levels of activity coexist with disrupted connectivity. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art description of the usefulness and the interpretations of functional brain connectivity in the context of HA. We first give a background that includes some basic aspects and methodological issues regarding functional connectivity. We summarize the main findings and the cognitive models that have been derived from task-activity studies, and we then review the findings provided by resting-state functional connectivity in HA. Finally, we suggest some future directions in this field of research. A common finding of the studies included is that older subjects present reduced functional connectivity compared to young adults. This reduced connectivity affects the main brain networks and explains age-related cognitive alterations. Remarkably, the default mode network appears as a highly compromised system in HA. Overall, the scenario given by both activity and connectivity studies also suggests that the trajectory of changes during task may differ from those observed during resting-state. We propose that the use of complex modeling approaches studying effective connectivity may help to understand context-dependent functional reorganizations in the aging process. PMID:26052298

  11. Reorganization of brain networks in aging: a review of functional connectivity studies

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Junqué, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Healthy aging (HA) is associated with certain declines in cognitive functions, even in individuals that are free of any process of degenerative illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in order to link this age-related cognitive decline with patterns of altered brain function. A consistent finding in the fMRI literature is that healthy old adults present higher activity levels in some brain regions during the performance of cognitive tasks. This finding is usually interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. More recent approaches have focused on the study of functional connectivity, mainly derived from resting state fMRI, and have concluded that the higher levels of activity coexist with disrupted connectivity. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art description of the usefulness and the interpretations of functional brain connectivity in the context of HA. We first give a background that includes some basic aspects and methodological issues regarding functional connectivity. We summarize the main findings and the cognitive models that have been derived from task-activity studies, and we then review the findings provided by resting-state functional connectivity in HA. Finally, we suggest some future directions in this field of research. A common finding of the studies included is that older subjects present reduced functional connectivity compared to young adults. This reduced connectivity affects the main brain networks and explains age-related cognitive alterations. Remarkably, the default mode network appears as a highly compromised system in HA. Overall, the scenario given by both activity and connectivity studies also suggests that the trajectory of changes during task may differ from those observed during resting-state. We propose that the use of complex modeling approaches studying effective connectivity may help to understand context-dependent functional reorganizations in the aging process.

  12. Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation of SICE Matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjia; Zhou, Luping; Wang, Lei; Li, Wanqing

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) technique has been employed to model functional brain connectivity. The inverse covariance matrix (SICE matrix in short) estimated for each subject is used as a representation of brain connectivity to discriminate Alzheimers disease from normal controls. However, we observed that direct use of the SICE matrix does not necessarily give satisfying discrimination, due to its high dimensionality and the scarcity of training subjects. Looking into this problem, we argue that the intrinsic dimensionality of these SICE matrices shall be much lower, considering 1) an SICE matrix resides on a Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definiteness matrices, and 2) human brains share common patterns of connectivity across subjects. Therefore, we propose to employ manifold-based similarity measures and kernel-based PCA to extract principal connectivity components as a compact representation of brain network. Moreover, to cater for the requirement of both discrimination and interpretation in neuroimage analysis, we develop a novel preimage estimation algorithm to make the obtained connectivity components anatomically interpretable. To verify the efficacy of our method and gain insights into SICE-based brain networks, we conduct extensive experimental study on synthetic data and real rs-fMRI data from the ADNI dataset. Our method outperforms the comparable methods and improves the classification accuracy significantly. PMID:25667346

  13. Integrative Understanding of Emergent Brain Properties, Quantum Brain Hypotheses, and Connectome Alterations in Dementia are Key Challenges to Conquer Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuljiš, Rodrigo O

    2010-01-01

    The biological substrate for cognition remains a challenge as much as defining this function of living beings. Here, we examine some of the difficulties to understand normal and disordered cognition in humans. We use aspects of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders to illustrate how the wealth of information at many conceptually separate, even intellectually decoupled, physical scales - in particular at the Molecular Neuroscience versus Systems Neuroscience/Neuropsychology levels - presents a challenge in terms of true interdisciplinary integration towards a coherent understanding. These unresolved dilemmas include critically the as yet untested quantum brain hypothesis, and the embryonic attempts to develop and define the so-called connectome in humans and in non-human models of disease. To mitigate these challenges, we propose a scheme incorporating the vast array of scales of the space and time (space-time) manifold from at least the subatomic through cognitive-behavioral dimensions of inquiry, to achieve a new understanding of both normal and disordered cognition, that is essential for a new era of progress in the Generative Sciences and its application to translational efforts for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:21188254

  14. Sleep restriction impairs blood-brain barrier function.

    PubMed

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-10-29

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. PMID:25355222

  15. Recruiting specialized macrophages across the borders to restore brain functions.

    PubMed

    Corraliza, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Although is well accepted that the central nervous system has an immune privilege protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and maintained by the glia, it is also known that in homeostatic conditions, peripheral immune cells are able to penetrate to the deepest regions of brain without altering the structural integrity of the BBB. Nearly all neurological diseases, including degenerative, autoimmune or infectious ones, compromising brain functions, develop with a common pattern of inflammation in which macrophages and microglia activation have been regarded often as the "bad guys." However, recognizing the huge heterogeneity of macrophage populations and also the different expression properties of microglia, there is increasing evidence of alternative conditions in which these cells, if primed and addressed in the correct direction, could be essential for reparative and regenerative functions. The main proposal of this review is to integrate studies about macrophage's biology at the brain borders where the ultimate challenge is to penetrate through the BBB and contribute to change or even stop the course of disease. Thanks to the efforts made in the last century, this special wall is currently recognized as a highly regulated cooperative structure, in which their components form neurovascular units. This new scenario prompted us to review the precise cross-talk between the mind and body modes of immune response. PMID:25228859

  16. Effect of pneumolysin on rat brain ciliary function: comparison of brain slices with cultured ependymal cells.

    PubMed

    Hirst, R A; Rutman, A; Sikand, K; Andrew, P W; Mitchell, T J; O'Callaghan, C

    2000-03-01

    This study compares two models for examining ependymal ciliary function: rat brain slices cut from the fourth ventricle and primary ependymal cells in culture. The cilia from both preparations were very reproducible; each preparation had cilia beating at a constant frequency of between 38 and 44 Hz. With the brain slices, ciliary stasis occurred after 5 d in culture. However, ependymal cells had fully functional cilia for up to 48 d in culture. The pneumococcal toxin, pneumolysin, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cilia beat frequency within 15 min in both models. There were no significant differences in the mean log 50% inhibitory concentration (pIC50) slice = 0.65 +/- 0.05, equivalent to 4.4 hemolytic units (HU)/mL; cells = 0.57 +/- 0.14, equivalent to 3.7 HU/mL. There were also no significant differences in the mean Hill slope factors for the curves (slice = 1.4 +/- 0.05; cells = 1.6 +/- 0.4). These data demonstrate that both models can be used to examine the acute (15-min) effects of pneumolysin on cilia beat frequency. The main advantage of the primary ependymal culture model is that considerably more cultured ependymal cells (approximately 70%) are available, compared with the number of ependymal cells on the brain slices (approximately 2%), thus reducing the number of animals used. A pure ependymal culture was not achieved (approximately 30% of the cells were not ciliated). The increased survival time of the ependymal cells compared with the brain slices make cultured ependymal cells more useful for examining long-term ciliary function, whereas brain slices may be more useful for examining the interactions between ependymal and other nearby cells. PMID:10709739

  17. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  18. Activity Inhibition: A Predictor of Lateralized Brain Function During Stress?

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    bolster the construct validity of AI and contribute to a better understanding of earlier findings linking AI to physiological stress responses, immune system functioning, alcohol abuse, and nonverbal- ship, 1987), persuasive communication (Schultheiss & Brunstein, 2002), cardiovascular disease (Mc

  19. Reorganization of functionally connected brain subnetworks in high-functioning autism

    E-print Network

    Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Kujala, Rainer; Lahnakoski, Juha; Roine, Ulrika; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Leppämäki, Sami; Wendt, Taina Nieminen-von; Tani, Pekka; Saramäki, Jari; Sams, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous functional connectivity studies have found both hypo- and hyper-connectivity in brains of individuals having autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we studied abnormalities in functional brain subnetworks in high-functioning individuals with ASD during free viewing of a movie containing social cues and interactions. Methods: Thirteen subjects with ASD and 13 matched-pair controls watched a 68 minutes movie during functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each subject, we computed Pearson`s correlation between haemodynamic time-courses of each pair of 6-mm isotropic voxels. From the whole-brain functional networks, we derived individual and group-level subnetworks using graph theory. Scaled inclusivity was then calculated between all subject pairs to estimate intersubject similarity of connectivity structure of each subnetwork. Additional 27 individuals with ASD from the ABIDE resting-state database were included to test the reproducibility of the results. Results: Between-group differences...

  20. Understanding the rules of the road: proteomic approaches to interrogate the blood brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Torbett, Bruce E; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is often regarded as a passive barrier that protects brain parenchyma from toxic substances, circulating leukocytes, while allowing the passage of selected molecules. Recently, a combination of molecular profiling techniques have characterized the constituents of the BBB based on in vitro models using isolated endothelial cells and ex vivo models analyzing isolated blood vessels. Characterization of gene expression profiles that are specific to the endothelium of brain blood vessels, and the identification of proteins, cells and multi-cellular structure that comprise the BBB have led to a emerging consensus that the BBB is not, in and of itself, a simple barrier of specialized endothelial cells. Instead, regulation of transcytosis, permeability, and drug translocation into the central nervous system is now viewed as a collection of neurovascular units (NVUs) that, together, give the BBB its unique biological properties. We will review recent technology advancing the understanding of the molecular basis of the BBB with a focus on proteomic approaches. PMID:25788875

  1. Epilepsy research: a window onto function and dysfunction of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Heinz; Elger, Christian E.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most common neurological disorders, epilepsy has devastating behavioral, social, and occupational consequences and is associated with accumulating brain damage and neurological deficits. Epilepsy comprises a large number of syndromes, which vary greatly respect to their etiology and clinical features, but share the characteristic clinical hallmark of epilepsy recurrent spontaneous seizures. Research aimed at understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of epilepsy has to integrate various research approaches and techniques ranging from clinical expertise, functional analyses of the system and cellular levels, both in human subjects and rodent models of epilepsy, to human and mouse genetics. This knowledge may then be developed into novel treatment options with better control of seizures andlor fewer side effects. In addition, the study of epilepsy has frequently shed light on basic mechanisms underlying the function and dysfunction of the human brain. PMID:18472480

  2. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments - superorganisms revisited

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes." Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications. PMID:21619636

  3. Molecular Diversity of Glutamate Receptors and Implications for Brain Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigetada Nakanishi

    1992-01-01

    The glutamate receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the brain and are important in memory acquisition, learning, and some neurodegenerative disorders. This receptor family is classified in three groups: the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-kainate, and metabotropic receptors. Recent molecular studies have shown that many receptor subtypes exist in all three groups of the receptors and exhibit heterogeneity in function and expression

  4. Automated Talairach Atlas labels for functional brain mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack L. Lancaster; Marty G. Woldorff; Lawrence M. Parsons; Mario Liotti; Catarina S. Freitas; Lacy Rainey; Peter V. Kochunov; Dan Nickerson; Shawn A. Mikiten; Peter T. Fox

    2000-01-01

    An automated coordinate-based system to retrieve brain labels from the 1988 Talairach Atlas, called the Talairach Daemon (TD), was previously introduced (Lancaster et al., 1997). In the present study, the TD system and its 3-D database of labels for the 1988 Talairach atlas were tested for labeling of functional activation foci. TD system labels were compared with author-designated labels of

  5. A new algorithm for spatiotemporal analysis of brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mheich, A; Hassan, M; Khalil, M; Berrou, C; Wendling, F

    2015-03-15

    Specific networks of interacting neuronal assemblies distributed within and across distinct brain regions underlie brain functions. In most cognitive tasks, these interactions are dynamic and take place at the millisecond time scale. Among neuroimaging techniques, magneto/electroencephalography - M/EEG - allows for detection of very short-duration events and offers the single opportunity to follow, in time, the dynamic properties of cognitive processes (sub-millisecond temporal resolution). In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to track the functional brain connectivity dynamics. During a picture naming task, this algorithm aims at segmenting high-resolution EEG signals (hr-EEG) into functional connectivity microstates. The proposed algorithm is based on the K-means clustering of the connectivity graphs obtained from the phase locking value (PLV) method applied on hr-EEG. Results show that the analyzed evoked responses can be divided into six clusters representing distinct networks sequentially involved during the cognitive task, from the picture presentation and recognition to the motor response. PMID:25583381

  6. Imaging emotional brain functions: conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Peper, Martin

    2006-06-01

    This article reviews the psychophysiological and brain imaging literature on emotional brain function from a methodological point of view. The difficulties in defining, operationalising and measuring emotional activation and, in particular, aversive learning will be considered. Emotion is a response of the organism during an episode of major significance and involves physiological activation, motivational, perceptual, evaluative and learning processes, motor expression, action tendencies and monitoring/subjective feelings. Despite the advances in assessing the physiological correlates of emotional perception and learning processes, a critical appraisal shows that functional neuroimaging approaches encounter methodological difficulties regarding measurement precision (e.g., response scaling and reproducibility) and validity (e.g., response specificity, generalisation to other paradigms, subjects or settings). Since emotional processes are not only the result of localised but also of widely distributed activation, a more representative model of assessment is needed that systematically relates the hierarchy of high- and low-level emotion constructs with the corresponding patterns of activity and functional connectivity of the brain. PMID:16740378

  7. Detecting Brain State Changes via Fiber-Centered Functional Connectivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Lim, Chulwoo; Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been widely used to study structural and functional brain connectivity in recent years. A common assumption used in many previous functional brain connectivity studies is the temporal stationarity. However, accumulating literature evidence has suggested that functional brain connectivity is under temporal dynamic changes in different time scales. In this paper, a novel and intuitive approach is proposed to model and detect dynamic changes of functional brain states based on multimodal fMRI/DTI data. The basic idea is that functional connectivity patterns of all fiber-connected cortical voxels are concatenated into a descriptive functional feature vector to represent the brain’s state, and the temporal change points of brain states are decided by detecting the abrupt changes of the functional vector patterns via the sliding window approach. Our extensive experimental results have shown that meaningful brain state change points can be detected in task-based fMRI/DTI, resting state fMRI/DTI, and natural stimulus fMRI/DTI data sets. Particularly, the detected change points of functional brain states in task-based fMRI corresponded well to the external stimulus paradigm administered to the participating subjects, thus partially validating the proposed brain state change detection approach. The work in this paper provides novel perspective on the dynamic behaviors of functional brain connectivity and offers a starting point for future elucidation of the complex patterns of functional brain interactions and dynamics. PMID:22941508

  8. Bilingualism, brain injury, and recovery: implications for understanding the bilingual and for therapy.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Madelin Z; Golden, Charles J; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-04-01

    Psychologists and other therapists are seeing an increasingly large number of bilingual individuals. Such clients are a special challenge when there has been some type of brain injury or disease because of the seemingly unpredictable effect such disorders may have on language skills, impacting either or both of the client's languages and interfering with internal speech that plays a role in higher cognitive functions such as insight and awareness. While there are many clinical assumptions about which language will show the least impairment or recover the best, such suppositions based on clinical lore are often contradictory. A review of the literature finds that the outcome of brain injury may be influenced by factors such as cerebral representation of a secondary language, method of language acquisition, age of acquisition, premorbid language proficiency, and style of learning in an individual. Neuropsychological concepts that can explain these findings are examined, along with their implications for therapy, and rehabilitation. PMID:17201194

  9. IR Principles for Content-based Indexing and Retrieval of Functional Brain Images

    E-print Network

    IR Principles for Content-based Indexing and Retrieval of Functional Brain Images Bing Bai, Paul Indexing(LSI)) to content-based brain image retrieval. Our results show that efficient and accurate of a "library of brain images", which implies not only a repository of brain images, but also efficient search

  10. Location, location: using functional magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain differences

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Location, location: using functional magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain differences is that stimulant- dependent individuals show specific, rather than generic, brain activation differences, i.e. instead of showing more or less brain activation regardless of task, they exhibit process-related brain

  11. Interactions of innate and adaptive immunity in brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Filiano, Anthony J; Gadani, Sachin P; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-08-18

    It has been known for decades that the immune system has a tremendous impact on behavior. Most work has described the negative role of immune cells on the central nervous system. However, we and others have demonstrated over the last decade that a well-regulated immune system is needed for proper brain function. Here we discuss several neuro-immune interactions, using examples from brain homeostasis and disease states. We will highlight our understanding of the consequences of malfunctioning immunity on neurodevelopment and will discuss the roles of the innate and adaptive immune system in neurodevelopment and how T cells maintain a proper innate immune balance in the brain surroundings and within its parenchyma. Also, we describe how immune imbalance impairs higher order brain functioning, possibly leading to behavioral and cognitive impairment. Lastly, we propose our hypothesis that some behavioral deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as in autism spectrum disorder, are the consequence of malfunctioning immunity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25110235

  12. Brain basis of early parent–infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants’ current and future behavior. The parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others’ expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent–infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain’s more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy – all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

  13. Influence of estradiol on functional brain organization for working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane E. Joseph; Joshua E. Swearingen; Christine R. Corbly; Thomas E. Curry; Thomas H. Kelly

    Working memory is a cognitive function that is affected by aging and disease. To better understand the neural substrates for working memory, the present study examined the influence of estradiol on working memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pre-menopausal women were tested on a verbal n-back task during the early (EF) and late follicular (LF) phases of the menstrual cycle.

  14. Brain Function Differences in Language Processing in Children and Adults with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diane L.; Cherkassky, Vladimir L.; Mason, Robert A.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. PMID:23495230

  15. SSVEP Response Is Related to Functional Brain Network Topology Entrained by the Flickering Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Huang, Yingling; Cheng, Kaiwen; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the brain network topology correlates with the cognitive function. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between functional brain networks that process sensory inputs and outputs. In this study, we focus on steady-state paradigms using a periodic visual stimulus, which are increasingly being used in both brain-computer interface (BCI) and cognitive neuroscience researches. Using the graph theoretical analysis, we investigated the relationship between the topology of functional networks entrained by periodic stimuli and steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) using two frequencies and eleven subjects. First, the entire functional network (Network 0) of each frequency for each subject was constructed according to the coherence between electrode pairs. Next, Network 0 was divided into three sub-networks, in which the connection strengths were either significantly (positively for Network 1, negatively for Network 3) or non-significantly (Network 2) correlated with the SSVEP responses. Our results revealed that the SSVEP responses were positively correlated to the mean functional connectivity, clustering coefficient, and global and local efficiencies, while these responses were negatively correlated with the characteristic path length of Networks 0, 1 and 2. Furthermore, the strengths of these connections that significantly correlated with the SSVEP (both positively and negatively) were mainly found to be long-range connections between the parietal-occipital and frontal regions. These results indicate that larger SSVEP responses correspond with better functional network topology structures. This study may provide new insights for understanding brain mechanisms when using SSVEPs as frequency tags. PMID:24039789

  16. Small-World Brain Functional Networks in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Revealed by EEG Synchrony.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Lin, Pan; Wang, Jue

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the topologic properties of human brain attention-related functional networks associated with Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) performance using electroencephalography (EEG). Data were obtained from 13 children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 13 normal control children. Functional connectivity between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels was established by calculating synchronization likelihood (SL). The cluster coefficients and path lengths were computed as a function of degree K. The results showed that brain attention functional networks of normal control subjects had efficient small-world topologic properties, whereas these topologic properties were altered in ADHD. In particular, increased local characteristics combined with decreased global characteristics in ADHD led to a disorder-related shift of the network topologic structure toward ordered networks. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis of dysfunctional segregation and integration of the brain in ADHD, and enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of this illness. PMID:24699437

  17. The effects of methylphenidate on whole brain intrinsic functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sophia; Costa, Anna; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver; Berman, Albert; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Ettinger, Ulrich; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is an indirect dopaminergic and noradrenergic agonist that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and that has shown therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, dementia, and Parkinson's disease. While effects of MPH on task-induced brain activation have been investigated, little is known about how MPH influences the resting brain. To investigate the effects of 40 mg of oral MPH on intrinsic functional connectivity, we used resting state fMRI in 54 healthy male subjects in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Functional connectivity analysis employing ICA revealed seven resting state networks (RSN) of interest. Connectivity strength between the dorsal attention network and the thalamus was increased after MPH intake. Other RSN located in association cortex areas, such as the left and right frontoparietal networks and the executive control network, showed MPH-induced connectivity increase to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions and connectivity decrease to cortical and subcortical components of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits (CST). RSN located in sensory-motor cortex areas showed the opposite pattern with MPH-induced connectivity increase to CST components and connectivity decrease to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions. Our results provide evidence that MPH does not only alter intrinsic connectivity between brain areas involved in sustained attention, but that it also induces significant changes in the cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity of many other cognitive and sensory-motor RSN. PMID:24862742

  18. Heritability of human brain functioning as assessed by electroencephalography

    SciTech Connect

    Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Boomsma, D.I. [and others

    1996-03-01

    To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG was recorded on 14 scalp positions during quiet resting with eyes closed. Spectral powers were calculated for four frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Twin correlations pointed toward high genetic influences for all these powers and scalp locations. Model fitting confirmed these findings; the largest part of the variance of the EEG is explained by additive genetic factors. The averaged heritabilities for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was 76%, 89%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Multivariate analyses suggested that the same genes for EEG alpha rhythm were expressed in different brain areas in the left and right hemisphere. This study shows that brain functioning, as indexed by rhythmic brain-electrical activity, is one of the most heritable characteristics in humans. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

  20. Aberrant Functional Connectivity Architecture in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Whole-Brain, Data-Driven Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Yao, Hongxiang; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhan, Yafeng; Ma, Jianhua; Xu, Kaibin; Wang, Luning; An, Ningyu; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern exhibits disease severity-related alterations in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 27 MCI subjects, 35 AD patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal cognition (NC). Interregional functional connectivity was assessed based on a predefined template which parcellated the brain into 90 regions. Altered whole-brain functional connectivity patterns were identified via connectivity comparisons between the AD and NC subjects. Finally, the relationship between functional connectivity strength and cognitive ability according to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was evaluated in the MCI and AD groups. Compared with the NC group, the AD group exhibited decreased functional connectivities throughout the brain. The most significantly affected regions included several important nodes of the default mode network and the temporal lobe. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity strength exhibited significant associations with disease severity-related alterations in the AD and MCI groups. The present study provides novel evidence and will facilitate meta-analysis of whole-brain analyses in AD and MCI, which will be critical to better understand the neural basis of AD.

  1. Cytokines for Psychologists: Implications of Bidirectional Immune-to-Brain Communication for Understanding Behavior, Mood, and Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven F. Maier; Linda R. Watkins

    1998-01-01

    The brain and immune system form a bidirectional communication network in which the immune system operates as a diffuse sense organ, informing the brain about events in the body. This allows the activation of immune cells to produce physiological, behavioral, affective, and cognitive changes that are collectively called sickness, which function to promote recuperation. Fight–flight evolved later and coopted this

  2. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Mueller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs. PMID:25938092

  3. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bart; W. B. Nagengast; R. P. Coppes; T. D. Wegman; H J M Groen; W. Vaalburg; E. G. F. de Vries; N. H. Hendrikse; EGE de Vries

    2007-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation, which may reduce P-gp function and increase brain levels of P-gp substrates. To elucidate whether radiation therapy reduces

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing: effects on brain structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Macey, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is accompanied by neural injury that affects a wide range of physiological systems which include processes for sensing chemoreception and airflow, driving respiratory musculature, timing circuitry for coordination of breathing patterning, and integration of blood pressure mechanisms with respiration. The damage also occurs in regions mediating emotion and mood, as well as areas regulating memory and cognitive functioning, and appears in structures that serve significant glycemic control processes. The injured structures include brain areas involved in hormone release and action of major neurotransmitters, including those playing a role in depression. The injury is reflected in a range of structural magnetic resonance procedures, and also appears as functional distortions of evoked activity in brain areas mediating vital autonomic and breathing functions. The damage is preferentially unilateral, and includes axonal projections; the asymmetry of the injury poses unique concerns for sympathetic discharge and potential consequences for arrhythmia. Sleep-disordered breathing should be viewed as a condition that includes central nervous system injury and impaired function; the processes underlying injury remain unclear. PMID:23643610

  5. Functional interactions between intrinsic brain activity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh; Kleinschmidt, Andreas

    2013-10-15

    The brain continuously maintains a remarkably high level of intrinsic activity. This activity is non-stationary and its dynamics reveal highly structured patterns across several spatial scales, from fine-grained functional architecture in sensory cortices to large-scale networks. The mechanistic function of this activity is only poorly understood. The central goal of the current review is to provide an integrated summary of recent studies on structure, dynamics and behavioral consequences of spontaneous brain activity. In light of these empirical observations we propose that the structure of ongoing activity and its itinerant nature can be understood as an indispensible memory system modeling the statistical structure of the world. We review the dynamic properties of ongoing activity, and how they are malleable over short to long temporal scales that permit adapting over a range of short- to long-term cognitive challenges. We conclude by reviewing how the functional significance of ongoing activity manifests in its impact on human action, perception, and higher cognitive function. PMID:23643921

  6. Hubs of brain functional networks are radically reorganized in comatose patients

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hubs of brain functional networks are radically reorganized in comatose patients S. Achard , C Human brain networks have topological properties in common with many other complex systems, prompting the question: what aspects of brain network organization are critical for distinctive functional properties

  7. Multivariate examination of brain abnormality using both structural and functional MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Fan; Hengyi Rao; Hallam Hurt; Joan Giannetta; Marc Korczykowski; David Shera; Brian B. Avants; James C. Gee; Jiongjiong Wang; Dinggang Shen

    2007-01-01

    A multivariate classification approach has been presented to examine the brain abnormalities, i.e., due to prenatal cocaine exposure, using both structural and functional brain images. First, a regional statistical feature extraction scheme was adopted to capture discriminative features from voxel-wise morphometric and functional representations of brain images, in order to reduce the dimensionality of the features used for classification, as

  8. Iron in Brain Function and Dysfunction with Emphasis on Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. H. Youdim; D. Ben-Shachar; P. Riederer

    1991-01-01

    Metals such as lead, zinc, copper, aluminum and manganese have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, until fairly recently the role of iron in brain function was rather obscure, because little attention was paid to its metabolism in the brain. It is now apparent that maintenance of brain iron homoeostasis is important for the normal functioning of his organ. Most

  9. Individual differences in general intelligence correlate with brain function during nonreasoning tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Haier; Nathan S. White; Michael T. Alkire

    2003-01-01

    Brain imaging can help identify the functional neuroanatomy of general intelligence (i.e., “g”) and indicate how brain areas salient to g relate to information processing. An important question is whether individual differences in g among subjects are related to brain function even when nonreasoning tasks are studied. If so, this would imply that individuals with high g scores may process

  10. Adrenomedullin Improves the Blood–Brain Barrier Function Through the Expression of Claudin-5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Honda; Shinsuke Nakagawa; Kentaro Hayashi; Naoki Kitagawa; Keisuke Tsutsumi; Izumi Nagata; Masami Niwa

    2006-01-01

    Summary  1. Aims: Brain vascular endothelial cells secret Adrenomedullin (AM) has multifunctional biological properties. AM affects cerebral blood flow and blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. We studied the role of AM on the permeability and tight junction proteins of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC).2. Methods: BMEC were isolated from rats and a BBB in vitro model was generated. The barrier functions were

  11. HIV and Aging Independently Affect Brain Function as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau M.; Vaida, Florin; Yeh, Melinda J.; Liang, Christine L.; Buxton, Richard B.; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J. Allen; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated interactions between HIV and aging on brain function demands using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A multiple regression model studied the association and interaction between fMRI measures, HIV serostatus, and age for 26 HIV infected (HIV+) and 25 seronegative (HIV?) subjects. While HIV serostatus and age independently affected fMRI measures, no interaction occurred. Functional brain demands in HIV+ subjects were equivalent to ~15–20 year older HIV? subjects. Frailty parallels between HIV and aging could result from continued immunological challenges depleting resources and triggering increased metabolic demands. fMRI could be a non-invasive biomarker to assess HIV in the brain. PMID:20047503

  12. Dissociations between behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluations of cognitive function after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, Jonathan C.; Fins, Joseph J.; Katz, Douglas I.; Hersh, Jennifer; Heier, Linda A.; Tabelow, Karsten; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Ballon, Douglas J.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging methods hold promise for the identification of cognitive function and communication capacity in some severely brain-injured patients who may not retain sufficient motor function to demonstrate their abilities. We studied seven severely brain-injured patients and a control group of 14 subjects using a novel hierarchical functional magnetic resonance imaging assessment utilizing mental imagery responses. Whereas the control group showed consistent and accurate (for communication) blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses without exception, the brain-injured subjects showed a wide variation in the correlation of blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses and overt behavioural responses. Specifically, the brain-injured subjects dissociated bedside and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based command following and communication capabilities. These observations reveal significant challenges in developing validated functional magnetic resonance imaging-based methods for clinical use and raise interesting questions about underlying brain function assayed using these methods in brain-injured subjects. PMID:21354974

  13. Disrupted Functional Brain Connectivity and Its Association to Structural Connectivity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ying; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Tang, Huidong; Miao, Fei; Sun, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Although anomalies in the topological architecture of whole-brain connectivity have been found to be associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), our understanding about the progression of AD in a functional connectivity (FC) perspective is still rudimentary and few study has explored the function-structure relations in brain networks of AD patients. By using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), this study firstly investigated organizational alternations in FC networks in 12 AD patients, 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients, and 14 age-matched healthy aging subjects and found that all three groups exhibit economical small-world network properties. Nonetheless, we found a decline of the optimal architecture in the progression of AD, represented by a more localized modular organization with less efficient local information transfer. Our results also show that aMCI forms a boundary between normal aging and AD and represents a functional continuum between healthy aging and the earliest signs of dementia. Moreover, we revealed a dissociated relationship between the overall FC and structural connectivity (SC) in AD patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging tractography was used to map the structural network of the same individuals. The decreased FC-SC coupling may be indicative of more stringent and less dynamic brain function in AD patients. Our findings provided insightful implications for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of brain dysfunctions in aMCI and AD patients and demonstrated that functional disorders can be characterized by multimodal neuroimaging-based metrics. PMID:24806295

  14. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  15. Natural History of Brain Function, Quality of Life, and Seizure Control in Patients With Brain Tumor Who Have Undergone Surgery | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This trial studies the natural history of brain function, quality of life, and seizure control in patients with brain tumor who have undergone surgery. Learning about brain function, quality of life, and seizure control in patients with brain tumor who have undergone surgery may help doctors learn more about the disease and find better methods of treatment and on-going care.

  16. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  17. The fractionation of spoken language understanding by measuring electrical and magnetic brain signals.

    PubMed

    Hagoort, Peter

    2008-03-12

    This paper focuses on what electrical and magnetic recordings of human brain activity reveal about spoken language understanding. Based on the high temporal resolution of these recordings, a fine-grained temporal profile of different aspects of spoken language comprehension can be obtained. Crucial aspects of speech comprehension are lexical access, selection and semantic integration. Results show that for words spoken in context, there is no 'magic moment' when lexical selection ends and semantic integration begins. Irrespective of whether words have early or late recognition points, semantic integration processing is initiated before words can be identified on the basis of the acoustic information alone. Moreover, for one particular event-related brain potential (ERP) component (the N400), equivalent impact of sentence- and discourse-semantic contexts is observed. This indicates that in comprehension, a spoken word is immediately evaluated relative to the widest interpretive domain available. In addition, this happens very quickly. Findings are discussed that show that often an unfolding word can be mapped onto discourse-level representations well before the end of the word. Overall, the time course of the ERP effects is compatible with the view that the different information types (lexical, syntactic, phonological, pragmatic) are processed in parallel and influence the interpretation process incrementally, that is as soon as the relevant pieces of information are available. This is referred to as the immediacy principle. PMID:17890190

  18. The illiterate brain. Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castro-Caldas; K. M. Petersson; A. Reis; S. Stone-Elander; M. Ingvar

    1998-01-01

    Summary Learning a specific skill during childhood may partly determine the functional organization of the adult brain. This hypothesis led us to study oral language processing in illiterate subjects who, for social reasons, had never entered school and had no knowledge of reading or writing. In a brain activation study using PET and statistical parametric mapping, we compared word and

  19. Functional Brain Correlates of Upper Limb Spasticity and Its Mitigation following Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; Falchook, Adam D.; McCabe, Jessica; Daly, Janis J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months) were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5?d/wk for 12 weeks). Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P = 0.001) and greater sensory deficits (P = 0.003). Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P < 0.0001). Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho = 0.49, P = 0.03). Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r = ?0.755, P = 0.003), premotor (r = ?0.565, P = 0.04), primary sensory (r = ?0.614, P = 0.03), and associative sensory (r = ?0.597, P = 0.03) regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke. PMID:25101190

  20. ay 1 Mysteries of Brain : Come and `learn about the brain'. Have you wondered, "What is our brain like?" "How do we sense things around us?" and "How do we react to our environment?"

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, H.

    of Brain : Come and `learn about the brain'. Have you wondered, "What is our brain like?" "How do we sense about `neuron' as a basic unit of the brain, structure of the brain, functions closely associated with brain lobes and hemispheres and understanding the nervous system Special Focus: Brain Hemispheres

  1. Operating Characteristics of Executive Functioning Tests Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Demery, Jason A.; Larson, Michael J.; Dixit, Neha K.; Bauerand, Russell M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to determine if controls, mild, and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients performed differently on a battery of executive functioning (EF) tests, and to identify the operating characteristics of EF tests in this population. Participants consisted of 46 brain injured individuals and 24 healthy controls. All participants completed an extensive battery of EF tests. Results showed that mild TBI participants performed worse than controls on the Trail Making Test Part B, and that moderate/severe TBI participants consistently performed worse than either group on a variety of EF measures. Tests of EF exhibited a wide range of operating characteristics, suggesting that some EF tests are better than others in identifying TBI-related neurocognitive impairment. Predictive values were better for individuals with moderate/severe TBI than mild TBI. Overall, the Digit Span Backward Test showed the best positive predictive power in differentiating TBI. Our results provide useful data that may guide test selection in evaluating EF in patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:21069617

  2. Brain structural and functional development: genetics and experience.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2015-04-01

    Brain development is the result of the combined work of genes and environment. In this paper we first briefly discuss how, in terms of cellular and molecular plasticity mechanisms, the richness of early environment can control developmental trajectories and can induce long-term changes in neural circuits that underlie enduring changes in brain structure and function. We then see that experience most effectively moulds neural circuit development during specific time windows called critical periods. After the closure of these privileged windows for plasticity, it is very difficult to promote repair from 'errors' in brain development. As an example, congenital cataracts, refractive defects, or strabismus, if not precociously corrected during development, cause permanent deficit in visual acuity of the affected eye, a condition known as amblyopia. Little or no recovery from amblyopia is possible in the adult. However, recent results show that by using protocols of enriched environment it is possible to design interventions, which, by acting on specific plasticity factors, enhance adult cortical plasticity and allow recovery from amblyopia. This suggests that a better knowledge of how experience and environment engage endogenous plasticity factors could help to design interventions aimed at promoting recovery from neurodevelopmental defects, even after the end of critical periods. PMID:25690109

  3. Microinfarcts, brain atrophy, and cognitive function: the HAAS autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Lenore J; Hughes, Timothy M; White, Lon R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of microinfarcts (MBI) to ante-mortem global cognitive function (CF), and to investigate whether brain weight (BW), Alzheimer’s lesions (neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) or neuritic plaques (NP) mediate the association. Methods Subjects are 437 well-characterized male decedents from the Honolulu Asia Aging Autopsy Study. Brain pathology was ascertained with standardized methods, CF was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)and data were analyzed using formal mediation analyses, adjusted for age at death, time between last CF measure and death, education, and head size. Based on ante-mortem diagnoses, demented and non-demented subjects were examined together and separately. Results In those with no dementia, MBI were strongly associated with the last ante-mortem CF score; this was significantly mediated by BW, and not NFT or NP. In contrast, among those with an ante-mortem diagnosis of dementia, NFT had the strongest associations with BW and with CF, and MIB were modestly associated with CF. Interpretation This suggests microinfarct pathology is a significant and independent factor contributing to brain atrophy and cognitive impairment, particularly before dementia is clinically evident. The role of vascular damage as initiator, stimulator, or additive contributor to neurodegeneration may differ depending on when in the trajectory towards dementia the lesions develop. PMID:22162060

  4. The Neurobiology of Adolescence: Changes in brain architecture, functional dynamics, and behavioral tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Sturman, David A.; Moghaddam, Bita

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of increased behavioral and psychiatric vulnerabilities. It is also a time of dramatic structural and functional neurodevelopment. In recent years studies have examined the precise nature of these brain and behavioral changes, and several hypotheses link them together. In this review we discuss this research and recent electrophysiological data from behaving rats that demonstrate reduced neuronal coordination and processing efficiency in adolescents. A more comprehensive understanding of these processes will further our knowledge of adolescent behavioral vulnerabilities and the pathophysiology of mental illnesses that manifest during this period. PMID:21527288

  5. Behavioral relevance of the dynamics of the functional brain connectome.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hao; Hu, Xiaoping; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2014-11-01

    While many previous studies assumed the functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions to be stationary, recent studies have demonstrated that FC dynamically varies across time. However, two challenges have limited the interpretability of dynamic FC information. First, a principled framework for selecting the temporal extent of the window used to examine the dynamics is lacking and this has resulted in ad-hoc selections of window lengths and subsequent divergent results. Second, it is unclear whether there is any behavioral relevance to the dynamics of the functional connectome in addition to that obtained from conventional static FC (SFC). In this work, we address these challenges by first proposing a principled framework for selecting the extent of the temporal windows in a dynamic and data-driven fashion based on statistical tests of the stationarity of time series. Further, we propose a method involving three levels of clustering-across space, time, and subjects-which allow for group-level inferences of the dynamics. Next, using a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral dataset from the Human Connectome Project, we demonstrate that metrics derived from dynamic FC can explain more than twice the variance in 75 behaviors across different domains (alertness, cognition, emotion, and personality traits) as compared with SFC in healthy individuals. Further, we found that individuals with brain networks exhibiting greater dynamics performed more favorably in behavioral tasks. This indicates that the ease with which brain regions engage or disengage may provide potential biomarkers for disorders involving altered neural circuitry. PMID:25163490

  6. Reduced brain functional reserve and altered functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cader, Sarah; Cifelli, Alberto; Abu-Omar, Yasir; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M

    2006-02-01

    Cognitive dysfunction (affecting particularly attention and working memory) occurs early in patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies have focused on identifying potentially adaptive functional reorganization through recruitment of new brain regions that could limit expression of these deficits. However, lesion studies remind us that functional specializations in the brain make certain brain regions necessary for a given task. We therefore have asked whether altered functional interactions between regions normally recruited provide an alternative adaptive mechanism with multiple sclerosis pathology. We used a version of the n-back task to probe working memory in patients with early multiple sclerosis. We applied a functional connectivity analysis to test whether relationships between relative activations in different brain regions change in potentially adaptive ways with multiple sclerosis. We studied 21 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls with 3T functional MRI. The two groups performed equally well on the task. Task-related activations were found in similar regions for patients and controls. However, patients showed relatively reduced activation in the superior frontal and anterior cingulate gyri (P > 0.01). Patients also showed a variable, but generally substantially smaller increase in activation than healthy controls with greater task complexity, depending on the specific brain region assessed (P < 0.001). Functional connectivity analysis defined further differences not apparent from the univariate contrast of the task-associated activation patterns. Control subjects showed significantly greater correlations between right dorsolateral prefrontal and superior frontal/anterior cingulate activations (P < 0.05). Patients showed correlations between activations in the right and left prefrontal cortices, although this relationship was not significant in healthy controls (P < 0.05). We interpret these results as showing that, while cognitive processing in the task appears to be performed using similar brain regions in patients and controls, the patients have reduced functional reserve for cognition relevant to memory. Functional connectivity analysis suggests that altered inter-hemispheric interactions between dorsal and lateral prefrontal regions may provide an adaptive mechanism that could limit clinical expression of the disease distinct from recruitment of novel processing regions. Together, these results suggest that therapeutic enhancement of the coherence of interactions between brain regions normally recruited (functional enhancement), as well as recruitment of alternative areas or use of complementary cognitive strategies (both forms of adaptive functional change), may limit expression of cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis. PMID:16251214

  7. Network science and the effects of music preference on functional brain connectivity: from Beethoven to Eminem.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, R W; Hodges, D A; Laurienti, P J; Steen, M; Burdette, J H

    2014-01-01

    Most people choose to listen to music that they prefer or 'like' such as classical, country or rock. Previous research has focused on how different characteristics of music (i.e., classical versus country) affect the brain. Yet, when listening to preferred music--regardless of the type--people report they often experience personal thoughts and memories. To date, understanding how this occurs in the brain has remained elusive. Using network science methods, we evaluated differences in functional brain connectivity when individuals listened to complete songs. We show that a circuit important for internally-focused thoughts, known as the default mode network, was most connected when listening to preferred music. We also show that listening to a favorite song alters the connectivity between auditory brain areas and the hippocampus, a region responsible for memory and social emotion consolidation. Given that musical preferences are uniquely individualized phenomena and that music can vary in acoustic complexity and the presence or absence of lyrics, the consistency of our results was unexpected. These findings may explain why comparable emotional and mental states can be experienced by people listening to music that differs as widely as Beethoven and Eminem. The neurobiological and neurorehabilitation implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25167363

  8. Functional Connectivity Architecture of the Human Brain: Not All the Same

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Liu, Hesheng

    2014-01-01

    Imaging studies suggest that individual differences in cognition and behavior might relate to differences in brain connectivity, particularly in the higher order association regions. Understanding the extent to which two brains can differ is crucial in clinical and basic neuroscience research. Here we highlight two major sources of variance that contribute to intersubject variability in connectivity measurements but are often mixed: the spatial distribution variability and the connection strength variability. We then offer a hypothesis about how the cortical surface expansion during human evolution may have led to remarkable intersubject variability in brain connectivity. We propose that a series of changes in connectivity architecture occurred in response to the pressure for processing efficiency in the enlarged brain. These changes not only distinguish us from our evolutionary ancestors, but also enable each individual to develop more uniquely. This hypothesis may gain support from the significant spatial correlations among evolutionary cortical expansion, the density of long-range connections, hemispheric functional specialization, and intersubject variability in connectivity. PMID:25030990

  9. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 ?g/L and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  10. Brain functional connectivity and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, E

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade there is extensive evidence to suggest that cognitive functions depending on coordination of distributed neuronal responses are associated with synchronized oscillatory activity in various frequency ranges suggesting a functional mechanism of neural oscillations in cortical networks. In addition to their role in normal brain functioning, there is increasing evidence that altered oscillatory activity may be associated with certain neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Consequently, disturbances in neural synchronization may represent the functional relationship of disordered connectivity of cortical networks underlying the characteristic fragmentation of mind and behavior in schizophrenia. In recent studies the synchronization of oscillatory activity in the experience of characteristic symptoms such as auditory verbal hallucinations and thought blocks have been studied in patients with schizophrenia. Studies involving analysis of EEG activity obtained from individuals in resting state (in cage Faraday, isolated from external influences and with eyes closed). In patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) observed a temporary increase in the synchronization phase of ? and high ? oscillations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) compared with those of healthy controls and patients without AVHs . This functional hyper-connection manifested in time windows corresponding to experience AVHs, as noted by the patients during the recording of EEG and observed in speech related cortical areas. In another study an interaction of theta and gamma oscillations engages in the production and experience of AVHs. The results showed increased phase coupling between theta and gamma EEG rhythms in the left temporal cortex during AVHs experiences. A more recent study, approaches the thought blocking experience in terms of functional brain connectivity. Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions of the flow of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2 s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12 Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. The results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a distinct time window, impeding thus the ability of the system to recruit and to process information during this time window. The results of this study seem to have greater importance on neuronal correlation of consciousness. The brain is a highly distributed system in which numerous operations are executed in parallel and that lacks a single coordinating center. This rais

  11. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  12. Alcohol: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Marinkovi?, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and is linked to brain defects and associated cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impairments. A confluence of findings from neuroimaging, physiological, neuropathological, and neuropsychological studies of alcoholics indicate that the frontal lobes, limbic system, and cerebellum are particularly vulnerable to damage and dysfunction. An integrative approach employing a variety of neuroscientific technologies is essential for recognizing the interconnectivity of the different functional systems affected by alcoholism. In that way, relevant experimental techniques can be applied to assist in determining the degree to which abstinence and treatment contribute to the reversal of atrophy and dysfunction. PMID:17874302

  13. WLPVG approach to the analysis of EEG-based functional brain network under manual acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xin; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    Functional brain network, one of the main methods for brain functional studies, can provide the connectivity information among brain regions. In this research, EEG-based functional brain network is built and analyzed through a new wavelet limited penetrable visibility graph (WLPVG) approach. This approach first decompose EEG into ?, ?, ?, ? sub-bands, then extracting nonlinear features from single channel signal, in addition forming a functional brain network for each sub-band. Manual acupuncture (MA) as a stimulation to the human nerve system, may evoke varied modulating effects in brain activities. To investigating whether and how this happens, WLPVG approach is used to analyze the EEGs of 15 healthy subjects with MA at acupoint ST36 on the right leg. It is found that MA can influence the complexity of EEG sub-bands in different ways and lead the functional brain networks to obtain higher efficiency and stronger small-world property compared with pre-acupuncture control state. PMID:25206935

  14. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Restored Activation of Primary Motor Area from Motor Reorganization and Improved Motor Function after Brain Tumor Resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Shinoura; Y. Suzuki; R. Yamada; T. Kodama; M. Takahashi; K. Yagi

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reorganization of brain function may result in preservation of motor function in patients with brain tumors. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether function of the primary motor area (M1) was restored and whether motor function improved after brain tumor resection. METHODS: Five patients with metastatic brain tumors located within or near M1 underwent

  15. Roles for Oestrogen Receptor ? in Adult Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Handa, R. J.; Ogawa, S.; Wang, J. M.; Herbison, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)?. We review here the roles of ER?, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ER? located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ER? expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ER? controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ER? suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ER? modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ER? in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ER? and ER? are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ER?-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ER? also exist. Second, the roles of ER? and ER? within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ER? to enhance, and ER? to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ER?2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ER? in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function. PMID:21851428

  16. Electromagnetic brain mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Baillet; J. C. Mosher; R. M. Leahy

    2001-01-01

    There has been tremendous advances in our ability to produce images of human brain function. Applications of functional brain imaging extend from improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cognitive processes to better characterization of pathologies that impair normal function. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) (MEG\\/EEG) localize neural electrical activity using noninvasive measurements of external electromagnetic signals. Among the

  17. Brain imaging methods used in experimental brain research such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Functional

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Klaus

    ABSTRACT Brain imaging methods used in experimental brain research such as Positron Emission of methods create statistical parametric maps (SPMs) of the brain on a voxel- basis. In our approach, they are best understood in the context of the underly- ing 3-D brain anatomy. However, despite the power

  18. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    PubMed Central

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  19. Estimating brain functional connectivity with sparse multivariate autoregression

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Sánchez-Bornot, Jose M; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Vega-Hernández, Mayrim; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Melie-García, Lester; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick

    2005-01-01

    There is much current interest in identifying the anatomical and functional circuits that are the basis of the brain's computations, with hope that functional neuroimaging techniques will allow the in vivo study of these neural processes through the statistical analysis of the time-series they produce. Ideally, the use of techniques such as multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modelling should allow the identification of effective connectivity by combining graphical modelling methods with the concept of Granger causality. Unfortunately, current time-series methods perform well only for the case that the length of the time-series Nt is much larger than p, the number of brain sites studied, which is exactly the reverse of the situation in neuroimaging for which relatively short time-series are measured over thousands of voxels. Methods are introduced for dealing with this situation by using sparse MAR models. These can be estimated in a two-stage process involving (i) penalized regression and (ii) pruning of unlikely connections by means of the local false discovery rate developed by Efron. Extensive simulations were performed with idealized cortical networks having small world topologies and stable dynamics. These show that the detection efficiency of connections of the proposed procedure is quite high. Application of the method to real data was illustrated by the identification of neural circuitry related to emotional processing as measured by BOLD. PMID:16087441

  20. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance. PMID:20176953

  1. Functional Tissue Pulsatility Imaging of the Brain during Visual Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kucewicz, John C.; Dunmire, Barbrina; Leotta, Daniel F.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Paun, Marla; Beach, Kirk W.

    2007-01-01

    Functional tissue pulsatility imaging (fTPI) is a new ultrasonic technique being developed to map brain function by measuring changes in tissue pulsatility due to changes in blood flow with neuronal activation. The technique is based in principle on plethysmography, an older, non-ultrasound technology for measuring expansion of a whole limb or body part due to perfusion. Perfused tissue expands by a fraction of a percent early in each cardiac cycle when arterial inflow exceeds venous outflow and relaxes later in the cardiac cycle when venous drainage dominates. Tissue pulsatility imaging (TPI) uses tissue Doppler signal processing methods to measure this pulsatile “plethysmographic” signal from hundreds or thousands of sample volumes in an ultrasound image plane. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if TPI could be used to detect regional brain activation during a visual contrast-reversing checkerboard block paradigm study. During a study, ultrasound data were collected transcranially from the occipital lobe as a subject viewed alternating blocks of a reversing checkerboard (stimulus condition) and a static, gray screen (control condition). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to identify sample volumes with significantly different pulsatility waveforms during the control and stimulus blocks. In 7 out 14 studies, consistent regions of activation were detected from tissue around the major vessels perfusing the visual cortex. PMID:17346872

  2. Integrated technology for evaluation of brain function and neural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Paolo M; Dal Forno, Gloria

    2004-02-01

    The study of neural plasticity has expanded rapidly in the past decades and has shown the remarkable ability of the developing, adult, and aging brain to be shaped by environmental inputs in health and after a lesion. Robust experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that neuronal aggregates adjacent to a lesion in the sensorimotor brain areas can take over progressively the function previously played by the damaged neurons. It definitely is accepted that such a reorganization modifies sensibly the interhemispheric differences in somatotopic organization of the sensorimotor cortices. This reorganization largely subtends clinical recovery of motor performances and sensorimotor integration after a stroke. Brain functional imaging studies show that recovery from hemiplegic strokes is associated with a marked reorganization of the activation patterns of specific brain structures. To regain hand motor control, the recovery process tends over time to bring the bilateral motor network activation toward a more normal intensity/extent, while overrecruiting simultaneously new areas, perhaps to sustain this process. Considerable intersubject variability exists in activation/hyperactivation pattern changes over time. Some patients display late-appearing dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation, suggesting the development of "executive" strategies to compensate for the lost function. The AH in stroke often undergoes a significant "remodeling" of sensory and motor hand somatotopy outside the "normal" areas, or enlargement of the hand representation. The UH also undergoes reorganization, although to a lesser degree. Although absolute values of the investigated parameters fluctuate across subjects, secondary to individual anatomic variability, variation is minimal with regards to interhemispheric differences, due to the fact that individual morphometric characters are mirrored in the two hemispheres. Excessive interhemispheric asymmetry of the sensorimotor hand areas seems to be the parameter with highest sensitivity in describing brain reorganization after a monohemispheric lesion, and mapping motor and somatosensory cortical areas through focal TMS, fMRI, PET, EEG, and MEG is useful in studying hand representation and interhemispheric asymmetries in normal and pathologic conditions. TMS and MEG allow the detection of sensorimotor areas reshaping, as a result of either neuronal reorganization or recovery of the previously damaged neural network. These techniques have the advantage of high temporal resolution but also have limitations. TMS provides only bidimensional scalp maps, whereas MEG, even if giving three-dimensional mapping of generator sources, does so by means of inverse procedures that rely on the choice of a mathematical model of the head and the sources. These techniques do not test movement execution and sensorimotor integration as used in everyday life. fMRI and PET may provide the ideal means to integrate the findings obtained with the other two techniques. This multitechnology combined approach is at present the best way to test the presence and amount of plasticity phenomena underlying partial or total recovery of several functions, sensorimotor above all. Dynamic patterns of recovery are emerging progressively from the relevant literature. Enhanced recruitment of the affected cortex, be it spared perilesional tissue, as in the case of cortical stroke, or intact but deafferented cortex, as in subcortical strokes, seems to be the rule, a mechanism especially important in early postinsult stages. The transfer over time of preferential activation toward contralesional cortices, as observed in some cases, seems, however, to reflect a less efficient type of plastic reorganization, with some aspects of maladaptive plasticity. Reinforcing the use of the affected side can cause activation to increase again in the affected side with a corresponding enhancement of clinical function. Activation of the UH MI may represent recruitment of direct (uncrossed) corticospinal tracts and relate more to mi

  3. Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semyon M. Slobounov; K. Zhang; D. Pennell; W. Ray; B. Johnson; W. Sebastianelli

    2010-01-01

    Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion.\\u000a Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments.\\u000a Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate\\u000a the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently

  4. Pathophysiological Response to Experimental Diffuse Brain Trauma Differs as a Function of Developmental Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibolja Cernak; Taeun Chang; Farid A. Ahmed; Maria I. Cruz; Robert Vink; Bogdan Stoica; Alan I. Faden

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reproduce selected aspects of human head injury such as brain edema, contusion or concussion, and functional deficits, among others. As the immature brain may be particularly vulnerable to injury during critical periods of development, and pediatric TBI may cause neurobehavioral deficits, our aim was to develop and characterize

  5. Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner Hirofumi embryo brain is organic and has many folds that are difficult to model or animate with conventional metamorphosis during the growth of some human embryo organs, partic- ularly brain and stomach. Popular methods

  6. Expression and function of the LIM homeodomain protein Apterous during embryonic brain development of Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Herzig; Stefan Thor; John B. Thomas; Heinrich Reichert; Frank Hirth

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the expression and function of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Apterous (Ap) in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Expression of Ap in the embryonic brain begins at early stage 12 and is subsequently found in approximately 200 protocerebral neurons and in 4 deutocerebral neurons. Brain glia do not express Ap. Most of the Ap-expressing neurons are interneurons and project

  7. NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Monitoring brain function by in vivo 2-photon microscopy

    E-print Network

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    101) selectively stain and identify a population of brain cells, the astrocytes. The green dyeNEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Monitoring brain function by in vivo 2-photon microscopy 75) transversal reconstruction of a brain neuron. The cell body is placed in cortical layer V at a depth of over

  8. Complex brain networks: graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Sporns; Ed Bullmore

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in the quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's structural and functional systems have features of complex networks — such as small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity — both at the whole-brain scale of human neuroimaging and at a cellular scale in

  9. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    brain region previously implicated in language (e.g., Broca's area), without a direct demonstrationFunctional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain Evelina Fedorenkoa,1 , Michael K. Behra , and Nancy Kanwishera,b,1 a Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department and b Mc

  10. Towards a mechanistic understanding of lipodystrophy and seipin functions

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Kenneth; Yang, Wulin; Sugii, Shigeki; Han, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    CGL (Congenital generalized lipodystrophy) is a genetic disorder characterized by near complete loss of adipose tissue along with increased ectopic fat storage in other organs including liver and muscle. Of the four CGL types, BSCL2 (Berardinelli–Seip Congenital lipodystrophy type 2), resulting from mutations in the BSCL2/seipin gene, exhibits the most severe lipodystrophic phenotype with loss of both metabolic and mechanical adipose depots. The majority of Seipin mutations cause C-terminal truncations, along with a handful of point mutations. Seipin localizes to the ER and is composed of a conserved region including a luminal loop and two transmembrane domains, plus cytosolic N- and C-termini. Animal models deficient in seipin recapitulate the human lipodystrophic phenotype. Cells isolated from seipin knockout mouse models also exhibit impaired adipogenesis. Mechanistically, seipin appears to function as a scaffolding protein to bring together interacting partners essential for lipid metabolism and LD (lipid droplet) formation during adipocyte development. Moreover, cell line and genetic studies indicate that seipin functions in a cell-autonomous manner. Here we will provide a brief overview of the genetic association of the CGLs, and focus on the current understanding of differential contributions of distinct seipin domains to lipid storage and adipogenesis. We will also discuss the roles of seipin-interacting partners, including lipin 1 and 14-3-3?, in mediating seipin-dependent regulation of cellular pathways such as actin cytoskeletal remodelling. PMID:25195639

  11. Gastric distention induced functional magnetic resonance signal changes in the rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Min, D K; Tuor, U I; Chelikani, P K

    2011-04-14

    Investigating the localization of gastric sensation within the brain is important for understanding the neural correlates of satiety. Previous rodent studies have identified the brain-stem and hypothalamus as key mediators of gastric distention-induced satiation. Although, recent blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) studies in humans have identified a role for higher cortico-limbic structures in mediating the satiation effects of gastric distention, the role of these regions in rodents remains to be characterized. We determined the effects of gastric distention on global spatio-temporal BOLD fMRI signal changes in the rodent brain. Brain images were acquired with a high resolution 9.4 T magnet during gastric distention with continuous monitoring of blood pressure in adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=8-10). Distention of the stomach with an intragastric balloon, at rates which mimicked the rate of consumption and emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal, resulted in robust reduction in food intake and increase in blood pressure. Gastric distention increased BOLD fMRI activity within homeostatic regions such as the hypothalamus and nucleus tractus solitarius, as well as non homeostatic regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, cerebellum and the cortex (cingulate, insular, motor and sensory cortices). Further, the increase in BOLD fMRI activity following distention was strongly correlated to an increase in blood pressure. These results indicate that gastric distention, mimicking the rate of intake and emptying of a liquid meal, increases BOLD fMRI activity in both homeostatic and non homeostatic brain circuits which regulate food intake, and that these BOLD fMRI signal changes may in part be attributable to transient increases in blood pressure. PMID:21284950

  12. Longitudinal variations of brain functional connectivity: A case report study based on a mouse model of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Erramuzpe, A.; Encinas, J. M.; Sierra, A.; Maletic-Savatic, M.; Brewster, A.L.; Anderson, Anne E.; Stramaglia, S.; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain Functional Connectivity (FC) quantifies statistical dependencies between areas of the brain. FC has been widely used to address altered function of brain circuits in control conditions compared to different pathological states, including epilepsy, a major neurological disorder. However, FC also has the as yet unexplored potential to help us understand the pathological transformation of the brain circuitry. Our hypothesis is that FC can differentiate global brain interactions across a time-scale of days. To this end, we present a case report study based on a mouse model for epilepsy and analyze longitudinal intracranial electroencephalography data of epilepsy to calculate FC across three stages:   1, the initial insult (status epilepticus); 2, the latent period, when epileptogenic networks emerge; and 3, chronic epilepsy, when unprovoked seizures occur as spontaneous events. We found that the overall network FC at low frequency bands decreased immediately after status epilepticus was provoked, and increased monotonously later on during the latent period. Overall, our results demonstrate the capacity  of FC to address longitudinal variations of brain connectivity across the establishment of pathological states.

  13. Pulmonary Function, Cognitive Impairment and Brain Atrophy in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Sachdev; K. J. Anstey; R. A. Parslow; W. Wen; J. Maller; R. Kumar; H. Christensen; A. F. Jorm

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship of lung function to brain anatomical parameters and cognitive function and to examine the mediating factors for any relationships. Methods: A random sub-sample of 469 persons (men = 252) aged 60–64 years from a larger community sample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity, FVC, forced expiratory volume in

  14. Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Meyler, Ann; Hernandez, Arvel; Juel, Connie; Taylor-Hill, Heather; Martindale, Jennifer L; McMillon, Glenn; Kolchugina, Galena; Black, Jessica M; Faizi, Afrooz; Deutsch, Gayle K; Siok, Wai Ting; Reiss, Allan L; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2007-03-01

    In functional neuroimaging studies, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit both hypoactivation, often in the left parietotemporal cortex, and hyperactivation, often in the left inferior frontal cortex, but there has been no evidence to suggest how to interpret the differential relations of hypoactivation and hyperactivation to dyslexia. To address this question, we measured brain activation by functional MRI during visual word rhyme judgment compared with visual cross-hair fixation rest, and we measured gray matter morphology by voxel-based morphometry in dyslexic adolescents in comparison with (i) an age-matched group, and (ii) a reading-matched group younger than the dyslexic group but equal to the dyslexic group in reading performance. Relative to the age-matched group (n = 19; mean 14.4 years), the dyslexic group (n = 19; mean 14.4 years) exhibited hypoactivation in left parietal and bilateral fusiform cortices and hyperactivation in left inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and thalamus. Relative to the reading-matched group (n = 12; mean 9.8 years), the dyslexic group (n = 12; mean 14.5 years) also exhibited hypoactivation in left parietal and fusiform regions but equal activation in all four areas that had exhibited hyperactivation relative to age-matched controls as well. In regions that exhibited atypical activation in the dyslexic group, only the left parietal region exhibited reduced gray matter volume relative to both control groups. Thus, areas of hyperactivation in dyslexia reflected processes related to the level of current reading ability independent of dyslexia. In contrast, areas of hypoactivation in dyslexia reflected functional atypicalities related to dyslexia itself, independent of current reading ability, and related to atypical brain morphology in dyslexia. PMID:17360506

  15. Relation of executive functioning and social communication measures to functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Struchen, Margaret A; Clark, Allison N; Sander, Angelle M; Mills, Monique R; Evans, Gina; Kurtz, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to provide recommendations regarding functional abilities based on test results, particularly within the rehabilitation setting. Yet, the empirical basis for making such recommendations is limited. The current study examines relationships between executive functioning and social communication measures and concurrently measured occupational and social integration outcomes. Participants were 121 individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) recruited from participants in a longitudinal study of outcome following TBI who had all received comprehensive brain injury rehabilitation. As part of a larger study designed to evaluate social communication abilities following TBI, participants completed measures of executive functioning, affect perception, perceived communication ability, and functional outcome. After adjusting for age, education, and performance on executive functioning measures, social communication performance accounted for a unique 5.6% of the variance in occupational outcomes and 7.9% of variance in social integration outcomes. Executive functioning performance accounted for a unique 13.3% of the variance in occupational functioning and 16.0% of explained variance in social integration. These results provide evidence of the value of executive functioning and social communication measures in the prediction of functional outcomes. Additionally, such results provide preliminary support for the addition of social communication measures to assessment of TBI in neuropsychological practice. PMID:18525140

  16. The Brain’s Orienting Response: An Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David; Goldman, Robin; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R.

    2009-01-01

    An important function of the brain’s orienting response is to enable the evaluation of novel, environmental events in order to prepare for potential behavioral action. Here, we assessed the event-related hemodynamic (erfMRI) correlates of this phenomenon using unexpected (i.e., novel) environmental sounds presented within the context of an auditory novelty oddball paradigm. In ERP investigations of the novelty oddball, repetition of the identical novel sound leads to habituation of the novelty P3, an ERP sign of the orienting response. Repetition also leads to an enhancement of a subsequent positivity that appears to reflect semantic analysis of the environmental sounds. In this adaptation for erfMRI recording, frequent tones were intermixed randomly with infrequent target tones and equally infrequent novel, environmental sounds. Subjects responded via speeded button press to targets. To assess habituation, some of the environmental sounds were repeated 2 blocks after their initial presentation. As expected, novel sounds and target tones led to activation of widespread, but somewhat different, neural networks. Contrary to expectation, however, there were no significant areas in which activation was reduced in response to second compared to first presentations of the novel sounds. Conversely, novel sounds relative to target tones engendered activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) consistent with semantic analysis of these events. We conclude that a key concomitant of the orienting response is the extraction of meaning, thereby enabling one to determine the significance of the environmental perturbation and take appropriate goal-directed action. PMID:18465750

  17. Selectionist and Evolutionary Approaches to Brain Function: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2012-01-01

    We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse, and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise. PMID:22557963

  18. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    The functional structure of self-aware consciousness in human beings is described based on the evolution of human brain functions. Prior work on heritable temperament and character traits is extended to account for the quantum-like and holographic properties (i.e. parts elicit wholes) of self-aware consciousness. Cladistic analysis is used to identify the succession of ancestors leading to human beings. The functional capacities that emerge along this lineage of ancestors are described. The ecological context in which each cladogenesis occurred is described to illustrate the shifting balance of evolution as a complex adaptive system. Comparative neuroanatomy is reviewed to identify the brain structures and networks that emerged coincident with the emergent brain functions. Individual differences in human temperament traits were well developed in the common ancestor shared by reptiles and humans. Neocortical development in mammals proceeded in five major transitions: from early reptiles to early mammals, early primates, simians, early Homo, and modern Homo sapiens. These transitions provide the foundation for human self-awareness related to sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality, respectively. The functional structure of human self-aware consciousness is concerned with the regulation of five planes of being: sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. Each plane elaborates neocortical functions organized around one of the five special senses. The interactions among these five planes gives rise to a 5 x 5 matrix of subplanes, which are functions that coarsely describe the focus of neocortical regulation. Each of these 25 neocortical functions regulates each of five basic motives or drives that can be measured as temperaments or basic emotions related to fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and happiness/sadness. The resulting 5 x 5 x 5 matrix of human characteristics provides a general and testable model of the functional structure of human consciousness that includes personality, physicality, emotionality, cognition, and spirituality in a unified developmental framework. PMID:20001395

  19. Data-driven analysis of functional brain interactions during free listening to music and speech.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-06-01

    Natural stimulus functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) such as fMRI acquired when participants were watching video streams or listening to audio streams has been increasingly used to investigate functional mechanisms of the human brain in recent years. One of the fundamental challenges in functional brain mapping based on N-fMRI is to model the brain's functional responses to continuous, naturalistic and dynamic natural stimuli. To address this challenge, in this paper we present a data-driven approach to exploring functional interactions in the human brain during free listening to music and speech streams. Specifically, we model the brain responses using N-fMRI by measuring the functional interactions on large-scale brain networks with intrinsically established structural correspondence, and perform music and speech classification tasks to guide the systematic identification of consistent and discriminative functional interactions when multiple subjects were listening music and speech in multiple categories. The underlying premise is that the functional interactions derived from N-fMRI data of multiple subjects should exhibit both consistency and discriminability. Our experimental results show that a variety of brain systems including attention, memory, auditory/language, emotion, and action networks are among the most relevant brain systems involved in classic music, pop music and speech differentiation. Our study provides an alternative approach to investigating the human brain's mechanism in comprehension of complex natural music and speech. PMID:24526569

  20. Imaging local brain function with emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1984-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was used to map local cerebral glucose utilization in the study of local cerebral function. This information differs fundamentally from structural assessment by means of computed tomography (CT). In normal human volunteers, the FDG scan was used to determine the cerebral metabolic response to conrolled sensory stimulation and the effects of aging. Cerebral metabolic patterns are distinctive among depressed and demented elderly patients. The FDG scan appears normal in the depressed patient, studded with multiple metabolic defects in patients with multiple infarct dementia, and in the patients with Alzheimer disease, metabolism is particularly reduced in the parietal cortex, but only slightly reduced in the caudate and thalamus. The interictal FDG scan effectively detects hypometabolic brain zones that are sites of onset for seizures in patients with partial epilepsy, even though these zones usually appear normal on CT scans. The future prospects of PET are discussed.

  1. Jung's understanding of schizophrenia: is it still relevant in the 'era of the brain'?

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Yehuda

    2014-04-01

    Jung was highly committed to grasping the meaning of psychotic thinking, and left behind precious insights to treatment scattered through his works written between 1906 and 1958. The tendency of today's psychiatry is to attribute the psychotic process to alteration in the brain's anatomy, biochemistry and electrophysiology, thus exempting the subject, i.e. the afflicted person, from responsibility for attachment to reality and their sanity. Jung understood schizophrenia as an 'abaissement du niveau mental', a similar phenomenon to the one encountered in dreams, and caused by a peculiar 'faiblesse de la volonté'. He contested that complexes in schizophrenia, in contrast with neurotic disorders, are disconnected and can either never reintegrate to the psychic totality or can only join together in remission 'like a mirror broke into splinters' (Jung , para. 507). Accordingly, a person who does not fight for the supremacy of ego consciousness and has let themself be swayed by the intrusion of alien contents arising from the unconscious (even to the point of becoming fascinated by regression) is exposed to the danger of schizophrenia. The contemporary relevance of these notions and their necessity in understanding the psychotic process in the light of modern scientific findings are discussed. PMID:24673276

  2. Functional brain changes underlying irritability in premanifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; De Winter, François-Laurent; Ahmad, Rawaha; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Laere, Koen; Vandenberghe, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    The clinical phenotype of Huntington's disease (HD) consists of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms, of which irritability is an important manifestation. Our aim was to identify the functional and structural brain changes that underlie irritability in premanifest HD (preHD). Twenty preHD carriers and 20 gene-negative controls from HD families took part in the study. Although the 5-year probability of disease onset was only 11%, the preHD group showed striatal atrophy and increased clinical irritability ratings. Functional MRI was performed during a mood induction experiment by means of recollection of emotional (angry, sad, and happy) and neutral autobiographical episodes. While there were no significant group differences in the subjective intensity of the emotional experience, the preHD group showed increased anger-selective activation in a distributed network, including the pulvinar, cingulate cortex, and somatosensory association cortex, compared to gene-negative controls. Pulvinar activation during anger experience correlated negatively with putaminal grey matter volume and positively with irritability ratings in the preHD group. In addition, the preHD group showed a decrease in anger-selective activation in the amygdala, which correlated with putaminal and caudate grey matter volume. In conclusion, compared to gene-negative controls, anger experience in preHD is associated with activity changes in a distributed set of regions known to be involved in emotion regulation. Increased activity is related to behavioral and volumetric measures, providing insight in the pathophysiology of early neuropsychiatric symptoms in preHD. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2681-2690, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25858294

  3. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    PubMed

    Bola, Micha?; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. PMID:25828884

  4. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

  5. Using computational biophysics to understand protein evolution and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2010-10-01

    Understanding how proteins evolve and function is vital for human health (e.g., developing better drugs, predicting the outbreak of disease, etc.). In spite of its importance, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these biological processes. Computational biophysics has emerged as a useful tool in this area due to its unique ability to obtain a detailed, atomistic view of proteins and how they interact. I will give two examples from our studies where computational biophysics has provided valuable insight: (i) Protein evolution in viruses. Our results suggest that the amino acid changes that occur during high temperature evolution of a virus decrease the binding free energy of the capsid, i.e., these changes increase capsid stability. (ii) Determining realistic structural ensembles for intrinsically disordered proteins. Most methods for determining protein structure rely on the protein folding into a single conformation, and thus are not suitable for disordered proteins. I will describe a new approach that combines experiment and simulation to generate structures for disordered proteins.

  6. The brain network reflecting bodily self-consciousness: a functional connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Silvio; Martuzzi, Roberto; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    Several brain regions are important for processing self-location and first-person perspective, two important aspects of bodily self-consciousness. However, the interplay between these regions has not been clarified. In addition, while self-location and first-person perspective in healthy subjects are associated with bilateral activity in temporoparietal junction (TPJ), disturbed self-location and first-person perspective result from damage of only the right TPJ. Identifying the involved brain network and understanding the role of hemispheric specializations in encoding self-location and first-person perspective, will provide important information on system-level interactions neurally mediating bodily self-consciousness. Here, we used functional connectivity and showed that right and left TPJ are bilaterally connected to supplementary motor area, ventral premotor cortex, insula, intraparietal sulcus and occipitotemporal cortex. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between right TPJ and right insula had the highest selectivity for changes in self-location and first-person perspective. Finally, functional connectivity revealed hemispheric differences showing that self-location and first-person perspective modulated the connectivity between right TPJ, right posterior insula, and right supplementary motor area, and between left TPJ and right anterior insula. The present data extend previous evidence on healthy populations and clinical observations in neurological deficits, supporting a bilateral, but right-hemispheric dominant, network for bodily self-consciousness. PMID:24396007

  7. Graph analysis of functional brain networks: practical issues in translational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Richiardi, Jonas; Chavez, Mario; Achard, Sophie

    2014-10-01

    The brain can be regarded as a network: a connected system where nodes, or units, represent different specialized regions and links, or connections, represent communication pathways. From a functional perspective, communication is coded by temporal dependence between the activities of different brain areas. In the last decade, the abstract representation of the brain as a graph has allowed to visualize functional brain networks and describe their non-trivial topological properties in a compact and objective way. Nowadays, the use of graph analysis in translational neuroscience has become essential to quantify brain dysfunctions in terms of aberrant reconfiguration of functional brain networks. Despite its evident impact, graph analysis of functional brain networks is not a simple toolbox that can be blindly applied to brain signals. On the one hand, it requires the know-how of all the methodological steps of the pipeline that manipulate the input brain signals and extract the functional network properties. On the other hand, knowledge of the neural phenomenon under study is required to perform physiologically relevant analysis. The aim of this review is to provide practical indications to make sense of brain network analysis and contrast counterproductive attitudes. PMID:25180301

  8. Neuroimaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Current and Future Predictors of Functional Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskauer, Stacy J.; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although neuroimaging has long played a role in the acute management of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), until recently, its use as a tool for understanding and predicting long-term brain-behavior relationships after TBI has been limited by the relatively poor sensitivity of routine clinical imaging for detecting diffuse axonal injury…

  9. Connectionist modeling of the recovery of language functions following brain damage.

    PubMed

    Harley, T A

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of connectionism to our understanding of behavioral changes in language functions after brain damage. Connectionism is founded upon a neural metaphor in that connectionist networks are made up of many simple, neuron-like units. It is possible to lesion these networks and explore the effects of that damage. It is widely held that damaging connectionist networks informs our understanding of neuropsychology and cognitive psychology. To what extent then does it currently tell us, or is likely to tell us, anything about behavioral change following brain damage? Current connectionist models simulate either spontaneous recovery or the effects of retraining, and I discuss both approaches. Which is taken at present partly depends upon the connectionist framework used as the starting point. Most simulation work involving back-propagation has focused upon retraining lesioned networks, while work involving interactive activation has focused upon making inferences about the time course of spontaneous recovery. I discuss research in modeling deep dyslexia, aphasia, and dementia. I argue that further research on modeling spontaneous recovery is limited by the fixed architecture of most current connectionist networks. PMID:8741975

  10. [Relaxin-3 and relaxin family peptide receptors--from structure to functions of a newly discovered mammalian brain system].

    PubMed

    Kania, Alan; Lewandowski, Marian H; B?asiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Relaxin-3, a member of the relaxin peptide family, was discovered in 2001 as a homologue of relaxin--a well-known reproductive hormone. However, it is the brain which turned out to be a major expression site of this newly discovered peptide. Both its molecular structure and expression pattern were shown to be very conserved among vertebrates. Extensive research carried out since the discovery of relaxin-3 contributed to the significant progress in our knowledge regarding this neuropeptide. The endogenous relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) was identified and the anatomy of the yet uncharacterized mammalian brain system was described, with nucleus incertus as the main center of relaxin-3 expression. Not only its diffusive projections throughout the whole brain, which reach various brain structures such as the hippocampus, septum, intergeniculate leaflet or amygdala, but also functional studies of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling system, allowed this brain network to be classified as one of the ascending nonspecific brain systems. Thus far, research depicts the connection of relaxin-3 with phenomena such as feeding behavior, spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle or modulation of pituitary gland hormone secretion. Responsiveness of relaxin-3 neurons to stress factors and the strong orexigenic effect exerted by this peptide suggest its participation in modulation of feeding by stress, in particular of the chronic type. The discovery of relaxin-3 opened a new research field which will contribute to our better understanding of the neurobiological basis of feeding disorders. PMID:24988606

  11. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  12. Functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with brain tumors: A preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Huang; Jennifer E. Wartella; Jeffery S. Kreutzer

    2001-01-01

    Huang ME, Wartella JE, Kreutzer JS. Functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with brain tumors: a preliminary report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1540-6. Objectives: To determine the relationship between functional outcome and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain tumors receiving inpatient rehabilitation, and to assess the sensitivity of 4 assessment tools in measuring changes in that

  13. r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main schizophrenia patients, and func- tional connectivity changes were analyzed using resting-state fMRI data from

  14. An independent component analysis based tool for exploring functional connections in the brain

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    An independent component analysis based tool for exploring functional connections in the brain S. M for investigating functional connectivity in the brain. Independent component analysis (ICA) is used as a measure of voxel similarity which allows the user to find and view statistically independent maps of correlated

  15. Selectionist models of perceptual and motor systems and implications for functionalist theories of brain function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Reeke; Olaf Sporns

    1990-01-01

    Functionalism is at present widely accepted as a working basis for cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This view holds that psychological phenomena can be adequately described in terms of functional processes carried out in the brain, and that these processes can be understood independently of the detailed structure and mode of development of the brain. In the functionalist view, the

  16. Brain–machine interfaces to restore motor function and probe neural circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. L. Nicolelis

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to create functional, bidirectional, real-time interfaces between living brain tissue and artificial devices. It is reasonable to predict that further research on brain–machine interfaces will lead to the development of a new generation of neuroprosthetic devices aimed at restoring motor functions in severely paralysed patients. In addition, I propose that such interfaces

  17. Mapping Language Function in the Brain: A Review of the Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crafton, Robert E.; Kido, Elissa

    2000-01-01

    Considers the potential importance of brain study for composition instruction, briefly describes functional imaging techniques, and reviews the findings of recent brain-mapping studies investigating the neurocognitive systems involved in language function. Presents a review of the recent literature and considers the possible implications of this…

  18. From the Left to the Right: How the Brain Compensates Progressive Loss of Language Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function of the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the…

  19. Functionally Enigmatic Genes: A Case Study of the Brain Ignorome

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng; Homayouni, Ramin; Williams, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function? In what ways do these functionally enigmatic genes differ from well-studied genes? To address these two questions, we devised a computational approach that defines so-called ignoromes. As proof of principle, we extracted and analyzed a large subset of genes with intense and selective expression in brain. We find that publications associated with this set are highly skewed—the top 5% of genes absorb 70% of the relevant literature. In contrast, approximately 20% of genes have essentially no neuroscience literature. Analysis of the ignorome over the past decade demonstrates that it is stubbornly persistent, and the rapid expansion of the neuroscience literature has not had the expected effect on numbers of these genes. Surprisingly, ignorome genes do not differ from well-studied genes in terms of connectivity in coexpression networks. Nor do they differ with respect to numbers of orthologs, paralogs, or protein domains. The major distinguishing characteristic between these sets of genes is date of discovery, early discovery being associated with greater research momentum—a genomic bandwagon effect. Finally we ask to what extent massive genomic, imaging, and phenotype data sets can be used to provide high-throughput functional annotation for an entire ignorome. In a majority of cases we have been able to extract and add significant information for these neglected genes. In several cases—ELMOD1, TMEM88B, and DZANK1—we have exploited sequence polymorphisms, large phenome data sets, and reverse genetic methods to evaluate the function of ignorome genes. PMID:24523945

  20. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    PubMed

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation. PMID:15140558

  1. Thalamic Resting-State Functional Networks: Disruption in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lin; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Miles, Laura; Zhou, Yongxia; Reaume, Joseph; Grossman, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the neural correlates of the thalamus by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to investigate whether thalamic resting-state networks (RSNs) are disrupted in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from 24 patients with MTBI and 17 healthy control subjects. The patients had varying degrees of symptoms, with a mean disease duration of 22 days. The resting-state functional MR imaging data were analyzed by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method to characterize thalamic RSNs. Student t tests were used to perform comparisons. The association between thalamic RSNs and performance on neuropsychologic and neurobehavioral measures was also investigated in patients with MTBI by using Spearman rank correlation. Results: A normal pattern of thalamic RSNs was demonstrated in healthy subjects. This pattern was characterized as representing relatively symmetric and restrictive functional thalamocortical connectivity, suggesting an inhibitory property of the thalamic neurons during the resting state. This pattern was disrupted, with significantly increased thalamic RSNs (P ? .005) and decreased symmetry (P = .03) in patients with MTBI compared with healthy control subjects. Increased functional thalamocortical redistributive connectivity was correlated with diminished neurocognitive functions and clinical symptoms in patients with MTBI. Conclusion: These findings of abnormal thalamic RSNs lend further support to the presumed subtle thalamic injury in patients with MTBI. Resting-state functional MR imaging can be used as an additional imaging modality for detection of thalamocortical connectivity abnormalities and for better understanding of the complex persistent postconcussive syndrome. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21775670

  2. The blind brain: how (lack of) vision shapes the morphological and functional architecture of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Since the early days, how we represent the world around us has been a matter of philosophical speculation. Over the last few decades, modern neuroscience, and specifically the development of methodologies for the structural and the functional exploration of the brain have made it possible to investigate old questions with an innovative approach. In this brief review, we discuss the main findings from a series of brain anatomical and functional studies conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals by our's and others' laboratories. Historically, research on the 'blind brain' has focused mainly on the cross-modal plastic changes that follow sensory deprivation. More recently, a novel line of research has been developed to determine to what extent visual experience is truly required to achieve a representation of the surrounding environment. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that most of the brain fine morphological and functional architecture is programmed to develop and function independently from any visual experience. Distinct cortical areas are able to process information in a supramodal fashion, that is, independently from the sensory modality that carries that information to the brain. These observations strongly support the hypothesis of a modality-independent, i.e. more abstract, cortical organization, and may contribute to explain how congenitally blind individuals may interact efficiently with an external world that they have never seen. PMID:24962172

  3. The Brain and Consciousness: Sources of Information for Understanding Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lilian H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews current knowledge of the brain in the areas of neurobiology, aging, and consciousness as conceived by different cultures. Derives learning principles that take into account the brain's plasticity, ability to respond to learning throughout life, and the involvement of emotional and sensory experience. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  4. Nurturing the Genius of Genes: The New Frontier of Education, Therapy, and Understanding of the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENNIS D. EMBRY

    2002-01-01

    Genes dance. They dance with culture. They dance with environment. Genes act on the world through the brain, mind and behavior. Historically, psychologists, therapists, educators and most lay people have understood genes in the context of Gregor Mendel's experiments, which were only partiallyexplained to us. Whilemany studies show that brain structures and behaviors have quite robust influences from inheritance, most

  5. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  6. Brain microRNAs and insights into biological functions and therapeutic potential of brain enriched miRNA-128

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs, the non-coding single-stranded RNA of 19–25 nucleotides are emerging as robust players of gene regulation. Plethora of evidences support that the ability of microRNAs to regulate several genes of a pathway or even multiple cross talking pathways have significant impact on a complex regulatory network and ultimately the physiological processes and diseases. Brain being a complex organ with several cell types, expresses more distinct miRNAs than any other tissues. This review aims to discuss about the microRNAs in brain development, function and their dysfunction in brain tumors. We also provide a comprehensive summary of targets of brain specific and brain enriched miRNAs that contribute to the diversity and plasticity of the brain. In particular, we uncover recent findings on miRNA-128, a brain-enriched microRNA that is induced during neuronal differentiation and whose aberrant expression has been reported in several cancers. This review describes the wide spectrum of targets of miRNA-128 that have been identified till date with potential roles in apoptosis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cholesterol metabolism, self renewal, invasion and cancer progression and how this knowledge might be exploited for the development of future miRNA-128 based therapies for the treatment of cancer as well as metabolic diseases. PMID:24555688

  7. Epigenetics, Stress, and Their Potential Impact on Brain Network Function: A Focus on the Schizophrenia Diatheses

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Bustamante, Angela; Rai, Harinder; Uddin, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The recent sociodevelopmental cognitive model of schizophrenia/psychosis is a highly influential and compelling compendium of research findings. Here, we present logical extensions to this model incorporating ideas drawn from epigenetic mediation of psychiatric disease, and the plausible effects of epigenetics on the emergence of brain network function and dysfunction in adolescence. We discuss how gene–environment interactions, effected by epigenetic mechanisms, might in particular mediate the stress response (itself heavily implicated in the emergence of schizophrenia). Next, we discuss the plausible relevance of this framework for adolescent genetic risk populations, a risk group characterized by vexing and difficult-to-explain heterogeneity. We then discuss how exploring relationships between epigenetics and brain network dysfunction (a strongly validated finding in risk populations) can enhance understanding of the relationship between stress, epigenetics, and functional neurobiology, and the relevance of this relationship for the eventual emergence of schizophrenia/psychosis. We suggest that these considerations can expand the impact of models such as the sociodevelopmental cognitive model, increasing their explanatory reach. Ultimately, integration of these lines of research may enhance efforts of early identification, intervention, and treatment in adolescents at-risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25002852

  8. Attentional load modulates large-scale functional brain connectivity beyond the core attention networks.

    PubMed

    Alnæs, Dag; Kaufmann, Tobias; Richard, Geneviève; Duff, Eugene P; Sneve, Markus H; Endestad, Tor; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Andreassen, Ole A; Smith, Stephen M; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-04-01

    In line with the notion of a continuously active and dynamic brain, functional networks identified during rest correspond with those revealed by task-fMRI. Characterizing the dynamic cross-talk between these network nodes is key to understanding the successful implementation of effortful cognitive processing in healthy individuals and its breakdown in a variety of conditions involving aberrant brain biology and cognitive dysfunction. We employed advanced network modeling on fMRI data collected during a task involving sustained attentive tracking of objects at two load levels and during rest. Using multivariate techniques, we demonstrate that attentional load levels can be significantly discriminated, and from a resting-state condition, the accuracy approaches 100%, by means of estimates of between-node functional connectivity. Several network edges were modulated during task engagement: The dorsal attention network increased connectivity with a visual node, while decreasing connectivity with motor and sensory nodes. Also, we observed a decoupling between left and right hemisphere dorsal visual streams. These results support the notion of dynamic network reconfigurations based on attentional effort. No simple correspondence between node signal amplitude change and node connectivity modulations was found, thus network modeling provides novel information beyond what is revealed by conventional task-fMRI analysis. The current decoding of attentional states confirms that edge connectivity contains highly predictive information about the mental state of the individual, and the approach shows promise for the utilization in clinical contexts. PMID:25595500

  9. Measurement of brain function of car driver using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    PubMed

    Tsunashima, Hitoshi; Yanagisawa, Kazuki

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a method for analyzing measured signal obtained from functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is applicable for neuroimaging studies for car drivers. We developed a signal processing method by multiresolution analysis (MRA) based on discrete wavelet transform. Statistical group analysis using Z-score is conducted after the extraction of task-related signal using MRA. Brain activities of subjects with different level of mental calculation are measured by fNIRS and fMRI. Results of mental calculation with nine subjects by using fNIRS and fMRI showed that the proposed methods were effective for the evaluation of brain activities due to the task. Finally, the proposed method is applied for evaluating brain function of car driver with and without adaptive cruise control (ACC) system for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results showed that frontal lobe was less active when the subject drove with ACC. PMID:19584938

  10. In Vivo Imaging of Brain Development: Technologies, Models, Applications, and Impact on Understanding the Etiology of Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicko Gluncic

    \\u000a Development of the mammalian brain proceeds in a precisely controlled sequence of cell divisions, migration, differentiation,\\u000a and synaptogenesis. It is a process of precise dynamic assembly, and time lapse in vivo imaging of these processes is fundamental\\u000a for the multidisciplinary endeavor to merge and understand the morphological, physiological, and regulatory processes of neurogenesis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Modern optical and non-optical imaging technologies enable

  11. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). Materials and Methods This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. Results We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). Conclusion RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network. PMID:22563263

  12. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-yan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Xi-ping; Tao, Lu-yang

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26170824

  13. Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Bernal

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important during development of the mammalian brain, acting on migration and differentiation of neural cells, synaptogenesis, and myelination. The actions of thyroid hormones are mediated through nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and regulation of gene expression. The purpose of this article is to review the role of TRs in brain maturation. In developing humans maternal and fetal

  14. Gender differences in executive functions following traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Marwitz; Katrina Lesher; William C. Walker; Tamara Bushnik

    2007-01-01

    The present study used the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation and Research (NIDRR) funded Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) database to examine the effect of gender on presentation of executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and variables that might impact the course and degree of recovery. The Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) was chosen as a measure of

  15. Commentary: the future of forensic functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Dattilio, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    In "Functional MRI Lie Detection: Too Good to be True?" in this issue of The Journal, Joseph Simpson reviews the merits and the limitations of using fMRI to detect deception. After presenting the gaps in experimental data that stand in the way of translating the laboratory proof of concept to a field application, Simpson surveys the legal, regulatory and ethics concerns facing fMRI, should it emerge as a technologically robust method of lie detection. In our commentary, we update and interpret the data described by Simpson, from the points of view of an experimental scientist and a forensic clinician. We conclude that the current research funding and literature are prematurely skewed toward discussion of existing findings, rather than generation of new fMRI data on deception and related topics such as mind-reading, consciousness, morality, and criminal responsibility. We propose that further progress in brain imaging research may foster the emergence of a new discipline of forensic MRI. PMID:19092068

  16. Astrocytes, Synapses and Brain Function: A Computational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2006-03-01

    Modulation of synaptic reliability is one of the leading mechanisms involved in long- term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) and therefore has implications in information processing in the brain. A recently discovered mechanism for modulating synaptic reliability critically involves recruitments of astrocytes - star- shaped cells that outnumber the neurons in most parts of the central nervous system. Astrocytes until recently were thought to be subordinate cells merely participating in supporting neuronal functions. New evidence, however, made available by advances in imaging technology has changed the way we envision the role of these cells in synaptic transmission and as modulator of neuronal excitability. We put forward a novel mathematical framework based on the biophysics of the bidirectional neuron-astrocyte interactions that quantitatively accounts for two distinct experimental manifestation of recruitment of astrocytes in synaptic transmission: a) transformation of a low fidelity synapse transforms into a high fidelity synapse and b) enhanced postsynaptic spontaneous currents when astrocytes are activated. Such a framework is not only useful for modeling neuronal dynamics in a realistic environment but also provides a conceptual basis for interpreting experiments. Based on this modeling framework, we explore the role of astrocytes for neuronal network behavior such as synchrony and correlations and compare with experimental data from cultured networks.

  17. CART in the brain of vertebrates: circuits, functions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Nishikant K; Nakhate, Kartik T; Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-04-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) with its wide distribution in the brain of mammals has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Last two decades have witnessed a steady rise in the information on the genes that encode this neuropeptide and regulation of its transcription and translation. CART is highly enriched in the hypothalamic nuclei and its relevance to energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine control has been understood in great details. However, the occurrence of this peptide in a range of diverse circuitries for sensory, motor, vegetative, limbic and higher cortical areas has been confounding. Evidence that CART peptide may have role in addiction, pain, reward, learning and memory, cognition, sleep, reproduction and development, modulation of behavior and regulation of autonomic nervous system are accumulating, but an integration has been missing. A steady stream of papers has been pointing at the therapeutic potentials of CART. The current review is an attempt at piecing together the fragments of available information, and seeks meaning out of the CART elements in their anatomical niche. We try to put together the CART containing neuronal circuitries that have been conclusively demonstrated as well as those which have been proposed, but need confirmation. With a view to finding out the evolutionary antecedents, we visit the CART systems in sub-mammalian vertebrates and seek the answer why the system is shaped the way it is. We enquire into the conservation of the CART system and appreciate its functional diversity across the phyla. PMID:24468550

  18. Simulating ‘structure-function’ patterns of malignant brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansury, Yuri; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid growth and extensive tissue infiltration are characteristics of highly malignant neuroepithelial brain tumors. Very little is known, however, about the existence of structure-function relationships in these types of neoplasm. Therefore, using a previously developed two-dimensional agent-based model, we have investigated the emergent patterns of multiple tumor cells that proliferate and migrate on an adaptive grid lattice, driven by a local-search mechanism and guided by the presence of distinct environmental conditions. Numerical results indicate a strong correlation between the fractal dimensions of the tumor surface and the average velocity of the tumor's spatial expansion. In particular, when the so called ‘beaten-path advantage’ intensifies, i.e., rising ‘mechanical rewards’ for cells to follow each other along preformed pathways, it results in an increase of the tumor system's fractal dimensions leading to a concomitant acceleration of its spatial expansion. Whereas cell migration is the dominant phenotype responsible for the more extensive branching patterns exhibiting higher fractal dimensions, cell proliferation appears to become more active primarily at lower fracticality associated with stronger mechanical confinements. Implications of these results for experimental and clinical cancer research are discussed.

  19. A Glimpse into Secondary Students' Understanding of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendefur, Jonathan L.; Hughes, Gwyneth; Ely, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine how secondary school students think about functional relationships. More specifically, we examined seven students' intuitive knowledge in regards to representing two real-world situations with functions. We found students do not tend to represent functional relationships with coordinate graphs even though they are…

  20. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in the Brain: Cellular Internalization and Neuroinflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Katie; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Gaillard, Claire; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) for drug and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) and as neural substrates makes the understanding of their in vivo interactions with the neural tissue essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) and the neural tissue following cortical stereotactic administration. Two different f-MWNT constructs were used in these studies: shortened (by oxidation) amino-functionalized MWNT (oxMWNT-NH3+) and amino-functionalized MWNT (MWNT-NH3+). Parenchymal distribution of the stereotactically injected f-MWNTs was assessed by histological examination. Both f-MWNT were uptaken by different types of neural tissue cells (microglia, astrocytes and neurons), however different patterns of cellular internalization were observed between the nanotubes. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for specific markers of glial cell activation (GFAP and CD11b) was performed and secretion of inflammatory cytokines was investigated using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Injections of both f-MWNT constructs led to a local and transient induction of inflammatory cytokines at early time points. Oxidation of nanotubes seemed to induce significant levels of GFAP and CD11b over-expression in areas peripheral to the f-MWNT injection site. These results highlight the importance of nanotube functionalization on their interaction with brain tissue that is deemed critical for the development nanotube-based vector systems for CNS applications. PMID:24260521

  1. Neurocognitive Function of Patients with Brain Metastasis Who Received Either Whole Brain Radiotherapy Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Radiosurgery Alone

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Hidefumi [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)]. E-mail: hao@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kato, Norio [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Toyoda, Tatsuya [Department of Radiology, Kanto Medical Center Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Kenjyo, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Hirota, Saeko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Shioura, Hiroki [Department of Radiology, Izumisano General Hospital, Izumisano (Japan); Inomata, Taisuke [Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kobashi, Gen [Department of Global Health and Epidemiology, Division of Preventive Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To determine how the omission of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) affects the neurocognitive function of patients with one to four brain metastases who have been treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: In a prospective randomized trial between WBRT+SRS and SRS alone for patients with one to four brain metastases, we assessed the neurocognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Of the 132 enrolled patients, MMSE scores were available for 110. Results: In the baseline MMSE analyses, statistically significant differences were observed for total tumor volume, extent of tumor edema, age, and Karnofsky performance status. Of the 92 patients who underwent the follow-up MMSE, 39 had a baseline MMSE score of {<=}27 (17 in the WBRT+SRS group and 22 in the SRS-alone group). Improvements of {>=}3 points in the MMSEs of 9 WBRT+SRS patients and 11 SRS-alone patients (p = 0.85) were observed. Of the 82 patients with a baseline MMSE score of {>=}27 or whose baseline MMSE score was {<=}26 but had improved to {>=}27 after the initial brain treatment, the 12-, 24-, and 36-month actuarial free rate of the 3-point drop in the MMSE was 76.1%, 68.5%, and 14.7% in the WBRT+SRS group and 59.3%, 51.9%, and 51.9% in the SRS-alone group, respectively. The average duration until deterioration was 16.5 months in the WBRT+SRS group and 7.6 months in the SRS-alone group (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study have revealed that, for most brain metastatic patients, control of the brain tumor is the most important factor for stabilizing neurocognitive function. However, the long-term adverse effects of WBRT on neurocognitive function might not be negligible.

  2. Neuropsychobiological Evidence for the Functional Presence and Expression of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel S. Onaivi

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, until recently, it was thought that marijuana acts by activating brain-type cannabinoid receptors called CB1, and that a second type called CB2 cannabinoid receptor was found only in peripheral tissues. Neuronal CB2 receptors in the brain had been controversial. We reported the discovery and functional presence of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the mammalian brain that may

  3. The social brain in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah-Jayne Blakemore

    2008-01-01

    The term 'social brain' refers to the network of brain regions that are involved in understanding others. Behaviour that is related to social cognition changes dramatically during human adolescence. This is paralleled by functional changes that occur in the social brain during this time, in particular in the medial prefrontal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus, which show altered activity

  4. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  5. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  6. Spatially Aggregated Multi-Class Pattern Classification in Functional MRI using Optimally Selected Functional Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Ackley, Elena S.; Martínez-Ramón, Manel; Posse, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In previous works, boosting aggregation of classifier outputs from discrete brain areas has been demonstrated to reduce dimensionality, and improve the robustness and accuracy of fMRI classification. However, dimensionality reduction and classification of mixed activation patterns of multiple classes remain challenging. In the present study, the goals were (a) to reduce dimensionality by combining feature reduction at the voxel level and backward elimination of optimally aggregated classifiers at the region level, (b) to compare region selection for spatially aggregated classification using boosting and partial least squares regression methods and (c) to resolve mixed activation patterns using probabilistic prediction of individual tasks. Brain activation maps from interleaved visual, motor, auditory and cognitive tasks were segmented into 144 functional regions. Feature selection reduced the number of feature voxels by more than 50%, leaving 95 regions. The two aggregation approaches further reduced the number of regions to 30, resulting in more than 75% reduction of classification time and misclassification rates of less than 3%. Boosting and partial least squares (PLS) were compared to select the most discriminative and the most task correlated regions, respectively. Successful task prediction in mixed activation patterns was feasible within the first block of task activation in real time fMRI experiments. This methodology is suitable for sparsifying activation patterns in real-time fMRI and for neurofeedback from distributed networks of brain activation. PMID:22902471

  7. An update of the classical and novel methods used for measuring fast neurotransmitters during normal and brain altered function.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes Castro, Victor Hugo; López Valenzuela, Carmen Lucía; Salazar Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Peña, Kenia Pardo; López Pérez, Silvia J; Ibarra, Jorge Ortega; Villagrán, Alberto Morales

    2014-12-01

    To understand better the cerebral functions, several methods have been developed to study the brain activity, they could be related with morphological, electrophysiological, molecular and neurochemical techniques. Monitoring neurotransmitter concentration is a key role to know better how the brain works during normal or pathological conditions, as well as for studying the changes in neurotransmitter concentration with the use of several drugs that could affect or reestablish the normal brain activity. Immediate response of the brain to environmental conditions is related with the release of the fast acting neurotransmission by glutamate (Glu), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) through the opening of ligand-operated ion channels. Neurotransmitter release is mainly determined by the classical microdialysis technique, this is generally coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of neurotransmitters can be done by fluorescence, optical density, electrochemistry or other detection systems more sophisticated. Although the microdialysis method is the golden technique to monitor the brain neurotransmitters, it has a poor temporal resolution. Recently, with the use of biosensor the drawback of temporal resolution has been improved considerably, however other inconveniences have merged, such as stability, reproducibility and the lack of reliable biosensors mainly for GABA. The aim of this review is to show the important advances in the different ways to measure neurotransmitter concentrations; both with the use of classic techniques as well as with the novel methods and alternant approaches to improve the temporal resolution. PMID:25977677

  8. An Update of the Classical and Novel Methods Used for Measuring Fast Neurotransmitters During Normal and Brain Altered Function

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes Castro, Victor Hugo; López Valenzuela, Carmen Lucía; Salazar Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Peña, Kenia Pardo; López Pérez, Silvia J.; Ibarra, Jorge Ortega; Villagrán, Alberto Morales

    2014-01-01

    To understand better the cerebral functions, several methods have been developed to study the brain activity, they could be related with morphological, electrophysiological, molecular and neurochemical techniques. Monitoring neurotransmitter concentration is a key role to know better how the brain works during normal or pathological conditions, as well as for studying the changes in neurotransmitter concentration with the use of several drugs that could affect or reestablish the normal brain activity. Immediate response of the brain to environmental conditions is related with the release of the fast acting neurotransmission by glutamate (Glu), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) through the opening of ligand-operated ion channels. Neurotransmitter release is mainly determined by the classical microdialysis technique, this is generally coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of neurotransmitters can be done by fluorescence, optical density, electrochemistry or other detection systems more sophisticated. Although the microdialysis method is the golden technique to monitor the brain neurotransmitters, it has a poor temporal resolution. Recently, with the use of biosensor the drawback of temporal resolution has been improved considerably, however other inconveniences have merged, such as stability, reproducibility and the lack of reliable biosensors mainly for GABA. The aim of this review is to show the important advances in the different ways to measure neurotransmitter concentrations; both with the use of classic techniques as well as with the novel methods and alternant approaches to improve the temporal resolution. PMID:25977677

  9. The structural-functional connectome and the default mode network of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas; Ostwald, Dirk; Reisert, Marco; Blankenburg, Felix

    2014-11-15

    An emerging field of human brain imaging deals with the characterization of the connectome, a comprehensive global description of structural and functional connectivity within the human brain. However, the question of how functional and structural connectivity are related has not been fully answered yet. Here, we used different methods to estimate the connectivity between each voxel of the cerebral cortex based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in order to obtain observer-independent functional-structural connectomes of the human brain. Probabilistic fiber-tracking and a novel global fiber-tracking technique were used to measure structural connectivity whereas for functional connectivity, full and partial correlations between each voxel pair's fMRI-timecourses were calculated. For every voxel, two vectors consisting of functional and structural connectivity estimates to all other voxels in the cortex were correlated with each other. In this way, voxels structurally and functionally connected to similar regions within the rest of the brain could be identified. Areas forming parts of the 'default mode network' (DMN) showed the highest agreement of structure-function connectivity. Bilateral precuneal and inferior parietal regions were found using all applied techniques, whereas the global tracking algorithm additionally revealed bilateral medial prefrontal cortices and early visual areas. There were no significant differences between the results obtained from full and partial correlations. Our data suggests that the DMN is the functional brain network, which uses the most direct structural connections. Thus, the anatomical profile of the brain seems to shape its functional repertoire and the computation of the whole-brain functional-structural connectome appears to be a valuable method to characterize global brain connectivity within and between populations. PMID:24099851

  10. Is There A Path Beyond BOLD? Molecular Imaging of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Koretsky, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of BOLD on neuro-vascular coupling leaves it steps removed from direct monitoring of neural function. MRI based approaches have been developed aimed at reporting more directly on brain function. These include: manganese enhanced MRI as a surrogate for calcium ion influx; agents responsive to calcium concentrations; approaches to measure membrane potential; agents to measure neurotransmittors; and strategies to measure gene expression. This work has led to clever design of molecular imaging tools and many contributions to studies of brain function in animal models. However, a robust approach that has potential to get MRI closer to neurons in the human brain has not yet emerged. PMID:22406355

  11. Roles of long noncoding RNAs in brain development, functional diversification and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Zuo, Xialin; Deng, Houliang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Li; Ji, Aimin

    2013-08-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been attracting immense research interest, while only a handful of lncRNAs have been characterized thoroughly. Their involvement in the fundamental cellular processes including regulate gene expression at epigenetics, transcription, and post-transcription highlighted a central role in cell homeostasis. However, lncRNAs studies are still at a relatively early stage, their definition, conservation, functions, and action mechanisms remain fairly complicated. Here, we give a systematic and comprehensive summary of the existing knowledge of lncRNAs in order to provide a better understanding of this new studying field. lncRNAs play important roles in brain development, neuron function and maintenance, and neurodegenerative diseases are becoming increasingly evident. In this review, we also highlighted recent studies related lncRNAs in central nervous system (CNS) development and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and elucidated some specific lncRNAs which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, also have the potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:23756188

  12. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy.

    PubMed

    Englander, Zoë A; Sun, Jessica; Laura Case; Mikati, Mohamad A; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Song, Allen W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005). Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years) in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17), who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM) connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study. PMID:25610796

  13. Sex differences in the brain: The relation between structure and function Geert J. de Vries a,

    E-print Network

    de Vries, Geert J.

    Sex differences in the brain: The relation between structure and function Geert J. de Vries a 2009 Revised 10 March 2009 Accepted 12 March 2009 Keywords: Sex differences Sex similarities hypothesis was proposed, many sex differences have been found in behavior as well as structure of the brain

  14. The Functional Organization of the Brain of the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Boycott

    1961-01-01

    The functional organization of the brain of Sepia has been investigated by electrical stimulation. As a result several new divisions of the brain have been made. The pedal ganglion has been shown to consist of four parts: (1) the anterior chromatophore lobes innervating the skin and muscles of the anterior part of the head and arms; (2) the anterior pedal

  15. Scientists Probe Immune System's Role in Brain Function and Neurological Disease

    E-print Network

    Boulanger, Lisa

    Scientists Probe Immune System's Role in Brain Function and Neurological Disease Bridget M. Kuehn E MERGING EVIDENCE SUGGESTS that proteins associated with the immune system may play additional roles protects the brain from the immune system by acting as a bar- ricade to its components, scientists have

  16. Hypertension and the Brain: Vulnerability of the Prefrontal Regions and Executive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naftali Raz; Karen M. Rodrigue; James D. Acker

    2003-01-01

    Untreated hypertension negatively affects brain anatomy and cognitive functions, but the effects of medically treated hypertension are unclear. The authors compared 40 middle-age and older adults diagnosed with essential hypertension to demographically matched normotensive peers. Volumes of 7 brain regions and deep and periventricular white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) were measured on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Performance in 4 cognitive domains (perseveration,

  17. Investigation of the large-scale functional brain networks modulated by acupuncture

    E-print Network

    Tian, Jie

    Investigation of the large-scale functional brain networks modulated by acupuncture Yuanyuan Fenga effects of acupuncture. Considering that acupuncture can induce long-lasting effects, several researchers have begun to pay attention to the sustained effects of acupuncture on the resting brain. Most

  18. Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11 C was to test seven previously published image-input methods in state-of-the-art high resolution PET brain images. Images were obtained with a High Resolution Research Tomograph plus a resolution

  19. Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

  20. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M Madsen; P. E. G Kristjansen; T. G Bolwig; G Wörtwein

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At

  1. Horticultural Therapy has Beneficial Effects on Brain Functions in Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Mizuno-Matsumoto; Syoji Kobashi; Yutaka Hata; Osamu Ishikawa; Fusayo Asano

    2008-01-01

    Horticultural therapy (HT) is gaining attention as a form of rehabilitations in medical fields especially such as occupational therapy and nursing care, although its effectiveness has not been proven yet. This paper uses a strictly medical point of view to assess whether or not HT is effective for improvement of functional activities in the brains of brain-damaged patients. Five patients

  2. Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

  3. A new perspective on the functioning of the brain and the mechanisms behind conscious processes.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    An essential prerequisite for the development of a theory of consciousness is the clarification of the fundamental mechanisms underlying conscious processes. In this article I present an approach that sheds new light on these mechanisms. This approach builds on stochastic electrodynamics (SED), a promising theoretical framework that provides a deeper understanding of quantum systems and reveals the origin of quantum phenomena. I outline the most important concepts and findings of SED and interpret the neurophysiological body of evidence in the context of these findings, indicating that the functioning of the brain rests upon exactly the same principles that are characteristic for quantum systems. On this basis, I construct a new hypothesis on the mechanisms behind conscious processes and discuss the new perspectives this hypothesis opens up for consciousness research. In particular, it offers the possibility of elucidating the relationship between brain and consciousness, of specifying the connection between consciousness and information, and of answering the question of what distinguishes conscious processes from unconscious processes. PMID:23641229

  4. A new perspective on the functioning of the brain and the mechanisms behind conscious processes

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    An essential prerequisite for the development of a theory of consciousness is the clarification of the fundamental mechanisms underlying conscious processes. In this article I present an approach that sheds new light on these mechanisms. This approach builds on stochastic electrodynamics (SED), a promising theoretical framework that provides a deeper understanding of quantum systems and reveals the origin of quantum phenomena. I outline the most important concepts and findings of SED and interpret the neurophysiological body of evidence in the context of these findings, indicating that the functioning of the brain rests upon exactly the same principles that are characteristic for quantum systems. On this basis, I construct a new hypothesis on the mechanisms behind conscious processes and discuss the new perspectives this hypothesis opens up for consciousness research. In particular, it offers the possibility of elucidating the relationship between brain and consciousness, of specifying the connection between consciousness and information, and of answering the question of what distinguishes conscious processes from unconscious processes. PMID:23641229

  5. Microglia function during brain development: New insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Bilimoria, Parizad M; Stevens, Beth

    2015-08-18

    The role of microglia in healthy brains is just beginning to receive notice. Recent studies have revealed that these phagocytic cells control the patterning and wiring of the developing central nervous system (CNS) by regulating, amongst many other processes, programmed cell death, activity-dependent synaptic pruning and synapse maturation. Microglia also play important roles in the mature brain and have demonstrated effects on behavior. Converging evidence from human and mouse studies together raise questions as to the role of microglia in disorders of brain development such as autism and, schizophrenia. In this review, we summarize a number of major findings regarding the role of microglia in brain development and highlight some key questions and avenues for future study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25463024

  6. Functional brain imaging in 14 patients with dissociative amnesia reveals right inferolateral prefrontal hypometabolism.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Eggers, Carsten; Reinhold, Nadine; Fujiwara, Esther; Kessler, Josef; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2009-10-30

    Dissociative amnesia is a condition usually characterized by severely impaired retrograde memory functioning in the absence of structural brain damage. Recent case studies nevertheless found functional brain changes in patients suffering from autobiographical-episodic memory loss in the cause of dissociative amnesia. Functional changes were demonstrated in both resting state and memory retrieval conditions. In addition, some but not all cases also showed other neuropsychological impairments beyond retrograde memory deficits. However, there is no group study available that examined potential functional brain abnormalities and accompanying neuropsychological deteriorations in larger samples of patients with dissociative retrograde amnesia. We report functional imaging and neuropsychological data acquired in 14 patients with dissociative amnesia following stressful or traumatic events. All patients suffered from autobiographical memory loss. In addition, approximately half of the patients had deficits in anterograde memory and executive functioning. Accompanying functional brain changes were measured by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Regional glucose utilization of the patients was compared with that of 19 healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. We found significantly decreased glucose utilization in the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex in the patients. Hypometabolism in this brain region, known to be involved in retrieval of autobiographical memories and self-referential processing, may be a functional brain correlate of dissociative amnesia. PMID:19783409

  7. Fetal brain function in response to maternal alcohol consumption: Early evidence of damage

    PubMed Central

    Hepper, Peter G; Dornan, James C; Lynch, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the adverse neurobehavioural effects of maternal alcohol consumption on the fetus have been largely confined to the postnatal period, after exposure to alcohol has finished. This study explored the brain function of the fetus, at the time of exposure to alcohol, to examine its effect on information processing and stability of performance. Methods Five groups of fetuses, defined by maternal alcohol consumption patterns, were examined: control (no alcohol); moderate (5-10 units/week either drunk evenly across the week, or as a binge, in 2-3 days); heavy (20+units/week drunk evenly, or as a binge). Fetal habituation performance was examined on three occasions, separated by seven days, beginning at 35 weeks gestation. The number of trials required to habituate on each test session and the difference in performance across test sessions was recorded. Results Fetuses exposed to heavy binge drinking required significantly more trials to habituate and exhibited a greater variability in performance across all test sessions than the other groups. Maternal drinking, either heavily but evenly, or moderately as a binge, resulted in poorer habituation and moderate binge drinking resulted in greater variability compared to no, or even, drinking. Conclusions Decreased information processing, reflected by poorer habituation, and increased variability in performance may reflect the initial manifestations of structural damage caused by alcohol to the brain. These results will lead to a greater understanding of the effects of alcohol on the fetus's brain, enable the antenatal identification of FASD, and lead to the early implementation of better management strategies. PMID:22978459

  8. Establishing, versus Maintaining, Brain Function: A Neuro-computational Model of Cortical Reorganization after Injury to the Immature Brain

    E-print Network

    Varier, Sreedevi; Forsyth, Rob; 10.1017/S1355617711000993

    2011-01-01

    The effect of age at injury on outcome after acquired brain injury (ABI) has been the subject of much debate. Many argue that young brains are relatively tolerant of injury. A contrasting viewpoint due to Hebb argues that greater system integrity may be required for the initial establishment of a function than for preservation of an already-established function. A neuro-computational model of cortical map formation was adapted to examine effects of focal and distributed injury at various stages of development. This neural network model requires a period of training during which it self-organizes to establish cortical maps. Injuries were simulated by lesioning the model at various stages of this process and network function was monitored as "development" progressed to completion. Lesion effects are greater for larger, earlier, and distributed (multifocal) lesions. The mature system is relatively robust, particularly to focal injury. Activities in recovering systems injured at an early stage show changes that e...

  9. A multimodal approach for determining brain networks by jointly modeling functional and structural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenqiong; Bowman, F DuBois; Pileggi, Anthony V; Mayer, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in neuroimaging technology have provided opportunities for researchers to investigate connectivity in the human brain by examining the anatomical circuitry as well as functional relationships between brain regions. Existing statistical approaches for connectivity generally examine resting-state or task-related functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions or separately examine structural linkages. As a means to determine brain networks, we present a unified Bayesian framework for analyzing FC utilizing the knowledge of associated structural connections, which extends an approach by Patel et al. (2006a) that considers only functional data. We introduce an FC measure that rests upon assessments of functional coherence between regional brain activity identified from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Our structural connectivity (SC) information is drawn from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, which is used to quantify probabilities of SC between brain regions. We formulate a prior distribution for FC that depends upon the probability of SC between brain regions, with this dependence adhering to structural-functional links revealed by our fMRI and DTI data. We further characterize the functional hierarchy of functionally connected brain regions by defining an ascendancy measure that compares the marginal probabilities of elevated activity between regions. In addition, we describe topological properties of the network, which is composed of connected region pairs, by performing graph theoretic analyses. We demonstrate the use of our Bayesian model using fMRI and DTI data from a study of auditory processing. We further illustrate the advantages of our method by comparisons to methods that only incorporate functional information. PMID:25750621

  10. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. PMID:25545862

  11. Nurturing the Genius of Genes: The New Frontier of Education, Therapy, and Understanding of the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis D. Embry

    2002-01-01

    Genes dance. They dance with culture. Theydance with environment. Genes act on the world through the brain, mind and behavior. Historically, psychologists, therapists,educators and most lay people have understoodgenes in the context of Gregor Mendel'sexperiments, which were only partiallyexplained to us. While many studies show thatbrain structures and behaviors have quiterobust influences from inheritance, mostbehavior is not influenced in the

  12. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  13. Understanding in an Instant: Neurophysiological Evidence for Mechanistic Language Circuits in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hauk, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    How long does it take the human mind to grasp the idea when hearing or reading a sentence? Neurophysiological methods looking directly at the time course of brain activity indexes of comprehension are critical for finding the answer to this question. As the dominant cognitive approaches, models of serial/cascaded and parallel processing, make…

  14. Intersubject Variability of and Genetic Effects on the Brain's Functional Connectivity during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Elton, Amanda; Zhu, Hongtu; Alcauter, Sarael; Smith, J. Keith; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili

    2014-01-01

    Infancy is a period featuring a high level of intersubject variability but the brain basis for such variability and the potential genetic/environmental contributions remain largely unexplored. The assessment of the brain's functional connectivity during infancy by the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) technique (Biswal et al., 1995) provides a unique means to probe the brain basis of intersubject variability during infancy. In this study, an unusually large typically developing human infant sample including 58 singletons, 132 dizygotic twins, and 98 monozygotic twins with rsfMRI scans during the first 2 years of life was recruited to delineate the spatial and temporal developmental patterns of both the intersubject variability of and genetic effects on the brain's functional connectivity. Through systematic voxelwise functional connectivity analyses, our results revealed that the intersubject variability at birth features lower variability in primary functional areas but higher values in association areas. Although the relative pattern remains largely consistent, the magnitude of intersubject variability undergoes an interesting U-shaped growth during the first 2 years of life. Overall, the intersubject variability patterns during infancy show both adult-like and infant-specific characteristics (Mueller et al., 2013). On the other hand, age-dependent genetic effects were observed showing significant but bidirectional relationships with intersubject variability. The temporal and spatial patterns of the intersubject variability of and genetic contributions to the brain's functional connectivity documented in this study shed light on the largely uncharted functional development of the brain during infancy. PMID:25143609

  15. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  16. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  17. Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: a functional approach.

    PubMed

    Clary, E G; Snyder, M; Ridge, R D; Copeland, J; Stukas, A A; Haugen, J; Miene, P

    1998-06-01

    The authors applied functionalist theory to the question of the motivations underlying volunteerism, hypothesized 6 functions potentially served by volunteerism, and designed an instrument to assess these functions (Volunteer Functions Inventory; VFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on diverse samples yielded factor solutions consistent with functionalist theorizing; each VFI motivation, loaded on a single factor, possessed substantial internal consistency and temporal stability and correlated only modestly with other VFI motivations (Studies 1, 2, and 3). Evidence for predictive validity is provided by a laboratory study in which VFI motivations predicted the persuasive appeal of messages better when message and motivation were matched than mismatched (Study 4), and by field studies in which the extent to which volunteers' experiences matched their motivations predicted satisfaction (Study 5) and future intentions (Study 6). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:9654757

  18. The Conundrum of Functional Brain Networks: Small-World Efficiency or Fractal Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2012-01-01

    The human brain has been studied at multiple scales, from neurons, circuits, areas with well-defined anatomical and functional boundaries, to large-scale functional networks which mediate coherent cognition. In a recent work, we addressed the problem of the hierarchical organization in the brain through network analysis. Our analysis identified functional brain modules of fractal structure that were inter-connected in a small-world topology. Here, we provide more details on the use of network science tools to elaborate on this behavior. We indicate the importance of using percolation theory to highlight the modular character of the functional brain network. These modules present a fractal, self-similar topology, identified through fractal network methods. When we lower the threshold of correlations to include weaker ties, the network as a whole assumes a small-world character. These weak ties are organized precisely as predicted by theory maximizing information transfer with minimal wiring costs. PMID:22586406

  19. Categories and functional units: An infinite hierarchical model for brain activations

    E-print Network

    Lashkari, Danial

    We present a model that describes the structure in the responses of different brain areas to a set of stimuli in terms of stimulus categories (clusters of stimuli) and functional units (clusters of voxels). We assume that ...

  20. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Reveals Brain Cortex Remodelling

    E-print Network

    Tambalo, Stefano; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Rigolio, Roberta; Fiorini, Silvia; Bontempi, Pietro; Mallucci, Giulia; Balzarotti, Beatrice; Marmiroli, Paola; Sbarbati, Andrea; Cavaletti, Guido; Pluchino, Stefano; Marzola, Pasquina

    2015-01-01

    reorganization and its brain structural/pathological correlates in Dark Agouti rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted preclinical model of chronic MS. Morphological and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before disease...

  2. A Probabilistic Model of Functional Brain Connectivity Network for Discovering Novel Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Topaloglu, Umit; Cisler, Josh M.

    2013-01-01

    Graph theoretical analyses of functional brain connectivity networks have been limited to a static view of brain activities over the entire timeseries. In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic model of the functional brain connectivity network, the strong-edge model, which incorporates the temporal fluctuation of neurodynamics. We also introduce a systematic approach to identifying biomarkers based on network characteristics that quantitatively describe the organization of the brain network. The evaluation results of the proposed strong-edge network model is quite promising. The biomarkers derived from the strong-edge model have achieved much higher prediction accuracy of 89% (ROCAUC: 0.96) in distinguishing depression subjects from healthy controls in comparison with the conventional network model (accuracy: 76%, ROC-AUC: 0.87). These novel biomarkers have the high potential of being applied clinically in diagnosing neurological and psychiatric brain diseases with noninvasive neuroimaging technologies. PMID:24303289

  3. Brain temperature fluctuation: a reflection of functional neural activation.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Brown, P Leon; Wise, Roy A

    2002-07-01

    Although it is known that relatively large increases in local brain temperature can occur during behaviour and in response to various novel, stressful and emotionally arousing environmental stimuli, the source of this heat is not clearly established. To clarify this issue, we monitored the temperature in three brain structures (dorsal and ventral striatum, cerebellum) and in arterial blood at the level of the abdominal aorta in freely moving rats exposed to several environmental challenges ranging from traditional stressors to simple sensory stimuli (cage change, tail pinch, exposure to another male rat, a female rat, a mouse or an unexpected sound). We found that brain temperature was consistently higher than arterial blood temperature, and that brain temperature increased prior to, and to a greater extent than, the increase in blood temperature evoked by each test challenge. Thus, the local metabolic consequences of widely correlated neural activity appear to be the primary source of increases in brain temperature and a driving force behind the associated changes in body temperature. PMID:12153543

  4. Understanding Functions without Using the Vertical Line Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Study was conducted on how the students were made to think meaningfully and widely within and across the representations in solving and identifying functions in precalculus, without the usage of the vertical line test. It was concluded that the "no vertical line testing" method proved to be easily accessible by all students and also made them…

  5. Reduced brain insulin-like growth factor I function during aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Pastoris Muller; Ana M. Fernandez; Clarissa Haas; Eduardo Zimmer; Luis Valmor Portela; Ignacio Torres-Aleman

    Peripheral insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) function progressively deteriorates with age. However, whereas deterioration of IGF-I function in the aged brain seems probable, it has not been directly addressed yet. Because serum IGF-I can enter into the brain through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we examined this route of entrance in aged mice. To distinguish endogenous murine IGF-I from exogenously applied

  6. Local brain atrophy accounts for functional activity differences in normal aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grégoria Kalpouzos; Jonas Persson; Lars Nyberg

    Functional brain imaging studies of normal aging typically show age-related under- and overactivations during episodic memory tasks. Older individuals also undergo nonuniform gray matter volume (GMv) loss. Thus, age differences in functional brain activity could at least in part result from local atrophy. We conducted a series of voxel-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)-GMv analyses to highlight whether age-related under- and

  7. Erythropoietin promotes neurovascular remodeling and long-term functional recovery in rats following traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruizhuo Ning; Ye Xiong; Asim Mahmood; Yanlu Zhang; Yuling Meng; Changsheng Qu; Michael Chopp

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was designed to investigate long-term (3months) effects of EPO on brain remodeling and functional recovery in rats after TBI. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral controlled cortical impact injury. TBI rats were divided into the following groups: (1) saline group (n=7); (2) EPO-6h group (n=8); and

  8. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain Autopsy The Key to Understanding FTD A brain autopsy is essential to obtain a definitive diagnosis ... sense of closure. People who participate in a brain donation program should receive an autopsy report with ...

  9. Functional connectivity in the mouse brain imaged by B-mode photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Xing, Wenxin; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing use of mouse models for human brain disease studies, coupled with the fact that existing functional imaging modalities cannot be easily applied to mice, presents an emerging need for a new functional imaging modality. Utilizing acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we imaged spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations and their associated functional connections in the mouse brain. The images were acquired noninvasively in B-scan mode with a fast frame rate, a large field of view, and a high spatial resolution. At a location relative to the bregma 0, correlations were investigated inter-hemispherically between bilaterally homologous regions, as well as intra-hemispherically within the same functional regions. The functional connectivity in different functional regions was studied. The locations of these regions agreed well with the Paxinos mouse brain atlas. The functional connectivity map obtained in this study can then be used in the investigation of brain disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, autism, and epilepsy. Our experiments show that photoacoustic microscopy is capable to detect connectivities between different functional regions in B-scan mode, promising a powerful functional imaging modality for future brain research.

  10. Structural plasticity of the adult brain: how animal models help us understand brain changes in depression and systemic disorders related to depression

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    The brain interprets experiences and translates them into behavioral and physiological responses. Stressful events are those which are threatening or, at the very least, unexpected and surprising, and the physiological and behavioral responses are intended to promote adaptation via a process called “allostasis. ” Chemical mediators of allostasis include cortisol and adrenalin from the adrenal glands, other hormones, and neurotransmitters, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, and cytokines and chemokines from the immune system. Two brain structures, the amygdala and hippocampus, play key roles in interpreting what is stressful and determining appropriate responses. The hippocampus, a key structure for memories of events and contexts, expresses receptors that enable it to respond to glucocorticoid hormones in the blood, it undergoes atrophy in a number of psychiatric disorders; it also responds to stressors with changes in excitability, decreased dendritic branching, and reduction in number of neurons in the dentate gyrus. The amygdala, which is important for “emotional memories, ” becomes hyperactive in posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive illness, in animal models of stress, there is evidence for growth and hypertrophy of nerve cells in the amygdala. Changes in the brain after acute and chronic stressors mirror the pattern seen in the metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune systems, that is, short-term adaptation (allostasis) followed by long-term damage (allostatic load), eg, atherosclerosis, fat deposition obesity, bone demineralization, and impaired immune function. Allostatic load of this kind is seen in major depressive illness and may also be expressed in other chronic anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:22034132

  11. Researchers' big data crisis; understanding design and functionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Stonebraker; Jason Hong

    2012-01-01

    The Communications Web site, http:\\/\\/cacm.acm.org, features more than a dozen bloggers in the BLOG@CACM community. In each issue of Communications, we'll publish selected posts or excerpts.twitterFollow us on Twitter at http:\\/\\/twitter.com\\/blogCACMhttp:\\/\\/cacm.acm.org\\/blogs\\/blog-cacmMichael Stonebraker issues a call to arms about research groups' data-management problems. Jason Hong discusses the nature of functionality with respect to design.

  12. The degree to which genes and environment determine brain structure and function is of fundamental importance. Large-

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    significantly influenced cortical structure in Broca's and Wernicke's language areas, as well as frontal brainThe degree to which genes and environment determine brain structure and function is of fundamental-specific patterns of gene and brain function in large human populations1,2. Yet, little is known about the genetic

  13. Functional brain activation to emotional and nonemotional faces in healthy children: Evidence for developmentally

    E-print Network

    for developmentally undifferentiated amygdala function during the school-age period David Pagliaccio & Joan L. Luby of the amygdala's functional role in humans consistently noted that the amygdala is significantly involvedFunctional brain activation to emotional and nonemotional faces in healthy children: Evidence

  14. Perfusion-based high-resolution functional imaging in the human brain at 7 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Pfeuffer; Gregor Adriany; Amir Shmuel; Essa Yacoub; Pierre-Francois Van De Moortele; Xiaoping Hu; Kamil Ugurbil

    2002-01-01

    Perfusion-based MRI measures cerebral blood flow (CBF) at the capillary level and can be used for functional studies based on the tight spatial coupling between brain activity and blood flow. Obtaining functional CBF maps with high spatial resolution is a major challenge because the CBF signal is intrinsically low and the SNR is critical. In the present work, CBF-based functional

  15. The blue brain project.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2006-02-01

    IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND AWARENESS OF FUNCTION UNDERSTANDING IN FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    Hasto, Peter

    DEVELOPMENT AND AWARENESS OF FUNCTION UNDERSTANDING IN FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Olli function concept, and of their awareness of this development. Our study indicates that students' function and their awareness of it. Keywords: function, conceptual development, self-awareness, teacher education INTRODUCTION

  17. Impairment of Glymphatic Pathway Function Promotes Tau Pathology after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael J.; Plog, Benjamin A.; Zeppenfeld, Douglas M.; Soltero, Melissa; Yang, Lijun; Singh, Itender; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an established risk factor for the early development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and the post-traumatic brain frequently exhibits neurofibrillary tangles comprised of aggregates of the protein tau. We have recently defined a brain-wide network of paravascular channels, termed the “glymphatic” pathway, along which CSF moves into and through the brain parenchyma, facilitating the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-?, from the brain. Here we demonstrate in mice that extracellular tau is cleared from the brain along these paravascular pathways. After TBI, glymphatic pathway function was reduced by ?60%, with this impairment persisting for at least 1 month post injury. Genetic knock-out of the gene encoding the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4, which is importantly involved in paravascular interstitial solute clearance, exacerbated glymphatic pathway dysfunction after TBI and promoted the development of neurofibrillary pathology and neurodegeneration in the post-traumatic brain. These findings suggest that chronic impairment of glymphatic pathway function after TBI may be a key factor that renders the post-traumatic brain vulnerable to tau aggregation and the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:25471560

  18. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

  19. Call for startup project applications `brain function and dysfunction' The University Research Profile Area Brain Function and Dysfunction over the Lifespan invites

    E-print Network

    Galis, Frietson

    Call for startup project applications `brain function and dysfunction' The University Research startup projects. This is the first call with a submission deadline on November 1, 2010. Three projects will be selected. A second and third call will follow in 2011 and 2012. The goal of these startup projects

  20. Hintz et al, Real-time neonatal optical functional brain imaging 335 J. Perinat. Med. Bedside functional imaging of the premature infant brain

    E-print Network

    Hintz et al, Real-time neonatal optical functional brain imaging 335 J. Perinat. Med. Bedside Biomedical Optics Group, Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Stanford University School, these modalities are not feasible in many intensive care situations due to the problems and hazards of moving

  1. Diagnosing and managing functional visual complications after brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Allison; Helen Gabriel; Darrell Schlange

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundBrain injury caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) hemorrhage is an uncommon occurrence in a teenager. An AVM is a congenital anomaly of unknown etiology, often described as a tangle of arteries and veins that may vary in length and width leading to a loss of capillary bed. The vessels can break down with time and cause hemorrhage or aneurysm.

  2. The blood–brain barrier and immune function and dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Banks; Michelle A. Erickson

    2010-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is the monocellular interface that divides the peripheral circulation from direct contact with the central nervous system (CNS). This interface consists of several parallel barriers that include most notably the capillary bed of the CNS and the choroid plexus. These barriers at one level create the dichotomy between the circulating factors of the immune system and

  3. N -Acetylaspartate in the Vertebrate Brain: Metabolism and Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris H. Baslow

    2003-01-01

    N-Acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) is an amino acid that is present in the vertebrate brain. Its concentration is one of the highest of all free amino acids and, although NAA is synthesized and stored primarily in neurons, it cannot be hydrolyzed in these cells. Furthermore, neuronal NAA is dynamic and turns over more than once each day by virtue of its continuous

  4. Noninvasive Functional Imaging of Human Brain Using Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Benaron; Susan R. Hintz; Arno Villringer; David Boas; Andreas Kleinschmidt; Jens Frahm; Christina Hirth; Hellmuth Obrig; John C. van Houten; Eben L. Kermit; Wai-Fung Cheong; David K. Stevenson

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of photon transit time for low-power light passing into the head, and through both skull and brain, of human subjects allowed for tomographic imaging of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation based on photon diffusion theory. In healthy adults, imaging of changes in hemoglobin saturation during hand movement revealed focal, contralateral increases in motor cortex oxygenation with spatial agreement to activation maps

  5. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  6. Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Hickok; David Poeppel

    2004-01-01

    Despite intensive work on language–brain relations, and a fairly impressive accumulation of knowledge over the last several decades, there has been little progress in developing large-scale models of the functional anatomy of language that integrate neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and psycholinguistic data. Drawing on relatively recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, we

  7. Understanding Interpersonal Function in Psychiatric Illness Through Multiplayer Economic Games

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal factors play significant roles in the onset, maintenance, and remission of psychiatric conditions. In the current major diagnostic classification systems for psychiatric disorders, some conditions are defined by the presence of impairments in social interaction or maintaining interpersonal relationships; these include autism, social phobia, and the personality disorders. Other psychopathologies confer significant difficulties in the social domain, including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. Still other mental health conditions, including substance abuse and eating disorders, seem to be exacerbated or triggered in part by the influence of social peers. For each of these and other psychiatric conditions, the extent and quality of social support is a strong determinant of outcome such that high social support predicts symptom improvement and remission. Despite the central role of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness, the neurobiology of social impairments remains largely unexplored, in part due to difficulties eliciting and quantifying interpersonal processes in a parametric manner. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging, combined with multiplayer exchange games drawn from behavioral economics, and computational/quantitative approaches more generally, provide a fitting paradigm within which to study interpersonal function and dysfunction in psychiatric conditions. In this review, we outline the importance of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness and discuss ways in which neuroeconomics provides a tractable framework within which to examine the neurobiology of social dysfunction. PMID:22579510

  8. Lymph node dissection – understanding the immunological function of lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, M; Bode, U

    2012-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) are one of the important sites in the body where immune responses to pathogenic antigens are initiated. This immunological function induced by cells within the LN is an extensive area of research. To clarify the general function of LN, to identify cell populations within the lymphatic system and to describe the regeneration of the lymph vessels, the experimental surgical technique of LN dissection has been established in various animal models. In this review different research areas in which LN dissection is used as an experimental tool will be highlighted. These include regeneration studies, immunological analysis and studies with clinical questions. LN were dissected in order to analyse the different cell subsets of the incoming lymph in detail. Furthermore, LN were identified as the place where the induction of an antigen-specific response occurs and, more significantly, where this immune response is regulated. During bacterial infection LN, as a filter of the lymph system, play a life-saving role. In addition, LN are essential for the induction of tolerance against harmless antigens, because tolerance could not be induced in LN-resected animals. Thus, the technique of LN dissection is an excellent and simple method to identify the important role of LN in immune responses, tolerance and infection. PMID:22861359

  9. Updates and future horizons on the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of Sturge–Weber syndrome brain involvement

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Warren; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Ball, Karen L; Juhász, Csaba; Jordan, Lori C.; Ewen, Joshua B.; Comi, Anne

    2011-01-01

    AIM To review recent developments in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS). METHOD Members of the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium Sturge–Weber National Workgroup contributed their expertise, to review the literature, and present promising directions for research. RESULTS The increasing number of reports dealing with SWS over the last decade reflects progress in the diagnosis and understanding of the neurological involvement. The proliferation of centers and advocacy groups to care for patients with SWS and to stimulate research has aided the development of new insights into the clinical manifestations and the pathophysiology of neurological progression, and the development of novel hypotheses to direct future research. Many key questions remain, but the tools and networks to answer them are being developed. INTERPRETATION This review summarizes important new knowledge and presents new research directions that are likely to provide further insights, earlier diagnosis, improved treatments, and possibly, prevention of this syndrome. PMID:22191476

  10. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitive functions such as memory and…

  11. Non-Invasive Quantification of Absolute Cerebral Blood Volume During Functional Activation Applicable to the Whole Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, Robert Todd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in many diverse pathologic conditions, and in response to functional challenges along with changes in blood flow, blood oxygenation, and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. The feasibility of a new method for non-invasive quantification of absolute cerebral blood volume that can be applicable to the whole human brain was investigated. Methods Multi-slice data were acquired at 3 T using a novel inversion recovery echo planar imaging (IR-EPI) pulse sequence with varying contrast weightings and an efficient rotating slice acquisition order, at rest and during visual activation. A biophysical model was used to estimate absolute cerebral blood volume at rest and during activation, and oxygenation during activation, on data from 13 normal human subjects. Results Cerebral blood volume increased by 21.7% from 6.6±0.8 mL/100 mL of brain parenchyma at rest to 8.0±1.3 mL/100 mL of brain parenchyma in the occipital cortex during visual activation, with average blood oxygenation of 84±2.1% during activation, comparing well with literature. Conclusion The method is feasible, and could foster improved understanding of the fundamental physiological relationship between neuronal activity, hemodynamic changes, and metabolism underlying brain activation; complement existing methods for estimating compartmental changes; and potentially find utility in evaluating vascular health. PMID:23475774

  12. Functional brain connectivity using fMRI in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Emily L; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-03-01

    Normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cause profound changes in the brain's structure and function. AD in particular is accompanied by widespread cortical neuronal loss, and loss of connections between brain systems. This degeneration of neural pathways disrupts the functional coherence of brain activation. Recent innovations in brain imaging have detected characteristic disruptions in functional networks. Here we review studies examining changes in functional connectivity, measured through fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), starting with healthy aging and then Alzheimer's disease. We cover studies that employ the three primary methods to analyze functional connectivity--seed-based, ICA (independent components analysis), and graph theory. At the end we include a brief discussion of other methodologies, such as EEG (electroencephalography), MEG (magnetoencephalography), and PET (positron emission tomography). We also describe multi-modal studies that combine rsfMRI (resting state fMRI) with PET imaging, as well as studies examining the effects of medications. Overall, connectivity and network integrity appear to decrease in healthy aging, but this decrease is accelerated in AD, with specific systems hit hardest, such as the default mode network (DMN). Functional connectivity is a relatively new topic of research, but it holds great promise in revealing how brain network dynamics change across the lifespan and in disease. PMID:24562737

  13. Handedness- and brain size-related efficiency differences in small-world brain networks: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Meiling; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Chen, Heng; Lu, Fengmei; Wu, Guorong; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-05-01

    The human brain has been described as a complex network, which integrates information with high efficiency. However, the relationships between the efficiency of human brain functional networks and handedness and brain size remain unclear. Twenty-one left-handed and 32 right-handed healthy subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding Pearson correlation matrices of 90 cortical and subcortical regions. Graph theory-based methods were employed to further analyze their topological properties. As expected, all participants demonstrated small-world topology, suggesting a highly efficient topological structure. Furthermore, we found that smaller brains showed higher local efficiency, whereas larger brains showed higher global efficiency, reflecting a suitable efficiency balance between local specialization and global integration of brain functional activity. Compared with right-handers, significant alterations in nodal efficiency were revealed in left-handers, involving the anterior and median cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, angular gyrus, and amygdala. Our findings indicated that the functional network organization in the human brain was associated with handedness and brain size. PMID:25535788

  14. Functional brain connectivity from EEG in epilepsy: seizure prediction and epileptogenic focus localization.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Pieter; Papadopoulou, Margarita; Carrette, Evelien; Boon, Paul; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vonck, Kristl; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    Today, neuroimaging techniques are frequently used to investigate the integration of functionally specialized brain regions in a network. Functional connectivity, which quantifies the statistical dependencies among the dynamics of simultaneously recorded signals, allows to infer the dynamical interactions of segregated brain regions. In this review we discuss how the functional connectivity patterns obtained from intracranial and scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings reveal information about the dynamics of the epileptic brain and can be used to predict upcoming seizures and to localize the seizure onset zone. The added value of extracting information that is not visibly identifiable in the EEG data using functional connectivity analysis is stressed. Despite the fact that many studies have showed promising results, we must conclude that functional connectivity analysis has not made its way into clinical practice yet. PMID:25014528

  15. COMT Val158Met and cognitive and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Catherine; Withiel, Toni; Ponsford, Jennie; Burke, Richard

    2014-09-01

    There is significant variability in long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), making accurate prognosis difficult. In seeking to enhance understanding of outcomes, this study aimed to investigate whether COMT Val(158)Met allele status was associated with performance on neuropsychological measures of attention and working memory, executive functioning, learning and memory, and speed of information processing in the early rehabilitation phase. The study also aimed to examine whether the COMT polymorphism was associated with longer-term functional outcomes. A total of 223 participants (71.3% male) with moderate-to-severe TBI were recruited as rehabilitation inpatients to participate in a prospective, longitudinal head injury outcome study. The three COMT genotype groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met) were well matched for estimated full-scale IQ, years of education, age at injury, and injury severity. Results showed no significant difference between genotypes on neuropsychological measures (all p>0.05) or functional outcome, as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), after controlling for age, education, and severity of injury. The presence of frontal lobe pathology was also not associated with cognitive performance. Those with greater injury severity (i.e., longer duration of post-traumatic amnesia) performed more poorly on measures of processing speed and verbal new learning and recall. It was concluded that there was little support for the influence of COMT Val(158)Met on cognitive function, or functional outcome measures, in the acute rehabilitation phase after TBI. PMID:24786534

  16. Functional optoacoustic neuro-tomography (FONT) for whole-brain monitoring of calcium indicators

    E-print Network

    Sela, Gali; Deán-Ben, X Luís; Kneipp, Moritz; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Shoham, Shy; Westmeyer, Gil G; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive observation of spatiotemporal neural activity of large neural populations distributed over entire brains is a longstanding goal of neuroscience. We developed a real-time volumetric and multispectral optoacoustic tomography platform for imaging of neural activation deep in scattering brains. The system can record 100 volumetric frames per second across a 200mm3 field of view and spatial resolutions below 70um. Experiments performed in immobilized and freely swimming larvae and in adult zebrafish brains demonstrate, for the first time, the fundamental ability to optoacoustically track neural calcium dynamics in animals labeled with genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5G, while overcoming the longstanding penetration barrier of optical imaging in scattering brains. The newly developed platform offers unprecedented capabilities for functional whole-brain observations of fast calcium dynamics; in combination with optoacoustics' well-established capacity in resolving vascular hemodynamics, it co...

  17. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  18. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  19. People can understand descriptions of motion without activating visual motion brain regions

    E-print Network

    Bedny, Marina

    What is the relationship between our perceptual and linguistic neural representations of the same event? We approached this question by asking whether visual perception of motion and understanding linguistic depictions of ...

  20. Understanding Nuclear Receptor Form and Function Using Structural Biology

    PubMed Central

    Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Huang, Pengxiang; Chandra, Vikas; Khorasanizadeh, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a major transcription factor family whose members selectively bind small molecule lipophilic ligands and transduce those signals into specific changes in gene programs. For over two decades, structural biology efforts were directed exclusively on the individual ligand binding domains (LBDs) or DNA binding domains (DBDs) of NRs. These analyses revealed the basis for both ligand and DNA binding, and also revealed receptor conformations representing both the activated and repressed states. Additionally, crystallographic studies explained how NR LBD surfaces recognize discrete portions of transcriptional coregulators. The many structural snapshots of LBDs have also guided the development of synthetic ligands with therapeutic potential. Yet, the exclusive structural focus on isolated NR domains has made it difficult to conceptualize how all the NR polypeptide segments are coordinated physically and functionally in the context of receptor quaternary architectures. Newly emerged crystal structures of the PPAR?-RXR? heterodimer and HNF-4? homodimer have recently revealed the higher order organizations of these receptor complexes on DNA, as well as the complexity and uniqueness of their domain-domain interfaces. These emerging structural advances promise to better explain how signals in one domain can be allosterically transmitted to distal receptor domains, also providing much better frameworks for guiding future drug discovery efforts. PMID:24103914

  1. Resting State Brain Function Analysis Using Concurrent BOLD in ASL Perfusion fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Senhua; Fang, Zhuo; Hu, Siyuan; Wang, Ze; Rao, Hengyi

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen astounding discoveries about resting-state brain activity patterns in normal brain as well as their alterations in brain diseases. While the vast majority of resting-state studies are based on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI), arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI can simultaneously capture BOLD and cerebral blood flow (CBF) signals, providing a unique opportunity for assessing resting brain functions with concurrent BOLD (ccBOLD) and CBF signals. Before taking that benefit, it is necessary to validate the utility of ccBOLD signal for resting-state analysis using conventional BOLD (cvBOLD) signal acquired without ASL modulations. To address this technical issue, resting cvBOLD and ASL perfusion MRI were acquired from a large cohort (n?=?89) of healthy subjects. Four widely used resting-state brain function analyses were conducted and compared between the two types of BOLD signal, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis, independent component analysis (ICA), analysis of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo). Consistent default mode network (DMN) as well as other resting-state networks (RSNs) were observed from cvBOLD and ccBOLD using PCC-FC analysis and ICA. ALFF from both modalities were the same for most of brain regions but were different in peripheral regions suffering from the susceptibility gradients induced signal drop. ReHo showed difference in many brain regions, likely reflecting the SNR and resolution differences between the two BOLD modalities. The DMN and auditory networks showed highest CBF values among all RSNs. These results demonstrated the feasibility of ASL perfusion MRI for assessing resting brain functions using its concurrent BOLD in addition to CBF signal, which provides a potentially useful way to maximize the utility of ASL perfusion MRI. PMID:23750275

  2. Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Wightman, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

  3. Dietary Polyphenols as Modulators of Brain Functions: Biological Actions and Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Their Beneficial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vauzour, David

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and to improve cognitive function. In particular, polyphenols have been reported to exert their neuroprotective actions through the potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of polyphenols, they are still mistakenly regarded as simply acting as antioxidants. However, recent evidence suggests that their beneficial effects involve decreases in oxidative/inflammatory stress signaling, increases in protective signaling and neurohormetic effects leading to the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors, and cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin-FoxO pathway, the NF-?B pathway, and the Nrf-2/ARE pathway. Together, these processes act to maintain brain homeostasis and play important roles in neuronal stress adaptation and thus polyphenols have the potential to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies. PMID:22701758

  4. Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function1

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David O.; Wightman, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

  5. Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture Derived from Graph Theoretical Analysis in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Brown, Jesse A.; Dassanayake, Maya T.; Shastri, Rupal; Marusak, Hilary A.; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The human brain undergoes dramatic maturational changes during late stages of fetal and early postnatal life. The importance of this period to the establishment of healthy neural connectivity is apparent in the high incidence of neural injury in preterm infants, in whom untimely exposure to ex-uterine factors interrupts neural connectivity. Though the relevance of this period to human neuroscience is apparent, little is known about functional neural networks in human fetal life. Here, we apply graph theoretical analysis to examine human fetal brain connectivity. Utilizing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 33 healthy human fetuses, 19 to 39 weeks gestational age (GA), our analyses reveal that the human fetal brain has modular organization and modules overlap functional systems observed postnatally. Age-related differences between younger (GA <31 weeks) and older (GA?31 weeks) fetuses demonstrate that brain modularity decreases, and connectivity of the posterior cingulate to other brain networks becomes more negative, with advancing GA. By mimicking functional principles observed postnatally, these results support early emerging capacity for information processing in the human fetal brain. Current technical limitations, as well as the potential for fetal fMRI to one day produce major discoveries about fetal origins or antecedents of neural injury or disease are discussed. PMID:24788455

  6. Toward understanding the function of amelogenin using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki-O'Connor, K; Nakata, K; Young, M F

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic mouse lines as a tool to investigate the function of amelogenin during mineralization by causing ectopic production of amelogenin and studying its effect. The mouse amelogenin (mAme) was cloned from a 16-day-old whole mouse embryo cDNA library and was determined to be "full-length" mouse amelogenin (with a complete coding region) by comparison with the mouse amelogenin reported previously by Snead et al. (1985) and Lau et al. (1992). The overexpression construct contained: (1) the rat osteocalcin (OC) promoter (1.8 kb); (2) the adenovirus splicing casettes, including introgenic (Int) sequence (0.3 kb); (3) the full-length mAme cDNA (0.8 kb); and (4) the polyadenylation signal sequence from the pSG5 mammalian expression vector. Both Southern blotting and polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) analyses were performed, by means of a specific probe and a pair of oligodeoxynucleotides to OcIntmAme(A)+, respectively. The animals which showed transgene-positive in both analyses were further used to establish F1 animals. Heterozygocity was confirmed with F1 animals by PCR analysis of DNA from the F0 x FVB/N pups. Three independent transgenic F1 heterozygous lines (640t, 706t, and 708t) have now been established. The generation of F2 homozygous lines is under way. The heterozygous transgenic animals are currently being analyzed for alterations in the morphology and structure of various bone tissues. PMID:9206339

  7. Functional imaging of the brain by infrared radiation (thermoencephaloscopy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor A. Shevelev

    1998-01-01

    A technique for thermal imaging of the animal and human brain cortex using an infrared optical system is described. Thermoencephaloscopy (TES) is based on improved thermovision and image processing techniques and allows two-dimensional, contact-free, dynamic and non-invasive recording of background and evoked cortical activity through an unopened skull. Activated (heated) and deactivated (cooled) zones of the cerebral cortex are revealed.

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance-Guided Brain Tumor Resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Kim; Charles L. Truwit; Walter A. Hall

    \\u000a The ultimate goal of brain tumor surgery is maximum tumor removal without the development of a new neurologic deficit. This\\u000a is especially true in the treatment of intraparenchymal tumors such as gliomas and metastatic lesions. In the treatment of\\u000a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), for example, gross total resection (GTR) has been demonstrated in a number of studies to be\\u000a one of

  9. Temporal and Functional Relationship of Brain Maturation and Behavioural Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. GÜttinger; K. W. Kafitz; S. Stocker-Buschina

    \\u000a The song system is a model for studying the influence of steroids on the development of brain and behaviour [4, 14, 19]. It consists of anatomically discrete nuclei, that are sexually dimorphic and target regions for steroids [1, 7, chapter\\u000a by Lipp and Wolfer, present volume]. The main descending pathway for motor control of song production (Fig. 1) includes the

  10. Understanding the Role of Conscientiousness in Healthy Aging: Where Does the Brain Come In?

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In reviewing this impressive series of articles, I was struck by two points in particular: (1) the fact that the empirically-oriented articles focused on analyses of data from very large samples, with the two papers by Friedman and colleagues highlighting an approach to merging existing datasets through use of “metric bridges” in order to address key questions not addressable through one dataset alone, and (2) the fact that the articles as a whole included limited mention of neuroscientific (i.e., brain research) concepts, methods, and findings. One likely reason for the lack of reference to brain-oriented work is the persisting gap between smaller-N lab-experimental and larger-N multivariate-correlational approaches to psychological research. As a strategy for addressing this gap and bringing a distinct neuroscientific component to the National Institute on Aging’s conscientiousness and health initiative, I suggest that the metric bridging approach highlighted by Friedman and colleagues could be used to connect existing large-scale datasets containing both neurophysiological variables and measures of individual difference constructs to other datasets containing richer arrays of non-physiological variables—including data from longitudinal or twin studies focusing on personality and health-related outcomes (e.g., Terman Life Cycle study and Hawaii longitudinal studies, as described in the article by Kern et al.). PMID:24773108

  11. Resting-state functional connectivity imaging of the mouse brain using photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Xia, Jun; Wan, Hanlin; Bauer, Adam Q.; Culver, Joseph P.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) imaging is an emerging neuroimaging approach that aims to identify spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations and their associated functional connections. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RSFC is altered in brain disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's, autism, and epilepsy. However, conventional neuroimaging modalities cannot easily be applied to mice, the most widely used model species for human brain disease studies. For instance, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of mice requires a very high magnetic field to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Functional connectivity mapping with optical intrinsic signal imaging (fcOIS) is an alternative method. Due to the diffusion of light in tissue, the spatial resolution of fcOIS is limited, and experiments have been performed using an exposed skull preparation. In this study, we show for the first time, the use of photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) to noninvasively image resting-state functional connectivity in the mouse brain, with a large field of view and a high spatial resolution. Bilateral correlations were observed in eight regions, as well as several subregions. These findings agreed well with the Paxinos mouse brain atlas. This study showed that PACT is a promising, non-invasive modality for small-animal functional brain imaging.

  12. Evaluation of cerebral function using iomazenil SPECT for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yasushi; Endo, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries demonstrate various symptoms, including the disturbance of higher brain function, which is not visualized as a morphological lesion on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We examined the use of iomazenil single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for patients with traumatic brain injury and evaluated its diagnostic value. The study population included patients who were admitted to our hospital for traumatic brain injuries. All patients survived and were discharged from our hospital. MR imaging and iomazenil SPECT were examined during the acute and/or chronic phases. MR images were acquired using a 1.5-T clinical instrument. The T1- and T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) axial images were evaluated. SPECT images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine 3 h after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of iomazenil. Axial, statistically analyzed images and stereotactic extraction estimation images were reconstructed and evaluated statistically based on the Z-score for each cerebral cortex. Iomazenil SPECT showed various lesions that were not demonstrated by MR imaging. Some clinical symptoms correlated with the iomazenil SPECT findings. Iomazenil SPECT is thus considered to be valuable for evaluating both brain lesions and the brain function after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23564143

  13. Individual Differences in Brain Structure and Resting Brain Function Underlie Cognitive Styles: Evidence from the Embedded Figures Test

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT) score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)] / functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style. PMID:24348991

  14. Functional imaging of the brain with/sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M; Greenberg, J; Alavi, A; Hand, P; Rintelmann, W; Rosenquist, A; Christman, D; Fowler, J; MacGregor, R; Wolf, A

    1980-01-01

    A techniques is reported by which it is possible to determine which regions of the human brain become functionally active in response to a specific stimulus. The method utilizes /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 18/F)-FDG) administered as a bolus. (/sup 18/F)-FDG is used as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation. The subject is then scanned during administration of a physiologic stimulus by position emission tomography and the three-dimensional distribution of /sup 18/F activity in the brain determined. (ACR)

  15. A detailed method for preparation of a functional and flexible blood–brain barrier model using porcine brain endothelial cells?

    PubMed Central

    Patabendige, Adjanie; Skinner, Robert A.; Morgan, Louise; Joan Abbott, N.

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels and forms the critical interface regulating molecular flux between blood and brain. It contributes to homoeostasis of the microenvironment of the central nervous system and protection from pathogens and toxins. Key features of the BBB phenotype are presence of complex intercellular tight junctions giving a high transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and strongly polarised (apical:basal) localisation of transporters and receptors. In vitro BBB models have been developed from primary culture of brain endothelial cells of several mammalian species, but most require exposure to astrocytic factors to maintain the BBB phenotype. Other limitations include complicated procedures for isolation, poor yield and batch-to-batch variability. Some immortalised brain endothelial cell models have proved useful for transport studies but most lack certain BBB features and have low TEER. We have developed an in vitro BBB model using primary cultured porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) which is relatively simple to prepare, robust, and reliably gives high TEER (mean?800 ? cm2); it also shows good functional expression of key tight junction proteins, transporters, receptors and enzymes. The model can be used either in monoculture, for studies of molecular flux including permeability screening, or in co-culture with astrocytes when certain specialised features (e.g. receptor-mediated transcytosis) need to be maximally expressed. It is also suitable for a range of studies of cell:cell interaction in normal physiology and in pathology. The method for isolating and growing the PBECs is given in detail to facilitate adoption of the model. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Companion Paper. PMID:23603406

  16. Convergent functional genomics of schizophrenia: from comprehensive understanding to genetic risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, M; Le-Niculescu, H; Levey, D F; Jain, N; Changala, B; Patel, S D; Winiger, E; Breier, A; Shekhar, A; Amdur, R; Koller, D; Nurnberger, J I; Corvin, A; Geyer, M; Tsuang, M T; Salomon, D; Schork, N J; Fanous, A H; O'Donovan, M C; Niculescu, A B

    2012-09-01

    We have used a translational convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach to identify and prioritize genes involved in schizophrenia, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study data with other genetic and gene expression studies in humans and animal models. Using this polyevidence scoring and pathway analyses, we identify top genes (DISC1, TCF4, MBP, MOBP, NCAM1, NRCAM, NDUFV2, RAB18, as well as ADCYAP1, BDNF, CNR1, COMT, DRD2, DTNBP1, GAD1, GRIA1, GRIN2B, HTR2A, NRG1, RELN, SNAP-25, TNIK), brain development, myelination, cell adhesion, glutamate receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and cAMP-mediated signaling as key to pathophysiology and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Overall, the data are consistent with a model of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, resulting from the effects of neurodevelopmental environmental stress on a background of genetic vulnerability. In addition, we show how the top candidate genes identified by CFG can be used to generate a genetic risk prediction score (GRPS) to aid schizophrenia diagnostics, with predictive ability in independent cohorts. The GRPS also differentiates classic age of onset schizophrenia from early onset and late-onset disease. We also show, in three independent cohorts, two European American and one African American, increasing overlap, reproducibility and consistency of findings from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genes, then genes prioritized by CFG, and ultimately at the level of biological pathways and mechanisms. Finally, we compared our top candidate genes for schizophrenia from this analysis with top candidate genes for bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders from previous CFG analyses conducted by us, as well as findings from the fields of autism and Alzheimer. Overall, our work maps the genomic and biological landscape for schizophrenia, providing leads towards a better understanding of illness, diagnostics and therapeutics. It also reveals the significant genetic overlap with other major psychiatric disorder domains, suggesting the need for improved nosology. PMID:22584867

  17. Functional Specialization in the Human Brain Estimated By Intrinsic Hemispheric Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    The human brain demonstrates functional specialization, including strong hemispheric asymmetries. Here specialization was explored using fMRI by examining the degree to which brain networks preferentially interact with ipsilateral as opposed to contralateral networks. Preferential within-hemisphere interaction was prominent in the heteromodal association cortices and minimal in the sensorimotor cortices. The frontoparietal control network exhibited strong within-hemisphere interactions but with distinct patterns in each hemisphere. The frontoparietal control network preferentially coupled to the default network and language-related regions in the left hemisphere but to attention networks in the right hemisphere. This arrangement may facilitate control of processing functions that are lateralized. Moreover, the regions most linked to asymmetric specialization also display the highest degree of evolutionary cortical expansion. Functional specialization that emphasizes processing within a hemisphere may allow the expanded hominin brain to minimize between-hemisphere connectivity and distribute domain-specific processing functions. PMID:25209275

  18. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  19. College Students' Understanding of the Domain and Range of Functions on Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young Doo

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical concept of function has been revisited and further developed with regularity since its introduction in ancient Babylonia (Kleiner, 1989). The difficulty of the concept of a function contributes to complications when students learn of functions and their graphs (Leinhardt, Zaslavsky, & Stein, 1990). To understand the concept of…

  20. Study of brain functional network based on sample entropy of EEG under magnetic stimulation at PC6 acupoint.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Yao; Yu, Hongli; Yin, Ning; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Its therapeutic effectiveness has been proved by clinical practice. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear. Magnetic stimulation at acupuncture point provides a new means for studying the theory of acupuncture. Based on the Graph Theory, the construction and analysis method of complex network can help to investigate the topology of brain functional network and understand the working mechanism of brain. In this study, magnetic stimulation was used to stimulate Neiguan (PC6) acupoint and the EEG (Electroencephalograph) signal was recorded. Using non-linear method (Sample Entropy) and complex network theory, brain functional network based on EEG signal under magnetic stimulation at PC6 acupoint was constructed and analyzed. In addition, the features of complex network were comparatively analyzed between the quiescent and stimulated states. Our experimental results show the topology of the network is changed, the connection of the network is enhanced, the efficiency of information transmission is improved and the small-world property is strengthened through stimulating the PC6 acupoint. PMID:24211997

  1. Discovery of the presence and functional expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in brain.

    PubMed

    Onaivi, Emmanuel S; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Gong, Jian-Ping; Patel, Sejal; Perchuk, Alex; Meozzi, Paul A; Myers, Lester; Mora, Zoila; Tagliaferro, Patricia; Gardner, Eileen; Brusco, Alicia; Akinshola, Babatunde E; Liu, Qing-Rong; Hope, Bruce; Iwasaki, Shinya; Arinami, Tadao; Teasenfitz, Lindsey; Uhl, George R

    2006-08-01

    Two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CBrs), CB1 and CB2, mediate the effects of cannabinoids and marijuana use, with functional evidence for other CBrs. CB1 receptors are expressed primarily in brain and peripheral tissues. For over a decade several laboratories were unable to detect CB2 receptors in brain and were known to be intensely expressed in peripheral and immune tissues and have traditionally been referred to as peripheral CB2 CBrs. We have reported the discovery and functional presence of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in mammalian brain that may be involved in depression and drug abuse and this was supported by reports of identification of neuronal CB2 receptors that are involved in emesis. We used RT-PCR, immunoblotting, hippocampal cultures, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and stereotaxic techniques with behavioral assays to determine the functional expression of CB2 CBrs in rat brain and mice brain exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) or those treated with abused drugs. RT-PCR analyses supported the expression of brain CB2 receptor transcripts at levels much lower than those of CB1 receptors. In situ hybridization revealed CB2 mRNA in cerebellar neurons of wild-type but not of CB2 knockout mice. Abundant CB2 receptor immunoreactivity (iCB2) in neuronal and glial processes was detected in brain and CB2 expression was detected in neuron-specific enolase (NSE) positive hippocampal cell cultures. The effect of direct CB2 antisense oligonucleotide injection into the brain and treatment with JWH015 in motor function and plus-maze tests also demonstrated the functional presence of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, contrary to the prevailing view that CB2 CBrs are restricted to peripheral tissues and predominantly in immune cells, we demonstrated that CB2 CBrs and their gene transcripts are widely distributed in the brain. This multifocal expression of CB2 immunoreactivity in brain suggests that CB2 receptors may play broader roles in the brain than previously anticipated and may be exploited as new targets in the treatment of depression and substance abuse. PMID:17105950

  2. Brain and cognitive evolution: Forms of modularity and functions of mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Geary; Kelly J. Huffman

    2002-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological research is reviewed as related to controversy over the extent to which neocortical organization and associated cognitive functions are genetically constrained or emerge through patterns of developmental experience. An evolutionary framework that accommodates genetic constraint and experiential modification of brain organization and cognitive function is then proposed. The authors argue that 4 forms of modularity and 3

  3. Decreased Functional Brain Activation in Friedreich Ataxia Using the Simon Effect Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou-Karistianis, N.; Akhlaghi, H.; Corben, L. A.; Delatycki, M. B.; Storey, E.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Egan, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study applied the Simon effect task to examine the pattern of functional brain reorganization in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirteen individuals with FRDA and 14 age and sex matched controls participated, and were required to respond to either congruent or incongruent…

  4. GENERIC BRAIN ACTIVATION MAPPING IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. BRAMMER; E. T. BULLMORE; A. SIMMONS; S. C. R. WILLIAMS; P. M. GRASBYJ; R. J. HOWARD; P. W. R. WOODRUFF; S. RABE-HESKETH

    1997-01-01

    We report a novel method to identify brain regions generically activated by periodic experimental design in functional magnetic resonance imaging data. This involves: 1) registering each of N individual functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets in a standard space; 2) computing the median standardised power of response to the experimental design; 3) testing median standardised power at each voxel against its

  5. Pattern Classification of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks: Identification of Informative Neuroimaging Markers for Epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhang; Wei Cheng; ZhengGe Wang; ZhiQiang Zhang; WenLian Lu; GuangMing Lu; Jianfeng Feng

    2012-01-01

    The accurate prediction of general neuropsychiatric disorders, on an individual basis, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a challenging task of great clinical significance. Despite the progress to chart the differences between the healthy controls and patients at the group level, the pattern classification of functional brain networks across individuals is still less developed. In this paper we

  6. Monozygotic Twins with Asperger Syndrome: Differences in Behaviour Reflect Variations in Brain Structure and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Carper, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for symptoms of Asperger syndrome was evaluated at the age of 13.45 years using psychometric, morphometric, behavioural, and functional imaging methods. The lower-functioning twin had a smaller brain overall, a smaller right cerebellum, and a disproportionately large left frontal lobe, and manifested almost…

  7. The Role of Cognitive Functions in Communication: The Case of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Zettin; Livia Colle; Bruno G. Bara

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions such as attention, working memory, long-term memory, planning, i.e. executive functions, theory of mind, and pragmatic deficits resulting as a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Communicative disorders represent a typical outcome in TBI patients, even if their linguistic abilities remain virtually intact. We empirically investigated

  8. The Role of Executive Functioning and Coping in the Traumatic Brain Injury Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary C. Bayer

    2010-01-01

    The focus of traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation is typically to improve overall cognitive and physical functioning and to increase autonomy and satisfaction with life. The current study examined whether levels of executive functioning and coping strategies were sufficient to predict levels of community integration and life satisfaction in individuals living with a TBI (N=31). I used a series of

  9. Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhong, Jianhui; Ji, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Chen, Lihua; Zuo, Panli; Zhang, Long Jiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was repeated for a sub-group of 12 patients 1 month after LT. ReHo values were calculated to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis was carried to detect differences between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the change of ReHo with the change of clinical indexes pre- and post-LT. Compared to pre-LT, ReHo values increased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supplementary motor area (SMA), right STG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in patients post-LT. Compared to controls, ReHo values of post-LT patients decreased in the right precuneus, right SMA and increased in bilateral temporal pole, left caudate, left MFG, and right STG. The changes of ReHo in the right SMA, STG and IFG were correlated with change of digit symbol test (DST) scores (P < 0.05 uncorrected). This study found that, at 1 month after LT, spontaneous brain activity of most brain regions with decreased ReHo in pre-LT was substantially improved and nearly normalized, while spontaneous brain activity of some brain regions with increased ReHo in pre-LT continuously increased. ReHo may provide information on the neural mechanisms of LT' effects on brain function. PMID:25703240

  10. Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618. PMID:23405164

  11. [Functional brain lateralization in children: developmental theories and implication for developmental diseases].

    PubMed

    Hommet, C; Billard, C; de Toffol, B; Autret, A

    2003-11-01

    The functional specialization of each hemisphere in adults is now well accepted. Neuropsychology of hemispheric functioning in young children is a more debatable issue and must take into account additional factors such as development and maturation, characterized by complex changes in anatomy and organization. The first part of this review describes the theory behind the development of the functional organization of the brain. Second, we discuss data regarding brain lesions in children with brain damage and with normal development. We comment on the concept of plasticity and the critical period. We also discuss the neurobiological processes underlying the functional organization of the brain in the model of developmental disorders in children. We chose three disorders involving the left hemisphere (developmental dysphasia), both hemispheres (benign rolandic epilepsy) or the right hemisphere (congenital hydrocephalus) in order to examine their relationship to a specific hemispheric functional organization. We used classic neuropsychological tests such as the dichotic listening task, the dichaptic palpation and the time-sharing paradigm. The patterns observed in each pathology are discussed in light of data obtained in children with brain lesions. PMID:14710020

  12. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  13. Resting state functional MRI in Parkinson's disease: the impact of deep brain stimulation on 'effective' connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Joshua; Urner, Maren; Moran, Rosalyn; Flandin, Guillaume; Marreiros, Andre; Mancini, Laura; White, Mark; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl; Foltynie, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Depleted of dopamine, the dynamics of the parkinsonian brain impact on both 'action' and 'resting' motor behaviour. Deep brain stimulation has become an established means of managing these symptoms, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Non-invasive characterizations of induced brain responses, and the effective connectivity underlying them, generally appeals to dynamic causal modelling of neuroimaging data. When the brain is at rest, however, this sort of characterization has been limited to correlations (functional connectivity). In this work, we model the 'effective' connectivity underlying low frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in the resting Parkinsonian motor network-disclosing the distributed effects of deep brain stimulation on cortico-subcortical connections. Specifically, we show that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation modulates all the major components of the motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop, including the cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical, direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways, and the hyperdirect subthalamic nucleus projections. The strength of effective subthalamic nucleus afferents and efferents were reduced by stimulation, whereas cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical and direct pathways were strengthened. Remarkably, regression analysis revealed that the hyperdirect, direct, and basal ganglia afferents to the subthalamic nucleus predicted clinical status and therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation; however, suppression of the sensitivity of the subthalamic nucleus to its hyperdirect afferents by deep brain stimulation may subvert the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation. Our findings highlight the distributed effects of stimulation on the resting motor network and provide a framework for analysing effective connectivity in resting state functional MRI with strong a priori hypotheses. PMID:24566670

  14. Altered functional brain network connectivity and glutamate system function in transgenic mice expressing truncated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, N; Kurihara, M; Thomson, D M; Winchester, C L; McVie, A; Hedde, J R; Randall, A D; Shen, S; Seymour, P A; Hughes, Z A; Dunlop, J; Brown, J T; Brandon, N J; Morris, B J; Pratt, J A

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates DISC1 as a susceptibility gene for multiple psychiatric diseases. DISC1 has been intensively studied at the molecular, cellular and behavioral level, but its role in regulating brain connectivity and brain network function remains unknown. Here, we utilize a set of complementary approaches to assess the functional brain network abnormalities present in mice expressing a truncated Disc1 gene (Disc1tr Hemi mice). Disc1tr Hemi mice exhibited hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and reticular thalamus along with a reorganization of functional brain network connectivity that included compromised hippocampal–PFC connectivity. Altered hippocampal–PFC connectivity in Disc1tr Hemi mice was confirmed by electrophysiological analysis, with Disc1tr Hemi mice showing a reduced probability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release in the monosynaptic glutamatergic hippocampal CA1–PFC projection. Glutamate system dysfunction in Disc1tr Hemi mice was further supported by the attenuated cerebral metabolic response to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and decreased hippocampal expression of NMDAR subunits 2A and 2B in these animals. These data show that the Disc1 truncation in Disc1tr Hemi mice induces a range of translationally relevant endophenotypes underpinned by glutamate system dysfunction and altered brain connectivity. PMID:25989143

  15. A functional role for REM sleep in brain maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald A. Marks; James P. Shaffery; Arie Oksenberg; Samuel G. Speciale; Howard P. Roffwarg

    1995-01-01

    The biological function of REM sleep is defined in terms of the functions of neural processes that selectively operate during the REM sleep state. The high amounts of REM sleep expressed by the young during a period of central nervous system plasticity suggest that one function of REM sleep is in development. The phenomenon of activity-dependent development has been clearly

  16. Brain Insulin: A Sweet Deal for Normal Baroreflex Function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-06-03

    This presentation, given by APS Guest Speaker, Virginia L. Brooks, PhD, Oregon Health and Science University, describes normal and impaired baroreflex function, the conditions associated with impaired baroreflex function, and how insulin sensitivity plays a role in impaired baroreflex function. This presentation was given at the 25th Annual Human Anatomy and Physiology (HAPS) Conference, May 28-June 2, 2011.

  17. Functional brain networks formed using cross-sample entropy are scale free.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Walter S; Laurienti, Paul J; Burdette, Jonathan H; Hayasaka, Satoru

    2014-08-01

    Over the previous decade, there has been an explosion of interest in network science, in general, and its application to the human brain, in particular. Most brain network investigations to date have used linear correlations (LinCorr) between brain areas to construct and then interpret brain networks. In this study, we applied an entropy-based method to establish functional connectivity between brain areas. This method is sensitive to both nonlinear and linear associations. The LinCorr-based and entropy-based techniques were applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 10 subjects, and the resulting networks were compared. The networks derived from the entropy-based method exhibited power-law degree distributions. Moreover, the entropy-based networks had a higher clustering coefficient and a shorter path length compared with that of the LinCorr-based networks. While the LinCorr-based networks were assortative, with nodes with similar degrees preferentially connected, the entropy-based networks were disassortative, with high-degree hubs directly connected to low-degree nodes. It is likely that the differences in clustering and assortativity are due to "mega-hubs" in the entropy-based networks. These mega-hubs connect to a large majority of the nodes in the network. This is the first work clearly demonstrating differences between functional brain networks using linear and nonlinear techniques. The key finding is that the nonlinear technique produced networks with scale-free degree distributions. There remains debate among the neuroscience community as to whether human brains are scale free. These data support the argument that at least some aspects of the human brain are perhaps scale free. PMID:24946057

  18. To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have a thorough

    E-print Network

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have brevirostris is examined by anatomical dissection, electromyography and high-speed video analysis. Three types phase characteristic of some aquatically feeding vertebrates. During the compressive phase

  19. Bmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions

    E-print Network

    predominantly expressed in the mouse brain. In primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, Bmcc1s localizedBmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions and Cdc42GAP Homology) domain-containing protein Bmcc1/Prune2 is highly enriched in the brain

  20. Growth Points in Students' Developing Understanding of Function in Equation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronda, Erlina R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a research-based framework for analyzing and monitoring students' understanding of functions in equation form. The framework consists of "growth points" which describe "big ideas" of students' understanding of the concept. The data were collected from Grades 8, 9, and 10 students using a set of tasks involving linear and…

  1. Perspectives of a systems biology of the brain: the big data conundrum understanding psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Mewes, H W

    2013-05-01

    Psychiatric diseases provoke human tragedies. Asocial behaviour, mood imbalance, uncontrolled affect, and cognitive malfunction are the price for the biological and social complexity of neurobiology. To understand the etiology and to influence the onset and progress of mental diseases remains of upmost importance, but despite the much improved care for the patients, more then 100 years of research have not succeeded to understand the basic disease mechanisms and enabling rationale treatment. With the advent of the genome based technologies, much hope has been created to join the various dimension of -omics data to uncover the secrets of mental illness. Big Data as generated by -omics do not come with explanations. In this essay, I will discuss the inherent, not well understood methodological foundations and problems that seriously obstacle in striving for a quick success and may render lucky strikes impossible. PMID:23599241

  2. Brain Plasticity and Behaviour in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review general principles of brain development, identify basic principles of brain plasticity, and discuss factors that influence brain development and plasticity. Method: A literature review of relevant English-language manuscripts on brain development and plasticity was conducted. Results: Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. Eight basic principles of brain plasticity are identified. Evidence that brain development and function is influenced by different environmental events such as sensory stimuli, psychoactive drugs, gonadal hormones, parental-child relationships, peer relationships, early stress, intestinal flora, and diet. Conclusions: The development of the brain reflects more than the simple unfolding of a genetic blueprint but rather reflects a complex dance of genetic and experiential factors that shape the emerging brain. Understanding the dance provides insight into both normal and abnormal development. PMID:22114608

  3. Neurocognitive and Family Functioning and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Szabo, Margo M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from three case reports of young adult survivors and their mothers are analyzed according to the theoretical model and presented in this paper to illustrate the importance of key factors presented in the model. The influence of age at brain tumor diagnosis, family functioning, and family adaptation to illness on survivor quality of life and family outcomes are highlighted. Future directions for research and clinical care for this vulnerable group of survivors are discussed. PMID:21722062

  4. Incidental and Intentional Learning of Verbal Episodic Material Differentially Modifies Functional Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnert, Marie-Therese; Bialonski, Stephan; Noennig, Nina; Mai, Heinke; Hinrichs, Hermann; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Learning- and memory-related processes are thought to result from dynamic interactions in large-scale brain networks that include lateral and mesial structures of the temporal lobes. We investigate the impact of incidental and intentional learning of verbal episodic material on functional brain networks that we derive from scalp-EEG recorded continuously from 33 subjects during a neuropsychological test schedule. Analyzing the networks' global statistical properties we observe that intentional but not incidental learning leads to a significantly increased clustering coefficient, and the average shortest path length remains unaffected. Moreover, network modifications correlate with subsequent recall performance: the more pronounced the modifications of the clustering coefficient, the higher the recall performance. Our findings provide novel insights into the relationship between topological aspects of functional brain networks and higher cognitive functions. PMID:24260362

  5. Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueding; Pang, Yongjiang; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2003-07-01

    Imaging techniques based on optical contrast analysis can be used to visualize dynamic and functional properties of the nervous system via optical signals resulting from changes in blood volume, oxygen consumption and cellular swelling associated with brain physiology and pathology. Here we report in vivo noninvasive transdermal and transcranial imaging of the structure and function of rat brains by means of laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The advantage of PAT over pure optical imaging is that it retains intrinsic optical contrast characteristics while taking advantage of the diffraction-limited high spatial resolution of ultrasound. We accurately mapped rat brain structures, with and without lesions, and functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in cortical blood vessels around the whisker-barrel cortex in response to whisker stimulation. We also imaged hyperoxia- and hypoxia-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes. This neuroimaging modality holds promise for applications in neurophysiology, neuropathology and neurotherapy. PMID:12808463

  6. Common brain areas engaged in false belief reasoning and visual perspective taking: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Matthias; Aichhorn, Markus; Martin, Anna; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to identify brain areas which are commonly engaged in social and visuo-spatial perspective taking. Specifically, we compared brain activation for visual-perspective taking to activation for false belief reasoning, which requires awareness of perspective to understand someone's mistaken belief about the world which contrasts with reality. In support of a previous account by Perner and Leekam (2008), our meta-analytic conjunction analysis found common activation for false belief reasoning and visual perspective taking in the left but not the right dorsal temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). This fits with the idea that the left dorsal TPJ is responsible for representing different perspectives in a domain-general fashion. Moreover, our conjunction analysis found activation in the precuneus and the left middle occipital gyrus close to the putative Extrastriate Body Area (EBA). The precuneus is linked to mental-imagery which may aid in the construction of a different perspective. The EBA may be engaged due to imagined body-transformations when another's viewpoint is adopted. PMID:24198773

  7. Understanding your inhibitions: effects of GABA and GABAA receptor modulation on brain cortical metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Fatima A; Griffin, Julian L; Balcar, Vladimir J; Rae, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    A targeted neuropharmacological, (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical approach was used to examine the effects of exogenous GABA and ligands at the GABA(A) receptor family on brain metabolism in the Guinea pig cortical tissue slice. All ligands at GABA(A) receptors generated metabolic patterns which were distinct from one another with the major variance in the data arising because of metabolic work (shown by net flux into Krebs cycle byproducts and increased metabolic pool sizes). Three major clusters of metabolic signatures were identified which corresponded to: (i) activity at phasic (synaptic) GABA(A) receptors, dominated by alpha1-containing receptors and responsive to GABA at 10 micromol/L; (ii) activity at perisynaptic receptors, dominated by response to high (40 micromol/L) GABA and the superagonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, and C, activity at extrasynaptic receptors, dominated by response to low (0.1-1.0 micromol/L) GABA, zolpidem (400 nmol/L) and the non-specific allosteric modulator RO19-4603 (1 nmol/L). These results highlight the utility of a different but robust approach to study of the GABAergic system using metabolic systems analysis. PMID:19014380

  8. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. PMID:21416563

  9. Brain functional connectivity changes in children that differ in impulsivity temperamental trait

    PubMed Central

    Inuggi, Alberto; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; González-Salinas, Carmen; Valero-García, Ana V.; García-Santos, Jose M.; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core personality trait forming part of normal behavior and contributing to adaptive functioning. However, in typically developing children, altered patterns of impulsivity constitute a risk factor for the development of behavioral problems. Since both pathological and non-pathological states are commonly characterized by continuous transitions, we used a correlative approach to investigate the potential link between personality and brain dynamics. We related brain functional connectivity of typically developing children, measured with magnetic resonance imaging at rest, with their impulsivity scores obtained from a questionnaire completed by their parents. We first looked for areas within the default mode network (DMN) whose functional connectivity might be modulated by trait impulsivity. Then, we calculated the functional connectivity among these regions and the rest of the brain in order to assess if impulsivity trait altered their relationships. We found two DMN clusters located at the posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus which were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. The whole-brain correlation analysis revealed the classic network of correlating and anti-correlating areas with respect to the DMN. The impulsivity trait modulated such pattern showing that the canonical anti-phasic relation between DMN and action-related network was reduced in high impulsive children. These results represent the first evidence that the impulsivity, measured as personality trait assessed through parents' report, exerts a modulatory influence over the functional connectivity of resting state brain networks in typically developing children. The present study goes further to connect developmental approaches, mainly based on data collected through the use of questionnaires, and behavioral neuroscience, interested in how differences in brain structure and functions reflect in differences in behavior. PMID:24834038

  10. Brain functional connectivity changes in children that differ in impulsivity temperamental trait.

    PubMed

    Inuggi, Alberto; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; González-Salinas, Carmen; Valero-García, Ana V; García-Santos, Jose M; Fuentes, Luis J

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core personality trait forming part of normal behavior and contributing to adaptive functioning. However, in typically developing children, altered patterns of impulsivity constitute a risk factor for the development of behavioral problems. Since both pathological and non-pathological states are commonly characterized by continuous transitions, we used a correlative approach to investigate the potential link between personality and brain dynamics. We related brain functional connectivity of typically developing children, measured with magnetic resonance imaging at rest, with their impulsivity scores obtained from a questionnaire completed by their parents. We first looked for areas within the default mode network (DMN) whose functional connectivity might be modulated by trait impulsivity. Then, we calculated the functional connectivity among these regions and the rest of the brain in order to assess if impulsivity trait altered their relationships. We found two DMN clusters located at the posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus which were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. The whole-brain correlation analysis revealed the classic network of correlating and anti-correlating areas with respect to the DMN. The impulsivity trait modulated such pattern showing that the canonical anti-phasic relation between DMN and action-related network was reduced in high impulsive children. These results represent the first evidence that the impulsivity, measured as personality trait assessed through parents' report, exerts a modulatory influence over the functional connectivity of resting state brain networks in typically developing children. The present study goes further to connect developmental approaches, mainly based on data collected through the use of questionnaires, and behavioral neuroscience, interested in how differences in brain structure and functions reflect in differences in behavior. PMID:24834038

  11. Chronic ketamine exposure induces permanent impairment of brain functions in adolescent cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Li, Qi; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang; Yew, David T

    2014-03-01

    Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist, has emerged as an increasingly popular drug among young drug abusers worldwide. Available evidence suggests that ketamine produces acute impairments of working, episodic and semantic memory along with psychotogenic and dissociative effects when a single dose is given to healthy volunteers. However, understanding of the possible chronic effects of ketamine on behavior, cognitive anomalies and neurochemical homeostasis is still incomplete. Although previous human studies demonstrate that ketamine could impair a range of cognitive skills, investigation using non-human models would permit more precise exploration of the neurochemical mechanisms which may underlie the detrimental effects. The current study examined the abnormalities in behavior (move, walk, jump and climb) and apoptosis of the prefrontal cortex using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and apoptotic markers, including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in adolescent male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after 1 or 6 months of sub-anesthetic ketamine administration (1?mg/kg, i.v.). Results showed that ketamine decreased locomotor activity and increased cell death in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys with 6 months of ketamine treatment when compared with the control monkeys. Such decreases were not found in the 1-month ketamine-treated group. Our study suggested that ketamine administration of recreational dose in monkeys might produce permanent and irreversible deficits in brain functions due to neurotoxic effects, involving the activation of apoptotic pathways in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:23145560

  12. Defective Craniofacial Development and Brain Function in a Mouse Model for Depletion of Intracellular Inositol Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Murata, Takuya; Watanabe, Akiko; Hida, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mishima, Kazuo; Gondo, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    myo-Inositol is an essential biomolecule that is synthesized by myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) from inositol monophosphate species. The enzymatic activity of IMPase is inhibited by lithium, a drug used for the treatment of mood swings seen in bipolar disorder. Therefore, myo-inositol is thought to have an important role in the mechanism of bipolar disorder, although the details remain elusive. We screened an ethyl nitrosourea mutant mouse library for IMPase gene (Impa) mutations and identified an Impa1 T95K missense mutation. The mutant protein possessed undetectable enzymatic activity. Homozygotes died perinatally, and E18.5 embryos exhibited striking developmental defects, including hypoplasia of the mandible and asymmetric fusion of ribs to the sternum. Perinatal lethality and morphological defects in homozygotes were rescued by dietary myo-inositol. Rescued homozygotes raised on normal drinking water after weaning exhibited a hyper-locomotive trait and prolonged circadian periods, as reported in rodents treated with lithium. Our mice should be advantageous, compared with those generated by the conventional gene knock-out strategy, because they carry minimal genomic damage, e.g. a point mutation. In conclusion, our results reveal critical roles for intracellular myo-inositol synthesis in craniofacial development and the maintenance of proper brain function. Furthermore, this mouse model for cellular inositol depletion could be beneficial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effect of lithium and myo-inositol-mediated skeletal development. PMID:24554717

  13. [Audiometric and dynamometric parameters of functional brain asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Simeonov, R

    2005-01-01

    We examined influence of intensive noise on auditory and musculoskeletal system in series of audiometric and dynamometric tests. We considered Karhart's tooth asymmetry and asymmetry of muscular strength of the upper extremities. We demonstrate the significance of these parameters in diagnosis of functional cortical asymmetry and central hearing pathology; provide audiometric and dynamometric evidence of the structure of cortical auditory pathways, the integral function of the auditory cortex, pathophysiological nature of functional asymmetry and their correlation. PMID:16091713

  14. Functional skill learning in men with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Clare G; Demery, Jason A; Reyes, Lisa R; Lebowitz, Brian K; Hanlon, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The number of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) having persistent deficits that compromise their ability to perform everyday skills is increasing. Previous occupation-based studies indicate that computer-based skills using repetitive practice may be a viable option for retraining. We investigated the effects of different practice schedules on skill learning in 6 men with TBI. Participants with significant impairments in processing and fine motor control practiced 3 tasks using a random (n = 3) or a blocked (n = 3) ordered practice schedule. Practice occurred for 55 min/day for 13 days with retention and transfer trials taking place 2 weeks after training. Both groups showed a significant increase in performance during skill acquisition and maintained this performance. Only the random-practice group, however, was able to transfer this learning to another task. The findings provide evidence that people with TBI can improve their everyday skills with randomly structured practice. PMID:19708468

  15. REGULARIZED 3D FUNCTIONAL REGRESSION FOR BRAIN IMAGE DATA VIA HAAR WAVELETS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejing; Nan, Bin; Zhu, Ji; Koeppe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The primary motivation and application in this article come from brain imaging studies on cognitive impairment in elderly subjects with brain disorders. We propose a regularized Haar wavelet-based approach for the analysis of three-dimensional brain image data in the framework of functional data analysis, which automatically takes into account the spatial information among neighboring voxels. We conduct extensive simulation studies to evaluate the prediction performance of the proposed approach and its ability to identify related regions to the outcome of interest, with the underlying assumption that only few relatively small subregions are truly predictive of the outcome of interest. We then apply the proposed approach to searching for brain subregions that are associated with cognition using PET images of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, patients with mild cognitive impairment, and normal controls.

  16. The Anatomical Distance of Functional Connections Predicts Brain Network Topology in Health and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E.; Stidd, Reva; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv; Rapoport, Judith; Giedd, Jay; Bullmore, Edward T.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    The human brain is a topologically complex network embedded in anatomical space. Here, we systematically explored relationships between functional connectivity, complex network topology, and anatomical (Euclidean) distance between connected brain regions, in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging brain networks of 20 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Normal between-subject differences in average distance of connected edges in brain graphs were strongly associated with variation in topological properties of functional networks. In addition, a club or subset of connector hubs was identified, in lateral temporal, parietal, dorsal prefrontal, and medial prefrontal/cingulate cortical regions. In COS, there was reduced strength of functional connectivity over short distances especially, and therefore, global mean connection distance of thresholded graphs was significantly greater than normal. As predicted from relationships between spatial and topological properties of normal networks, this disorder-related proportional increase in connection distance was associated with reduced clustering and modularity and increased global efficiency of COS networks. Between-group differences in connection distance were localized specifically to connector hubs of multimodal association cortex. In relation to the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we argue that the data are consistent with the interpretation that spatial and topological disturbances of functional network organization could arise from excessive “pruning” of short-distance functional connections in schizophrenia. PMID:22275481

  17. Brain Research: Implications to Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Motz, LaMoine L.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with brain research. It discusses how a growing understanding of the way the brain functions offers new insights into the minds of students at all stages of development. Brain-based research deals with classroom-relevant concerns, such as sensory perception, attention, memory, and how emotions affect learning. The goals for…

  18. Functional Brain Imaging for Analysis of Reading Effort for Computer-Generated Text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin M. Nishimura; Evan D. Rapoport; Benjamin A. Darling; Jason P. Cervenka; Jeanine K. Stefanucci; Dennis R. Proffitt; Traci H. Downs; J. Hunter Downs

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses two functional brain imaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional\\u000a near-infrared (fNIR) imaging, and their applications for quantitative usability analysis. This application is demonstrated\\u000a through a two-phase study on reading effort required for varying degrees of font degradation. The first phase used fMRI to\\u000a map cortical locations that were active while subjects read fonts of

  19. Neuropsychobiological evidence for the functional presence and expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the brain.

    PubMed

    Onaivi, Emmanuel S

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, until recently, it was thought that marijuana acts by activating brain-type cannabinoid receptors called CB1, and that a second type called CB2 cannabinoid receptor was found only in peripheral tissues. Neuronal CB2 receptors in the brain had been controversial. We reported the discovery and functional presence of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the mammalian brain that may be involved in depression and drug abuse and this was supported by reports of identification of neuronal CB2 receptors that are involved in emesis. RT-PCR, immunoblotting, hippocampal cultures, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and stereotaxic techniques with behavioral assays were used to determine the functional expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the rat brain and mouse brain exposed to chronic mild stress or treated with abused drugs. RT-PCR analyses supported the expression of brain CB2 receptor transcripts at levels much lower than those of CB1 receptors. In situ hybridization revealed CB2 mRNA in cerebellar neurons of wild-type but not of CB2 knockout mice. Abundant CB2 receptor immunoreactivity (iCB2) in neuronal and glial processes was detected in the brain. The effect of direct CB2 antisense oligonucleotide injection into the brain and treatment with JWH015 in motor function and plus-maze tests also demonstrated the functional presence of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system. In humans, there was a high incidence of Q63R polymorphism in the CB2 gene in Japanese alcoholics and depressed subjects. Contrary to the prevailing view that CB2 cannabinoid receptors are restricted to peripheral tissues and predominantly in immune cells, we demonstrated that CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their gene transcripts are widely distributed in the brain. This multifocal expression of iCB2 in the brain suggests that CB2 receptors may play broader roles than previously anticipated and may therefore be exploited as new targets in the treatment of depression and substance abuse. PMID:17356307

  20. Functional role of endothelial adhesion molecules in the early stages of brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Serres, Sébastien; Anthony, Daniel C.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of disease in peripheral tissues cannot be extrapolated to the brain. Here, we have established the spatiotemporal expression of 12 key CAMs in the initial phases of tumor seeding in 2 different models of brain metastasis. Methods BALB/c or SCID mice were injected intracardially (105 cells/100 ?L phosphate-buffered saline with either 4T1-GFP or MDA231BR-GFP cells, respectively (n = 4–6/group), and expression of the CAMs was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence colocalisation. Results Endothelial expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ALCAM, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and ?4 integrin was markedly increased early in tumor seeding. At the same time, the natural ligands to these adhesion molecules were highly expressed on the metastatic tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Two of these ligands showed particularly high tumor cell expression (ALCAM and VLA-4), and consequently their functional role in tumor seeding was determined. Antibody neutralization of either ALCAM or VLA-4 significantly reduced tumor seeding within the brain (>60% decrease in tumor number/mm2 brain; P < .05–0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that ALCAM/ALCAM and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions play an important functional role in the early stages of metastasis seeding in the brain. Moreover, this work identifies a specific subset of ligand-receptor interactions that may yield new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for brain metastasis. PMID:24311639

  1. Computational modeling of high-level cognition and brain function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Adam Just; Patricia A. Carpenter; Sashank Varma

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition,

  2. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Liaoliao; Wang, Zhi; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day) fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat) for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice). Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals. PMID:23755298

  3. Network diffusion accurately models the relationship between structural and functional brain connectivity networks

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnour, Farras; Voss, Henning U.; Raj, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anatomic connectivity of large-scale brain networks and their functional connectivity is of immense importance and an area of active research. Previous attempts have required complex simulations which model the dynamics of each cortical region, and explore the coupling between regions as derived by anatomic connections. While much insight is gained from these non-linear simulations, they can be computationally taxing tools for predicting functional from anatomic connectivities. Little attention has been paid to linear models. Here we show that a properly designed linear model appears to be superior to previous non-linear approaches in capturing the brain’s long-range second order correlation structure that governs the relationship between anatomic and functional connectivities. We derive a linear network of brain dynamics based on graph diffusion, whereby the diffusing quantity undergoes a random walk on a graph. We test our model using subjects who underwent diffusion MRI and resting state fMRI. The network diffusion model applied to the structural networks largely predicts the correlation structures derived from their fMRI data, to a greater extent than other approaches. The utility of the proposed approach is that it can routinely be used to infer functional correlation from anatomic connectivity. And since it is linear, anatomic connectivity can also be inferred from functional data. The success of our model confirms the linearity of ensemble average signals in the brain, and implies that their long-range correlation structure may percolate within the brain via purely mechanistic processes enacted on its structural connectivity pathways. PMID:24384152

  4. TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE

    E-print Network

    McSharry, Patrick E.

    TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE-time generic telemedicine system is presented. It is discussed in the context of self- management for people as influencing lung function, we have used data collected during a feasibility study of the telemedicine system

  5. The Effect of Functional Flow Diagrams on Apprentice Aircraft Mechanics' Technical System Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.; Satchwell, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an experimental study that tested the impact of a conceptual illustration on college students' understanding of the structure, function, and behavior of complex technical systems. The use of functional flow diagrams in aircraft mechanics' training is explained, a concept map analysis is discussed, and implications for technical training…

  6. Untangling Protégé Self-Reports of Mentoring Functions: Further Meta-Analytic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Jubilee; Kirkpatrick-Husk, Katie; Kendall, Dana; Longabaugh, James; Patel, Ajal; Scielzo, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we sought to further our understanding of the relations between various types of protégé-reported mentoring functions (psychosocial and career support and role modeling [RM]) by conducting a meta-analysis. We examined the relationships among these functions and investigated their relationships with expected mentorship…

  7. Neurohormones, Brain, and Behavior: A Comparative Approach to Understanding Rapid Neuroendocrine Action.

    PubMed

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Saldanha, Colin J

    2015-08-01

    The definition of a hormone has been in part delineated by its journey to distant receptor targets. Following activation of a receptor, a subsequent reaction facilitates the regulation of physiology and, ultimately, behavior. However, a growing number of studies report that hormones can influence these events at a previously underappreciated high speed. With the potential to act as neurotransmitters, the definition of a hormone and its mechanisms of action are evolving. In this symposium, we united scientists who use contemporary molecular, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches to study aspects of rapid hormone action in a broad array of systems across different levels of biological organization. What emerged was an overwhelming consensus that the use of integrative and comparative approaches fuels discovery and increases our understanding of de novo hormone synthesis, local actions of neurohormones, and subsequent effects on neuroplasticity and behavior. PMID:25896107

  8. Isolating human brain functional connectivity associated with a specific cognitive process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Michael A.; Landau, Ayelet N.; Lauritzen, Thomas Z.; Prinzmetal, William; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2010-02-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure functional connectivity among brain areas has the potential to identify neural networks associated with particular cognitive processes. However, fMRI signals are not a direct measure of neural activity but rather represent blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Correlated BOLD signals between two brain regions are therefore a combination of neural, neurovascular, and vascular coupling. Here, we describe a procedure for isolating brain functional connectivity associated with a specific cognitive process. Coherency magnitude (measuring the strength of coupling between two time series) and phase (measuring the temporal latency differences between two time series) are computed during performance of a particular cognitive task and also for a control condition. Subtraction of the coherency magnitude and phase differences for the two conditions removes sources of correlated BOLD signals that do not modulate as a function of cognitive task, resulting in a more direct measure of functional connectivity associated with changes in neuronal activity. We present two applications of this task subtraction procedure, one to measure changes in strength of coupling associated with sustained visual spatial attention, and one to measure changes in temporal latencies between brain areas associated with voluntary visual spatial attention.

  9. Structure, Function, and Mechanism of Progranulin; the Brain and Beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huishi Toh; Babykumari P. Chitramuthu; Hugh P. J. Bennett; Andrew Bateman

    Mutation of human GRN, the gene encoding the secreted glycoprotein progranulin, results in a form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration that is\\u000a characterized by the presence of ubiquitinated inclusions containing phosphorylated and cleaved fragments of the transactivation\\u000a response element DNA-binding protein-43. This has stimulated interest in understanding the role of progranulin in the central\\u000a nervous system, and in particular, how this

  10. Cryopreservation of brain mitochondria: A novel methodology for functional studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vidya N. Nukala; Indrapal N. Singh; Laurie M. Davis; Patrick G. Sullivan

    2006-01-01

    Often, comparative studies involving large number of animals or human post-mortem tissue samples are precluded, especially those requiring structurally and functionally intact cells and\\/or organelles. The ability to ‘bank’ such samples for storage and restore or ‘reanimate’ them at a later time without causing damage to the structure and\\/or function becomes imperative. However, to date, such attempts have produced conflicting

  11. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  12. In vivo interrogation of gene function in the mammalian brain using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Swiech, Lukasz; Heidenreich, Matthias; Banerjee, Abhishek; Habib, Naomi; Li, Yinqing; Trombetta, John; Sur, Mriganka; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Probing gene function in the mammalian brain can be greatly assisted with methods to manipulate the genome of neurons in vivo. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9)1 can be used to edit single or multiple genes in replicating eukaryotic cells, resulting in frame-shifting insertion/deletion (indel) mutations and subsequent protein depletion. Here, we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to target single (Mecp2) as well as multiple genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b) in the adult mouse brain in vivo. We characterized the effects of genome modifications in postmitotic neurons using biochemical, genetic, electrophysiological and behavioral readouts. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated SpCas9 genome editing can enable reverse genetic studies of gene function in the brain. PMID:25326897

  13. Checks and balances on cholinergic signaling in brain and body function.

    PubMed

    Soreq, Hermona

    2015-07-01

    A century after the discovery of acetylcholine (ACh), we recognize both ACh receptors, transporters, and synthesizing and degrading enzymes and regulators of their expression as contributors to cognition, metabolism, and immunity. Recent discoveries indicate that pre- and post-transcriptional ACh signaling controllers coordinate the identity, functioning, dynamics, and brain-to-body communication of cholinergic cells. Checks and balances including epigenetic mechanisms, alternative splicing, and miRNAs may all expand or limit the diversity of these cholinergic components by consistently performing genome-related surveillance. This regulatory network enables homeostatic maintenance of brain-to-body ACh signaling as well as reactions to nicotine, Alzheimer's disease anticholinesterase therapeutics, and agricultural pesticides. Here I review recent reports on the functional implications of these controllers of cholinergic signaling in and out of the brain. PMID:26100140

  14. Brain function overlaps when people observe emblems, speech, and grasping.

    PubMed

    Andric, Michael; Solodkin, Ana; Buccino, Giovanni; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Small, Steven L

    2013-07-01

    A hand grasping a cup or gesturing "thumbs-up", while both manual actions, have different purposes and effects. Grasping directly affects the cup, whereas gesturing "thumbs-up" has an effect through an implied verbal (symbolic) meaning. Because grasping and emblematic gestures ("emblems") are both goal-oriented hand actions, we pursued the hypothesis that observing each should evoke similar activity in neural regions implicated in processing goal-oriented hand actions. However, because emblems express symbolic meaning, observing them should also evoke activity in regions implicated in interpreting meaning, which is most commonly expressed in language. Using fMRI to test this hypothesis, we had participants watch videos of an actor performing emblems, speaking utterances matched in meaning to the emblems, and grasping objects. Our results show that lateral temporal and inferior frontal regions respond to symbolic meaning, even when it is expressed by a single hand action. In particular, we found that left inferior frontal and right lateral temporal regions are strongly engaged when people observe either emblems or speech. In contrast, we also replicate and extend previous work that implicates parietal and premotor responses in observing goal-oriented hand actions. For hand actions, we found that bilateral parietal and premotor regions are strongly engaged when people observe either emblems or grasping. These findings thus characterize converging brain responses to shared features (e.g., symbolic or manual), despite their encoding and presentation in different stimulus modalities. PMID:23583968

  15. Multiple functions of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain.

    PubMed

    Katona, István; Freund, Tamás F

    2012-01-01

    Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology. First, we summarize unexpected advances in the molecular complexity of biogenesis and inactivation of the two endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Then, we show how these new metabolic routes are integrated into well-known intracellular signaling pathways. These endocannabinoid-producing signalosomes operate in phasic and tonic modes, thereby differentially governing homeostatic, short-term, and long-term synaptic plasticity throughout the brain. Finally, we discuss how cell type- and synapse-specific refinement of endocannabinoid signaling may explain the characteristic behavioral effects of cannabinoids. PMID:22524785

  16. Wharton's Jelly Transplantation Improves Neurologic Function in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tian; Yang, Bo; Li, Dongpeng; Ma, Shanshan; Tian, Yi; Qu, Ruina; Zhang, Wenjin; Zhang, Yanting; Hu, Kai; Guan, Fangxia; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to disability, dysfunction, and even death, is a prominent health problem worldwide. Effective therapy for this serious and debilitating condition is needed. Human umbilical cord matrix, known as Wharton's jelly (WJ), provides a natural, interface scaffold that is enriched in mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we tested the efficacy of WJ tissue transplantation in a weight-drop model of TBI in rats. WJ tissue was cultured and transplanted into the injury site 24 h after TBI. The modified neurologic severity score, body weight, brain edema, and lesion volume were evaluated at various time points after TBI. Cognitive behavior was assessed by the novel object recognition test and the Morris water maze test. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the perilesional brain area was measured at day 14 after TBI. We found that WJ tissue transplantation lessened TBI-induced brain edema (day 3), reduced lesion volume (day 28), improved neurologic function (days 21-28), and promoted memory and cognitive recovery. Additionally, expression of BDNF mRNA and protein was higher in WJ tissue-treated rats than in sham-operated or vehicle-treated rats. These data suggest that WJ tissue transplantation can reduce TBI-induced brain injury and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of TBI. PMID:25638565

  17. Neuronal and glial purinergic receptors functions in neuron development and brain disease

    PubMed Central

    del Puerto, Ana; Wandosell, Francisco; Garrido, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Brain development requires the interaction of complex signaling pathways, involving different cell types and molecules. For a long time, most attention has focused on neurons in a neuronocentric conceptualization of central nervous system development, these cells fulfilling an intrinsic program that establishes the brain’s morphology and function. By contrast, glia have mainly been studied as support cells, offering guidance or as the cells that react to brain injury. However, new evidence is appearing that demonstrates a more fundamental role of glial cells in the control of different aspects of neuronal development and function, events in which the influence of neurons is at best weak. Moreover, it is becoming clear that the function and organization of the nervous system depends heavily on reciprocal neuron–glia interactions. During development, neurons are often generated far from their final destination and while intrinsic mechanisms are responsible for neuronal migration and growth, they need support and regulatory influences from glial cells in order to migrate correctly. Similarly, the axons emitted by neurons often have to reach faraway targets and in this sense, glia help define the way that axons grow. Moreover, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells ultimately envelop axons, contributing to the generation of nodes of Ranvier. Finally, recent publications show that astrocytes contribute to the modulation of synaptic transmission. In this sense, purinergic receptors are expressed widely by glial cells and neurons, and recent evidence points to multiple roles of purines and purinergic receptors in neuronal development and function, from neurogenesis to axon growth and functional axonal maturation, as well as in pathological conditions in the brain. This review will focus on the role of glial and neuronal secreted purines, and on the purinergic receptors, fundamentally in the control of neuronal development and function, as well as in diseases of the nervous system. PMID:24191147

  18. Electrophysiological assessment of the brain function in term SGA infants.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozmert M A; Ergin, Hacer; Sahiner, Türker

    2009-05-13

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are defined as babies having a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. A great number of studies have shown that children with SGA have an increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an excellent method for measuring brain maturation in newborns. In this study, the effect of SGA on the maturation of cerebrocortical electrographic activity was investigated by the EEG and also analyzed with power spectral analysis. Serial EEGs were performed in 40 term SGAs, and 20 term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants in 1st week, 1st and 3rd month. Power spectral analysis was performed quantitatively in five channels (Fp1-C3, C3-O1, Fp2-C4, C4-O2, and Cz-C4 channels). Amplitude levels of the SGA group were significantly lower than the AGA group in all records. Delta frequency was the major frequency component in the groups. Delta frequency activities in the midline vertex region were decreased in the AGA group with increasing postconceptual age while the activities of the SGA group were increased. Contrarily, beta frequency activities in the midline vertex region were increased in the AGA group with increasing postconceptual age while these activities of the SGA group were decreased. Theta frequency activities in the fronto-central regions were lower in the SGA group. In terms of the vertex, k-complex, and sleep spindle, there was no difference between the two groups. We conclude that cerebrocortical electrophysiological maturation has been delayed in term SGA infants during the first three months of postnatal life. PMID:19303865

  19. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain

  20. Atrial fibrillation is associated with reduced brain volume and cognitive function independent of cerebral infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Stefansdottir, Hrafnhildur; Arnar, David O.; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Hjaltason, Haukur; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with cognitive decline independant of stroke, suggesting additional effects of AF on the brain. We aimed to assess the association between AF and brain function and structure in a general elderly population. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis on 4251 non-demented participants (mean age 76 ± 5 years) in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. Medical record data were collected on the presence, subtype and time from first diagnosis of AF; 330 participants had AF. Brain volume measurements, adjusted for intracranial volume, and presence of cerebral infarcts were determined with MRI. Memory, speed of processing and executive function composites were calculated from a cognitive test battery. In a multivariable linear regression model, adjustments were made for demographic, cardiovascular risk factors and cerebral infarcts. Results Participants with AF had lower total brain volume compared to those without AF (p<0.001). The association was stronger with persistent/permanent than paroxysmal AF and with increased time from the first diagnosis of the disease. Of the brain tissue volumes, AF was associated with lower volume of gray and white matter (p<0.001 and p=0.008 respectively) but not of white matter hyperintesities (p=0.49). Participants with AF scored lower on tests on memory. Conclusions AF is associated with smaller brain volume and the association is stronger with increasing burden of the arrhythmia. These findings suggest that AF has a cumulative negative effect on the brain independent of cerebral infarcts. PMID:23444303